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Equations taken from Zar, 1984

For this test first calculate the cumulative frequencies of the observations, in this case n =

D = rel F rel F 17, so for the first observation 1/17=0.0588, for the second observation 2/17=0.1176,

i i i

etc Next, calculate the z-score of each observed cumulative frequency and determine

and its probability from the z table. For negative z-scores the table probability is the expected

' cumulative frequency, for positive z-scores it is 1-z probability. D is the absolutei

Di = rel Fi1 rel Fi

difference between the observed and expected frequencies. D` is the difference betweeni

the observed frequency and the next expected frequency, so for this table |0.0588 -

0.1736 = 0.1148|, |0.1176 0.2266 = 0.1090|, etc Find the largest value from either of

these two columns (here it is 0.1983) and compare to the D table.

Observed Expected

Population Cumulative Cumulative

Village Density Frequency Z-score Z Probability Frequency Di D'i

Aranza 4.13 0.0588 -1.40 0.0808 0.0808 0.0220 0.0808

Corupo 4.53 0.1176 -0.94 0.1736 0.1736 0.0560 0.1148

San Lorenzo 4.69 0.1764 -0.75 0.2266 0.2266 0.0502 0.1090

Cheranatzicurin 4.76 0.2352 -0.67 0.2514 0.2514 0.0162 0.0750

Nahuatzen 4.77 0.2940 -0.66 0.2546 0.2546 0.0394 0.0194

Pomacuaran 4.96 0.3528 -0.44 0.3300 0.3300 0.0228 0.0360

Sevina 4.97 0.4116 -0.43 0.3336 0.3336 0.0780 0.0192

Arantepacua 5.00 0.4704 -0.39 0.3483 0.3483 0.1221 0.0633

Cocucho 5.04 0.5292 -0.35 0.3632 0.3632 0.1660 0.1072

Charapan 5.10 0.5880 -0.28 0.3897 0.3897 0.1983 0.1395

Comachuen 5.25 0.6468 -0.10 0.4602 0.4602 0.1866 0.1278

Pichataro 5.36 0.7056 0.02 0.4920 0.5080 0.1976 0.1388

Quinceo 5.94 0.7644 0.69 0.2451 0.7549 0.0095 0.0493

Nurio 6.06 0.8232 0.83 0.2033 0.7967 0.0265 0.0323

Turicuaro 6.19 0.8820 0.98 0.1635 0.8365 0.0455 0.0133

Urapicho 6.30 0.9408 1.11 0.1335 0.8665 0.0743 0.0155

Capacuaro 7.73 0.9996 2.76 0.0029 0.9971 0.0025 0.0563

Ho: Village population density is not significantly different than normal.

Ha: Village population density is significantly different than normal.

(=0.05

n = 17 mean = 5.34 sd = 0.866

Dmax = 0.1983

DCritical = 0.207

Since 0.1983 < 0.207 accept Ho.

Village population density is not significantly different than normal (D0.1983, 0.10 > p > 0.05).

Normality Test

W/S Normality Test

Equations taken from Kanji, 1993

w The W/S normality tests is a fairly simple test that require only the sample standard

q =

deviation and the data range. The test is based on the q statistic, which is the st udentized

s

range, or the range expressed in standard deviation units. This test should not be confused

with the Shapiro-Wilks test, which is a more powerful normality test. The test statistic is

q, which is compared to the critical q values from the table, w is the data range, and s is

the standard deviation of the data. The critical q value is a range. If the calculated q value

falls within this range Ho is accepted (the data are normal), Ho is rejected when the q

values are outside the critical range (the data are not normal).

Note: The W/S test does a poor job of rejecting Ho when the data are very skewed, if data

are clumped in the tails, or there are outliers. This test should only be used if the data are

approximately symmetrical.

Ho: Village population density is not significantly different than Population

normal. Village Density

Ha: Village population density is significantly different than normal. Aranza 4.13

(=0.05

Corupo 4.53

San Lorenzo 4.69

s = 0.866

Cheranatzicurin 4.76

w = 3.6

Nahuatzen 4.77

Pomacuaran 4.96

3.6

q = = 3.74 Cocucho 5.04

0.962

Charapan 5.1

qCritical = 3.06 4.31 Pichataro 5.36

Comachuen 5.53

Sevina 5.75

Since 3.06 < q=3.74 < 4.31 accept Ho.

Quinceo 5.94

Village population density is not significantly different than normal

Nurio 6.06

(q3.74, p > 0.05).

Turicuaro 6.19

Urapicho 6.3

Arantepacua 7.21

Capacuaro 7.73

Normality Test

DAgostinos D Normality Test

Equations taken from Zar, 1984

T n +1|

D = where T = i |Xi

3 2

n SS .

DAgostinos D test is a powerful test for departures from normality. Calculating D is relatively simple, but can

become cumbersome without the use of a spreadsheet. First the data must be ordered from either smallest to largest

or largest to smallest. The squared mean deviates are then calculated for each observation and the sum of squared

deviates (SS) determined. Then (n + 1)/2 is subtracted from the order or rank (Xi) of each observation, where n is

the sample size, and the result multiplied by the observation value. T is then the sum of these values. Since the range

of D is fairly small, it is best to carry out the calculations to at least 5 decimal places. The test statistic D is

compared to the critical D values from the table. If the calculated D value falls within this range Ho is accepted (the

data are normal), Ho is rejected when the D values are outside the critical range (the data are not normal).

Ho: Village population density is not significantly Population Squared Mean

Village i

different than normal. Density Deviates

Ha: Village population density is significantly different

Aranza 4.13 1 1.46410

than normal.

(=0.05 Corupo 4.53 2 0.65610

n = 17

San Lorenzo 4.69 3 0.42250

Cheranatzicurin 4.76 4 0.33640

n +1 17 +1

= = 9 Nahuatzen 4.77 5 0.32490

2 2

Pomacuaran 4.96 6 0.14440

T = (i 9)Xi

Sevina 4.97 7 0.13690

T = (1 9)4.13+ (2 9)4.53+(17 9)7.73

Arantepacua 5.00 8 0.11560

T = 63.23

Cocucho 5.04 9 0.09000

63.23 Charapan 5.10 10 0.05760

D = = 0.26050

3 Comachuen 5.25 11 0.00810

(17 )(11.9916)

Pichataro 5.36 12 0.00040

DCritical = 0.2587,0.2860 Quinceo 5.94 13 0.36000

Since 0.2587 < D = 0.26050 < 0.2860 accept H . Nurio 6.06 14 0.51840

o

Turicuaro 6.19 15 0.72250

Village population density is not significantly different

than normal (D0.26050, p > 0.20). Urapicho 6.30 16 0.92160

Capacuaro 7.73 17 5.71210

Mean = 5.34 SS = 11.9916

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