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Power Factor

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You are on page 1of 37

Your Electric Bill

Presented by

Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor

Definitions

kVA, kVAR, kW, Apparent Power vs. True Power

Calculations Measurements

Power Factor Correction

Capacitors

System Impacts

I

2

R losses, Chapter 9 NEC

Equipment sizing

Power Factor Charges

Problems with adding Caps

Harmonic resonance

Volt rise

Power Factor vs Load Factor

What is Power Factor

Power Factor is the cosine of the

phase angle between current and

voltage.

Power Factor is the ratio of true

power to apparent power.

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

0

Understanding Alternating Current

AC

60 Hertz/second

Duration

Time

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

V

o

l

t

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g

e

L

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l

169 volts

120 Volts RMS

One Cycle

.01666 seconds

Phase Angle

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-50

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150

200

0

Duration

Degrees

M

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V

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90

120 Volts RMS

One Cycle

180

270

360

o

o

o

o

Three Basic Circuits or Loads

Resistive

Inductive

Capacitive

Or any combination

Resistive Inductive

Inductive Capacitive

Resistive Capacitive

Resistive Inductive Capacitive

Types of Loads

Resistive Incandescent Lamp

Resistance heat

Inductive Motors Contactor Coils

Relays (coils)

Capacitive Capacitors Start Capacitors

Run Capacitors Power Factor

Correction Capacitors

Resistive Loads

In Phase

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-50

0

50

100

150

200

0

M

a

g

n

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t

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Duration

Time

Inductive Loads

Lagging

Duration

Time

M

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t

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d

e

L

e

v

e

l

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

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100

150

200

0

Capacitive Loads

Leading

Duration

Time

M

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n

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t

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d

e

L

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l

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

200

0

What is Power

Power is measured in Watts.

Volts X Amps X Power Factor = Watts

Watts only equals Volts X Amps when the

Power Factor is 1 or unity.

Most of the time the Power Factor is less

than 1.

Power = Watts : True Power

Volts X Amps = VA : Apparent Power

Understanding Right Triangles

Right Angle 90

0

A

=

S

i

d

e

O

p

p

o

s

i

t

e

B= Side Adjacent

Power Triangle

A

=

S

i

d

e

O

p

p

o

s

i

t

e

B= Side Adjacent

True power

Apparent power

Power Factor =

Power Factor =

Cos

=

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

Cos

Right Angle 90

0

A

=

S

i

d

e

O

p

p

o

s

i

t

e

B= Side Adjacent

True power

Apparent power

Power Factor =

True Power

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

P

o

w

e

r

Understanding Power Triangle

A

=

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

P

o

w

e

r

V

A

R

,

k

V

A

R

R

e

a

c

t

a

n

c

e

B= True Power

Watts, KW, Power

Graphical representation of resistance,

reactance, and impedance

Inductive

Motors

R

I

n

d

u

c

t

i

v

e

R

e

a

c

t

a

n

c

e

Resistance

X

Graphical representation of resistance,

reactance, and impedance

Capacitors

R

C

a

p

a

c

i

t

i

v

e

R

e

a

c

t

a

n

c

e

Resistance

X

Capacitive

Capacitors

Inductive

Motors

Real - WATTS kW (KWH over Time)

kVAR

Reactance

Imaginary

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

Cosine of

POWER FACTOR

True Power

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

10 HP 460 Volt 4 Pole Motor

Load

Power

Factor VA Amps Watts VAR

Amps

Reactive

Amps

Resistive

125% 0.82 13203 16.6 10883 7476 9.4 13.7

115% 0.81 12240 15.4 9972 7099 8.9 12.5

100% 0.79 10830 13.6 8592 6593 8.3 10.8

75% 0.73 8771 11.1 6397 6002 7.5 8.0

50% 0.61 7105 8.9 4323 5639 7.1 5.4

25% 0.40 5886 7.4 2331 5405 6.8 2.9

min load 0.17 5399 6.8 911 5322 6.7 1.1

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

10 HP Energy Flow

A

=

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

P

o

w

e

r

V

A

R

=

6

5

9

3

B= True Power

Watts =8592

Power Factor = .79

Measured Amps = 13.6

Reactive Amps = 8.3

Resistive Amps = 10.8

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

10 HP Adding Capacitance

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

Measured Amps = 10.8

Measured Amps = 13.6

Measured Amps = 8.3

A

=

R

e

a

c

t

i

v

e

P

o

w

e

r

V

A

R

=

6

5

9

3

B= True Power

Watts =8592

Watts =8592

VA =8595

V

A

R

=

1

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

10 HP Energy Savings

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

Saving are calculated on I

2

R losses.

Using a # 12 gauge wire from Table 9 in the NEC

the resistance is 2 ohms per 1000 feet. 200 @

2 Ohms/1000 is .5 ohms. Using this the total saving

will be approx. 11.8 watts. NOTE: This is only if the

capacitor is at the motor.

200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire

2.8

2

X .5 = 3.92

3 X 3.92 = 11.76

I

2

X R = Watts

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

10 HP Capacitor Sizing

Utility Meter

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

I

2

R Savings

Capacitor to large then var flow in both

directions and one may increase cost.

I

2

R Losses

Example of Power Factor Charge

PF Charge Factor

NC Charge $0.40 kW Charge $10.25

Max Billing kW 8.592 kWh Charge $0.03854

Power Factor 0.79

Calc kVA 10.8759 kW 8.6

Calc kVAR 6.6681 kWh 2064

PF Charge $0.54

kW Charge $88.15

kWh Charge $79.55

Total Charge $168.23

Less than .85 then a $0.40 charge

For kVar (kW X.62)

In this Case $0.54

Based on one month operation at 8 hours a day

10 Horse Power Motor

VA Watts VAR

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

0.82 0.81 0.79 0.73 0.61 0.40 0.17

Power Factor

VA Watts VAR

125%

115%

100%

75%

50%

25%

Min

Power Factor vs Amps

Volts Amps VA kW

Power

Factor VAR

Amps

Reactive

Amps

Resistive

208 83 10000 10 1 0 0 83

208 88 10526 10 0.95 3287 28 83

208 92 11111 10 0.9 4843 41 83

208 98 11765 10 0.85 6197 52 83

208 104 12500 10 0.8 7500 63 83

208 111 13333 10 0.75 8819 74 83

208 119 14286 10 0.7 10202 85 83

208 139 16667 10 0.6 13333 111 83

208 166 20000 10 0.5 17321 144 83

Power Factor vs Amps

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

kW

Amps

Power Factor

Motor

Transformer

Conductor

10 HP Voltage Rise

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

kVAR * X

source

/kVA/100 = Voltage Rise %

Note This does not include the wire inductance

that will cause some additional rise in voltage.

Note: With this voltage rise an increase in kW

and kwh can occur.

200 Feet of #12 Gauge wire

MVAR

MW

Power

Plant

Generator

Transmission Circuit

Distribution Circuit

T/D

Substatio

n

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

Residential

Load

Industrial

Load

Commercial

Load

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

L L

L

System VAR Requirements

(Met by Power Plant Generator)

KVAR

KW

MW

Power

Plant

Generator

Transmission Circuit

Distribution Circuit

T/D

Substatio

n

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

Residential

Load

Industrial

Load

Commercial

Load

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

L L

L

System VAR Requirements

(Met by Power T/D Substation)

KVAR

KW

MW

Power

Plant

Generator

Transmission Circuit

Distribution Circuit

T/D

Substation

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

Residential

Load

Industrial

Load

Commercial

Load

= KW Load (resistive) = KVAR Load (reactive)

L L

L

System VAR Requirements

(Met by T/D Sub and Feeder Capacitors)

Feeder

Capacitor

Bank

KVAR

KW

Things We have Talked About And

Other Things to Talk About

Phase Angle

Power Factor

I

2

R Loss

Power Factor Penalty

Voltage Rise

Harmonic resonance

Load Factor --- Power Factor

Harmonic Resonance

3 PHASE AC

INPUT

X

Source

Harmonic

Source

Equivalent Circuit

X

Source

X

T

X

T

X

C

Harmonic Filters

L

L

3

2

L

1

X

F

X

C

L

1

L

2

L

3

Power Factor Vs Load Factor

They have no relation

Load Factor is kW at 100% operation

Yielding so many kWh vs. Actual kWh

Example

Hours in a Month = 30 X 24 = 720 Hours

Load is at 8 kW

8 X 720 = 5760 kWh

Actual kWh by load is 3240

Load Factor then is 3240/5760

Load Factor = .56

BOTTOM LINE ON

Understanding Power Factor and

How it Affects Your Electric Bill

most customer have no Power

Factor Penalty

None or very small savings or

possible increase cost when using

Power Factor Correction Devices

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