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# Normality Test

## Kolmogorov-Smirnov Normality Test (D)

Equations taken from Zar, 1984

For this test first calculate the cumulative frequencies of the observations, in this case n =
D = rel F rel F 17, so for the first observation 1/17=0.0588, for the second observation 2/17=0.1176,
i i i
etc Next, calculate the z-score of each observed cumulative frequency and determine
and its probability from the z table. For negative z-scores the table probability is the expected
' cumulative frequency, for positive z-scores it is 1-z probability. D is the absolutei
Di = rel Fi1 rel Fi
difference between the observed and expected frequencies. D` is the difference betweeni
the observed frequency and the next expected frequency, so for this table |0.0588 -
0.1736 = 0.1148|, |0.1176 0.2266 = 0.1090|, etc Find the largest value from either of
these two columns (here it is 0.1983) and compare to the D table.

Observed Expected
Population Cumulative Cumulative
Village Density Frequency Z-score Z Probability Frequency Di D'i
Aranza 4.13 0.0588 -1.40 0.0808 0.0808 0.0220 0.0808
Corupo 4.53 0.1176 -0.94 0.1736 0.1736 0.0560 0.1148
San Lorenzo 4.69 0.1764 -0.75 0.2266 0.2266 0.0502 0.1090
Cheranatzicurin 4.76 0.2352 -0.67 0.2514 0.2514 0.0162 0.0750
Nahuatzen 4.77 0.2940 -0.66 0.2546 0.2546 0.0394 0.0194
Pomacuaran 4.96 0.3528 -0.44 0.3300 0.3300 0.0228 0.0360
Sevina 4.97 0.4116 -0.43 0.3336 0.3336 0.0780 0.0192
Arantepacua 5.00 0.4704 -0.39 0.3483 0.3483 0.1221 0.0633
Cocucho 5.04 0.5292 -0.35 0.3632 0.3632 0.1660 0.1072
Charapan 5.10 0.5880 -0.28 0.3897 0.3897 0.1983 0.1395
Comachuen 5.25 0.6468 -0.10 0.4602 0.4602 0.1866 0.1278
Pichataro 5.36 0.7056 0.02 0.4920 0.5080 0.1976 0.1388
Quinceo 5.94 0.7644 0.69 0.2451 0.7549 0.0095 0.0493
Nurio 6.06 0.8232 0.83 0.2033 0.7967 0.0265 0.0323
Turicuaro 6.19 0.8820 0.98 0.1635 0.8365 0.0455 0.0133
Urapicho 6.30 0.9408 1.11 0.1335 0.8665 0.0743 0.0155
Capacuaro 7.73 0.9996 2.76 0.0029 0.9971 0.0025 0.0563

Ho: Village population density is not significantly different than normal.
Ha: Village population density is significantly different than normal.
(=0.05
n = 17 mean = 5.34 sd = 0.866

Dmax = 0.1983
DCritical = 0.207

Since 0.1983 < 0.207 accept Ho.

Village population density is not significantly different than normal (D0.1983, 0.10 > p > 0.05).

Normality Test

W/S Normality Test
Equations taken from Kanji, 1993

w The W/S normality tests is a fairly simple test that require only the sample standard
q =
deviation and the data range. The test is based on the q statistic, which is the st udentized
s
range, or the range expressed in standard deviation units. This test should not be confused
with the Shapiro-Wilks test, which is a more powerful normality test. The test statistic is
q, which is compared to the critical q values from the table, w is the data range, and s is
the standard deviation of the data. The critical q value is a range. If the calculated q value
falls within this range Ho is accepted (the data are normal), Ho is rejected when the q
values are outside the critical range (the data are not normal).

Note: The W/S test does a poor job of rejecting Ho when the data are very skewed, if data
are clumped in the tails, or there are outliers. This test should only be used if the data are
approximately symmetrical.

Ho: Village population density is not significantly different than Population
normal. Village Density
Ha: Village population density is significantly different than normal. Aranza 4.13
(=0.05
Corupo 4.53
San Lorenzo 4.69
s = 0.866
Cheranatzicurin 4.76
w = 3.6
Nahuatzen 4.77
Pomacuaran 4.96
3.6
q = = 3.74 Cocucho 5.04
0.962
Charapan 5.1
qCritical = 3.06 4.31 Pichataro 5.36
Comachuen 5.53

Sevina 5.75
Since 3.06 < q=3.74 < 4.31 accept Ho.
Quinceo 5.94
Village population density is not significantly different than normal
Nurio 6.06
(q3.74, p > 0.05).
Turicuaro 6.19
Urapicho 6.3
Arantepacua 7.21
Capacuaro 7.73
Normality Test

DAgostinos D Normality Test
Equations taken from Zar, 1984

T n +1|
D = where T = i |Xi
3 2
n SS .

DAgostinos D test is a powerful test for departures from normality. Calculating D is relatively simple, but can
become cumbersome without the use of a spreadsheet. First the data must be ordered from either smallest to largest
or largest to smallest. The squared mean deviates are then calculated for each observation and the sum of squared
deviates (SS) determined. Then (n + 1)/2 is subtracted from the order or rank (Xi) of each observation, where n is
the sample size, and the result multiplied by the observation value. T is then the sum of these values. Since the range
of D is fairly small, it is best to carry out the calculations to at least 5 decimal places. The test statistic D is
compared to the critical D values from the table. If the calculated D value falls within this range Ho is accepted (the
data are normal), Ho is rejected when the D values are outside the critical range (the data are not normal).

Ho: Village population density is not significantly Population Squared Mean
Village i
different than normal. Density Deviates
Ha: Village population density is significantly different
Aranza 4.13 1 1.46410
than normal.
(=0.05 Corupo 4.53 2 0.65610
n = 17
San Lorenzo 4.69 3 0.42250
Cheranatzicurin 4.76 4 0.33640
n +1 17 +1
= = 9 Nahuatzen 4.77 5 0.32490
2 2
Pomacuaran 4.96 6 0.14440
T = (i 9)Xi
Sevina 4.97 7 0.13690
T = (1 9)4.13+ (2 9)4.53+(17 9)7.73
Arantepacua 5.00 8 0.11560
T = 63.23
Cocucho 5.04 9 0.09000

63.23 Charapan 5.10 10 0.05760
D = = 0.26050
3 Comachuen 5.25 11 0.00810
(17 )(11.9916)

Pichataro 5.36 12 0.00040
DCritical = 0.2587,0.2860 Quinceo 5.94 13 0.36000

Since 0.2587 < D = 0.26050 < 0.2860 accept H . Nurio 6.06 14 0.51840
o
Turicuaro 6.19 15 0.72250
Village population density is not significantly different
than normal (D0.26050, p > 0.20). Urapicho 6.30 16 0.92160

Capacuaro 7.73 17 5.71210
Mean = 5.34 SS = 11.9916