New Smithfield Wholesale Fruit & Vegetable Market and its’ role in Manchester’s food supply

The Kindling Trust

April 2009

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Acknowledgements
The Kindling Trust would like to thank Emma Smith and Debbie Ellen for researching and writing this report. Their dedication and insight has made this report possible and is a significant contribution to The Kindling Trust’s on going work to explore ways to make Manchester a more just and ecological city.

The Kindling Trust
The Kindling Trust is a not-for-profit social enterprise with charitable aims. Registered in England and Wales with Companies House (Company Number: 6136029). The Kindling Trust became a Limited Company in March 2007. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and objective viewpoint of this research, and information is provided in good faith.

Address: 67 Parkside Road Moss Side Manchester, M14 7JX.

Phone: 0161 226 4440 Skype: Kindling Trust Email: mail@kindling.org.uk Website: www.kindling.org.uk

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Executive Summary The Kindling Trust commissioned a study into the workings of New Smithfield Market (NSM) in East Manchester to aid its work to create a more just and ecological society. Research has shown that opportunities for people in Greater Manchester to purchase locally sourced food are amongst the lowest in the country. A detailed study showed that Greater Manchester ranked 59th lowest out of 61 different areas in England and Wales (Ricketts-Hein et al., 2006, p.297). Given this evidence, The Kindling Trust set out to examine the extent of the problem in order to develop projects and strategies to improve local food provision in Greater Manchester. An overall objective of this work is to increase local food provision so the city-region is in a stronger position to meet the challenge of climate change in the future. One aspect of this challenge will be to source food as locally as possible. Developing capacity in this area will increase the communities resilience. This report aims to: • • • • • Illustrate how New Smithfield Market works, defining the roles of traders, agents, transporters etc. Locate the source of fruit and vegetables sold on NSM, how they are transported to NSM and who they are sold to. Identify good practice as well as potential and innovation of local growing. Summarise the interest in and demand for locally produced fruit and vegetables. Provide detailed information about how waste is managed at NSM.

For information about how the research was carried out please see section 1.2 below. Conclusions The key conclusion from this report is that without major haulage of food from other parts of the UK and significant imports of produce it is not possible for Manchester's food supply to be sourced locally without major haulage of food from other parts of the UK and significant imports of produce. Within a programme of contraction and mitigation it is essential that local food production capacity is increased and significant investment needs to occur for this to happen. Recommendations The recommendations from this report are: • • • • • Further research is needed to explore the capacity for North West fruit and vegetable production and barriers to increased sale of locally produced food at NSM. Support is required to enable existing North West producers to develop partnerships with traders on NSM to increase the volume of locally sourced produce. Fruit and vegetable production in the North West needs to be boosted with support and training provided at all levels to increase capacity for sustainable food production. Funding should be provided to support development of urban food growing opportunities which would also establish trading links with NSM. Given the dependence on oil required by non organic agriculture (i.e. oil based fertilisers) we would also recommend that organic agriculture be promoted, both with existing producers and new sites.

 Infrastructure funding needs to be provided for using technologies to help boost yields of high value tender crops and Mediterranean produce.
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Table of contents
The Kindling Trust has a commitment to the freeing of information, through the use of Creative Commons licensing on all its public documents, This report is licensed under a Creative Commons License; Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales..........................................2 You are free:................................................................................................................................2 Under the following conditions:.................................................................................................2 1 Introduction...................................................................................................................................1 1.1 Local Food..............................................................................................................................1 1.1.1 What do we mean by local? ............................................................................................2 1.1.2 What do we mean by sustainable food?...........................................................................3 1.2 Methodology...........................................................................................................................3 1.2.1 Key contributions and limitations......................................................................................4 2 Background to New Smithfield Market...........................................................................................4 3 How does the market work?..........................................................................................................5 3.1 Wholesalers............................................................................................................................5 3.2 Agents....................................................................................................................................5 3.3 Trading Activity.......................................................................................................................5 3.4 Transportation.........................................................................................................................6 3.5 Deliveries................................................................................................................................6 3.6 Products sold..........................................................................................................................6 3.7 Seasonal variation..................................................................................................................8 4 The present trading environment...................................................................................................8 5 Fruit and Vegetables.....................................................................................................................9 5.1 Where do fruit and vegetables sold at NSM originate from?...................................................9 5.1.1 Sourcing of fruit..............................................................................................................10 5.1.2 Fruit vegetables..............................................................................................................11 5.1.3 High Value crops and Urban agriculture.........................................................................12 5.1.4 Who buys from New Smithfield Market?.........................................................................13 6 Innovation and potential for local growing....................................................................................16 7 How much waste is generated by the market?............................................................................17 7.1 Fairfield Materials Management............................................................................................17 8 Conclusions and recommendations.............................................................................................18 9 References..................................................................................................................................19 Tables Table 1: Range of Fruit and vegetables stocked by individual traders..............................................7 Table 2: Sourcing of Apples...........................................................................................................10 Table 3: Fruit vegetable sources....................................................................................................11 Table 4: Herbs and salad crops......................................................................................................12 Table 5: Where produce purchased from NSM goes......................................................................13 Table 6: Breakdown of Traders' customers....................................................................................15 Table7: New Smithfield Market Waste 2003 to 2008......................................................................17 Figures Figure 1: Types of fruit and vegetables sold through NSM...............................................................7 Appendices Appendix 1: Questionnaire Appendix 2: Source data – fruit and vegetables

1 Introduction In the autumn of 2008 The Kindling Trust commissioned a study to New Smithfield Wholesale Fruit & Vegetable Market and its’ role in Manchester’s food supply to aid its work to create a more just and ecological society. The unsustainable nature of the present food system, particularly for large conurbations like Greater Manchester is evident from the large negative ecological impact of food production (Soil Association, 2008), transport and disposal and the widening gap between urban people, the land and agriculture (Pretty, 2002). This is compounded by the ill-health and poor diet suffered by many Mancunians (Food Futures, 2007). A study on food re-localisation showed that the opportunities for people in Greater Manchester to purchase locally sourced food are amongst the lowest in the country. This study showed that Greater Manchester was ranked 59th lowest out of 61 different areas in England and Wales (Ricketts-Hein et al., 2006, p.297). Given this evidence, The Kindling Trust set out to examine the extent of the problem in order to develop strategies and projects to improve local food provision in Greater Manchester. In addition to this study The Kindling Trust has also undertaken a review of a number of Greater Manchester farmers markets (Ellen, 2009). An overall objective of this work is to increase local food provision so the city-region is in a stronger position to meet the challenge of climate change in the future. One solution will be to source food as locally as possible. By developing capacity to do this we will be increasing the resilience of Greater Manchester and its many local communities. This report aims to:  Illustrate how New Smithfield Market works, defining the roles of traders, agents, transporters etc.  Locate the source of fruit and vegetables sold on NSM, how they are transported to NSM and who they are sold to  Identify good practice as well as potential and innovation of local growing  Summarises the interest in and demand for locally produced fruit and vegetables.  Provides detailed information about how waste is managed at NSM. For information about how the research was carried out please see section 1.2 below. 1.1 Local Food

The need to secure Local Food provision is not a new idea. Whilst the subject has been widely publicised in the media in recent years campaigners and researchers have been working on this issue for decades. For example, Sustain (formally the National Food Alliance / SAFE1) has been winning awards for campaigning on the issue since 1993 (Sustain, 2009). Other writers have been working on the issue for decades (for example, de Selincourt, 1997 and Seymour, 1991). Recent news that London’s Major announced Capital Growth (2008) to boost locally grown food in London, a project which aims to create 2,012 new food growing spaces for London by 2012 is encouraging. We can only urge other cities to develop similar projects.

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Sustainable Agriculture Food and Environment

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1.1.1 What do we mean by local? There are a number of definitions of local, a topic which is discussed at length elsewhere (Sustain, 2008). In this study we have used Sustain's definition of local as outlined in their report Ethical Hijack: Why the terms “local”, “seasonal” and “farmers’ market” should be defended from abuse by the food industry (Sustain, 2008). There are two elements to this definition. Firstly what is meant when we talk about 'local production' 'local food or locally grown' and secondly what distance is defined as being local. 1. Local production This is expressed by what should not be labelled as local: “the term(s) should not be used if the food is processed, transported, or packed outside of the defined area. The term "produced", when used for primary produce, should therefore mean the entire process from primary production to transport to the retail outlet. That is, the product is grown/reared, harvested/slaughtered, processed (e.g. washing, pasteurisation), packed/packaged, and transported/ distributed within the defined area.” (Sustain, 2008, p.16) 2. Distance defined as local This aspect of the definition depends on locality, with major cities and metropolitan areas treated slightly differently. “For most areas, for primary produce, either:  Produced at a distance of no greater than 30 miles from the point of sale, and/or;  Produced in the county or Joint Character Area (JCA) (e.g. Cheshire, the Cotswolds, Dartmoor) at the point of sale. For large towns and smaller cities (population >200,000), either:  Produced at a distance of no greater than 50 miles from the point of sale, and/or;  Produced in the county/ies or JCA/s within 20 miles of the town/city boundary. For major cities and metropolitan areas, for primary produce, either:  Produced at a distance of no greater than 70 miles from the point of sale, and/or;  Produced in a county or JCA within 50 miles of the metropolitan boundary (e.g. for London this would be from a county within 50 miles of the Greater London Authority boundary). Define local (from Wise Moves report) “Locally sourced local food: Food whose main ingredients are grown, processed and sold from or within a given radius. The Campaign to Protect Rural England limit this radius to thirty miles; others may adopt a county-wide or less rigid definition. Few, if any, organisations take into account inputs such as agricultural machinery, although many would endorse local sourcing of these where possible.” (Sustain, 2008, p.16-17).

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1.1.2 What do we mean by sustainable food?
Sustainable food takes into account environmental, health, social and economic concerns and consists of seven principles*:

• • • • • • •

Local and seasonally available food to minimise energy use in food production, transportation and storage. Food from farming systems that minimise harm to the environment, such as certified organic produce. Limiting foods of animal origin. Exclude fish species identified as most at risk. Fair-trade-certified products. Promote health and wellbeing. Food democracy ensuring control by entrepreneurs, workers and customers.

*inspired by Sustain’s seven principles of sustainable food
(www.sustainweb.org/sustainablefood)

1.2

Methodology

This research was carried out in September and October 2008. Data was collected by Emma Smith, who works with traders at New Smithfield Market in her role as Projects Manager at Fairfield Materials Management. Emma's existing knowledge of the market and its traders was crucial to the project gaining access to traders and their participation. At the outset we sought to answer a number of key questions:  Where do fruit and vegetables sold at NSM originate from?  How much produce is sourced locally and from the UK?  Are traders aware of any innovative growers?  How much waste is generated by the market? These questions form part of a wider project The Kindling Trust is working on which seeks to explore a range of questions relating to food production and distribution in Greater Manchester. This work includes another research project on Greater Manchester's farmers markets (Ellen, 2009) To explore the questions outlined above, a questionnaire was designed which was completed by Emma whilst talking to traders. The questionnaire is available as an appendix to this report (See Appendix 1). There are 19 traders supplying fruit and vegetables at NSM. This survey involved data collection with 12 of these, one of whom is also engaged in distribution. The process of collecting data was difficult. For example, some traders did not have time to detail which items they sold and where they sourced produce from. Consequently, the data collected is variable in quality. It is however the first study of its kind on NSM, so should be helpful in informing any further work. The data collected for this study represents a snap shot at one time of year. We purposefully chose a time when UK produce is available, but there is inevitably going to be a difference in results if the study were repeated at a different time of year. This is particularly important for organic produce; the two traders dealing in organic produce did
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as little long distance sourcing as possible which meant that certain items where not mentioned because they were not in season (e.g. asparagus). 1.2.1 Key contributions and limitations A detailed study of fruit and vegetable production and its contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Garnett, 2006) stated that no work had been carried out which examined where produce was sourced from. This study provides data on this topic for the largest wholesale market in the North of England. However, the results we report do have a number of limitations that needs to be highlighted. Firstly, two of the traders surveyed who did not provide details about where they source their produce from are also customers for a business that operates at NSM working directly with local growers (Hesketh Bank and Ormskirk area). This means that there will be some under reporting of the range of produce available from the North West. Resource constraints, access to traders and their time pressures meant that this was unavoidable. Were the study to be repeated sufficient time should be built into the project to enable all the traders surveyed to provide details on sourcing of produce they sell on NSM. Secondly, we were not able to collect data on volume of produce sold through the market. This was largely because traders did not keep records that we could easily interrogate to estimate how much of any item was sold. To undertake this type of work would require considerable resources as well as a large amount of time from traders, who would need to collate information. It is unlikely that agreement to do this could be obtained. Consequently, this report provides information about what is sold, where it is sold and where produce is sourced, but it does not provide information about how much is sold through NSM. 2 Background to New Smithfield Market New Smithfield Market (NSM) is situated off Ashton Old Road in Openshaw (2.5 miles from the city centre). The market was re-located out of the City Centre (Shude Hill area) in the 1970s to reduce traffic congestion and provide a modern market environment. The Market is owned by Manchester City Council and has 62 tenants, ranging from fruit and vegetable wholesalers (19 in total) through to Catering Service Traders (10 in total). The market runs six days per week from 2.30am – 1.00pm with a ‘car boot’ market on Sundays. Manchester City Council describes the market on their website as: ‘Manchester's premier wholesale market offers the widest choice of fresh produce in the North West, bringing you the freshest salads, fruits, vegetables and fish from around the globe - giving you the opportunity to offer your customers the very best.’ This is the largest wholesale market in the North West of England. Traders will often sell ‘Secondary Wholesale’ (i.e. selling on to other wholesalers rather than to retailers or the catering trade) throughout the North. With the growing dominance of supermarkets, independent retail has shrunk and as a consequence wholesale market business has fallen and smaller traders have gone out of business. This fall has been buoyed up a little by a strong Asian retail sector and growing catering ‘prep’ business (there is a 2:1 ratio of Wholesale to Catering Service traders on NSM).

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3 How does the market work? This section of the report provides some background to the complexity of New Smithfield Market before we outline the results of the survey of traders in section 4. The aim of this section is to understand the way that NSM works, so that any further discussion about increasing access to local fruit and vegetables can be had with a practical understanding of this context. 3.1 Wholesalers

New Smithfield Market has 19 fruit and vegetable wholesale businesses, three work from a single unit, nine have 2-3 units and seven enterprises have 4 or more units. The largest wholesaler on the market has eight units in total with a turnover of £25 million (Trader 22). The traders prime function is to buy and sell fruit and vegetables, the difference between the buying and selling price will cover running costs and provide a surplus to the business. 3.2 Agents

Generally traders buy fruit and vegetables through an agent. Produce is brought on transport arranged by the agent. Traders will buy from a number of agents who effectively act as brokers, in some cases they may purchase an entire crop from a farmer, arrange transportation and sell this on to a range of end markets. The Netherlands and France act as bulking areas for fruit and vegetables coming in to the UK from all over Europe (by road), both organic wholesalers on NSM have agents located in The Netherlands and France. Amongst those surveyed, one trader, buys directly from growers in Pakistan and arranges transport, effectively organising the whole process. 3.3 Trading Activity

NSM traders have daily contact with agents and local growers, checking produce availability and prices. For local produce an order can be placed in the morning, it will be put on transport and arrive on the market in the early evening before the traders start work the next day. For orders from The Netherlands next day delivery is available and from France it takes 2 days. Traders may sell to order (specifically the organic growers) or speculatively. Customers include secondary wholesale (both on NSM and other wholesale markets), catering (either on or off the market), retailers from the North West, hotels, cafés, bars, restaurants, sandwich bars, delicatessens and nursing homes. For example, Trader 11 purchases from the wholesale traders, going out every morning to check produce and prices, and prepare orders for restaurants, sandwich bars and nursing homes which they then deliver to. Other traders (e.g. Trader 1) import directly from Pakistan but also purchase other produce from traders on the market, which they would describe as sourced in the UK (i.e. NSM) despite the fact that it may have originally have been sourced from anywhere in the world. Trader 3 also purchases largely from other traders on the market, basing their choices largely on price.

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Traders have been anonymised in this report and are referred to using ‘trader 1’, ‘trader 2’ etc. throughout.

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3.4

Transportation

The market has one business that provides market transport. Transport bringing produce to the wholesalers will pick up all orders from an area destined for NSM; this is arranged by the agent. In addition to this business two other companies from Hesketh Bank and Tarleton also buy produce to order from other growers for traders on NSM and provide transportation for other growers sending produce direct to traders. One of these also grows parsley and reported that these varied activities have created a business worth £200,000 in addition to the growing of parsley3. Where it is not sourced in the UK, soft high value produce (e.g. herbs) with limited shelf life will be air freighted. Everything else will arrive by road (curtain-sided lorries for European produce and containers for further a field) and sea. 3.5 Deliveries

Traders sell to a range of businesses and will either load up a customers own vehicle (from cars to curtain-sided lorries) or deliver it direct to them. Most traders have their own delivery vehicles, certain traders focus on buying from wholesalers, preparing customer orders and delivering e.g.Trader 11. Traders deliver as far north as Cumbria, west to North Wales, south to Birmingham and east over to Sheffield. 3.6 Products sold

Most of the traders surveyed sell both fruit and vegetables. Trader 8concentrates entirely on vegetables and Trader 5 generates 87.5% of their income from fruit sales. One Asian trader (Trader 1) was surveyed and they import specific fruit and vegetables for the Asian market and have established suppliers in Pakistan (or elsewhere in South Asia) that they deal directly with. Other produce sold by Trader 1 is purchased from traders on the market4. Those traders with a catering focus have a higher proportion of non-fruit and vegetable items sold. Trader 3 brings in additional produce such as vegetable oils, olive oil, catering sized tins of tomatoes etc. to provide more of a 'one-stop-shop' for catering customers. Details of non fruit and vegetable sales are not included in this report.

3 4

This business model would merit further research. This means that although specific items were seen to be from the UK (when answering the survey) they could have come from other countries, but for this trader they were sourced in the UK.

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Figure 1: Types of fruit and vegetables sold through NSM

Figure 1 summarises the types of fruit and vegetables sold through NSM. Brassicas and leaf vegetables account for the largest proportion of different types but as stated in section 1.2 there is no information about volume for each category across the market. Table 1 below summarises the range sold by individual traders surveyed. Table 1: Range of Fruit and vegetables stocked by individual traders Trader Items stocked by trader Fruit and/or Vegetables sold when surveyed Trader 1 Trader 2 Trader 3 Trader 4 Trader 5 Trader 6 (organic) Trader 7 (organic) Trader 8 Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Fruit & Vegetables Vegetables 21 76 45 73 46 57 576 56

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As outlined in section 3.3 above this company purchase mainly from other traders on the market. They stock many more items than this, but only 4 were provided with detailed information about source. 6 This company stocks a wide variety of produce. The number of items here relates to types of vegetable (e.g. squash) rather than different types of (they listed 19 different squash varieties on their price list).

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3.7

Seasonal variation

The global market in fruit and vegetables has resulted in increased year round availability and therefore a move away from seasonal foods on the wholesale market. For example, strawberries are available throughout the year, English and Scottish strawberries will be available in the English season, glasshouse strawberries from Spain and The Netherlands for the remainder. The European growing season will grow most of what is sold on the market for nine months of the year (with obvious exceptions – bananas, papayas, pineapples, lemons, limes, okra etc.) with Southern Hemisphere filling in any gaps. Wholesalers selling to caterers did report an increase in demand for local in season produce and traders reported no problems meeting this demand. However, the same traders also added that if local produce was not available then businesses were happy to accept alternatives. The main local growing area stretches from Ormskirk up to Hesketh Bank. 4 The present trading environment We asked traders general questions about their sales volume and whether the amounts were increasing or decreasing compared to last year.7 The picture provided was variable, although there was a clear distinction between the organic traders and those selling non organic produce. Both organic traders said that they had experienced a decrease in sales, (40% and 3.4% the latter are figures for April-October 2008). One trader said: 'organic is the first to go in a credit crunch' In contrast only one non organic trader reported a decrease in sales. Four said that their volumes had stayed the same and three said that their volumes had increased. Importantly for the UK market, the Soil Association's Organic Market Report for 2009 found that: “There is a core of consumers who are in no mood to ditch their commitment to organic products. They are more likely to cut their spending on eating out, leisure activities and holidays than reduce what they spend on organic food. They would rather economise by buying cheaper cuts of organic meat or buying frozen organic vegetables than by compromising their organic principles. 36% of these committed organic consumers expect to spend more on organic food in 2009, and only 15% expect to spend less.” (Cottingham & Leech, 2009, p. 3) The report goes onto conclude that: “Despite tough market conditions for many producers there are significant opportunities to increase UK organic vegetable and fruit production to meet demand and reduce reliance on imports.” (Cottingham & Leech, 2009, p. 7).

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The task of gathering accurate data about volume of produce sold on NSM is very difficult and one which this study did not have the resources to tackle. It is an important area for future research.

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5 Fruit and Vegetables This section of the report aims to address the following questions:    Where do fruit and vegetables sold at NSM originate from? How much produce is sourced locally and from the UK? Where does produce purchased at NSM go?

Data were analysed by category of fruit or vegetable, with 7 categories of vegetable and 4 categories of fruit. These were: Vegetables Brassicas Fruit Vegetables (e.g. courgettes, tomatoes) Leaf Vegetables Pods and Seeds (e.g. French beans) Root Vegetables Tubers (e.g. Potatoes) Other Vegetables (includes herbs) Fruit8 Acid Fruit (e.g. citrus fruit, strawberries) Alkaline Fruit (e.g. cooking apples) Sub Acidic Fruit (e.g. dessert apples) Melons

To illustrate some of the issues highlighted by this study we have focused on sourcing of fruit looking at the case of Apples (section 5.1.1 below) and fruit vegetables which includes many of the Mediterranean crops that are increasingly popular with consumers (section 5.12 below). Full details broken down by category can be found in Appendix 2. 5.1 Where do fruit and vegetables sold at NSM originate from?

Like all wholesale markets, NSM imports fruit and vegetables from Europe, Asia, Australasia, North, Central and South America and Africa. All traders were asked to identify where they sourced their produce from. Not all traders provided detailed information, consequently the information provided in this section of the report is drawn from a subset of those surveyed (8 traders, 2 of whom sold organic produce). Results from this study show that a range of vegetables (less fruit) are sourced from the UK, but that very limited amounts are sourced locally. Organic traders on the market do try to source from the UK, but only a small number of items are sourced in the North West. One organic trader provided a price list for the week the business was surveyed, and this showed that 53% of stock items were sourced from the UK but only 5% were sourced in the North West9. The majority of stock is listed as sourced from the UK, with the most common location stated being Lincoln (11 items). However, the majority of the items listed only state 'UK' . As NSM is the most significant source of fruit and vegetables in the region (and the north of England) for the independent retail sector, we can say with some certainty that it is not currently possible for Manchester's food supply to be sourced without major haulage of food from other parts of the UK and significant imports of produce. However overall these results suggest that there is potential for increasing local sourcing, and considerable scope for increasing local production. Whilst it is recognised that yields of Mediterranean vegetables may be lower in the North West, use of renewable technologies to provide heat for under cover growing would
8

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For a breakdown of fruit classification used see http://www.internethealthlibrary.com 57 different types of fruit and vegetables 30 listed as UK sourced with only 3 sourced locally (Lancashire)

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address the issue of CO2 use to grow these crops (Garnett, 2006). Within a programme of contraction and mitigation, it is essential that local food production capacity is increased and significant investment needs to occur for this to happen. Given the dependence on oil required by non organic agriculture (i.e. oil based fertilisers) we would also strongly recommend that organic agriculture be promoted. This could include both with existing producers and new sites as there is very limited organic growing in the North West and within the areas close to Greater Manchester in particular10. This section of the report summarises some key points from the research which demonstrate the need for action. Full results can be found in appendix 2. 5.1.1 Sourcing of fruit The majority of the fruit sold at the market (organic and non organic) was sourced overseas. Amongst some categories of produce this pattern was very evident. Acid fruit (this includes citrus, cranberries, gooseberries and kiwi) mainly came a considerable distance. Within this category. only gooseberries were sourced from England (and only from the UK), but where in the UK was not known. The distances this type of fruit travelled were extensive, with USA, South Africa, South and Central America, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan and New Zealand, the furthest. Closer to home, some kiwi fruit came from Italy (but also New Zealand), and oranges and lemons from Spain or Italy (but could also have travelled from South Africa, USA, Central America or South America). If we compare this with apples (any type), a crop which can be grown successfully in the UK, sadly the picture is not much better, despite the time frame of the research being within the English apple season. Table 2 below details where traders sourced their apples. Two traders surveyed were offering English apples of four that listed apples as a stock item. Apples were being imported from 'Europe' South Africa, China, USA and South Africa (one traders list of locations), whilst others listed France and Italy as favoured European sources followed by Chile, South Africa and New Zealand. Table 2: Sourcing of Apples
Organic Trader? No Yes Yes Yes No Category11 Location 1 Location 2 Location 3 Location 4 Location 5 UK location 1 Alkaline Europe South China USA South Africa Africa Alkaline France Netherlands Sub acidic France Italy South New Africa Zealand Alkaline England Italy France East Sussex Alkaline France Italy Chile England UK location 2

Hereford shire

One trader commented: “15 years ago we were able to buy a minimum of 6 varieties, now at least half of the English apples season is taken up selling Belgium apples” (Trader 9).

10

This can be seen by looking at maps which show the number of organic farming scheme sites in the area (see www.magic.gov.uk) This is a scheme that offers payments to farmers to help them convert and maintain their farm under organic management to benefit the environment.
11

Alkaline apples are cooking apples and sub acidic dessert apples

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There is no reason for apples to be shipped from the southern hemisphere for large portions of the year, when apples grow very successfully in the UK climate. English apples varieties can be available from August until the following March or April, yet for the majority of the year they are not available in supermarkets (Clifford et al., 2007), or on NSM. Between 2001 and 2004 the UK lost 21% (12,000 acres) of the area that once grew popular cooking and eating varieties. This came after a 57% loss of orchards since the second world war (Clifford et al., 2007, p. 26). It is therefore essential that those remaining orchards are supported (by buying their produce, preferably locally) and that land is identified to establish new orchards with a range of apple varieties so that the amount imported can be reduced. This is something that can be achieved on small plots of land in urban areas. It requires a long term commitment and one that urgently needs addressing with funding to facilitate Yorkshire orchards claim to have more than 100 varieties of desert and cooking apple, all planted since 2002 (Clifford et al., 2007, p.29). 5.1.2 Fruit vegetables Given the timing of the survey (September-October 2008), at a point where UK fruit vegetable produce is in season we can examine the extent to which local (UK) produce is available through NSM. Fruit vegetables grown in the UK include courgettes, squash/pumpkin, cucumber, tomatoes, chilli peppers, peppers (sweet), and aubergine12. These results show that there is good UK sourcing of fruit vegetables, though the survey did not find much evidence of sourcing in the North West region. Cucumber, Peppers and Tomatoes were sourced in Lancashire/Hesketh Bank. A very wide range of squash (19 different varieties) was available from a organic trader sourced from Lincolnshire. Some fruit vegetable produce was imported from a considerable distance; chilli peppers from Thailand, Kenya, Ghana and Egypt. Only one trader mentioned chilli peppers sourced in England. Similarly, Aubergines had travelled from Jamaica, Kenya and Ghana when other traders were purchasing them from England, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain. These results mask an underlying issue – price. When asked about sourcing food grown locally traders said that price was a key factor. This means that UK growers face a challenge competing on price with produce imported from overseas where labour costs may be lower, different subsidies may be in place and where climatic conditions mean that yields are better (Garnett, 2006). Table 3 below shows where fruit vegetables are being sourced on NSM. Each row in the table represents a trader response on sourcing this vegetable. Traders detailed countries or regions they sourced produce from and these are listed below. If data were provided about UK sourcing this is listed separately. Table 3: Fruit vegetable sources
Description Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Avocado Avocado Avocado
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Location 1 Italy Italy England Kenya Netherlands Netherlands Israel South Africa Israel

Location 2 Spain Spain Netherlands Jamaica Spain Spain South Africa South Africa

Location 3 Netherlands Spain Ghana

Location 4 England

Location 5

UK 1 N/S N/S

Spain

South America

Avocado is excluded from the table as it cannot be grown in the UK at present. N/S means the trader did not state where in the UK they sourced an item.

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Description Avocado Avocado Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Courgette Courgette Courgette Courgette Courgette Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber (Baby) Peppers Peppers Peppers Peppers Squash Squash Squash Squash Squash Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes

Location 1 Italy Israel Netherlands Kenya Italy England England Italy UK England Spain England England UK England Cyprus England UK England Netherlands N/S Greece England Croatia France England England Netherlands UK Poland Italy

Location 2 South Africa Spain Thailand Ghana Netherlands Spain England Italy Netherlands UK Netherlands Netherlands Italy Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands France Netherlands England Honduras Netherlands UK France Netherlands Spain Italy England

Location 3

Location 4

Location 5

UK 1 N/S

Israel

Egypt

Egypt France Spain France Italy

Netherlands Netherlands France Spain

N/S N/S N/S

N/S Spain Spain Spain N/S Lancs N/S

Spain Italy Spain Spain

Morocco Poland Lancs N/S N/S

N/S Italy Spain France France Netherlands Spain Spain Lincoln N/S Hesketh Bank Lancs Spain

Netherlands

Spain

5.1.3 High Value crops and Urban agriculture There are a range of high value crops that are ideally suited to being grown on small scale urban or peri-urban sites. The survey of traders at NSM shows that herbs and salad crops, both of which have a very short shelf life, are being sold on the market, but that in some cases these are coming from a distance, despite these items not being suited to long distance transportation. Table 4 details where herbs and salad leaves are sourced by traders. Table 4: Herbs and salad crops
Description Coriander Coriander Coriander Coriander Coriander Location 1 Cyprus England England UK England Location 2 India Cyprus Cyprus France Location 3 England Spain UK1 N/S N/S N/S Lincoln N/S

12

Description Dill Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Mint Mint Mint Mint Parsley Parsley Parsley Parsley Parsley Parsley Rocket

Location 1 England Spain United Kingdom United Kingdom Spain United Kingdom United Kingdom Cyprus England England England United Kingdom Italy Cyprus United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Italy

Location 2 Netherlands Netherlands France United Kingdom Spain France England Cyprus Israel Italy United Kingdom United Kingdom France Missing Italy

Location 3 N/S United Kingdom N/S Spain Lincoln N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S

UK1

Cyprus France

This will be the best picture available for UK herb and salad produce, as early autumn is an abundant time for these crops in the UK. Yet it is possible to grow these crops for a large portion of the year in the UK. One example of a successful business that does this is Glebelands Market Garden, a one hectare site in Sale. Produce is sold direct to Unicorn Grocery, travelling just 3 miles from the market garden to the shop. Once again, if small parcels of land were given over to urban growing within greater Manchester and funding were available for infrastructure to purchase renewable technologies to warm under cover growing during the cooler months it would be possible to source these items more locally without increasing the amount of CO2 produced in their production (Garnett, 2006). 5.1.4 Who buys from New Smithfield Market? Traders were questioned on their end markets for fruit and vegetables (both geographical and type). Table 5: Where produce purchased from NSM goes Percentage sales figures Trader Greater Manchester Other UK locations13 Trader 11 100 Trader 4 100 Trader 9 90 10 Trader 10 80 20 Trader 8 75 25 Trader 1 75 25 Trader 5 50 50 Trader 3 40 60 Trader 2 40 60 Trader 6 25 75 Trader 7 10 90
13

Includes Birmingham, Sheffield, Kendal, North Wales.

13

Table 5 shows that six of the traders surveyed sell 75% or more of their produce within Greater Manchester, with two traders selling exclusively within the area. Both Organic traders sell a higher percentage of their produce to other UK locations.

14

Table 6: Breakdown of Traders' customers
Trader Secondary wholesale Customer Types (%) Processing Retailers Restaurants/Bars Hotels Box Schemes Nursing Homes Caterers Sandwich Shops / Delis Total

Trader 11 Trader 7 Trader 6 Trader 8 Trader 9 Trader 5 Trader 10 Trader 4 Trader 3 Trader 2 Trader 1

30 15 40 12 2

50 50 15 30 50 80 45

37 30 40 20 40 70 70 10 20 43 98

33 5 10 10 60 50

30 5

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Four traders reported a significant percentage of their trade as secondary wholesale. Seven traders also reported a proportion of their trade with processing caterers (in some cases these are also located within NSM). The majority of trade was retailers, a customer base for all traders. Both organic traders have a fairly balanced mix of retailers and box schemes, a customer type that does not feature amongst the non-organic traders.

15

6 Innovation and potential for local growing All traders surveyed were asked if they were aware of any local growers as well as any information they had about innovative growers. Amongst the traders that had been on the market for decades the most interesting observations were about a loss of local growers, as land previously used for growing food had been sold off to developers. Other traders who had been on the market for a long time spoke of the difficulties of competing with cheaper imported produce and the impact that this had had on local production and availability. Historically, the area stretching from Ormskirk to Hesketh Bank was filled with tomato growers who grew under glass using coal fuelled heaters for the greenhouses. The demise of the local tomato came in the 1970s when growers switched to oil heaters (easier to use) and were subsequently hit by the 1970s OPEC oil crisis. Many growers moved over to growing bedding plants because they can stand a little frost (and therefore require no energy input to keep them warm) and were not as labour intensive as tomatoes. Twenty years ago one trader talked of delivering 2000 boxes of tomatoes per night in the season, now this number has dwindled to just 100. Another issue in terms of supply for NSM mentioned by traders was that any English tomatoes being grown are tied up with supermarket contracts. The price of UK produce was also discussed, Jersey tomatoes costing £7.50/box compared to locally grown ones which are priced at £10/box (Trader 9) Whilst one trader stated that the area still supports around 300 growers of vegetables and salads (lettuce) supplying a range of end markets, this is clearly a contraction from what there once was. In addition to the switch from tomato growing, the area has seen agricultural land being swallowed up by larger growers with supermarket contracts, reducing the supply of produce available for the wholesale market further. There was also a sense that there was a shortage of local growers, and that this situation was unlikely to improve given the current economic situation. Organic traders stated that the interest in local sourcing amongst their customer base had dropped off as people strive to cut costs. This was also apparent in their trading volumes, which had fallen compared to the previous year. This pattern was not found amongst the non organic traders surveyed, who generally did not report a fall in business. Given the commitment to local sourcing amongst organic traders the fall in organic trade is a worrying trend, both for wholesalers and the businesses supplying them. Innovative growers or business practices mentioned by traders included: • Brian's Salads at Hesketh Bank who is adding value to growers lettuce through bagging it. • Blaire's, an organic grower - growing in polytunnels and use wood burning stoves to heat them. Their tomatoes are sold to supermarkets. • H &P Ashcroft (near Preston) is growing unusual organic vegetables, for example purple carrots and golden beetroot.

16

7 How much waste is generated by the market? The Kindling Trust asked for information about Smithfield Market's waste, including waste disposal methods because the amount of waste generation is clearly an indicator of scale. Fairfield Materials Management (Fairfield) has played an active role in sustainable waste management on NSM since 2003 when a pilot composting system was introduced. The market now diverts pallets, cardboard and plastic for recycling and all organic material for composting through Fairfield's in-vessel composting system (a Vertical Composting Unit VCU).This pioneering work offers a opportunity to develop a closed loop system that allows local growers to return once-wasted nutrients to their land in a sustainable and efficient manner. 7.1 Fairfield Materials Management

Recycling has increased from 8% in 2003 to 58% in 2007, this is expected to be 60%> in 2008. Table 7 provides a breakdown of the markets waste streams sent to landfill and recycled or composted. Table7: New Smithfield Market Waste 2003 to 2008
Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Compactor – landfill 783 1777 1500 996 2041 1020.29 REL – landfill 2992 2782 1159 107 0 0 Type of waster treatment (tonnes) Pallets – Cardboard Composting – Plastic Recycled – recycled fruit veg card recycled 0 0 374 0 389 45 639 0 434 267 1188 0 297 110 1934 18 294 132 2375 10.51 208.42 111.67 1672.56 18.91 Total 4149 5633 4548 4212 4841 3013 % Recycled 8 19 41 56 58 66

Source: Fairfield Materials Management

The market has 2 in-house cleaners that collect pallets and cardboard for recycling, contracted cleaners (Resource) clean the market and divert plastic off the market for recycling, collect and empty recycling bins for catering traders (plastic, cardboard and fruit and veg – see picture below) and collect and dispose of residual waste (into the NSM compactors) in electric vehicles. Residual waste is a mix of waste left on the ground by traders, it still contains plastic, cardboard/wood, organics that could be recycled or composted. Fairfield process all of the fruit and vegetables (removing plastic for recycling), and composting this with green waste (woody material imported from GM Waste, skip hire companies etc.). Material is shredded and fed into the VCUs for a minimum of 7 days residence time, temperatures are in excess of 60°C which effectively kills off seeds and pathogens. Compost is then stacked for a further 10 – 15 weeks on site, it is finally sieved through a trommel (this separates compost for sale from the remaining wood content that is re-processed) and stored ready for sale. End markets include councils, landscapers, organic growers, allotment holders, schools, householders etc.

17

Stages of Fairfield composting process: Waste Produce: Plastic Baler: Cardboard: De Packaged Produce:

Shredding:

Green Waste:

VCUs:

Compost Delivery:

8 Conclusions and recommendations This report set out to: • • • • Illustrate how New Smithfield Market works, defining the roles of traders, agents, transporters etc. Locate the source of fruit and vegetables sold on NSM, how they are transported to NSM and who they are sold to. Identify good practice as well as potential and innovation of local growing. Summarise the interest in and demand for locally produced fruit and vegetables.

The key conclusion from the report is that it is not currently possible for Manchester's food supply to be sourced without major haulage of food from other parts of the UK and significant imports of produce. Within a programme of contraction and mitigation it is essential that local food production capacity is increased and significant investment needs to occur for this to happen. Recommendations The recommendations from this report are: • • • • • Further research is needed to explore the capacity for North West fruit and vegetable production and to identify barriers to sale of locally produced food at NSM. Support is required to enable existing North West producers to develop partnerships with traders on NSM to increase the volume of locally sourced produce. Fruit and vegetable production in the North West needs to be boosted with support and training provided at all levels to increase capacity for sustainable food production. Funding should be provided to support development of urban food growing opportunities which would also establish trading links with NSM. Given the dependence on oil required by non organic agriculture (i.e. oil based fertilisers) we would strongly recommend that organic agriculture be promoted, both with existing producers and new sites.
18

 Infrastructure funding needs to be provided for using technologies to help boost yields of high value tender crops and Mediterranean produce 9 References Capital Growth. 2008. Capital Growth: The campaign for 2,012 new food growing spaces in London. Available at: http://www.capitalgrowth.org/ [Accessed November 5, 2008]. Clifford, S., King, A. & Davenport, P., 2007. The Apple Source Book: Particular uses for diverse apples, London: Hodder and Stoughton. Cottingham, M. & Leech, A., 2009. Organic Market Report 2009, Soil Association, Bristol. Ellen, D., 2009. Farmers Markets: a case study of local food supply in Greater Manchester The Kindling Trust, Manchester. Food Futures. 2007. A Food Strategy for Manchester, Food Futures , Manchester City Council, Manchester. Available at: http://www.foodfutures.info/site/images/stories/food %20futures%20strategy%202007.pdf [Accessed May 21, 2009] Garnett, T., 2006. Fruit and vegetables & UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Exploring the relationship, Food Climate Research Network. Available at: http://www.fcrn.org.uk/frcnPubs/publications/PDFs/fruitandvegpaperfinal22Sept2006.pdf [Accessed February 5, 2009]. Garnett, T., 2003. Wise Moves: Exploring the Relationship Between Food, Transport and CO2, London: Transport 2000 Trust. Available at: www.bettertransport.org.uk/system/files/wise_moves_report.pdf [Accessed February 18, 2009]. Pretty, J.N., 2002. Agri-Culture: Reconnecting People, Land and Nature, Earthscan, London. Ricketts Hein, J., Ilbery, B. & Kneafsey, M., 2006. Distribution of local food activity in England and Wales: An index of food relocalization. Regional Studies, 40(3), 289-301. de Selincourt, K., 1997. Local Harvest: Delicious Ways to Save the Planet, London: Lawrence & Wishart Ltd Seymour, J., 1991. Changing Lifestyles: Living as Though the World Mattered, Gollancz, London. Soil Association, 2008. An inconvenient truth about food: Neither secure, nor resilient, Bristol: Soil Association. Available at: http://www.soilassociation.org [Accessed February 23, 2009]. Sustain, 2008. Ethical Hijack: why the terms 'local', 'seasonal' and 'farmers' market' should be defended from abuse by the food industry, London: Sustain. Available at: http://www.sustainweb.org/publications/ [Accessed February 18, 2009] Sustain, 2009. Awards won by Sustain and its staff [online] available at: http://www.sustainweb.org/about/awards_won_by_sustain_and_its_staff/ [Accessed May 21 2009]

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Appendices

20

Appendix 1: Questionnaire Business Name: Contact Name: Telephone Number: Email: Address:
The Kindling Trust is at the very early stages of establishing a rural base in the North West of England to work towards a just and ecologically sustainable society. Our work will focus on the following themes: Sustainable Production: by supporting and establishing a rural social enterprise business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested for that purpose. Networks of small producers, which combines the benefits of local supply with national co-ordination and marketing. Sustainable Living: by demonstrating that it is possible to live well whilst minimising the ecological impact of our actions and acknowledging the need to share global resources more equitably, recognising rights, equality and responsibilities at a local and international level. Sustainable Activism: by promoting a way of working and living that enables everyone to take part and have their say, dealing with problems at their root cause and supporting people to develop their ideas and push for positive social change.

1. How much fruit and vegetables do you sell every year? Fruit figures Vegetable figures Value in pounds £: Value in pounds £:

Amount in kg/tonne:

Amount in kg/tonne:

2. Is this amount increasing or decreasing?

3. Why do you think the amount sold is increasing/decreasing?

4 Other comments about sales

21

5. Where is the country of origin of each of these items (please mark n/a if it is something you do not sell). 5a. Fruit Alkaline Fruit: Apples All Sweet Grapes Fresh Figs Dates Figs Raisins Prunes Apricots Peaches Bananas Cherries Bananas Melons: Watermelon Honeydew Melon Cantaloupe 5b. Main transport routes for fruit? Which fruits have a different route? Is fruit transported by a third party? Origin Subacidic Fruit: Apples Peaches Nectarines Pears Cherries Papayas Mangos Apricots Plums Blueberries Raspberries Blackberries Origin Acid Fruits: Oranges Grapefruit Pineapples Strawberries Pomegranates Lemons Kiwi Fruit Kumquats Gooseberries Cranberries Limes Origin

5c. Vegetables 22

Leaf Vegetables: Lettuce Spinach Parsley Watercress Others Celery Rhubarb Fennel Asparagus Globe Artichoke Shallots Onions Spring Onions Leeks Garlic Chives Fruit Vegetables: Tomatoes Aubergine Peppers Chilli Peppers Cucumber Courgette Squash Gourds Avocado

Origin

Brassicas: Broccoli Purple Sprouting Cauliflower Summer Cabbage Winter Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Greens Whilte Cabbage Red Cabbage Curly Kale Kohlrabi Brussel Sprouts

Origin

Tubers: New potatoes Main Potatoes

Origin

Jerusalem Artichoke
Sweet Potato Root Vegetables: Carrots Parsnips Turnip Celeriac Beetroot Radish

Origin

Pod and Seeds: Pea Broad Bean French Bean Runner Bean Sweetcorn

Origin

Other Okra Mushrooms Coriander Mint Dill

Origin

5d. Main transport routes for vegetables, which vegetables have a different route? Is Veg transported by a third party?

6. Who do you sell fruit and vegetables to? % split and location

23

7. Have you witnessed a growing demand for loacl and seasonal fruit and vegetables?

8. What problems do you experience in trying to meet this demand / How would you meet this demand if needed?

9. Are you aware of any local growers?

10. Are you aware of particularly innovative growers?

24

Appendix 2 Fruit and vegetables sources Fruit sources: Source data for Acid Fruit
Description Cranberries Cranberries Cranberries Gooseberries Gooseberries Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Grapefruit Kiwi Fruit Kiwi Fruit Kiwi Fruit Kiwi Fruit Kiwi Fruit Kumquats Lemon Lemon Lemon Lemon Lemons Lime Limes Limes Limes Limes Oranges14 Oranges
14

Location1 USA USA USA England England South Africa South Africa Turkey South America New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand Italy New Zealand Israel Europe Spain Spain Spain Italy Brazil Dominican Republic Brazil Dominican Republic Central America Spain Europe

Location2

Location3

Location4

Location5 UK1

Italy Cyprus South Africa Italy Italy Italy Chile

Spain Spain

South Africa

France France

Central America South America North America South Africa Italy South Africa Argentina Spain France Mexico Mexico South America Spain South Africa Central America South America USA

This trader sources oranges from Spain in the winter and South Africa in the summer.

25

Description Oranges Oranges Oranges Oranges Pineapple Pineapple Pineapple Pineapple Pomegranate Pomegranates Pomegranates Pomegranates Pomegranates Pomegranates Strawberries Strawberries Strawberries Strawberries

Location1 South Africa South America Italy Pakistan Central America South America Costa Rica Ghana Middle East Spain Spain Spain Egypt Egypt Scotland England England France

Location2 South Africa Spain Africa

Location3 Spain South Africa

Location4

Location5 UK1

Spain

Israel

Spain India Spain Scotland Scotland Spain

Israel

USA N/S

Belgium Spain

Netherlands Australia

Spain

Source data for Alkaline Fruit
Description Location1 Apples France Apples France Apples Europe Apples England Apples France Apricots France Apricots Spain Apricots Spain Bananas West Indies Bananas Columbia Bananas Dominican Republic Bananas South America Bananas Dominican Republic Location 2 South Africa Netherlands South Africa Italy Italy Spain France France Mexico Location 3 Location 4 Location 5 UK1 UK2

China France Chile South Africa South Africa

USA England

South Africa East Sussex Herefordshire

South America Africa

26

Description Location1 Cherries Turkey Cherries Europe Cherries France Cherries France Dates Jordan Dates Tunisia Dates Tunisia Dates USA Figs Turkey Fresh Figs Turkey Fresh Figs Turkey Fresh Figs Turkey Fresh Figs France Peaches Greece Peaches Italy Peaches Italy Prunes USA Raisins Turkey Sweet Italy Grapes Sweet Spain Grapes Sweet Italy Grapes Sweet France Grapes Sweet Spain Grapes

Location 2 Location 3 France USA USA Turkey England Turkey Italy Saudi Arabia Israel Tunisia

Location 4 Canada

Location 5

UK1

UK2

N/S USA Croatia

Italy France France

South Africa Spain

Chile South Africa

France Italy France Spain Italy

Italy South Africa

Chile

South Africa

Source data for Sub acidic Fruit
Description Location 1 Apples France Apricots South Africa Blackberries France Blueberries South America Blueberries USA Blueberries France Mango Spain Location 2 Italy France England Netherlands Location 3 South Africa Spain Location 4 New Zealand Location 5 UK 1

Belgium

27

Description Location 1 Mango Mexico Mango Pakistan Mango Pakistan Mango Brazil Mango Spanish Nectarines Spain Nectarines Greece Nectarines Italy Nectarines France Papaya Ghana Papaya South America Papaya Australia? Papaya Brazil Pears England Pears Netherlands Pears Italy Pears France Pears England Plums France Plums Italy Plums France Plums Europe Plums England Raspberries France Raspberries England Raspberries England

Location 2 India India India Mexico France Italy France Italy

Location 3 Location 4 Pakistan Dominican Republic Israel

Location 5

UK 1

Dominican Republic South Africa South Africa Chile Spain Chile South Africa

France Italy France Italy Netherlands Italy

Australia South Africa Argentina Belgium Spain

Chile

South Africa

England South Africa

N/S

Spain Italy South America Spain Italy Scotland Scotland South America

France

South Africa

N/S

Source data for Melons
Description Iran Melon Melon (unsure of type) Water melon Water melon Water melon Location1 Location2 Location3 Location4 Iran Pakistan Italy Spain France France Spain Spain Brazil Spain Brazil Costa Rica Turkey

28

Vegetables Source data for Brassicas
Description Broccoli Broccoli Broccoli Broccoli Broccoli Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Brussels Sprouts Brussels Sprouts Brussels Sprouts Brussels Sprouts Cauliflower Cauliflower Cauliflower Cauliflower Cauliflower Curly Kale Curly Kale Curly Kale Curly Kale Curly Kale Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Kohlrabi Purple S Broccoli Purple S Broccoli Purple S Broccoli Purple S Broccoli Purple S Broccoli Location1 Italy Spain Spain England England UK England England Netherlands England England UK England England France France UK England England England England UK Netherlands Italy England Italy England England England England England Location2 France England France France Spain France Netherlands England Location3 Location4 England Spain England Spain Italy Location5 UK1 UK2

N/S

France

N/S N/S N/S N/S

France France France England England

Germany Spain Netherlands Germany

Lincolnshire N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Italy France

France

Italy

N/S

29

Description Red Cabbage Red Cabbage Red Cabbage Red Cabbage Red Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Cabbage Spring Greens Spring Greens Spring Greens Spring Greens Spring Greens Summer Cabbage Summer Cabbage Summer Cabbage Summer Cabbage Summer Cabbage White Cabbage White Cabbage White Cabbage White Cabbage White Cabbage Winter Cabbage Winter Cabbage

Location1 England Italy Netherlands England UK England UK England England England England England England England England England UK England England England UK England England England UK England England England UK England England England Netherlands England

Location2 England England Netherlands Italy

Location3 Netherlands

Location4

Location5 N/S N/S

UK1

UK2

Portugal

Spain

France N/S N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire N/S N/S N/S N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire N/S N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire

Portugal

Netherlands

N/S N/S N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire N/S

Netherlands England

Germany

N/S Hesketh Bank Lincolnshire

30

Description Winter Cabbage Winter Cabbage Winter Cabbage

Location1 England England UK

Location2

Location3

Location4

Location5 N/S N/S

UK1

UK2

Source data for Fruit Vegetables
Description Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Aubergine Avocado Avocado Avocado Avocado Avocado Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Chilli Peppers Courgette Courgette Courgette Courgette Courgette Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber Cucumber (Baby) Peppers Peppers Peppers Location 1 Italy Italy England Kenya Netherlands Netherlands Israel South Africa Israel Italy Israel Netherlands Kenya Italy England England Italy UK England Spain England England UK England Cyprus England UK England Location 2 Spain Spain Netherlands Jamaica Spain Spain South Africa South Africa South Africa Spain Thailand Ghana Netherlands Spain England Italy Netherlands UK Netherlands Netherlands Italy Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands France Netherlands Location 3 Location 4 Netherlands England Spain Ghana Location 5 N/S N/S UK1

Spain

South America

N/S Israel Egypt

Egypt France Spain France Italy

Netherlands Netherlands France Spain

N/S N/S N/S

N/S Spain Spain Spain Spain Italy Spain Morocco Poland Lancs N/S N/S Lancs N/S

31

Description Peppers Squash Squash Squash Squash Squash Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes

Location 1 Netherlands N/S Greece England Croatia France England England Netherlands UK Poland Italy

Location 2 England Honduras Netherlands UK France Netherlands Canary Islands Italy England

Location 3 Spain

Location 4

Location 5 N/S

UK1

N/S Italy Spain France Lincoln Canary Islands N/S Hesketh Bank Lancs Canary Islands

Netherlands

France Spain Netherlands Spain

Source data for Leaf vegetables
Description Asparagus Asparagus Asparagus Asparagus Asparagus Celery Celery Celery Celery Celery Celery Chives Chives Fennel Fennel Fennel Fennel Fennel Location 1 South America England England England England England England England Spain England UK England England Belgium Italy England Netherlands Italy Location 2 Location 3 USA Spain France Argentina Mexico Spain Spain Spain Spain France Israel Location 4 Location 5 UK 1 UK 2

N/S N/S Lincolnshire Cheshire N/S USA N/S N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S N/S

Israel Israel France Netherlands

France ?

Italy

Belgium

32

Description Garlic Garlic Garlic Garlic Garlic Garlic Globe Artichoke Globe Artichoke Globe Artichoke Globe Artichoke Leeks Leeks Leeks Leeks Leeks Leeks Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Onion Onions Onions Onions Onions Onions Onions Parsley Parsley Parsley Parsley Parsley

Location 1 China Pakistan France China France France Italy France England France England Belgium UK Belgium England England Spain England UK Spain England England England England England Netherlands UK England England Italy England Cyprus England UK

Location 2 Location 3 Brazil India China Spain Spain Spain Argentina Egypt Netherlands England France France France Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands France UK France Spain Spain Netherlands New Zealand France Netherlands Netherlands England England Italy France

Location 4

Location 5

UK 1

UK 2

England

N/S N/S N/S N/S Lincoln

France England Spain

N/S Lincoln N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Lincoln N/S

France Australia Spain Spain Spain

Egypt Italy England Netherlands Argentina Chile Oceania Southern Hemisphere

France N/S

33

Description Parsley Rhubarb Rhubarb Rhubarb Shallots Shallots Shallots Shallots Shallots Spinach Spinach Spinach Spinach Spinach Spring Onion Spring Onions Spring Onions Spring Onions Spring Onions Spring Onions Watercress Watercress Watercress Watercress Watercress

Location 1 England England England England France England France France France UK England England Cyprus England Mexico England England England England England England England England UK England

Location 2 Location 3 Italy Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Italy England Netherlands France Netherlands England

Location 4

Location 5 N/S N/S

UK 1

UK 2

Lincolnshire Hesketh Bank N/S

France Cyprus Spain England Italy Mexico Mexico Egypt Mexico Spain

Lincoln N/S France N/S

Egypt France USA N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Hurd's N/S

Source data for Pods and Seeds
Description Bobi Beans Broad Bean Broad Bean Broad Bean Broad Bean Broad Bean Location 1 Kenya England England England England England Egypt Kent N/S N/S N/S Location 2 Location 3 UK1

34

Description French Bean French Bean French Bean French Bean French Bean Pea Pea Pea Pea Pea Pea Runner Bean Runner Bean Runner Bean Sweet corn Sweet corn Sweetcorn Sweetcorn Sweetcorn

Location 1 England France France France Kenya England England15 French England England England England England England UK England England England England

Location 2

Location 3 Kent

UK1

Kenya

Kent Pakistan Portugal Italy Italy N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Kent Lincoln N/S USA N/S Isle of Wight

Netherlands France Portugal

Source data for Root Vegetables
Description Beetroot Beetroot Beetroot Beetroot Carrots Carrots Carrots Carrots Carrots Carrots
15

Location1 England England Cyprus UK England England England Pakistan UK England

Location2 Australia Germany Netherlands Scotland France Netherlands Italy France

Location3 Location4 France Italy

Location5

UK1 N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S N/S

France Spain France

Portugal

Italy

Belgium

Netherlands

In this case 'England' means that the trader sources the produce from another trader on NSM.

35

Description Celariac Celariac Celeriac Celeriac Parsnips Parsnips Parsnips Parsnips Radish Radish Radish Radish Turnip Turnip Turnip Turnip

Location1 France Israel England Italy England England England UK Netherlands England UK England France England England England

Location2 Netherlands England Netherlands England Netherlands Portugal Spain France England Netherlands France Netherlands

Location3

Location4

Location5

UK1

N/S N/S N/S Australia N/S N/S N/S Spain

France

N/S N/S

Source data for Tubers
Description Jerusalem Artichokes Jerusalem Artichokes Jerusalem Artichokes Main Crop Potatoes Main Crop Potatoes Main Crop Potatoes Main Crop Potatoes New Potatoes New Potatoes New Potatoes New Potatoes New Potatoes Sweet Potato Sweet Potato Sweet Potato Location 1 France Italy Netherlands England England England UK UK France England England France Egypt Central America Spain Location 2 Location 3 Location 4 Location 5 UK 1

Cyprus Scotland France England Italy England Israel Israel

Ireland

N/S N/S N/S

Italy Spain

Egypt Jersey Canary Islands Cyprus

N/S N/S

36

Description Sweet Potato Sweet Potato

Location 1 Italy Israel

Location 2 Location 3 Honduras Israel

Location 4

Location 5

UK 1

Source data for Other vegetables
Description Coriander Coriander Coriander Coriander Coriander Dill Mint Mint Mint Mint Mushrooms Mushrooms Mushrooms Mushrooms Mushrooms Okra Okra Rocket Location 1 Cyprus England England UK England England Cyprus England England England Ireland Ireland Ireland Netherlands Ireland India Kenya Italy Location 2 India Cyprus Cyprus France England Cyprus Israel Netherlands Ireland England Kenya Uganda Belgium Netherlands Jordan England Belgium N/S N/S N/S Location 3 England Spain Location 4 Location 5 UK 1 N/S N/S N/S Lincoln N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Cyprus

Poland

37

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