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Common Derivatives and Integrals

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus I & II notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins
Derivatives
Basic Properties/Formulas/Rules
( ) ( ) ( )
d
cf x cf x
dx
= , c is any constant.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x g x f x g x

=
( )
1 n n
d
x nx
dx
-
= , n is any number. ( ) 0
d
c
dx
= , c is any constant.
( ) f g f g f g

= + (Product Rule)
2
f f g f g
g g

-
=


(Quotient Rule)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d
f g x f g x g x
dx
= (Chain Rule)
( )
( )
( )
( ) g x g x d
g x
dx
= e e ( ) ( )
( )
( )
ln
g x d
g x
dx g x

=

Common Derivatives
Polynomials
( ) 0
d
c
dx
= ( ) 1
d
x
dx
= ( )
d
cx c
dx
=
( )
1 n n
d
x nx
dx
-
=
( )
1 n n
d
cx ncx
dx
-
=

Trig Functions
( ) sin cos
d
x x
dx
= ( ) cos sin
d
x x
dx
= - ( )
2
tan sec
d
x x
dx
=
( ) sec sec tan
d
x x x
dx
= ( ) csc csc cot
d
x x x
dx
= - ( )
2
cot csc
d
x x
dx
= -

Inverse Trig Functions
( )
1
2
1
sin
1
d
x
dx
x
-
=
-

( )
1
2
1
cos
1
d
x
dx
x
-
= -
-

( )
1
2
1
tan
1
d
x
dx x
-
=
+

( )
1
2
1
sec
1
d
x
dx
x x
-
=
-
( )
1
2
1
csc
1
d
x
dx
x x
-
= -
-
( )
1
2
1
cot
1
d
x
dx x
-
= -
+


Exponential/Logarithm Functions
( ) ( ) ln
x x
d
a a a
dx
= ( )
x x
d
dx
= e e
( ) ( )
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
= > ( )
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
= ( ) ( )
1
log , 0
ln
a
d
x x
dx x a
= >

Hyperbolic Trig Functions
( ) sinh cosh
d
x x
dx
= ( ) cosh sinh
d
x x
dx
= ( )
2
tanh sech
d
x x
dx
=
( ) sech sech tanh
d
x x x
dx
= - ( ) csch csch coth
d
x x x
dx
= - ( )
2
coth csch
d
x x
dx
= -
Common Derivatives and Integrals
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus I & II notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins
Integrals
Basic Properties/Formulas/Rules
( ) ( ) cf x dx c f x dx =

, c is a constant. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x g x dx f x dx g x dx =


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx F x F b F a = = -

where ( ) ( ) F x f x dx =


( ) ( )
b b
a a
cf x dx c f x dx =

, c is a constant. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b b b
a a a
f x g x dx f x dx g x dx =


( ) 0
a
a
f x dx =

( ) ( )
b a
a b
f x dx f x dx = -


( ) ( ) ( )
b c b
a a c
f x dx f x dx f x dx = +

( )
b
a
c dx c b a = -


If ( ) 0 f x on a x b then ( ) 0
b
a
f x dx


If ( ) ( ) f x g x on a x b then ( ) ( )
b b
a a
f x dx g x dx



Common Integrals
Polynomials
dx x c = +

k dx k x c = +


1
1
, 1
1
n n
x dx x c n
n
+
= + -
+


1
ln dx x c
x
= +


1
ln x dx x c
-
= +


1
1
, 1
1
n n
x dx x c n
n
- - +
= +
- +


1 1
ln dx ax b c
ax b a
= + +
+


1
1
1
p p p q
q q q
p
q
q
x dx x c x c
p q
+
+
= + = +
+ +



Trig Functions
cos sin u du u c = +

sin cos u du u c = - +


2
sec tan u du u c = +


sec tan sec u u du u c = +

csc cot csc u udu u c = - +


2
csc cot u du u c = - +


tan ln sec u du u c = +

cot ln sin u du u c = +


sec ln sec tan u du u u c = + +

( )
3
1
sec sec tan ln sec tan
2
u du u u u u c = + + +


csc ln csc cot u du u u c = - +

( )
3
1
csc csc cot ln csc cot
2
u du u u u u c = - + - +



Exponential/Logarithm Functions
u u
du c = +

e e
ln
u
u
a
a du c
a
= +

( ) ln ln u du u u u c = - +


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
sin sin cos
au
au
bu du a bu b bu c
a b
= - +
+

e
e ( ) 1
u u
u du u c = - +

e e
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
cos cos sin
au
au
bu du a bu b bu c
a b
= + +
+

e
e
1
ln ln
ln
du u c
u u
= +


Common Derivatives and Integrals
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus I & II notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins
Inverse Trig Functions
1
2 2
1
sin
u
du c
a
a u
-
= +

-


1 1 2
sin sin 1 u du u u u c
- -
= + - +


1
2 2
1 1
tan
u
du c
a u a a
-
= +

+

( )
1 1 2
1
tan tan ln 1
2
u du u u u c
- -
= - + +


1
2 2
1 1
sec
u
du c
a a
u u a
-
= +

-


1 1 2
cos cos 1 u du u u u c
- -
= - - +



Hyperbolic Trig Functions
sinh cosh u du u c = +

cosh sinh u du u c = +


2
sech tanh u du u c = +


sech tanh sech u du u c = - +

csch coth csch u du u c = - +


2
csch coth u du u c = - +


( ) tanh ln cosh u du u c = +


1
sech tan sinh u du u c
-
= +



Miscellaneous
2 2
1 1
ln
2
u a
du c
a u a u a
+
= +
- -


2 2
1 1
ln
2
u a
du c
u a a u a
-
= +
- +


2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ln
2 2
u a
a u du a u u a u c + = + + + + +


2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ln
2 2
u a
u a du u a u u a c - = - - + - +


2
2 2 2 2 1
sin
2 2
u a u
a u du a u c
a
-
- = - + +


2
2 2 1
2 2 cos
2 2
u a a a u
au u du au u c
a
-
- -
- = - + +



Standard Integration Techniques
Note that all but the first one of these tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.

u Substitution
Given ( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
f g x g x dx

then the substitution ( ) u g x = will convert this into the


integral, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) b g b
a g a
f g x g x dx f u du =

.

Integration by Parts
The standard formulas for integration by parts are,
b b
b
a
a a
udv uv vdu udv uv vdu = - = -


Choose u and dv and then compute du by differentiating u and compute v by using the
fact that v dv =

.
Common Derivatives and Integrals
Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus I & II notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins

Trig Substitutions
If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and formula.
2 2 2 2 2
sin and cos 1 sin
a
a b x x
b
q q q - = = -

2 2 2 2 2
sec and tan sec 1
a
b x a x
b
q q q - = = -

2 2 2 2 2
tan and sec 1 tan
a
a b x x
b
q q q + = = +
Partial Fractions
If integrating
( )
( )
P x
dx
Q x

where the degree (largest exponent) of ( ) P x is smaller than the


degree of ( ) Q x then factor the denominator as completely as possible and find the partial
fraction decomposition of the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction
decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in the denominator we get term(s) in the
decomposition according to the following table.

Factor in ( ) Q x Term in P.F.D Factor in ( ) Q x Term in P.F.D
ax b +
A
ax b +
( )
k
ax b +
( ) ( )
1 2
2
k
k
A A A
ax b
ax b ax b
+ + +
+
+ +
L
2
ax bx c + +
2
Ax B
ax bx c
+
+ +

( )
2
k
ax bx c + +
( )
1 1
2
2
k k
k
A x B A x B
ax bx c
ax bx c
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
L

Products and (some) Quotients of Trig Functions
sin cos
n m
x x dx


1. If n is odd. Strip one sine out and convert the remaining sines to cosines using
2 2
sin 1 cos x x = - , then use the substitution cos u x =
2. If m is odd. Strip one cosine out and convert the remaining cosines to sines
using
2 2
cos 1 sin x x = - , then use the substitution sin u x =
3. If n and m are both odd. Use either 1. or 2.
4. If n and m are both even. Use double angle formula for sine and/or half angle
formulas to reduce the integral into a form that can be integrated.
tan sec
n m
x x dx


1. If n is odd. Strip one tangent and one secant out and convert the remaining
tangents to secants using
2 2
tan sec 1 x x = - , then use the substitution sec u x =
2. If m is even. Strip two secants out and convert the remaining secants to tangents
using
2 2
sec 1 tan x x = + , then use the substitution tan u x =
3. If n is odd and m is even. Use either 1. or 2.
4. If n is even and m is odd. Each integral will be dealt with differently.
Convert Example : ( ) ( )
3 3
6 2 2
cos cos 1 sin x x x = = -
2005 Paul Dawkins
Trig Cheat Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions
Right triangle definition
For this definition we assume that
0
2
p
q < < or 0 90 q < < .


opposite
sin
hypotenuse
q =
hypotenuse
csc
opposite
q =
adjacent
cos
hypotenuse
q =
hypotenuse
sec
adjacent
q =
opposite
tan
adjacent
q =
adjacent
cot
opposite
q =


Unit circle definition
For this definition q is any angle.

sin
1
y
y q = =
1
csc
y
q =
cos
1
x
x q = =
1
sec
x
q =
tan
y
x
q = cot
x
y
q =
Facts and Properties
Domain
The domain is all the values of q that
can be plugged into the function.

sinq , q can be any angle
cosq , q can be any angle
tanq ,
1
, 0, 1, 2,
2
n n q p

+ =


K
cscq , , 0, 1, 2, n n q p = K
secq ,
1
, 0, 1, 2,
2
n n q p

+ =


K
cot q , , 0, 1, 2, n n q p = K

Range
The range is all possible values to get
out of the function.
1 sin 1 q - csc 1 andcsc 1 q q -
1 cos 1 q - sec 1 andsec 1 q q -
tanq - < < cot q - < <

Period
The period of a function is the number,
T, such that ( ) ( ) f T f q q + = . So, if w
is a fixed number and q is any angle we
have the following periods.

( ) sin wq
2
T
p
w
=
( ) cos wq
2
T
p
w
=
( ) tan wq T
p
w
=
( ) csc wq
2
T
p
w
=
( ) sec wq
2
T
p
w
=
( ) cot wq T
p
w
=
q
adjacent
opposite
hypotenuse
x
y
( ) , x y
q
x
y
1
2005 Paul Dawkins
Formulas and Identities
Tangent and Cotangent Identities
sin cos
tan cot
cos sin
q q
q q
q q
= =
Reciprocal Identities
1 1
csc sin
sin csc
1 1
sec cos
cos sec
1 1
cot tan
tan cot
q q
q q
q q
q q
q q
q q
= =
= =
= =

Pythagorean Identities
2 2
2 2
2 2
sin cos 1
tan 1 sec
1 cot csc
q q
q q
q q
+ =
+ =
+ =

Even/Odd Formulas
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin sin csc csc
cos cos sec sec
tan tan cot cot
q q q q
q q q q
q q q q
- = - - = -
- = - =
- = - - = -

Periodic Formulas
If n is an integer.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin 2 sin csc 2 csc
cos 2 cos sec 2 sec
tan tan cot cot
n n
n n
n n
q p q q p q
q p q q p q
q p q q p q
+ = + =
+ = + =
+ = + =
Double Angle Formulas
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
sin 2 2sin cos
cos 2 cos sin
2cos 1
1 2sin
2tan
tan 2
1 tan
q q q
q q q
q
q
q
q
q
=
= -
= -
= -
=
-

Degrees to Radians Formulas
If x is an angle in degrees and t is an
angle in radians then
180
and
180 180
t x t
t x
x
p p
p
= = =
Half Angle Formulas
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
sin 1 cos 2
2
1
cos 1 cos 2
2
1 cos 2
tan
1 cos 2
q q
q q
q
q
q
= -
= +
-
=
+

Sum and Difference Formulas
( )
( )
( )
sin sin cos cos sin
cos cos cos sin sin
tan tan
tan
1 tan tan
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
a b
a b
a b
=
=

=
m
m

Product to Sum Formulas
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
sin sin cos cos
2
1
cos cos cos cos
2
1
sin cos sin sin
2
1
cos sin sin sin
2
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
= - - +

= - + +

= + + -

= + - -

Sum to Product Formulas
sin sin 2sin cos
2 2
sin sin 2cos sin
2 2
cos cos 2cos cos
2 2
cos cos 2sin sin
2 2
a b a b
a b
a b a b
a b
a b a b
a b
a b a b
a b
+ -
+ =


+ -
- =


+ -
+ =


+ -
- = -


Cofunction Formulas
sin cos cos sin
2 2
csc sec sec csc
2 2
tan cot cot tan
2 2
p p
q q q q
p p
q q q q
p p
q q q q

- = - =



- = - =



- = - =




2005 Paul Dawkins



Unit Circle



For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( ) , x y : cos x q = and sin y q =

Example
5 1 5 3
cos sin
3 2 3 2
p p
= = -





3
p

4
p

6
p

2 2
,
2 2





3 1
,
2 2





1 3
,
2 2





60

45
30
2
3
p

3
4
p

5
6
p

7
6
p

5
4
p

4
3
p

11
6
p

7
4
p

5
3
p

2
p

p
3
2
p

0
2p

1 3
,
2 2

-


2 2
,
2 2

-


3 1
,
2 2

-


3 1
,
2 2

- -


2 2
,
2 2

- -

1 3
,
2 2

- -

3 1
,
2 2

-


2 2
,
2 2

-


1 3
,
2 2

-


( ) 0,1
( ) 0, 1 -
( ) 1,0 -
90
120
135
150
180
210
225
240
270

300
315
330
360

0
x
( ) 1,0
y
2005 Paul Dawkins




Inverse Trig Functions
Definition
1
1
1
sin is equivalent to sin
cos is equivalent to cos
tan is equivalent to tan
y x x y
y x x y
y x x y
-
-
-
= =
= =
= =


Domain and Range
Function Domain Range
1
sin y x
-
= 1 1 x -
2 2
y
p p
-
1
cos y x
-
= 1 1 x - 0 y p
1
tan y x
-
= x - < <
2 2
y
p p
- < <

Inverse Properties
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
cos cos cos cos
sin sin sin sin
tan tan tan tan
x x
x x
x x
q q
q q
q q
- -
- -
- -
= =
= =
= =


Alternate Notation
1
1
1
sin arcsin
cos arccos
tan arctan
x x
x x
x x
-
-
-
=
=
=

Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents


Law of Sines
sin sin sin
a b c
a b g
= =
Law of Cosines
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 cos
2 cos
2 cos
a b c bc
b a c ac
c a b ab
a
b
g
= + -
= + -
= + -

Mollweides Formula
( )
1
2
1
2
cos
sin
a b
c
a b
g
- +
=
Law of Tangents
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
a b
a b
b c
b c
a c
a c
a b
a b
b g
b g
a g
a g
- -
=
+ +
- -
=
+ +
- -
=
+ +

c a
b
a
b
g