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Results:

Part 1
Mass of weighing boat 1 = 2.5402g
Mass of naphthalene + weighing boat 1 = 7.5438g
Mass of naphthalene = 7.5438g 2.5402g
= 5.0036g
Part 2
Mass of weighing boat 2 = 0.4515g
Mass of substance X + weighing boat 2 = 0.9502g
Mass of substance X = 0.4987g
Table 1: The temperature readings for naphthalene.

Discussion:
The application of freezing point depression is the determination of the molecular weight of the substance
X. A weighed amount of the solute (substance X) is dissolved in a known mass of solvent (naphthalene).
The freezing point of the solvent (the temperature at which solid and liquid phases are in equilibrium) is
determined by the cooling of the solution. When the graph of the time versus temperature was plotted, a
longest horizontal portion which is the constant temperature of the graph indicates the freezing of the
pure liquid. However, a solution (mixture of substance X and naphthalene) will freeze over a range of
temperature which is lower than the constant freezing point of the solvent (naphthalene). The plot will
show a change of slope when solid solvent begins to form. The concentration of dissolved solute will
steadily increases as the solvent freezes. This will cause the freezing point to continue decrease after the
constant temperature. After obtaining the change of freezing point (T) and the value of K
f
, then it is
possible to calculate the molar mass of substance X.
Based on the graph plotted for the pure solvent (naphthalene), the freezing point obtained is 76.0
o
C.
Whereas, the freezing point obtained for solution of substance X and naphthalene is 75.0
o
C. From the
results obtained in the experiment, it obeys the theory of freezing point depression stating that the
solution which contains naphthalene and substance X will have lower freezing point compared to the
freezing point which contains only pure solvent (naphthalene). All the graphs used to determine the
freezing point shows a staircase-like shape. For the graph of temperature versus time for naphthalene,
initially, the temperature was 76.0
o
C and the temperature remained constant for more than 3 minutes.
After that, the temperature continues to fall until the last second the time was recorded. The shape of this
graph did not obtained like a staircase as the initial temperature start to become constant and continue to
fall until the end of the experiment. During the starting of the experiment, the temperature of the solvent
does not decrease because the solvent was not over heated in the water bath. Thus, the temperature
measured in 0 second is the freezing point of the solvent. However, the graph for the solution of
naphthalene and substance X exhibits a staircase-like shape. The initial temperature was 80
o
C then there
is a slight decrease until it reaches 75
o
C, the equilibrium state of the substance which is the conversion of
liquid to solid state. After that, the temperature will start to decrease until the end of the experiment.
The experimental freezing point was selected based on the temperature that remains the longest period
for all the three different solution. This is because during this period, temperature do not rise until all the
solid has melt as heat of fusion is taken up to convert the solid state substance to liquid state.
In order to make sure the results obtained obeys the theory, some of the precautions steps should be
taken in order to prevent results error. Firstly, all apparatus used should be washed and rinsed thoroughly
with distilled water to avoid contamination occurrence. Furthermore, during the solution is left to melt from
solid to liquid, the content should be stirred in order to maintain thermal equilibrium. Uneven distribution of
heat in the solution will caused the temperature obtained not accurate. Thus, the freezing point
depression will be affected. In order to dispose the substances inside the test tube, the substances was
melted in the water bath and disposed into the fume chamber.
Whenever a substance is dissolved in a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent is lowered. As a result
of the decrease in the vapor pressure, the boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure of the solvent are
changed. The magnitude of these changes depends on the number of solute particles dissolved in a given mass
of solvent. At low solute concentrations, the changes in the vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and
osmotic pressure of a solution are all proportional to the amount of solute that is dissolved in the solvent. These
four properties of solutions are collectively known as colligative properties .
The colligative properties of a solution depend only on the number of solute particles present in a given
amount of solvent and are independent of the nature of the particles dissolved. If the solute is a nonvolatile
substance, the vapor pressure and the freezing point of the solution is lower than that of the pure solvent and the
boiling point is higher. Some common uses of colligative properties are the addition of "antifreeze" to automobile
radiators to lower the freezing point of water and the sprinkling of salt on icy sidewalks to melt the ice by lowering
its
freezing point.
Colligative properties are useful for determining molar masses of unknown compounds and the degree of
dissociation in solution of known compounds. For low concentrations of a nonvolatile solute, the freezing-point
depression of a solvent is given by the relationship:
DTf
= Kf
m , (1)
where DTf
= Tf
(solvent) - Tf
(solution), Tf
is the freezing temperature, Kf
is the molal freezing point depression
constant for the solvent (which is simply a proportionality constant characteristic of the solvent used), and m is the
molality of the solution. Molality is a unit of concentration that is defined as:
m =
mol(solute)
kg(solvent)
.
(2)
In order to determine the molar mass of an unknown compound by measuring the freezing point
depression of a solvent, the molal freezing point depression constant for the solvent must be known. The value
of Kf
is determined by dissolving a measured amount of a known compound into a given amount of solvent and
then measuring the depression of the freezing point. The value of Kf
is equal to the number of Celsius degrees
that the freezing point of the solvent is lowered when 1 mole of solute particles is present in 1000 g of solvent
(i.e., the difference in the freezing point of the pure solvent and a 1 molal solution). NOTE: It is important when
determining the value of Kf
for a solvent that the solute does not dissociate when it dissolves so that the number
of particles of solute in solution is equal to the number of molecules added. The freezing points and molal
freezing point depression constants of some common solvents are listed in Table 1.

The explanation for the freezing point depression is then simply that as solvent molecules leave the liquid and
join the solid, they leave behind a smaller volume of liquid in which the solute particles can roam. The resulting
reduced entropy of the solute particles thus is independent of their properties. This approximation ceases to
hold when theconcentration becomes large enough for solute-solute interactions to become important. In that
case, the freezing point depression depends on particular properties of the solute other than its
concentration.
[citation needed]
Freezing-point depression describes the process in which adding a solute to
a solvent decreases the freezing point of the solvent.
Examples include salt in water, alcohol in water, or the mixing of two solids such as impurities in a finely
powdered drug. In such cases, the added compound is the solute, and the original solid can be thought of as
the solvent. The resulting solution or solid-solid mixture has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent or solid
did. This phenomenon is what causes sea water, (a mixture of salt (and other things) in water) to remain liquid
at temperatures below 0 C (32 F), the freezing point of pure water.
If the solution is treated as an ideal solution, the extent of freezing point depression depends only on the solute
concentration that can be estimated by a simple linear relationship with the cryoscopic constant ("Blagden's
Law"):
T
F
= K
F
b i
T
F
, the freezing point depression, is defined as T
F (pure solvent)
- T
F (solution)
.
K
F
, the cryoscopic constant, which is dependent on the properties of the solvent, not the solute. Note:
When conducting experiments, a higher K
F
value makes it easier to observe larger drops in the freezing
point. For water, K
F
= 1.853 Ckg/mol.


b is the molality (mol solute per kg of solvent)
i is the van 't Hoff factor (number of ion particles per individual molecule of solute, e.g. i = 2 for NaCl, 3 for
BaCl
2
).
This simple relation doesn't include the nature of the solute, so this is only effective in a diluted solution. For a
more accurate calculation at a higher concentration, Ge and Wang (2010)

proposed a new equation:

In the above equation, T
F
is the normal freezing point of the pure solvent (0
o
C for water for example); a
liq
is
the activity of the solution (water activity for aqueous solution);H
fus
TF
is the enthalpy change of fusion of
the pure solvent at T
F
, which is 333.6 J/g for water at 0
o
C; C
fus
p
is the differences of heat capacity
between the liquid and solid phases at T
F
, which is 2.11 J/g/K for water.
The solvent activity can be calculated from Pitzer model or modified TCPC model, which typically requires
3 adjustable parameters. For the TCPC model, these parameters are available at reference

for
many single salts.