Open Briefing | 1

Remote-control warfare briefing | #03
2 July 2014

Remote-control warfare is an emerging strategy that allows for conflict to e
actione! at a !istance" #t incorporates technologies an! light-footprint !eployments
that enale policyma$ers an! military planners to appro%e actions that woul!
unli$ely e consi!ere! if using con%entional means"
&hese monthly riefings are commissione! y the Remote 'ontrol (ro)ect* a pro)ect
of the +etwor$ for ,ocial 'hange* hoste! y O-for! Research .roup"

Special operations forces: /, presi!ent announces 300 special operations forces
a!%isers will e sent to #ra0 to assist the #ra0i military in non-comat roles"
Private military and security companies: 1ea$e! !efence company presentation
re%eals /nite! ,tates2 3fghanistan e-it strategy relies on pri%ate contractors"
Unmanned vehicles and autonomous weapons systems: 'on%ention on 'ertain
'on%entional 4eapons meeting of e-perts on lethal autonomous weapons systems
prompts significant !eate on 5$iller roots2"
Cyber warfare: /, )ustice !epartment in!icts fi%e memers of 'hinese (eople2s
1ieration 3rmy for hac$ing into /, corporate networ$s"
Intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance: /nite! 6ing!om2s signals
intelligence agency force! to re%eal its policy on mass sur%eillance"
,pecial operations forces
US president announces !"" special operations forces advisers will be sent to
Ira# to assist the Ira#i military in non-combat roles
3fter consi!erale !omestic !eate o%er the /nite! ,tates2 response to the #slamic
,tate in #ra0 an! the 1e%ant2s 7#,#,8 insurgency in #ra0* (resi!ent Barac$ Oama has
announce! that 300 special operations forces 7,O98 a!%isers will e sent to #ra0 to
assist the #ra0i military" &he !ecision to sen! ,O9 into #ra0 for non-comat roles*
inclu!ing training an! a!%isory support* clearly see$s to alance a numer of
political an! operational imperati%es* while lea%ing the !oor open for a significant
re%ision of /, in%ol%ement if e%ents !eman! it"
(olitically* the light footprint an! limite! remit of the ,O9 is far short of air stri$es
an! 5oots on the groun!2* ut is not a total astinence of /, support for the current
#ra0 go%ernment" &his position shoul! temporary neutralise criticism from the haw$s
an! the !o%es on either si!e of Oama"
Open Briefing | $
Operationally* pro%i!ing /, ,O9 to the #ra0i military for training an! a!%isory will also olster the aility of
the /, military to assess on-the-groun! intelligence* sur%eillance an! reconnaissance 7#,R8 an! i!entify any
intelligence gaps that woul! ren!er /, air stri$es less than effecti%e or potentially counterpro!ucti%e" &he
support mission may enale the /nite! ,tates to i!entify a target list for any future air stri$es* though the
,O9 teams woul! not or!er stri$es in their current role"
#f re0uire!* the /, a!ministration can ele%ate support with greater confi!ence in the strategies re0uire!
to push ac$ #,#, in northern #ra0" 3lternati%ely* if intelligence shows an o%erestimation of #,#,2s presence
an! capaility* the /, ,O9 teams wor$ing with #ra0i counterterrorism teams may e sufficient to stop #,#,
uil!ing any further momentum"
Oama has secure! assurances of legal immunity from the #ra0i go%ernment for the 300 ,O9 memers
pro%i!ing training an! support" Bagh!a!2s refusal to grant immunity to /, troops eyon! 2011 playe! a
role in 4ashington pulling out all troops from #ra0 y the en! of that year" 3 more !etaile! agreement on
legal immunity woul! e necessary if the /, ,O9 teams or newly !eploye! regular troops were to
un!erta$e comat roles"
%ther developments
&he 'ordic (efence Cooperation )'%R(*+C%, which includes (enmar- +inland Sweden and
'orway have been underta-ing .oint training and e/ercises with a number of 0altic States1 &he
recent e-ercises of the 'omine! Joint +or!ic an! Baltic :-ercise (lan were !esigne! to impro%e
interoperaility etween +or!ic ,O9 units an! those in partner Baltic states* such as 1ithuania an!
:stonia" 4hile tensions etween /$raine an! Russia ha%e rein%igorate! +3&O training an! prepare!ness*
the )oint +or!ic an! Baltic rapi! response an! prepare!ness e-ercises may impro%e the regional capacity
to respon! to any small-scale regional insecurity"
2 New York Times profile of the commander of US Special %perations Command 2frica has provided
a general overview of the US military3s macro-level strategy across the 2frican continent1
.eneral James B" 1in!er2s remar$s were %ery much on message with current /, military strategy to uil!
up local policing an! security capacity through training y /, special operation forces" 'omments such as
53frica is the attlegroun! of the future2 an! 5&he future of war is aout winning people* not territory2 are
consistent with /, ,pecial Operations 'omman! 7/,,O'O;8 current operational an! tactical philosophy"
<espite 1in!er2s support for alancing !e%elopment an! security in new ,O9 man!ates* a numer of ci%il
society organisations 0uestion whether the professionalisation of security an! police forces actually
!eli%ers sustaine! impro%ements an! highlight the lac$ of congressional re%iew of whether or not ,O9
counterterrorism programmes !eli%er long-term sustainale security"

Open Briefing | !
Canadian Special %peration +orces Command )C2'S%+C%4, is e/panding their international
training footprint1 &he 'ana!ian go%ernment has allocate! '3+ B13 million 7/, B12"? million8 annually
for its counterterrorism capacity-uil!ing programme" &he go%ernment also has a non-recurrent fun!ing
en%elope for ,O9 counterterrorism training in 3frica* which has helpe! fun! 'ana!ian ,O9 presence in
6enya an! ;ali" ;ore recently* 'ana!ian ,O9 continue to con!uct )oint e-ercises with Jor!anian ,O9*
inclu!ing !uring the recent 2014 :ager 1ion e-ercise in Jor!an in late ;ay* an! are positione! to start the
training e-ercises in ;alaysia announce! in 3pril"
2lso of note
• US S%+ captured the alleged ringleader of the terrorist attac-s in 0engha5i 6ibya on 17
8une1 &he /, 3massa!or to the /nite! +ations* ,amantha (ower* notifie! the /+ ,ecurity
'ouncil of the capture un!er 3rticle @1 of the /+ 'harter an! in!icate! that the capture of 3hme!
3u 6hatallah was necessary to pre%ent further attac$s on /, persons" 6hatallah is now e-pecte!
to face a /, fe!eral court"
• &he Pentagon has suspended military-to-military e/ercises with &hailand including US S%+
training e/ercises with &hai special forces after the recent military coup in &hailand1 &he
suspension is li$ely to ha%e tangile repercussions for /, force pro)ection in the region"
• USS%C%43s Sensitive Site */ploitation )SS*, programme is loo-ing to enhance in-the-field
('2 and biometric analysis rather than ha%ing to rely on las to process site material collecte!
y ,O9 teams" ,,: in!icates that it has alrea!y fiel! teste! three moile rapi! <+3 !e%ices an!
that its 201@ B1@ million u!get will inclu!e further pro)ect !e%elopment"
• US 2mbassador to the Philippines Philip 9oldberg indicated in 8une that the 8oint Special
%perations &as- +orce Philippines had provided intelligence and situational awareness
support to Philippine forces !uring the 23-!ay attle etween go%ernment troops an! a
renega!e offshoot of the ;oro +ational 1ieration 9ront in Camoanga 'ity in ,eptemer 2013"
4hile /, ,O9 presence in the (hilippines is well $nown* the nature of their engagement is not
always clear"
• In 4ay a report by three +rench senators proposed that Paris transfer cyber operations from
the civilian intelligence agency the (irection 9:n:rale de S:curit: */terieure )(9S*, to the
command of +rench special forces1
3 numer of the report2s recommen!ations were ase! on
lessons learnt from the ,er%al campaign in ;ali"
• Israeli defence company *lbit Systems is testing a ;poc-et artillery3 )1$"mm, heavy mortar
system )Spear, specifically !esigne! for special forces" ,pear will e easily mountale on light
%ehicles* pro%i!ing compact ut significant rapi! firepower capaility"
• In 4ay the commander of US Special %perations Command *urope )S%C*UR, 4a.or 9eneral
0rad <ebb told a defence industry audience to focus on developing intelligence-gathering
and communication systems that can withstan! the e-treme climatic con!itions of 3frica an! the

Open Briefing | =
(ri%ate military an! security companies
6ea-ed defence company presentation reveals United States3 2fghanistan e/it strategy relies on
private contractors
,ince (resi!ent Barac$ Oama too$ office in 200E* the /nite! ,tates has attempte! to !esign an!
implement an e-it strategy in 3fghanistan that woul! allow international forces to with!raw comat
troops without en!angering sol!iers2 li%es or further aggra%ating 3fghanistan2s poor security situation" #t
first consiste! of a 5winning strategy2 through the 200E troop surge an! an emphasis on oth
counterinsurgency an! counterterrorism" &his aime! to consoli!ate strategic security gains that woul!
pro%i!e reathing space* enaling a gra!ual political an! security transition o%er to the 3fghan people"
#n late ;ay of this year* Oama announce! that the /nite! ,tates woul! $eep up to E*F00 /, troops in
3fghanistan until 201?* mostly in an a!%isory role an! to protect the /, emassy" Gowe%er* this
announcement !i! not i!entify the high numer of pri%ate contractors that will remain in 3fghanistan*
which largely outnumer /, troops an! special operations forces con!ucting ongoing counterterrorism
operations against remaining al-Hae!a operati%es"
3 lea$e! (ower(oint presentation otaine! y news wesite Salon from ,3#'* a /, !efence company* lays
out the range of roles contractors ha%e playe! since Oama2s 200E strategy shift an! troop surge"
presentation !escries how the company has een contracte! to pro%i!e ser%ices relate! to
5:-pe!itionary 4arfareI #rregular 4arfareI ,pecial OperationsI2 an! also 5J,tailiAation an!
Reconstruction Operations2"
&he acti%e role pri%ate military an! security companies 7(;,'s8 are playing in stailisation an!
reconstruction operations suggests that such companies are increasingly eing use! in post-conflict
!e%elopment an! peaceuil!ing* further reinforcing the pri%atisation of reconstruction an! state uil!ing"
&his was echoe! an 3pril 2014 report y the ,pecial #nspector .eneral for 3fghanistan 7,#.3R8 that
re%eale! that ?EK of the B4 illion the /, state !epartment spent on 3fghan reconstruction pro)ects from
2002 to ;arch 2013 went to a single pri%ate military contractor* <yn'orp* whose role was mainly to assist
with police !e%elopment an! reconstruction pro)ects"

&he lea$e! presentation was put together y ,3#' to assist its sucontractors in etter un!erstan!ing the
/, 3rmy2s nee!s on the groun!" 3ccor!ing to the !ocument* sucontractors are contracte! to pro%i!e /,
forces with electronic an! electro-optic technologies* as well as items as !i%erse as o!y armour an! col!
weather e0uipment" &here are also plans for the contractors to help with intelligence analysis software as
well as enhance! lethality* accuracy an! 5!estructi%e capailities2 when it comes to /, 3rmy operations on
air* lan! an! sea"

Open Briefing | 7
&he use of pri%ate contractors for weapon enhancement an! high-ris$ security tas$s is har!ly a new
phenomenon" Gowe%er* go%ernments an! state militaries ha%e tra!itionally een the main actors in%ol%e!
in tas$s relate! to stailisation an! reconstruction operations* as well as intelligence gathering" &his ha!
remaine! so ecause of concerns o%er effecti%e monitoring an! e%aluation an! ecause of secrecy an!
accountaility issues" &his is no longer the case"
/ltimately* Oama has ma!e it clear that /, forces will no longer e engage! in !irect comat in
3fghanistan past 201@* with the e-ception of targete! counterterrorism operations le! y special forces"
Let* it is ecoming increasingly clear that the /, e-it strategy in 3fghanistan will also in%ol%e a high
numer of pri%ate security contractors M some fulfilling roles only state agencies woul! ha%e pre%iously
%ther developments
>uestions are being raised over the possible role of US military contractors in Ira#1 #ra02s security has
!eteriorate! significantly following a series of attac$s y ,unni militants an! insurgent fighters gaining
groun! in se%eral $ey #ra0i cities" #n the north* 6ur!ish troops ha%e ta$en o%er the city of 6ir$u$ following
the !eparture of the #ra0i military" &he /nite! ,tates with!rew its troops from in #ra0 in 2011* ut many /,
nationals remain on the groun!* inclu!ing emassy staff* pri%ate security contractors an! pri%ate military
a!%isers 7plus 2@0 /, military personnel* inclu!ing ;arine 'orps security guar!s an! a!%isers to the #ra0i
go%ernment8" &he state !epartment has reporte! that the /, go%ernment has aroun! @*000 contractors in
#ra0* 2*000 of which are ci%ilians" #t is unclear what role these contractors will play* an! it is proale that
the security situation will re0uire some of them to e e%acuate!" Gowe%er* gi%en (resi!ent Barac$
Oama2s apparent unwillingness to sen! troops ac$ to #ra0 7with the e-ception of 300 special operations
forces8* it is highly li$ely that !efence contractors M alongsi!e '#3 operati%es M will continue to play an
important role in the /, go%ernment2s remote-control warfare against ,unni insurgents"
2 new US bill re#uires a review of the Pentagon3s use of private contractors in 2frica1 #n ;ay* the /,
Gouse of Representati%es passe! the 201@ +ational <efence 3uthorisation 3ct 7+<338* which inclu!es a
pro%ision re0uiring a re%iew of the /, !efence !epartment2s use* management an! o%ersight of pri%ate
contractors in 3frica" &he mo%e was largely prompte! y issues arising with regar! to the use of
contractors in #ra0 an! 3fghanistan an! /, lawma$ers2 unwillingness to face similar issues in 39R#'O;2s
contracts with pri%ate security companies" &his comes as the /, go%ernment has een increasing its
resources in 3frica* particularly in the ,ahel an! +orth 3frica* which are percei%e! as strategic locations for
counterterrorism" Of particular importance is the e-tent to which 39R#'O; operations ma$e use of
pri%ate contractors an! whether the state !epartment en)oys enough control an! o%ersight o%er acti%ities
in 3frica" 3 report is to e sumitte! to the congressional !efence panel y 1@ 3pril 201@"
0ill 9ates3 philanthropic foundation has sold its sta-e in 0ritish multinational security services
company 9=S1 &he Bill N ;elin!a .ates 9oun!ation hel! as many as 4E million shares" &he foun!ation
recently attracte! criticism for its .4, in%estment* as the company has contracts with #sraeli prisons in
occupie! (alestine" .4, is still trying to reuil! its reputation following the prolems it encountere!
a!e0uately fulfilling the security contract for the 2012 ,ummer Olympics in 1on!on"

Open Briefing | ?
2lso of note
• &he chief e/ecutive of the U@ division of 9=S *ddie 2ston has left his position after less
than si/ months in the .ob1 &he is the thir! such !eparture in less than two years* an! further
a!!s to the company2s instaility"
• 9=S 2ustralia Pty 6td claims they warned the 2ustralian immigration department before the
deadly 4anus Island detention centre riots in +ebruary $"1=1 &he security company trie! to
moilise a!!itional guar!s efore %iolence ro$e at the regional processing centre in (apua +ew
.uinea" 3 report for the 3ustralian <epartment of #mmigration an! Bor!er (rotection foun! that
.4, guar!s attac$e! transferees !uring the unrest" 3n 3ustralian senate in0uiry into the %iolence
will pro%i!e its report y 1? July"
• &he first issue of Private Military Contractor International has been published1
#t is a !igital
magaAine !esigne! for (;,' operati%es an! companies" :ach issue pro%i!es re%iews of pro!ucts*
e-pert features as well as general news"
• Police Scotland has announced that 1A private security companies will be wor-ing alongside
police and military personnel to provide security and stewarding at the 9lasgow $"1=
Commonwealth 9ames1 &his will e a crucial test for the companies in%ol%e!* which inclu!es .4,
,ecure ,olutions 7/68 1t!* two years after the security prolems of the 2012 ,ummer Olympics in
• 2 two-day seminar on the 4ontreu/ (ocument was organised early 8une in (a-ar Senegal
with the support of Swit5erland and the International Committee of the Red Cross1 &he
seminar aime! to gi%e a new impetus to the agreement on the con!uct of (;,'s in war Aones y
increasing the numer of supporting states an! pro%i!ing sta$ehol!ers with a platform to
e-change est practices in regulating (;,'s in su-,aharan 3frica"
• 2ustralia has increasingly been relying on e/ternal private security contractors to manage
the security details of its government officials1 4hen then 3ustralia2s foreign minister 6e%in
Ru!! tra%elle! to 1iya in <ecemer 2011* 'ontrol Ris$s was entruste! with securing his tripI
chec$ing routes* accommo!ation an! potential threatsI an! !esigning potential e%acuation plans"
&hat particular contract amounte! to )ust o%er 3/, B@@*000"

Open Briefing | A
/nmanne! %ehicles an! autonomous weapon systems
Convention on Certain Conventional <eapons meeting of e/perts on lethal autonomous weapons
systems prompts significant debate on ;-iller robots3
&he 'on%ention on 'ertain 'on%entional 4eapons 7''48 meeting of e-perts on lethal autonomous
weapons systems 7134,8 on 13-1? ;ay le! to significant pulic !eate etween +.Os* go%ernments*
legal aca!emics* the !efence in!ustry an! military analysts"
&he meeting was the first multilateral
!iscussion on 134,* an! most participants agree! that the ''4 was an appropriate forum for continue!
an! urgent !iscussions on autonomous weapons"
3hea! of the ''4 meeting* Guman Rights 4atch an! the #nternational Guman Rights 'linic 7#GR'8 at
Gar%ar! 1aw ,chool release! a report on the human rights implications of fully-autonomous weapon
systems an! specifically the issues pose! y these systems for international humanitarian law 7#G18"
report recommen!e! the prohiition of 134, in oth law enforcement an! arme! conflict conte-ts"
#t is clear from the minutes of the meeting that oth the !efinition of fully-autonomous systems an! the
implications for #G1 are conteste! an! will e su)ect to further !eate" ,ome participants suggeste! that
moratoriums at this stage may un!ermine current technological !e%elopment efforts in ci%ilian fiel!s" 3
numer of the !elegates emphasise! particular non-lethal areas for autonomous technology
!e%elopment* such as intelligence collection* rescue tas$s* logistics an! transportation"
'ua* :cua!or* :gypt* (a$istan an! the Goly ,ee calle! for a an on fully-autonomous weapons" +o
memer state argue! in fa%our of autonomous weapons systems* though #srael spo$e aout the potential
!esiraility of such systems in certain circumstances an! the 'Aech Repulic /ni%ersity of <efence M not
necessarily representing the national position M spo$e of unreasonale limitations on research creating
5security !isalance2" #srael2s position is unsurprising consi!ering their a!%ance! military-technology
in!ustry an! competiti%e e!ge in relation to unmanne! systems"
On 12 June* the /+ ,pecial Rapporteur on e-tra)u!icial* summary or aritrary e-ecutions* 'hristof Geyns*
reiterate! his call for states to impose moratoria on the !e%elopment an! use of fully-autonomous
weapons systems"
Geyns also a!%ocate! that the Guman Rights 'ouncil remain strongly focuse! on
a!!ressing emerging issues relate! to the impact of 134, on international humanitarian law" &his might
suggest that other /+ institutions eyon! ''4 shoul! e in%ol%e! in consi!ering 134, an! that an arms
non-proliferation framewor$ is not the only means to a!!ress the issue"

Open Briefing | B
%ther developments
2fter almost si/ months without a drone stri-e two CI2-led stri-es in 8une -illed more than a do5en
Pa-istani militants from the Ca##ani networ-1 ,ome analysts ha! speculate! in late ;ay that /, !rone
stri$es in (a$istan were coming to an en!* an! that intelligence supporting !rone stri$es is li$ely to !ry up
with the !raw!own of /, troops in 3fghanistan at the en! of 2014" Gowe%er* there are numer of factors
that encourage! the /, a!ministration to resume !rone stri$es after a si- month hiatus* inclu!ing the
rea$!own in (a$istani (rime ;inister +awaA ,harif2s peace negotiations with the &ehree$-e-&alian
(a$istan an! the release of /, sol!ier ,ergeant Bowe Berg!ahl* who ha! een hel! hostage y the
Ga00ani networ$ for fi%e years" &here are conflicting reports aout whether or not the stri$es were ta$en
with the e-press appro%al of the (a$istani military an! go%ernment"
&hree *uropean defence companies including 2ir 0us have proposed the 9erman Italian and +rench
governments .ointly develop a *uropean drone by $"$"-$71 Both in!ustry insi!ers an! some politicians
ha%e consistently argue! that there is a nee! for :uropean countries to !e%elop their own unmanne!
aerial %ehicles 7/3Qs8 to meet national re0uirements* pro%i!e :/ interoperaility an! re!uce! reliance on
/, an! #sraeli suppliers" #n!ustry proposals ha%e een !e%elope! in response to 9rance2s 2013
announcement it woul! see$ to purchase 12 /, Reaper !rones* following 9rance2s military inter%ention in
;ali" 9rance an! Britain are set to sign a R120 million feasiility stu!y on an unmanne! comat air %ehicle
7/'3Q8 in mi!-July" &his contrasts with .ermany* which cancelle! its contract with /, aerospace company
+orthrop .rumman for a :uro Gaw$ /3Q o%er cost concerns relate! to certificating the !rone for flights
in ci%il airspace"
U' peace-eeping forces in 4ali are to get access to drones for surveillance of the volatile north of
the country1 &he re0uest comes after tensions in the north were reignite! !uring (rime ;inister ;oussa
;ara2s %isit to 6i!al" #mpro%e! sur%eillance is particularly critical for the /+ forces in light of the lower
numers of military personnel eing !eploye! than were authorise! y the ,ecurity 'ouncil" &he 9rench
military inter%ention in ;ali last year highlighte! the lac$ of intelligence on northern ;ali" 9rance was
force! to rely on /,-operate! /3Q sur%eillance missions out of +iger" 9or /+ peace$eeping forces* the
o)ecti%e is to trial /3Qs for #,R to otain etter situational awareness of threats to ci%ilians an! options
for the !eli%ery of humanitarian ai!" &he /nite! +ations are alrea!y using /3Qs in the <emocratic
Repulic of the 'ongo an! are li$ely to increase re0uests for /3Qs for use in the 'entral 3frican Repulic
an! ,outh ,u!an"
2lso of note
• In late 4ay Royal Canadian 2ir +orce representatives indicated that they hoped to have an
operational U2D fleet by $"$! for 2rctic coastline and international mission surveillance1
Gowe%er* the B1 illion fleet an! ?@0 memer s0ua!ron is alrea!y e-periencing pro)ect !elays an!
lapses in political commitment"
• Israel (efence +orce )I(+, has plans for unmanned ground vehicles and other robotic systems
for border patrols and inspection of Camas3s underground networ- of tunnels1 &he #<9 ha%e
also pulle! 'ora attac$ helicopters out of ser%ice an! replace! them with /'3Qs as a cheaper
option after treasury u!get cuts"
Open Briefing | E
• US administration has admitted flying surveillance U2Ds in small numbers over Ira# since
$"1!1 &he /3Q sur%eillance missions* $nown to the #ra0i go%ernment* apparently !i! not pro%i!e
the /, a!ministration with foresight into the rapi! capture of two #ra0i cities y #,#," US %ffice of
'aval Research )%'R, is developing a ground-based air defence capability against U2Ds
through the use of lasers1 &he laser system is e-pecte! to e rea!y for fiel! testing in 201?"
• Russian (eputy (efence 4inister Fury 0orisov has announced aims to test So-ol and &ran5as
UC2Ds in $"1A1 &he /'3Qs are anticipate! to carry @-ton an! 1-ton payloa!s respecti%ely"
• (efense 2dvanced Research Pro.ects 2gency )(2PR2, has unveiled new software for U2Ds
to prevent cyber attac-s on US drone fleets1 3fter unconfirme! hac$ing of /, /3Qs y #ran an!
Russia* <3(R3 ha%e prioritise! impro%ing the security of /3Q systems without compromising
networ$ing capacity an! connection"
• South 2frican company (esert <olf has sold a drone that fires pepper spray bullets to a
mining company as a riot control device1 &he non-lethal weapon has the capacity to carry up to
4*000 ullets an! employ 5lin!ing lasers2"
'yer warfare
US .ustice department indicts five members of Chinese People3s 6iberation 2rmy for hac-ing into US
corporate networ-s
9i%e memers of a 'hinese (eople2s 1ieration 3rmy a!%ance! persistent threat 73(&8 unit $nown as /nit
?13EF were name! in a /, )ustice !epartment in!ictment for hac$ing into the networ$ of /, companies*
inclu!ing 4estinghouse :lectric* 3lcoa* 3llegheny &echnologies* the /nite! ,teelwor$ers /nion*
,olar4orl! an! the /nite! ,tates ,teel 'orporation" /nit ?13EF are allege! to ha%e accesse! company
usiness plans* emails an! pro!uct research an! !e%elopment* an! pro%i!e! commercial information to
'hinese state-owne! corporations" &his is the first criminal hac$ing charge that the /nite! ,tates has file!
against specific foreign officials"
&he in!ictment suggests state sponsorship of cyer espionage an! there is no e-tra!ition treaty etween
'hina an! the /nite! ,tates* which ma$es it highly unli$ely that the /nit ?13EF memers will face a /,
court" &o this en!* commentators suggest that the in!ictment is symolic only* though it !oes pro%i!e an
opportunity for the /nite! ,tates to lay out the e%i!ence in pulic an! potentially shame 'hina in
international forums"
Others commentators suggest that the in!ictment is a /, strategy to remo%e attention from :!war!
,now!en2s lea$s on /, cyer spying an! intelligence-gathering acti%ities in 'hina an! elsewhere" Gowe%er*
this woul! re0uire the /, a!ministration to craft a con%incing an! easily un!erstan!ale !istinction
etween cyer acti%ity for national security purposes an! cyer espionage for the purpose of intellectual
property theft an! commercial a!%antage" Otherwise* Bei)ing nee!s !o no more than un!erline +,3
acti%ities an! the complicity of /, technology companies in +,3 programmes" Bei)ing2s rapi! cancelation
of participation in a /,-'hina wor$ing group on cyersecurity raise! %ery little pulic criticism"

Open Briefing | 1"
#t is 0uestionale whether the )ustice !epartment2s selecti%e in!ictment has !one much to re!ress the lac$
of /, legitimacy on anything cyer" &he +,32s acti%ities ha%e greatly impe!e! the aility of the /,
a!ministration to a!!ress cyer espionage an! the theft of tra!e secrets" Huestions ha%e een raise! as
to why the )ustice !epartment has not pursue! the cyer espionage actor (utter (an!a* lin$e! to the
(132s 3r! <epartment 12th Bureau /nit ?14F?* o%er the cyer-espionage acti%ity against /, !efence
companies an! :uropean satellite an! aerospace in!ustries outline! in a recent report from the security
technology an! intelligence company 'row!,tri$e"
&here is some suggestion that !espite ha%ing
sufficient e%i!ence* /, engagement in similar acti%ity woul! ecome the focus if (utter (an!a was
&he cyer espionage charges an! the !eterioration in ,ino-/, relations o%er the last two months come at
a time when the /nite! ,tates are more openly e-pressing concerns o%er 'hinese acti%ities in the ,outh
'hina ,ea an! 'hinese military spen!ing* which the (entagon estimate! at B14@ illion in 2013"
%ther developments
&he US (epartment of (efence announced in 8une that the United States and specific allies are
wor-ing to bolster the cyber offensive and defensive capabilities of vulnerable US allies1 &he
announcement is li$ely to e a response to cyer attac$s allege!ly emanating from 'hina an! Russia" &he
recipients of cyer capacity-uil!ing support are li$ely to e geo-strategically important ut !e%eloping
:astern :uropean countries* for e-ample 1at%ia an! 1ithuania* an! 3sia-(acific states* such as the
(hilippines* #n!onesia an! Qietnam" &hese countries are most li$ely to e at ris$ from regional cyer
attac$s" &he (entagon also in!icate! that the /nite! ,tates an! +3&O are e-ploring the application of
3rticle @ of the +3&O charter to cyer attac$s M wherey an attac$ on any one +3&O memer woul! e
consi!ere! an attac$ on the entire alliance"
2nalysts are raising the possibility that the Chinese government is using information and
communication technology )IC&, infrastructure support and aid to enable a broad-scale cyber-
espionage campaign across the Caribbean particularly in 9uyana and 8amaica1 #t is allege! that
'hinese #'& e0uipment* inclu!ing go%ernment-issue! laptops* has spyware installe! across all networ$s*
enaling significant interception of user communication" 'hinese #'& ai! has a strong presence in the
'ariean an! if ac$!oors in 'hinese har!ware or firmware were use! for co%et intelligence collection*
the 'hinese go%ernment woul! not only ha%e access to politically-sensiti%e material ut also capture
information of capital an! offshore fun! inflows from other states into ta- ha%ens an! low ta-
)uris!ictions in the region"

Open Briefing | 11
&he Islamic State in Ira# and the 6evant )ISIS, have implemented a relatively organised information
campaign and social media presence alongside their capture of -ey towns in northern Ira#1 #,#,
create! an 3raic-language &witter app calle! &he <awn of .la! &i!ings that allows the insurgent group
to automatically syn!icate their tweets on app user2s twitter accounts" &here has also een clear
coor!ination of #,#, inspire! an! create! hashtags to ensure #,#, messages an! retweets are i!entifie! as
tren!ing" &he le%el of coor!ination an! sophistication of the social me!ia campaign has le! some analysts
to 0uestion whether the apparent international support an! social me!ia uy-in for #,#, is* in fact* o%er-
inflate!" 3t the same time* the campaign highlights that many militant groups ha%e an a!%ance!
un!erstan!ing of the information !imensions of insurgency an! warfare" &he #ra0i go%ernment has
attempte! to loc$ internet access in the areas where #,#, ha%e a physical foothol!* an! ha%e re0ueste!
that #,(s loc$ access to social me!ia sites" 3 complete cyer lac$-out is not possile as the go%ernment
!oes not own the entire #'& infrastructure"
2lso of note
• 2 8une report from 4c2fee and the Center for Strategic and International Studies estimated
that cybercrime is costing the global economy G!A7-7A7 billion a year an! that costs are
e-pecte! to rise"
&he /nite! ,tates* +orway* the +etherlan!s* .ermany an! 'hina ha%e the
highest .<( to cyercrime loss ratios"
• 9reater focus is being placed on the +-!73s cyber capacities such as attac- capabilities
against surface-to-air missiles as /, security partners ha%e roust !eates o%er procurement of
the 9-3@ Joint ,tri$e 9ighter"
• 8apan and the United States have provided G=""""" to the 2ssociation of Southeast 2sian
'ations )2S*2', to develop capacity for cybercrime investigation1
• (emand for cyber security in the 9ulf States and the wider 4iddle *ast is growing rapidly
with current pro)ections from 3irus <efence an! ,pace estimating an F-10K per year growth" &he
mar$et is %alue! at B?? illion this year" &he !eman! comes after numerous high-profile cyer
attac$s on ,au!i 3ramco an! R36 Ban$ an! the ongoing threat to large-scale oil an! gas
• 0ritish and Israeli governments have signed a letter of intent to proceed with a .oint H11$
million cyber-research programme across si- thematic research areas= i!entity management*
cyer-security go%ernance* pri%acy assurance an! perceptions* moile an! clou! security* usale
security an! cryptography"
• '2&% announced in late 4ay that 1A countries participated in the 6oc-ed Shields cyber-
warfare drill in 4arch1 &he aim of the !rill was to allow +3&O to test an! oost its cyer-!efence
capailities* particularly in smaller :astern :uropean states" +3&O also appro%e! the construction
of +3&O military cyer-training centre in :stonia"

Open Briefing | 1$
• (efense 2dvanced Research Pro.ects 2gency )(2PR2, has released information on
developments in its Plan I foundational cyberwarfare programme inclu!ing a new hac$ing
%isualisation tool ma$ing use of Oculus Rift %irtual reality hea!sets to allow users to see a 3<
%isualisation of a cyer en%ironment" <3(R3 has also announce! a competition see$ing software
that implements autonomous cyer-!efence actions"
• Institute for 'ational Security Studies )I'SS, published a report on Iran3s 'ewscaster cyber-
espionage campaign1
&he campaign use! false social networ$ing profiles to gather an!
intercept information from important 4ashington personalities" /, networ$ security company
9ire:ye also pro!uce! a report on the #ranian hac$ing group 3)a- ,ecurity &eam"

• 2ccording to analysis from +ire*ye Russia and U-raine are still e/changing significant cyber
Of note* 'yerBer$ut* a group of pro-Russia hac$ers* trie! to !erail /$raine2s
presi!ential election %ote count y infiltrating central election-centre computers* !eleting $ey
files an! attempting to !estroy the %ote tallying system"
• 0ritish government has signalled an intention to introduce life sentences for cyber attac-s
that ha%e a catastrophic effect* such loss of life* serious illness or in)ury or serious !amage to
national security"
• 2 cybersecurity e/pert with the *ast<est Institute has advocated that countries actively
remove nuclear-powered facilities from the realm of potential cyber-attac- targets on
humanitarian grounds1 Gowe%er* oth the /nite! ,tates an! #srael are unli$ely to want
international norms to !e%elop in this !irection at this point in time* particular in light of the use of
,tu-net in #ranian nuclear faculties"

Open Briefing | 1!
#ntelligence* sur%eillance an! reconnaissance
United @ingdom3s signals intelligence agency forced to reveal its policy on mass surveillance
&he /nite! 6ing!om2s .o%ernment 'ommunications Gea!0uarters 7.'GH8 has een force! to re%eal its
policy on mass sur%eillance" 3 coalition of +.Os otaine! !etails of .'GH2s policy on sur%eillance an!
communication interception"
#mportantly an! contro%ersially* the policy !efines all communications %ia
social me!ia networ$ing sites an! search engines outsi!e of the /nite! 6ing!om as 5e-ternal
communication2 ecause the ser%ers are ase! outsi!e Britain* usually in the /nite! ,tates"
&he !istinction etween internal an! e-ternal communications in sur%eillance laws is that internal
communications can only e intercepte! with a specific warrant* which is not the case for e-ternal
communications" &he implication is that a sur%eillance stan!ar! for foreign communications can e applie!
in a !omestic conte-t* enaling a form of mass sur%eillance"
&he pulic release of the policy comes at a time when it has )ust een re%eale! that .'GH has three secret
ases in northern Oman that co%ertly tap un!ersea cales passing through the ,trait of GormuA into the
(ersian>3raian .ulf" &he tapping is achie%e! with the assistance of British telecommunication companies
B& an! Qo!afone 'ale" 4hile the .'GH interception of o%erseas e-ternal communications can e
authorise!* it cannot e authorise! to store all communication for e-amination un!er the Regulation of
#n%estigatory (owers 3ct 7R#(38" &his means that the storage of communications coming from Oman may
ha%e een unauthorise! ecause the full au!io recor!ings were archi%e!" ,ince 200E* a numer of
interception authorisations ha%e een grante! to allow .'GH to collect information aout the political
intentions of foreign powers* terrorism* proliferation* mercenaries an! pri%ate military companies* an!
serious financial frau!" #t is li$ely that .'GH argue! to the rele%ant minister that the tapping of un!ersea
cales was for these purposes"
3!!ing to the pulic concern o%er !omestic sur%eillance y .'GH an! its replication of +,3 interception
acti%ity was 4ashington2s announcement in mi!-;ay that it will spen! R1FE million on e-pan!ing R39
'roughton* a /, 3ir 9orce 7/,398 ase near ;ilton 6eynes" &he ase upgra!e is highly li$ely lin$e! to the
current /, focus on impro%ing #,R capaility in northern 3frica" &he /,39 in!icate! that the ase woul!
ha%e oth /, an! /6 personnel an! e the principal intelligence centre for the /, 3frica 'omman!
3 numer of prominent British politicians ha%e e-presse! concern o%er .'GH sur%eillance acti%itiesI
howe%er* any potential reforms are unli$ely to go too far eyon! the e0ui%alent reform of the /,3
9ree!om 3ct !ue to the high le%el of #,R inter!epen!ency an! share! networ$ infrastructure etween
Britain an! the /nite! ,tates"

Open Briefing | 1=
%ther developments
Seventeen '2&% states three partner countries and the US 2rmy and 2ir +orce participated in .oint
ISR field trials at %rland 2ir Station in 'orway between 1E and $B 4ay1 /nifie! Qision 7/Q148 is the
largest e%er #,R trial hel! y +3&O* with more than 200 participants operating across aerial* groun! an!
maritime en%ironments" &he trial focuse! on interoperaility an! fusion of all-source intelligence*
inclu!ing groun! systems for collecting an! e-ploiting #,R !ata 7unatten!e! groun! sensors capale of
collecting seismic or acoustic !ata8* electronic warfare units* aerostats an! signals intelligence systems"
&he trial2s focus on interoperaility an! fusion is li$ely to e a result of gaps in +3&O intelligence-sharing
ailities highlighte! in the 1iyan theatre an! 3fghanistan missions an! !uring the current Russia-/$raine
tensions an! the potential for roa!er regional insecurity" 1essons learnt from the trial will e
incorporate! into +3&O2s Response 9orce 201? concept"
'S2 whistleblower *dward Snowden has released documents on the 'S23s S%4269*& a sub-
programme of 4FS&IC that is accessing and storing for !" days audio from personal phone calls
made in the 0ahamas and 2fghanistan1 &his e-ten!s far eyon! the meta-!ata alrea!y $nown to ha%e
een capture! from ;e-ico* (hilippines an! 6enya un!er the ;L,&#' programme" &he signals intelligence
collection o%erreach y the +,3 may restrict the /, a!ministration2s long-term intelligence gathering
capacity* as it is possile the Bahamas an! other countries* particularly those in 'entral an! ,outh
3merica* will re!uce cooperation with <rug :nforcement 3!ministration 7<:38 re0uests for lawful
intercepts" &he use of <:3 lawful intercept re0uests was the mechanism through which ,O;31.:& was
&he US Couse Science and &echnology Committee adopted an amendment from +lorida (emocrat
2lan 9rayson to remove the mandatory re#uirement for the 'ational Institute of Standards and
&echnology )'IS&, to consult with the 'S2 when developing security standards1 &he amen!ment
comes after lea$e! +,3 !ocuments ha! re%eale! the +,3 ha! a B2@0 million programme* ,#.#+& :naling*
with the purpose of co%ertly un!ermining encryption stan!ar!s !e%elope! y +#,& y using influence in
the peer re%iew process" +#,& is currently re%iewing all cryptographic stan!ar!s an! peer re%iew
proce!ures" 4hile the committee2s en!orsement of the amen!ment in!icates a le%el of ipartisan
agreement* it is not clear how li$ely the amen!ment is to get through the Gouse of Representati%es an!
,enate" 'oncerns aroun! cryptography an! +,3 capailities to e-ploit %ulnerailities ha%e een
highlighte! in the aftermath of the heart lee! ug* the recent !e%eloper with!rawal from maintaining
freeware encryption tool &rue'rypt* an! the !ecryption of new generation encryption tools within two
hours y Tcole polytechni0ue fU!Urale !e 1ausann 7:(918 researchers"
2lso of note
• 0undesnachrichtendienst )0'(, the 9erman foreign intelligence service is planning real
time monitoring of social media networ-s to bring the service up to speed with the United
States3 'S2 and 0ritain3s 9CC>1 &he proposal* which will re0uire parliamentary support an! is
part of a roa!er V300 million strategic technical initiati%e* also inclu!es a iometric security-
system e%asion programme"

Open Briefing | 17
• 2n increasing number of US IC& companies are urging the US administration to rein in 'S2
activities1 '#,'O2s ':O in!icate! serious concern o%er the +,3 interception an! tampering of
'#,'O e-ports for sur%eillance purposes" 3 coalition of /, tech companies* inclu!ing .oogle*
9aceoo$* ;icrosoft* 3O1* 3pple* &witter* 1in$e!#n* <ropBo- an! Lahoo* ha%e also criticise! the
/,3 9ree!om 3ct an! urge! the senate to inclu!e stronger restrictions on +,3 sur%eillance
acti%ities" Gouse #ntelligence 'ommittee 'hairman ;i$e Rogers accuse! the companies of putting
usiness profits from :uropean mar$ets ahea! of /, national security"
• 6egislation to limit mass surveillance activities by the 'S2 the US2 +reedom 2ct passed the
Couse of Representatives by a margin of nearly three to one ut is currently with a !i%i!e!
,enate #ntelligence 'ommittee" &he committee is hearing conflicting concerns that the ill
encumers the +,32s aility to secure national security an! that the compromise ill lac$s
sufficient teeth to meaningfully limit +,3 acti%ities"
• 6ea-ed 'S2 documents from $"11 shine light on the e/tent of 'S2 and state department
harvesting and storage of facial images from the internet J up to 77""" facial-recognition
#uality images per day1 &he <epartment of Gomelan! ,ecurity is fun!ing a pilot pro)ect to use
the state !epartment2s !ataase of photographs to match faces in a crow!"
• US companies &otal 4ilitary 4anagement )&44, and Raytheon announced a .oint ISR
research venture focused on video compression technology1 &he research pro)ect is the result
of strong !eman! from #,R communities for the ne-t generation in %i!eo compression technology
to store an! archi%e large %olumes of %i!eo footage"
• 6egal tensions between domestic and foreign Canadian intelligence collection agencies was
recently revealed after intelligence officials re0ueste! o%ersight institutions stop tal$ing to each
other aout 'ana!ian ,ecurity #ntelligence ,er%ice 7',#,8 an! 'ommunications ,ecurity
:stalishment 'ana!a 7',:'8 sur%eillance techni0ues" &he collaoration etween o%ersight
committees un!erscores the increasing o%erlap etween !omestic an! foreign sur%eillance"
• &he Supreme Court of Canada handed down a decision in 8une ruling that police must obtain
search warrants to obtain basic subscriber information such as a customer2s name* a!!ress an!
phone numer from telecommunication companies" &he court2s !ecision has imme!iate
ramifications for two ills* '-13 on cyer ullying an! ,-4 on !igital pri%acy* currently efore the
Gouse of 'ommons"

Commissioned by the Remote Control Project

Open Briefing | 1?
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!ecisions y our go%ernments"
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