American Theatre

L.26/09/2011
Los textos los podemos encontrar en el campus virtual. Los libros del 'reference' no son
obligatorios, si nos parecen muy difíciles lo dejamos porque nos pueden causar ms da!o
que beneficio pero nos anima a ello, sobre todo si vamos a ser investigadores. "l ensayo,
es un trabajo, que hay que hacer cuenta un #$%,son dos preguntas a elegir, se hace
una,en espa!ol o en ingl&s.
"l teatro de finales del siglo '()) fue la "dad de *ro del teatro. Luego entra en declive por
+rom,ell que escribe mal, lo toma como algo muy libertino, a no ser que tuviese un
mecenas oficial se les consideraba a la gente de teatro como gente de mala vida. "s una
cosa que atraía a las masas. Tiene mala reputaci-n por esto. +rom,ell era puritano, los
puritanos condenaban el teatro porque es algo puramente ocioso, tiene potencial de
propaganda, a veces el teatro se prohíbe por ra.ones políticas por si se sueltan ideas que
no interesan en ese momento. +uando matan a Lincoln en el teatro, le mata un actor, el
teatro es peligroso. "s algo que quieres controlar o puede ser beneficioso controlar. A
parte de esto los puritanos estn en contra del teatro igual que todo lo que sea
representar /las iglesias no tienen imgenes0 la conexi-n con la verdad tiene que ser
directa y no ideali.ada, ni a trav&s de estatuas, misas sobre1elavoradas, dadas por curas,
pre1establecidas. "l problema con conectarte directamente, evitando toda la mediaci-n, te
llevas lo que es el teatro.La mediaci-n terrenal de la verdad s-lo la puede corromper. 2"1
presentar, s-lo puede ser una copia mala de la realidad, de la verdad.
"sto es relevante para la historia norteamericana porque entre los ingleses que fueron allí
había muchos puritanos. 3u& pasa para que vengamos de esto a llegar a tener el teatro
como algo bueno. Teatro aut-ctono en el siglo '())) no existe. La primera obra que se
escribe y se producce es en 4565 a finales del siglo '())) ,muy tarde. 7o tienen historia
realmente. Lo que hacían era importar teatro, lo importan de "uropa y se nutrirn de esto
desde finales del siglo ')'. La 8nica excusa' que le podemos dar a los norteamericanos
es que en esa &poca del '())) el teatro estaba bastante mal, por lo general no tiene la
altura que ha tenido el anterior teatro, suele ser c-mico y un poco libertino, moralmente
sospechoso, se convierte en la peor pesadilla de los puritanos. "ste declive se debe
porque el estilo cambi-, cada ve. ms frívolo, parece que se centra en el entretenimiento
puro y duro. 9e quejaban que entretuviese a costa de un contenido moral.
"l teatro bueno no tiene que ser aburrido. "sta es una cosa que vamos a tratar. :ero hay
una ra.-n ms importante, decae porque sube la novela. ;isfruta del beneplcito de los
críticos porque se considera como algo edificante y con lo que se aprende. 7ovelas
epistolares como ':amela'. "l monopolio literario lo acapara la novela, el teatro se queda
como un espectculo frívolo sin valor moral ni literario ciertamente. "sto es muy
importante, hasta qu& punto el teatro ha de ser literario o no. )gual no lo tiene que ser y la
novela no le afecta. Los estudios en teatro no se valoran tanto como los literarios. "sto
sería ms '';rama studies'', estudiamos nosotros los textos, no c-mo se representa sino
qu& se representa.
La situaci-n en el siglo '())) es precaria porque el monopolio literario se lo ha llevado la
novela, el teatro pierde relevancia con la palabra escrita. 9heridan era uno de los ms
importantes de este tiempo. 9u obra es de alguna manera un acto de protesta contra el
tipo de teatro que se hacía y los problemas de su siglo. "n 'The Critic' se trata de una
obra de teatro que va de una obra de teatro, sobre la sociedad inglesa del '())),
representa y parodia a los críticos de teatro y a los dramaturgos. 9e plasma como se
discute qu& es si una comedia o una tragedia, se quejan de que el teatro no es ya una
escuela de moralidad cuando sus propias personalidades tampoco lo son. <ente
realmente poco preparada pero que representan esa opini-n de que el teatro es
sospechoso realmente. *tra de las ra.ones del declive es porque se est desligando de
lo literario. Tenemos la imagen de un teatro tremendamente entregado al teatro como
espectculo con escenarios y cambio de escenas complejas /los carpinteros no quieren,
no pueden hacer esto tan rpido0. :uff por un lado no controla el texto porque est en
manos de los actores y por otro lado que lo que a el se le pueda ocurrir pueda ser
impracticable. =n autor fuera de control, no lo tiene, la crisis fundamental literaria en esto,
es un autor sin A=T*2idad. "l texto es lo que le da autoridad a un texto, sin esto no
habría referente para definir si es bueno o malo, no sabríamos lo que quería decir, es
necesario un texto al que poder referirnos, como hacemos en esta clase. Lo que est
clase es que la relaci-n escena1 texto es asim&trica. ;ivorciado de la significaci-n, esta
p&rdida de valores est expresada tambi&n en 'The +ritic' porque promueven el plagio y
las malas traducciones, sin ninguna intenci-n de mantener el texto original, sin ninguna
integridad /aquí textos del franc&s0. >ientras que el autor no est& protegido, est a
merced de la escenificaci-n, la proteci-n al autor tard- mucho en llegar. "n ""== el
copyright lleg- en el 4?@6 mediados del ')'. A parte del dinero, afectaba a que su
material estaba desprotegido. "n el tratro del ')' primera mitad, son los actores los que
deciden qu& obras y c-mo las representan , tienen sus propias compa!ías de teatro. =n
teatro de espectculo, dominado por actores y en el que aspecto textual es secundario.
"n el siglo '' ha habido movimientos como el expresionismo que intenta recuperar lo
importante que es la representaci-n. "n el teatro norteamericano lo que est claro es que
empie.a con una asimetría escena1texto, y hay que corregir esto para que empiece a
funcionar.
"s importante que entendamos en que los orígenes son muy problemticos así como
interesantes.
''*ur modern native drama did not gro, of literature, as it did in "ngland and Arance, it
gre, out of the theatre''. "l drama es la relaci-n entre el teatro y el texto, es una lucha
política de alguna manera esta lucha. "n am&rica de alguna forma es l-gico que si va a
haber drama que se origine en el drama y no en la literatura porque no tienen. *tra ra.-n
es que el teatro sin texto desde un punto de vista político es ms republicano. "s ms
libre. =n teatro sin texto es un teatro sin autoridad, de todos. "s un acto de liberaci-n
individual esto de que en 'The +ritic' los actores corten el texto.
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M.27/09/2011
The author loses control of theatre because he doesnBt have text, the actors and people
,ho ,orC there control it because actors cut lines. De ,ants money so to have audience
so he needs to play things that people ,ill liCe. 7ormally you ,ould be able to ,atch t,o
plays, liCe one tragedy of 9haCespeare, Eing Lear, ,hen +ordelia dies, in this theatre the
audience liCe happy audience so she reminds alive. >ost of this plays ,ere in the line of
comedy. At the ')' century the performance aspects are very important. Fe are talCing
about the relation of text and forms and ho, they manage it. ;ramas , melodramas
/telenovelas0 is also successful in the theatre of this century too but there are no sad
things. >elodrama came from the greeC ,ord of GB>elosBB and it means song. They put
music in scenes to emphasi.e the emotional tone. )f you ,ant to put theatre outside you
may have to maCe a sho,, a musical. This melodramatic tradition in the sense of music
continues in "ngland.
G.Bernard Shaw, ‘Aain!t the "e##$Made %#a&''H Fell1made1I melodrama. This happy1
ending formula. 9ha, is up for people, he is a socialist, but ,hy he ,ants theatre to be
more formal, ho, he justifies not giving them ,hat they ,ant. GBThey :edandry of :arisBBH
the Arench seems to be more classic and more traditional. The ,rote in verse and they
carry on ,riting in Arench. 9haCespeare ,rote in verse and everybody ,ent to the theatre.
7ot only theatre of '())) century ,as in crisis also ,as poetry. Jecause the poetry should
be the language of everybody ,of every people. 9har critics education. GDo, to Frite a
:opular :layBH problems that get resolve. )f you taCe a train to go to the theatre, ,atch a
play, smile at the end and then taCe another train that taCes you home, your life is being
mechanical.
9tephen +rane, >aggie, A <irl of the 9treets /4K?L0 Do, does the audience response to
the playM
>orality ,hen bad behaved men ,ere up for the hero and against the villain. >oral
message that does nothing to people. +rane
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L. 10/10/2011
9haCesperian drama. The novel ,as leading the ,ay.
;icCensH
 2ealistic in the ,ay of social concern.
 2eligion meaning.
 >elodramatic.
)tBs not a breaC, is a continuous moving from old drama to his GBNou can close your eyes
and really feel you are in )relandBB.
GBArt for truthBs saCe in the dramaBBO he is conscious of being revolutionary but he is not a
scientist. Fhy notM Art vs. 9cienceM.
(a)e! *erne+ Art must be more human. There is a certain romanticism, is an emotional
subjective approach. )t doesnBt have to be objective to be true. Fhy ,ill an American be
more open to the romanticism than an "uropeanM The American theatre ,as born in
melodrama.
2epresenting humanity the ,ay to get the truth.
Art ,-r art'! !a.e /)tBs subjective and emotional0 /!. Art ,-r tr0th'! !a.e.
Jeing representative or demonstrativeP
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M. 11/10/11
Mararet 1#e)inO exchange bet,een :hilip and some of his ,orCers.
James Herne's Margaret Fleming is surprisingly bold and realistic in regard to the time period in
which it was written. The subject of infidelity is dealt with candidly, and other aspects, such as the
breast-feeding of an infant, are depicted in a true-to-life form. The content, then, seems quite
modern for the play's 1890 date. Yet, Herne is the successor of a playwright like Henrik Ibsen rather
than Bronson Howard or, even, Augustin Daly. As Watt and Richardson note, Margaret Fleming is
"unequaled in realism by any other known American drama of its century"
2eadingH A ;oll DouseP R Denry Sames. >argaret Aleming.
/T0 2eferences to the rain. Do, can ,e predict ,hat is going to happen nextM Fho control
thisM )s liCe it is uncontrolled but everything is going to be *E >elodramatic.
Fho control characterBs destinyM The ;octor is very important. LarCing is saying he
understand animalBs appetite but in the case of human beings you have to control yourself.
>orality Fhat happen if ,e consider ourselves as animalsM. This Cind of theatre shouldnBt
have questions about morality. >aybe the thing about the baby GBthat should have never
bornBB is because a sexual appetite. )t doesnBt seem liCe :hilip is dealing ,ith his
responsabilities.
GB) Cno, all of this about appetites that have to be controlledBB.
:hilipH GB)Bm just the next guyBB.
;octorH GBNou should have done it because of your morality,etcP
+omics characters /as Soe and >aria0 but they still are in a serious picture. /9erious
businessO real possibility that :hilip can become liCe Soe or >aria can influence positively
her friend0.
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17/10/2011
)n a ,ay the second ending is a happy one, but of course there is a melodrama O itBs happy
,ith complications. 9he loves him as equals /she thought he ,as a hero0. A very
interesting ending is the original one, ,hich has no concessions for melodrama or happy
endings, more realistic.
The point of ,hich this booC has t,o endings.
2epresentation of reality ,ith no solutions. Jegins to suggest that realism to melodrama, it
means it is a melodrama ,ith some realism.
There is something patriarchal about reality here, reality but for the men. )t doesnBt mean
come bacC realism to melodrama, it means it is a melodrama ,ith some realism.
DeBs saying theatre is in decline, maybe it is a critic point of vie, about it, but he also talCs
about ,omen / that ,omen go to the theatre to learn and be educated and to entertain
themselves0.
)tBs a play about a ,omen ,ho marries an aristocratic man, and because a social escandle
she opts to Cill herself. Fomen are just naturally inferior, more erotic or more histherical
than men at his pointM At least is not heir essenceM GBSuly is a ,oman characterPBBO
"vidence again that the author see ,omen as synonymous of corruption, Ghalf ,omenB.
>aybe he is not bleming ,omen just ,omen ,ho behave liCe that, and that they became
half because they are less ,omen /female independation0. 9he is acting in an unfeminine
,ay, falling victim for genre of that time. Aactors she canBt control. 9he is not being able to
dual ,ith that time she is living in and the social conventions , she doesnBt accept it.
)f you donBt act as a ,oman, your increase the possibilities of not survival and disappear,
the ,ay to survive is T* 9TAN.
)ntuition is for ,omen and reason for men. They should to remain as they are and
exercices their virtues, does he feel for ,omenM
>aybe the main character of this play dies because she became a half ,oman in the
correct sense of the ,ord. Fe need to looC behind appearance.
Fhy ,ill he thinC that monologues are not a good thingM De is actually saying it is realistic.
:eople in real life talCs ,ith themselves, a lot indeed. De is reinventing the monologue in a
realistic ,ay. )ncludes things ,hich conventional socialism ,ill not accept. De is saying
that reality includes more. <ives examples of people doing it as normal. )t stop being
reality as long as it is madness. De is introducing realistic elements into melodrama, or
using melodrama to modelate the monologue. De says that in some times people acts
mad.
GBAnd to give the actor the chance to createPBB De even believes the non1verbal part is
important. )n >rs. Sulie you have dancing melo1music. The ne, realistic dramaO he is using
melodrama but not promoting it again, the character of Sulie still have naturalistic forces,
invisible.
Soin the dots is an act of intuition not an act of realism. >elodramatic interest on the stage
is quite different. De is not interested in luxurious sets, the audience is attracted for the
stage. To Cept the interest of the audience. :ersuading the opposite. Less is more. De ,ill
simply to suggest. Fe are never asCed to do anything, they are not demanded to join the
dots. L; De tries to give as a different ,ay to entertain us, something ne, of the GBnormalBB
cinema. L; is an act of our imagination, but ,e are just used of it. GBThere is nothing more
difficult that to maCe a bedroom looC liCe a bedroomBB.
The idea of objects are not ,hat they seems. )dea of penetrating into things is also an idea
of penetrating into people. De also complains about lights in theatre. Aacial expressions
become crucial. >aCe up x unrealistic. Aaces are after all the mirrors of the soul.
De is promoting a sociological drama. A ne, theatre that is more intimate. Aemenine
complexity. 7e, drama in small theatres.
1I)n a ,ay the second ending is a happy one, but of course there is melodrama, itBs happy
,ith complications. 9he loves him as equals /she thought he ,as a hero0. A very
interesting ending, the original one has no concessions for melodrama or happy endings,
more realistic.
The poiny of ,hich this booC has t,o endings. L""2 MRS FLEMING
2epresentation of reality ,ith no solutions. Jegins to suggest that realism, there is
something patriarchal about reality here, reality but for the men. )t doesnBt mean he has
come bacC realism to melodrama, it means it is a melodrama ,ith some realism.
DeBs saying theatre is in decline, maybe it is a critic point of vie, about it, but he also talCs
about ,omen /that ,omen go to the theatre to learn and be educated and to entertain
themselves0.
)tBs a play about a ,omen ,ho marries an aristocratic man, and because a social scandal
she opts to Cill herself. Fomen are just naturally inferior, more erotic and more hysterical
that men at this point. M. At least is not their essenceM "vidence again that the author see
,omen as synonymous of corruption, GBDALA F*>"7BB. >aybe he is not blaming ,omen
just ,omen ,ho behave liCe that, and that they became half ,omen because they are less
,omen, A">AL" )7;":"7;AT)*7. 9he is acting in an un1flaming ,ay, falling victim for
genre of that time. Aactors she canBt control, she is not being able to dual ,ith that time
she is living in and the social conventions and she doesnBt accept it.
The literal theatre drama movement M/12/10/2011
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M.23/10/2011
:rison house of art for ,omen. Aeminist expressionistic mood /Aotografías en clase0 >ore
dramatic pictures.
L45GS 6A7'S (4895:7 ;5T4 5;G*T_ :0ene 4'5ei## De goes further in
order to maCe his ,orCs truly realistic. Dis father spent almost his life playing the same role
/GBThe +ond of >ontecristoBB0. Long ;ay's Sourney sho,s ho, all of these characters
deceive themselves about the extent of their 'sicCness'. Also, they refuse to help each
other. All of the characters seem to act liCe drug addicts, repeating themselves and
contradicting themselves. The audience's sympathy shifts throughout the play, alternately
condemning and forgiving each character. Dis insistence on the seriousness of theatre
and the tragic condition of human life ,as revolutionary.
The "mperor Sones /4KU$0.
The Dairy Ape /4KUU0. The sound suggest a meaning. "xpressionistic but some Cind of
realistic. 9lavery H A form of redemption. >an reduced as monCeys or neanderthal
/badHslave VgoodH natural0 by being oppressed by capitalism. They are all masCs
metaphorically speaCing.
All <odBs +hilh. <ot ,ings /4KU#0.
The <reat <od Jro,n /4KU60
La.arus laughed /4KU50
>asCs. Acting not only ,ith facial expressions but ,ith body language involved. Fith
expressions you have a better idea of the character complexity. Jy masCing the actor ,e
also solve the problem of M. They are actors in action rather than actors in character. 7o,
,e go to see a movie of stars rather that characters /a development of it0. +ro,n signs.
Arom catharsis, experimental therapy.
9heridan critici.ed 4K
th
century drama because the actors controlled the play and the
audience participation but because it ,as mechanical patriarchal and had tricCs to
emphasi.e entertainment. )f *B7eill put masCs you pay more attention to language, but it
became more vulnerable too, undetermined. Language is audiovisual.
*B7eill, ‘’The Hairy Ape’’,4KUU
Typical naturalistic stage. )bsen. Jut maybe is not as simple as that. The directions are
very long, this tell us the stage direction is controlling everything. 7arrator that normally is
the author. *B7eill sends us messages reading ‘'L-n 6a&'! (-0rne& int-
5iht'', maybe it ,as a play just to be read, he said it never had to be played.
A reaction against melodrama and focus in spectacle and performance, it seems to be a
return of the strong author. This play seems to be a return to sexuality. The narratorBs text
direction taCes his time to describe us the booCs on the stage, very important. JooCs
became a very important part of the drama. 2adical meaning, recent history. They are not
just ornaments, they have the looC of having been read and re1read. The other booCsH
romantic melodramas, history, someone ,ho liCes the canon. "dmund is the youngest
soon, he represents *B7eill. De reproaches his father he doesnBt spend money in good
doctors, etcP
GBNou ,ill find anything you ,ant to say in 9haCespeareBB 1I 9haCespeare ,ill speaC for
you. Jut they ,ant to hear their father. De is liCe that, he had a complicated life
L. 07/11/2011
"qually, everyone in the family is blaming at the father because he doesnBt spend money in
important things. De acts liCe an actor in his life. )dea of control, god that control our lifes
or a reference that can tell us ,hat is true and ,hat is false, the control of an author. That
amount of control ,ould have the opposite effect.
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L. 14/11/2011
Exploring Our Town
"pic theatre suggested a ,ay of getting people into action, giving them the vote
metaphorically speaCing. Temporal conventionality. Fhat else maCes this play epic
theatreMH
the stage manager /encourage the audience he also speaCs directly to the audience,
sometimes he became one of the actors0 of the theatre is a very important feature of this
play. De feats perfectly in the idea of epic theatre, but in some point he is also a narrator,
complicated ,ith the actors ,ith the ,hole theatre operators /melodrama is more about
the theatre about the narrator, freedom0. 9ometimes is a narrator, ,hich some time is
problematic, in a play liCe this, because LiCe Jenjamin is someone ,ho interrupts. This
universal human experience he finds in little things in normal life. This linC crosses special
temporal lines, that is the po,er of art, so actually Filder is curiously identifying this
universal human experience ,ith this. ThatBs ,hy she is interested in this things.
GB:reface for *ur To,nBB WArcheologist. )s the ability to see far the very small.
Arom the GB:refaceBB to Three :lays /4K@501 GB)t is an attempt to find a value above all price
for the smallest events in our daily lifeBB.
:age U4, he bring a scientific account, is gave by professor x. 9ho,ing us, maCing us
a,are that ,e are ,atching just a play. )s good that something unite us, but is a very
pessimist and naturalistic point of vie, of human life that ,hat unite us, is something very
universal, The structure of this play actually follo, this naturalistic ,ay. )n act U, page #5H
the third character about is death, curiously again ,e find this conflicting forces a,ard in
this play. The predestination of realism that is going to dieO this play is in three acts, the
most conventional formation that ,e have. The last act is death. :esimistic duem , there
are t,o readings in this play. De has been attacCed for not including ,hat is really
happening. The only reality he paints is the reality of death, of course, he does not give
any practical solutions.
Language is very important in this play, ,hat is peculiar in the ,ay he speaCs is the
accent, local color involve in the use of language, the strategies of specificity in this play.
*ut to,n could be any to,n, but the peculiarities of the localities are universal.
=niversali.ing the particular. The big question is /end of U# page0 ,here are the politics in
this to,n, Filder need to universali.e this to,n, and he ,ants to maCe sure politics doesnBt
get in the ,ay of his attempt. De is trying to be artistic. De doesnBt ,ant to talC about
human nature, just in artistic point of vie,, because art is his ans,er. )tBs a play that is
liCing spirituality.
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L. 21/11/2011
Arth0r Mi##er. American playwright . )n the mid 4K@$s. >iller ,rote this brief biographical
resumeH UK +risis, his family lost all their money.
)f you are not going to ,rite propaganda, ,hat are you going to ,rite aboutM Sa#e!)an is
clearly connected to literally editions. Tragedy in the aristhotinian sense. De is appealing to
the literally rules.
The <-etic! -, Ari!t-t#e+ :%ic+ Tragedy is epic ,ith some extras form the stage. De uses
the epic to attacC. ;oes he redefines tragedy or does simply update tragedy or adaptM.
TragedyH A representation of an action. >ode of dramatic enactment not narrative1 and
through the arousal of pity and fear effective the catharsis of such emotions.
The most important of these elements is the structure of events, because tragedy is a
representation not of people as such but of actions and life,
Fe are not interesting in seeing people sitting on the stage looCing each other telling
stories, ,e are interesting in seeing happen, about tragedy. 9peech is simply about ,ords,
rounded, ,e can have access through the thoughts. Fithout the action characteri.ation is
pointless.
The problems of Filly are very real. The solution of this problem, F. seems to find a
solution from the play. *ffering a little bit of immortality, seems very relevant, also is the
obsession of F., itBs not just to maCe money. Legacy, leaving money to his son, the
mortality that comes in being famous, the idea of being remembered, 9alesman ,as very
famous. )mmortality also in some pedestrian ,ay.
‘’I set out not to write tragedy in this play ut to show the truth!’’" Again he is claiming
saying he done all himself, ho,ever he is happy to believe that the result is the tragedy, is
a reinvented tragedy or is an updatingM. )s he defending his play as a tragedy or just
saying it is a tragedy by mistaCe, he canBt be a tragic hero, because he is just a salesman
/noble people in 9haCespeare0. De is defending his right to do ,hatever he ,ants in his
tragedy. 9an. is about social standing /prime minister, postman0, !tat0re is about the
individual value, ,hat give you thisM And ,hy structure is linCed to ranC. Duman ,eaCness,
one day you are up other day you are do,n. :ersonal tragedies. AreaC teacher GB2"A;
#$LAB9 )9 N*=2 A2)9T*T"7)A7 2)<DTBB. TX 7*, T= +*>:AY"2*, "9 3=" N*
"2A J)Z+* ;" :"3="Y*, L* <=)Y* 9)7 ;A2>" +="7TA.
;eath is important, idea of immortality, of finding it and permanent values. Eilling yourself
is the 4
st
cause of unnatural mortality, the U
nd
is traffic accidents. That is not a valiant pose.
Fhen you are closer to death you give more values to life. De sacrifice himself for his son
for love, but he does it for money do, ,hich proves his blindness /that caused the tragedy
in the first play0 and he see the ,orld as marCeting.
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M. 21/11/2011
)n the flashbacC ,e learn about Filly that things ,ere better. De made KU hundred. De
,as exaggerating bacC in K?, he has been doing it all along. De has the necessity to be
the best and a successful man, maCing U hundred ,as good but it doesnBt seem to be
enough. )t is not enough in the end because is nothing in the end, he is trapped into a life
style, because he has this commodities that maCe his life comfortable, is not a necessity
culture but a commodities culture. Filly is also complaining about this objects, through the
dream ,e reali.e it ,asnBt that good.
De is forcing to confront his o,n reality. These dreams have phsycoanalitic effects,
confrontation, actually the opposite. ;reams tell us ho, ,e really feel.
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Fhy is she an intruder, she also represents culture in a ,ay, she is a teacher of literature.
Light is complicit ,ith the activity of literature, the gothic literature is about life teach us
about the truth of things, is she actually escaping from this true things.
9he is ne, in a place, she is being a snob, she acts liCe that because maybe at the
beginning she has some fear, you discover she is al,ays telling lies, not the Cind of person
you can trust on. 9tellaBs apartment is liCe :oeBs novel. 9he is escaping, but she is also
protecting herself.
*ne of the characters doesnBt liCe her at all, 9tanley, he represents the opposite about
,hat 9tella is. De is a ,orCing class immigrant. 9tella refuses to him, the ,ay she
describes him is interesting. 9tella is fighting against the clocC because she ,ants to be
al,ays young and pretty. De is Cind of an animal, literally.
Fhy is Jlanch against her, maybe Jlanch feels something for 9tanley. )t is animal instinct.
Jut love is permanent.
;o you have sex ,ith love al,aysM ;o you thinC it is possible to have sex ,ithout loveM ;o
you al,ays love the man you have sex ,ithM The Jlunch is not only snob but in another
level he is fighting against humani.ation. De is something liCe a monCey in the ,ay of
,alC. They ,ant to reforce this masculinity, smoCing, drinCing, playingP the sex is the tiC
toC of the plot. (ery American, everyone is the same.
9he is lying because is a ,ay to invite him to participate in something, she is not just lying
she is giving men ,hat they ,ant. 9he has no money, no husband, no housePshe is
really exp. To nature. *bviously Jlanch situation ,as marCed for some reasons. 9he found
out her husband ,as gay, she ,as disappointed and he Cilled himself.
T:oner en google force do,nload, te baja el video en la calidad ms baja. Tube catcher.
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L.12/12/2011
B#anch is taCing de roll of the stage manager, articulating the decoration. 9heBs been lying
to her sister and to everybody /pretending to be other person /rather that nearly a
prostitute0. Fhy does she lieM >aybe is a self1defense, she is liCe ,eaC and she needs to
survive. >aybe Jlanch is ,eaCer than 9tella. This case ,here you exercise or put on the
test to survive, ,omen are not alloud as part of it, they have a roll, to proqueate, donBt
forget she is pregnant. 9he doesnBt ,ant this naturalistic ,orld she ,ants art in her life.
Jlunch is not ready to do that she ,ants another else. >aybe she is using and alternative
,ay to survive, ,ithout being part of this ,ay of life in America. 9he represents the south
but also the civili.ed "uropean society, liCe her friend Arench.Jut 9tandley is strong and
has the ability to adapt himself to this industrial jungle. 9he is pretending she is moral
,hen she is having sex ,ith strangers, but men seem to liCe her. 9he responds to this
demand. This temporary magic is a ,ay to escape. *r maybe the tragedy is really
temporary and that is for nothing.
>icth confront her, he said she lied to him, in the age she has and about her past.
2ealism ,as good, the criticH theatre only reflect reality. 9he says that her po,ers are
failing, she says she can do it anymore. Jecause she canBt stop lying, you canBt do
anything about the pass of time. 9he is going to lose. 9he is increasingly pushed to
escaping.
There is a masCing spectator, he turns the light on. The men are no longer ,illing
spectators for her sho,, mainly because he turns the light on you see ho, she really is.
Tenessi Filliams. A 9treet +ar 7amed ;esire is a song in defense of industry. That is their
life cicle, confront, maCe peace and then have sex, she get pregnant and then they again
have sexPand so on, animal attraction. +an you love your partner if sheVhe is gayM 9he
did love her husband but at the end of the day sex is part of love, or that ,as ,hat she
,as expecting. )s a ,orld ,here love has some part of sex. )s not about sex, she is not
really attracted to >itch but she is neither Cind of attracted to 9tanley. 9he says she ,ants
a boy, just a boy, Fhy boysM To stop time maybe. This Cids are sexless. This escaping into
art an expense of fertility, 9tella is pregnant, Jlanch does not, because she is attracted to
Cids.
AaCe pregnancies. :eople talC about creativity, is nor proqueation exactly but is something
similar. Fe ,ill see something similar in (irginia Foolf. This is the Cey, if art is going to
prove his value in life, art has to create something that lasts. +reate art against to have
babies through sex. Nou donBt ,ant a ,eaC baby, you ,ant a strong one that ,ill lasts, liCe
9tanley.
9he manipulate scenes, she is FilliamBs messenger. The identification is there. Jlanch is a
character created but an artist, he sends Jlanch as his creation. 9he is destroyed and
pushed to a corner. *nce again is possible to put 9+7> into a +hristian metaphor H Sesus
is Cilled but in a ,ay is going to stay, can Jlanch be some Cind of victoryM Nou have no
more believing your sho,. 9tandley is an animal and then maybe he deserves to be in a
prison. )s almost liCe a roll. Against ,ith a +hristian point of vie,PJlanch is a fail Sesus. At
the ending of the play she is different at the ending of the play and at the ending of the film
,here it seems quite clear 9tanley is do,nstairs ,ith the baby. 9exual creation is the baby.
The more melodramatic message is really that 9tanley is punished because he race
Jlanch. And for a Dolly,ood audience is very important. The movie tries to maCe the play
more in JlancheBs favour, or just against the others. The >aniqueans ,ere a +hristian
sect, they debated the divinity of +hrist. <ood is good and bad is bad. The play is different.
)t is depicted an industriali.ed ,orld. 9he is not going to come bacC do,n again.
+onflict, resolution and sex. >aybe 9tella is going to be do,nstairs in 4$ minutes.
9tanleyBs victory is complete, a completed successful victory, at the end of the play ,hen
the lights come up, the darCness desapair. That moment may have an interesting effect in
the ,ay ,e consider 9tanley, even he is a creation of T. F.
L)A" DA9 T* <* *7.
2elation bet,een art and reality in FhoBs afraid of (irgina Foolf.
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L. $KV$4VU$4U
68TC*MA5 *f course is not just a question of civil rights, this play first produced
in 4KU#, the question of segregation, ,e are concerned is a question of identity, of ho, ,e
as human beings are able to construct our identities. The origins is slavery, taCen a,ay
from Africa mostly, you, one day, stop Cno,ing ,ho you are. Jefore even talCing about civil
rights, ,e have to talC about identities. A reference to maCe a decision for anything. Do,
do ,e get identity. Abolition of slavery in the U
nd
hand of ')' century. JlacC cult of
emancipation.
G9:AT M;G9AT;45H from country sides to cities, people got their neighborhoods. )n
terms of literature and art /of course them have a lot to do ,ith identity0 there is not culture
heritage, because they left them behind, the came almost naCed ,ithout nothing. They had
to start from cero.
)n the 4KU$Bs a movement called *A9L:M 9:5A;SSA5C:H ,as about artistic
experimentation, they shared a lot of experimental techniques, a reaction against modern
techniquesQ modernism, being in touch ,ith the realities of the modern ,orlds. 7e,
techniques because old ones didnBt represent modern ,orld. They ,ere interested in the
modern man, not the afroamerican man only. )t is called the 5:" 5:G94 M4/:M:5T.
+reated to give voice to Afroamerican peopleO they reach the cities, educated themselves,
etcP is not as simple as that, ,hen you have nothing to start ,ith. Fhat do you useM )s
not part of your heritage. The question is open, ,hich materials you can use, you have
nothing to ,orC ,ith, and if you have something, is infected by the other cultures.
2ead essay of Lan!t-n *0he!H artist doesnBt matter ,hat color you are. The little negro
poet is liCe denying his identity. )f you ,rite you have to choose a language, so you have to
accept some distinctions liCe the language you are going to use. Author says he has to
confront and is afraid of being himself. The idea of if something is universal is good is not
necessary true. Fe, ,hite culture, believe ,e have the ans,ers because they are
universal. Do, do ,e create an identityM Aull of traps you have to be careful not to fall into.
:eople mascarating someone they are not. ;ressed up liCe the people ,hom ,ere
servants their antecessors. Sa.. is ,ild doesnBt correspond to any rules or structures. )t
connects us directly ,ith the human experience. Dughes says use ja.. to express
yourself. :oster advertisingH Jig minstrel jubilee, Jilly vanH the monologue comedian. "ven
the blacC man has to paint himself liCe more blacC. +an ja.. truly safe Afroamerican
identityM
The 6$Bs in many ,ays mirror the U$Bs, by the +ivil 2ights >ovement. The main stream is
very clever at fitting all those cultures. Sohns start in the @$Bs as a young poet, is liCe the
blacC young poet Dughes talCs about settled in the U$Bs. De is got a ,hite girlfriend in the
6$Bs, but later he left her and left the J1poets.
;utchman reflects Sones struggle, his real a,areness of the important of being an artist
doesnBt matter about the color. 4K6@ ,as a very important year. Jy this time, 6# ,as very
famous and had devoted friend. >ain charactersH
C#a&, Lula and then the riders of coach and a young negro and a conductor, is about the
murder of a young blacC man. )s not about ,hat you say but ho, you say it because it ,ill
compromise you in or out of the conflict. +layH arcilla. <od modelate man ,ith clay.
"ducated reading someho,. ;ucthman H el h-#and=! errante... A ,oman eating an
appleM Lula is doing it in the first scene, biblical references. Arist lines describing H GBThe
sub,ay heaped in modern mythBB. (ery literally, very hot. The sub,ay is underground is
liCe the =7;"2F*2L;, episodes that taCe place in the under,orld, is modern hell.
Apocalyptic scenario in the sub,ay liCe a hell, industrial forces control sub,ay. Fe donBt
even Cno, to ,hat place they are going. Lula seems to life in the train. 9he Cills him and
another blacC man get in to the train and she seems to do the same thing. 9he is so
trapped in some ,ay in this sub,ay system. There is a myth that is recycled and reused.
Leo Sones is going to protest against the exploitation of AfroamericansM )f so he is doing it
in the ,rong ,ay because he cannot help ,riting it.
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Do, the feminine presents herself in this play, because they can due ,ith the changing of
meaning, the mother is identifying
Fomen had been under the control of patriarchy telling her ,hat to do ,hat to thinC,
everything dictated by man. 9he has got this ability, she changes her costumes, as she
call them. >en assert their masculinity by holding onP )n this play a line mine, masculine
languagePinsecurity about language. SaCe. +hange her appearance, manipulate herself.
Language is symbolic, the capacity for language to find security, you say a ,ord and that
,ord became real.
The ,ay Jeth maCes sounds. At the beginning she can only maCe noises, in a sense you
can interpretate that, she literally, as a result of injuries, semioticBB stage, before the
symbolic and this feminine symbolic chaos. Jeth represents femininity because a voice is
close to language.
>en retrat outside the house, hunting, and jaCes father before he died he ,ent to, drunC,
the frontier, maybe looCing for himself. Trying to find a spiritual place to find himself.
Fithout GBself GBthere is no language. The ,omen seems to be oC ,ith these men, but the
children suffer. All the children in all this play are not feeling good. :A<" 65. 9ally tells her
mother about their last visit to her father. The ?0e!ti-n -, where &-0 @e#-n i! cr0cia#
t- ,ind wh- &-0 are. This is important in American culture.
)n the absence of language to give meaningP Tirony of the image in postmodernity. 9cene
L page ?#H Jeth put a shirt on and her identity changes. 9he is in bed clothesP these are
pictures of people riding horses in a representation of people from the ,est that didnBt
really existed. A lay of a lay of a lay. :hotograp in inself means nothing at all at least you
put ,hat it means, is anti1temporal in a sense, not timeless, anti1time. 7o time, unreal
things. :aranormal. Nou can taCe prhotograps of things you donBt see. +ulture devoted to
image. )dentity. Fhere are Lorraine and 9ally goingMM 1GB) found itBBP They are going to
)reland. The lost children. <#ace iAe! identit&.
Ainding an ans,er by this place. T,o families ,ith no father figures, lacC of a father figure.
They are refresing to childhood coming bacC home. )s full of toys and small. SaCe and Jeth
are not proper adults yet, the relation ,ith them has been impossible. :eople ,ithout
identities. Fhen people ,ith unsure identity has a relationship that is difficult. 9he is
unhealthy, his mother. De Cilled his father accidentally. SaCe needs catharsis, the
repression of the memory, ,hat he has done, ,ho he is in a sense. De is not able to gro,
and find out ,ho he is. Jodies ,ithout ,heels, ,ithout minds.
;oes this play manages to find a solution to resolve peopleBs problemsM ;oes do improve
the situationM Fhat do ,e do ,ith all the photographsM Jurnt them. The last seen the play,
the last moment, ,e have this men looCing into and seen this glo, burning this
photograph, a re1birth. The lies of the past. Aristotel vie, of the past. :eople canBt love
each other any more. (irginia Foolf 6$Bs,more metaphoric than real... SaCes do that, in
order to touch her he hit her. 9pace bet,een us from violence. There is something moving
about American violence. )tBs very problematic ,hat he is saying. )s moving because is an
act of love in a sense, or an attend to get loved, for people ,ho has lost everything else,
that not longer has a meaningful identity to communicate to anybody else, you canBt tell
anybody you love them because you donBt have the language. Nou hit them. LiCe the
babies and the Citty animals.
De treat it liCe a horse, that violence seems to ,orC, because after that fisical humilliationl,
he tells Jeth he loves her. 9ome Cind of redemption at the end of this play.
They are beginning to reali.e things by themselves.
The theatre appeals M as a play ,here human action isM
)tBs celebrates meaning. This play at the end, Jeth and >eila are so happy that they dance
K#page, they even Ciss. )n a sense is a happy ending, a melodramatic one, because SaCes
says ) love you and then he left, he has understood something. )n this play :LA+" is very
important, :LA+" is very important, also in the area you identify ,ith, liCe them, they ,ant
to go to )reland because they ,ill find some identity.
2ichfield.
Nou are the same dimention even ,hen you are separate. >elodrama is not Aristotelian,
GBmeloBB GBdramaBB.
)n bottom of page @L,and #P Lorraine and 9ally are talCing to SaCe and he is feeling
confused.
Day tiempos paralelos, SaCe ve lo que est pasando en el otro lado, al otro escenario y
puede ver a Jeth y AranCy.
The action acts out these bacCground of geopraphical spaces. The theatre can do that.
Nou can folded out space. Fhere ,e belong to ge ther. Nou donBt have to go to )reland, or
to the frontier to the ,est, just to this place, not easy but it is possible. Fhen he leaves he
is not necessary going a,ay but he finally understood, he gre, up he has matured, that
often you donBt have to posses the thing you love.

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