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Geometric Measures

Naijun Zhou

Department of Geography

University of Maryland

September 19, 2007

Lecture outline

2. Distance between a pair of points

3. Central tendency of point distributions

4. Spatial dispersion of point distributions

5. Direction of point distributions

6. Raster data

• For a single geospatial object: area, shape

• For a set of geospatial objects: center, distance,

direction, landscape indicators.

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -1-

1.2 First-order spatial variation

• Observations vary from place to place due to changes in

the underlying properties of the local “environment”.

• Example: more crimes may occur in places of higher

population density.

• The existence of an observation is due to interactions

with other observations.

• Example: crimes tend to be clustered.

The Euclidean distance between two points at locations

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in Euclidean Cartesian space:

Y

(x2, y2)

(x1, y1)

X

de = ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2

The Manhattan distance is the shortest walking/driving

distance in a city laid out in square blocks, like Manhattan.

(x2, y2)

(x1, y1)

dm =| x1 − x2 | + | y1 − y2 |

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -2-

2.3 Distance along a path

(x2, y2)

Y

(xb, yb)

(xa, ya)

(x1, y1)

X

n

dp = ∑ d i di is the Euclidean distance of segment i.

i =1

in the study area.

all points in the study area.

• The mean center of the points is ( X , Y )

N N

xi y

X =∑ ,Y = ∑ i

i =1 N i =1 N

• Mean center can be used to

9indicate the average location

9track changes of a point distribution

9compare point distributions

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -3-

3.2 Median center (center of minimum distance)

shortest total distance to all points.

• The median center is usually a new location instead of

one of the N points.

• X e , Ye minimizes

∑

N

i =1

( xi − X e ) 2 + ( yi − Ye ) 2

• Median center can be used to

9find the most accessible location: e.g., find a new

factory location that minimizes the sum of transport

costs (e.g., for raw materials or markets).

9track changes of a point distribution

9compare point distributions

distance to all other points is the shortest.

• (Xc, Yc) is one of the N points that has the minimum value of

N

∑ i =1

( xi − X C ) 2 + ( yi − YC ) 2

9find the most accessible location: find a location that

minimizes the sum of transport costs.

9track changes of a point distribution

9compare point distributions

N N

Xh = N ,Y = N

1 h 1

∑

i =1 xi

∑i =1 yi

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -4-

3.5 Using weights in computing centers

• A weight indicates how important a geospatial object is.

• The centers are biased toward locations with high

weights.

A 1 1 10

B 3 3 20

C 4 2 5

mean center is:

∑ ∑

N N

wi xi wi yi

Xw = i =1

Yw = i =1

∑ ∑

N N

i =1

wi i =1

wi

If the weight of a point (xi, yi) is wi, the weighted

median center is (Xwe, Ywe) that minimizes:

∑

N

i =1

wi ( xi − X we ) 2 + ( yi − Ywe ) 2

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -5-

4. Spatial dispersion of point distributions

around a center.

Standard deviation measures the spatial variations in x

and y coordinates.

N

( xi − X ) 2

Sx = ∑

i =1 N −1

N

( yi − Y ) 2

Sy = ∑

i =1 N −1

X , Y is the mean center of the points

• Standard distance (deviation) indicates the average

distance to the mean center.

∑ ( xi − X ) 2 + ∑i =1 ( yi − Y ) 2

N N

SD = i =1

N −2

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -6-

SD

2*SD 3*SD

Mean center

• Two SD covers more than 95% of the points.

• Three SD covers more than 99% of the points.

9 Spatial distributions may be

directional.

9 3 components describing a

standard deviational ellipse:

1) the angle of clockwise North

rotation (θ) from north

Y

2) the standard deviation along θ

x axis (Sx)

3) the standard deviation along Sy Sx

y axis (Sy) X

which is the center of the ellipse.

2) For each point, (xi ,yi), transform its coordinate by:

xi' = xi − X

yi' = yi − Y

After this transformation, all points center at the

ellipse center.

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -7-

N N N N N

∑x '2

− ∑ yi' + (∑ xi' − ∑ yi' ) 2 + 4(∑ xi yi ) 2

2 2 2 ' '

i

tan θ = i =1 i =1 i =1

N

i =1 i =1

2∑ xi' yi'

i =1

Y x (x,y) x

tan θ =

y y

θ

X

If θ is positive, clockwise rotate θ from north

If θ is negative, clockwise rotation (360+θ) from north

∑ ( x cosθ − y sin θ )

'

i

'

i

2

Sx = 2× i =1

N −2

∑ ( x sin θ − y cosθ )

'

i

'

i

2

Sy = 2× i =1

N −2

the shorter axis (deviation) is called minor axis (b),

the eccentricity e is:

a 2 − b2

e=

a

As e approaches 0, the ellipse becomes a circle.

As e approaches 1, the ellipse flattens to a line.

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -8-

• Exercise: calculate the standard deviational ellipse of

three locations (1,1), (3,3), (4,2)

3 3, 3

Y

2 4, 2

1 1, 1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

X

N =3

1+ 3 + 4 8

X= = = 2.67

3 3

1+ 3 + 2 6

Y= = =2

3 3

4

3 3, 3

2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1 1, 1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

y1' = y1 − Y = 1 − 2 = −1

y2' = y2 − Y = 3 − 2 = 1

y4' = y4 − Y = 2 − 2 = 0

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -9-

Step 3: calculate the angle θ

N N N N N

∑x '2

− ∑ yi' + (∑ xi' − ∑ yi' ) 2 + 4(∑ xi yi ) 2

2 2 2 ' '

i

tan θ = i =1 i =1 i =1

N

i =1 i =1

2∑ xi' yi'

i =1

N N

∑x −∑ y

i =1

'2

i

i =1

'2

i = [(−1.67) 2 + 0.332 + 1.332 ] − [(−1) 2 + 12 + 0 2 ] = 2.67

N

i =1

2.67 + 2.67 2 + 4 * 2 2

tan θ = = 1.87

2*2

θ=1.08 (radian), θ=1.08*180/π=61.9º

cosθ = 0.47, sinθ = 0.88

3 3, 3 Y

θ =61.9º

2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1 1, 1

X

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

N N

∑ ( x cos θ − y sin θ )

'

i

'

i

2

∑ ( x sin θ − y cos θ )

'

i

'

i

2

Sx = 2 × i =1

Sy = 2× i =1

N −2 N −2

Sx = 2×

3− 2

0.0091+ 0.5255+ 0.3908

= 2* =1.36

1

Sy = 2×

3− 2

0.9992+ 0.0323+1.3698

= 2* = 2.19

1

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -10-

4

Y

9

3 3, 3 2.1

θ =61.9º

2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1.3

6

1 1, 1

X

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

a=2.19, b=1.36, then,

a2 − b2 2.19 2 − 1.36 2

e= = = 0.78

a 2.19

6. Raster data

• Geospatial objects can be represented as raster or

vector data.

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -11-

• Raster as a data model:

9 Reality: a continuous field

9 Conceptual model: values at anywhere in the field

9 Logical model: an array of pixels covering the field

and each pixel has a value

9 Physical model:

A 2-dimensional array of pixels (row, column)

A file header describing the number of rows and

columns, size of each pixel, and coordinate of

corner of the array, etc.

distance to public schools.

Legend (meter)

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -12-

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