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Campbell Analysis

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**NICOARA DUMITRU, EUGENIA SECARĂ, MIRCEA MIHĂLCICĂ
**

Department of Mechanics

University Transilvania of Brasov

500036 Brasov B-dul Eroilor Nr.29

ROMANIA

tnicoara@unitbv.ro, secarae@unitbv.ro, mihmi_1@yahoo.com http://www.unitbv.ro

Abstract: - The aim of the present paper is that of developing a computational technique of the Campbell diagram of

rotors. This paper deals with bending in the field of mono-rotors, such as in compressors and turbines. This

presentation concerns the use of the Campbell diagram and highlights some specific cases of its use.

Key-Words: - Rotor-bearing systems, dynamics, Campbell diagram, eigenvalues problem

1 Introduction

The Campbell diagram is one of the most important tools

for understanding the dynamic behaviour of the rotating

machines. It basically consists of a plot of the natural

frequencies of the system as functions of the spin speed.

Although being based on complete linearity, the

Campbell diagram of the linearized model can yield

many important information concerning a nonlinear

rotating system. A critical speed of order k of a single –

shaft rotor system is defined [2] as spin speed for which

a multiple of that speed coincides with one of the

system’s natural frequencies of precession. The paper

deals with bending only and consists of two main parts.

The first part is a brief presentation of rotor equations

and the second part gives models and examples.

2 Rotor Equations

The equations of motions of anisotropic rotor-bearing

systems which consist of a flexible nonuniform

axisymmetric shaft, rigid disk and anisotropic bearings

are obtained, in second order form, by the finite element

method. The model consists of a rotor treated as a

continuous elastic shaft with several rigid disks,

supported on an anisotropic elastic bearings. Consider

that the dynamic equilibrium configuration of the rotor-

bearing system the undeformed shaft is along the x-

direction of an inertial x, y, z coordinate system. In the

study of the lateral motion of the rotor, the displacement

of any point is defined by two translations ( w v, two

rotations

) and

( )

z y

ϕ ϕ , [2]. [3],

The model could use one of the following three beam

finite element types:

beam C

1

finite element type based on Euler-Bernoulli

beam model;

beam C

1

finite element type based on Timoshenko

beam model;

beam C

0

isoperimetric finite element type based on

Timoshenko beam model.

The beam finite element has two nodes. For the static

analysis, a 2D problem, there are two degrees of freedom

(DOF) per node, one displacement perpendicularly on

the beam axis and the slope of the deformed beam. In the

case of the dynamic analysis four degrees of freedom

(DOF) per node are considered: two displacements and

two slopes measured in two perpendicular planes

containing the beam. The equations may be written as

[1], [2], [3]

( ) F q K q G Ω C q M = + + + & & & (1)

where q is the global displacement vector, whose upper

half contains the nodal displacements in the y-x plane,

while the lower half contains those in z-y plane, and

where the positive definite matrix M is mass (inertia)

matrix, the skew symmetric matrix G is gyroscopic

matrix, and the nonsymmetric matrices C and K are

called the damping and the stiffness matrices,

respectively.

The matrices of M, C, G, K, q, and F consist of element

matrices given as

(3)

= M (2) ,

c c

c c

,

m 0

0 m

N N

zz zy

yz yy

N N × ×

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

C

,

k k

k k

,

0 g

g 0

N N

zz zy

yz yy

N N × ×

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

= K G

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

1 N

z

y

1 N

z

y

t q

t q

t ,

t f

t f

× ×

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

=

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

= q F (4)

where n 4 N = , n is the number of nodes.

ritten in state

(5)

(6)

The equation of motion (1) can be rew

space form as:

Q X B X A = +

&

⎥

⎦

⎢

⎣

−

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

=

M 0

B ,

0 M

M ΩG

A

⎤ ⎡ ⎡ + 0 K C

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, Quality and Production Systems (Volume II)

ISSN: 1790-2769 393 ISBN: 978-960-474-122-9

(7)

A and B are real but in

metric. The re

⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩

q 0 &

⎬

⎫

⎨

⎧

=

⎬

⎫

⎨

⎧

=

q

X ,

F

Q

The matrices general

indefinite, nonsym sulting system of

N N 2 2 ×

equation (5) gives nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem.

The eigenvalue problem associated with Eq. (5) and its

adjoint are given by

i i i

u B = u A λ (8)

T T

k

A λ

) (9)

are right

quations (8), (9) as 2N eigensolutions,

is er

k k

v B v = ( N 2 ,.., 2 , 1 k , i =

where

i

u and and left eigenvectors,

i

v

respectively. E h

where N the ord of the system global matrices. They

are purely real for over damped modes and appear in

complex conjugate pairs for under damped or undamped

modes of precession. In general, the eigenvalues are a

function of the rotating assembly spin speed Ω and are of

the form

( ) N i j

i i i

,.., , , 2 1 = ± = ω α λ (10)

The real part

i

α of the eigenvalue is the damping

imaginary part constant, and the

i

ω is

o

the damped

natural frequency f whirl speed or precession speed.

It is well known that most vibrations in rotating

machinery are induced by rotational-related source. For

example, rotating unbalance is the major source of

vibration synchronous to the rotational speed Ω;

misalignment and cracks in shafts cause the vibration iΩ

(i is a integer); ball bearing defects cause the vibration

nΩ (n is a real number). A critical speed of order s of a

single shaft rotor is defined as spin speed for which a

multiple of that speed coincides with one of the systems

natural frequencies of precession. The intersection of

excitation frequencies line Ω = s ω with the natural

frequency curve

i

ω defines the critical speed

cr

i

n . Thus,

when

cr

i

n = Ω , the excitation frequency

cr

i

in creates a

resonance condition [1], [2].

Howev a definition regarding the c cal speed

of rotor bearing systems, in particular, with rotational

speed dependent parameters,

er, such riti

is conceptually incorrect

since the damped natural frequencies change with the

rotational speed.

One approach for determining critical speeds is to

generate the whirl speed map, include all excitation

frequency lines of interest, and graphically note the

intersections to obtain the critical speeds associated with

each excitation. It is common practice to plots both

whirl speed maps, i.e., the whirl frequencies and

damping ratio

i

ς (or in terms of the logarithmic

decrement

i

δ ) versus the rotor spin speed Ω. In order to

case these diagrams are drown for a finite number of

rotations, we should achieve a correspondence between

the modal forms and the eigenvalues.

i

i

2

i

2

i

i

i

ω

α

ω α

α

ς − ≅

+

− = ,

i i

2 ς π δ = (11)

This is necessary to establish following the crossing of

ves of the Campbell diagram, to w

xamples, for two rotor-bearings systems. The Campbell

ent obtained by the

m table 1. In Fig. 2 and Fig. 2 the Campbell

ia ecrement are given.

Fig.1 Rotor configuration

two cur hich modal

form belongs the point. The ordering of the eigenvalues

can be done using the orthogonality relations between

the modal vectors [2].

In the present paper the authors have put in order the

eigenvalues according to the fact that when changing the

order of the eigenfrequencies the logarithmic decrement

has a jump, Fig. 2.

In this paper, in order to obtain the critical speed and to

plotting of the Campbell diagrams, the authors have used

the computer program DIROPTIM [3].

The solution of the generalized eigenvalues problem has

been found using the generalized canonical Hessenberg

and Schur matriceal forms, FSRG [3].

3 Illustrative Examples

this section we shall consider two numerical In

e

diagrams and logarithmic decrem

computer code written by the authors is further

presented.

Example 1

In this example we consider the system from Fig. 1 with

otor data fro r

d gram and logarithmic d

obtain a correct plotting of the Campbell diagrams, in

x

y

d

2 3 4

1

L

l

4

l

3

l

1

l

2

5

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, Quality and Production Systems (Volume II)

ISSN: 1790-2769 394 ISBN: 978-960-474-122-9

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

x 10

4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Spin Speed [rpm]

Logarithmic decrement

Fig.2 Logarithmic decrement

Shaft Disk Bearings

l

1

= 0.2 m,

l

2

= 0.3 m m

3

= 45.94 Kg,

m

4

= 55.13 Kg

m

2

= 14.58 Kg,

l

3

= 0.5 m,

l

4

= 0.3 m

J

T2

= 0.064 Kg m

2

J

T3

= 0.498 Kg m

2

2

J

T4

= 0.602 Kg m

d = 0.1 m

ρ=7800 Kg/m

E=2e11 N/m

3

2

1

k

yy

= 7e7 N/m

J

P2

= 0.123 Kg m

2

J

P3

= 0.976 Kg m

2

J

P4

= 1.171 Kg m

2

Station

k

zz

= 5e7 N/m

0 Ns/m c

yy

= 700

c

zz

= 4000 Ns/m

Station 5

k

yy

= 6e7 N/m

k

zz

= 4e7 N/m

Ns/m c

yy

= 6000

c

zz

= 5000 Ns/m

Table 1 Rotor data

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

x 10

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x 10

4

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

x 10

4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Spin Speed [rpm]

L

o

g

a

r

i

t

m

i

c

D

e

c

Fig.4 Lo

Example 2

We conside the simple rotor supported by ball rearings

(s=0.3 m, a=0.4 m), Fig. 5 and rotor data given by

Table 2.

Fig.5 Rotor configuration

Shaft Disk Bearings

garithmic decrement

x

y

d d

1

Spin Speed [rpm]

N

a

t

u

r

a

l

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

[

r

p

m

]

L

a s

2

E = 2e15 N/m

2

ρ = 1000

Kg/m

3

d = 10 m

m = 30 Kg

J

T

= 1.2 Kg m

2

J = 1.8 Kg m

2

Bearing (1)

k

yy

= 0.50e7 N/m

k = 0.70e7 N/m

m

L = s+a =

(0.3+0.4) m

P

zz

Bearing (2)

k

yy

= 0.50e7 N/m

k

zz

= 0.70e7 N/m

Fig.3 Campbell diagram

Table 2 Rotor data

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, Quality and Production Systems (Volume II)

ISSN: 1790-2769 395 ISBN: 978-960-474-122-9

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

3.5

x10

4

x10

4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

R

P

M

]

[

Rotati ed [RPM]

N

onal Spe

a

t

u

r

a

l

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

a Fig.6 Natur l f equency (Cam r pb ll diagram) e

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

x10

4

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.1

0.11

0.12

Rotational Speed [RPM]

L

o

g

a

r

i

t

m

i

c

D

e

c

Fig.7 Logarithmic decrement

4 Conclusion

When the Campbell diagram and the mass unbalance

responses are concerned, it should be pointed out that: -

If the rotors are symmetric with low damping, mostly

rotors supported by roller bearings, the interpretation

concerning the intersection points is not straightforward.

- If the rotor is not symmetric, as with many rotors

because of fluid film bearings, and highly damped 0 < Q

< 2.5, the intersection points do not give any forbidden

speed range. - If the rotor is not symmetric with 2.5 < Q,

the intersection points give forbidden ranges and it is

then necessary to determine the mass unbalance

responses and check the amplitudes.

References:

[1] Childs, D., Turbomachinery Rotordynamics,J. Wiley,

New-York, 1993.

[2] Radeş, M., Dynamics of Machinery, Universitatea

Politehnica Bucuresti, 1995.

[3] Nicoarǎ, D ptimization

of the continous mechanical systems and

concentrated parameters systems, PhD. Thesis,

“Transilvania” University of Brasov, 1998.

.,Contributionto the external o

Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, Quality and Production Systems (Volume II)

ISSN: 1790-2769 396 ISBN: 978-960-474-122-9

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