TABLE OF CONTENETS

NO. 1. 2. 3. Waste Sources of Waste Types of Waste • Industrial Waste • Hazardous Waste • Hospital Waste • Municipal Solid Waste • Radioactive Waste • Non-hazardous Waste Waste Management History of Waste Management The Waste Hierarchy Procedure of Waste Management Types of Waste Management • Urban Waste Management • Municipal Solid Waste Management • Radioactive Waste Management Segregation Waste Prevention Techniques Efforts towards Waste Management About WM Think Green CONTENTS PAGE NO 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 17 18 21

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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WASTE
What is Waste?
Waste refers here to materials that are not prime products (i.e. products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use for own purpose of production, transformation or consumption, and which he discards, or intends or is required to discard. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials during the processing of raw materials to intermediate and final products, during the consumption of final products, and during any other human activity.

Sources of waste
Below waste is categorized according to the sector generating it. Different sectors generate specific types of waste, and collection systems are adapted to sectors and their specific waste. Information on specific waste sectors: - Waste from the building and construction sector - Packaging waste - Waste from households - Waste from industry - Waste from institutions, trade and offices - Waste from power plants and wastewater treatment plants

Types of waste
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Waste can be divided into many different types. The most common methods of classification is by their physical, chemical and biological characteristics. One important classification is by their consistency. Solid wastes are waste materials that contain less than 70% water. This class includes such materials as household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfield wastes such as drill cuttings. Liquid wastes are usually wastewater's that contain less than 1% solids. Such wastes may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals. Sludge is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3% and 25% solids, while the rest of the material is water dissolved materials.

 Industrial waste

Industrial waste is waste type produced by industrial factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution. Toxic waste and chemical waste are two designations of industrial waste. It is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g. gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.

Hazardous Waste

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Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. It exhibits at least one of four characteristics— ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Hazardous waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle.  Hospital waste

Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologicals. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected.

 Municipal solid waste

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Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste, in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes

 Radioactive wastes
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Radioactive wastes arise primarily from nuclear generation; smaller quantities are derived from military sources and a variety of uses in medical, industrial and university establishments. There are many types of radioactive waste which can be classified either according to their radioactive properties or according to the sources from which they originated. Low level radioactive wastes generally consist of contaminated laboratory debris, biological materials, building materials. High level of radioactive waste consist of spent fuels from nuclear power reactors, together with liquid and solid residues from reprocessing of spent fuels.

Non-hazardous waste
Non-hazardous are those that pose no immediate threat to human health and the environment. Household garbage is included into this category.

Waste management
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Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential, industrial, and commercial producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. Basic Waste management principles of waste management are to
• •

reduce environmental and health impacts and to save resources

History of waste management
Historically, the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimal environmental impact.Before the invention of metals, wood was widely used for most applications. However, reuse of wood has been well documented. Nevertheless, it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans. The Mayan Indians of Central America had dumps, which exploded occasionally and burned.They also recycled. Homemakers brought trash to local dumps, and monthly burnings would occur.Many Mayan sites demonstrated such careless consumption. Consumption and waste of resources is probably related to supply available more than any other factor. With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and environment.

THE WASTE HIERARCHY

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There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage between countries or regions. The waste hierarchy:
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reduce reuse recycle

Reduce:
Waste minimisation or reduction is a process of waste management at the top of the Waste hierarchy. Waste management has traditionally been focused on processing wastes after they are created rather than reducing their production. This latter process usually requires specific knowledge of the production process, unlike post-creation processes such as re-use, recycling, composting or waste-to-energy. To reduce waste volume, it is first necessary to determine the composition of the waste and reason for its creation. Therefore, no general procedure applies to the general case, and each case must be processed individually. Commercial waste is often produced because of delivery procedures set by a central supply system, or it may be the result of the machinery used, which often require considerable investment for appropriate upgrades. Most waste comes from the [manufacturing]] industry, agriculture, construction and demolition industries.Household waste only constitutes a small percentage of overall waste, and therefore has less affect on the overall waste volume.

Reuse:
Reuse is using an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used a number of times for the same function, and new life reuse 8

where a new use is found for the item. It is distinct from recycling, where the used item is broken down into raw materials which are used to make new items. Reuse can have both financial and environmental benefits, and either of these can be the main motivation for it. The financial motivation historically did, and in the developing world still does, lead to very high levels of reuse, but rising wages and consequent consumer demand for the convenience of disposable products made the reuse of low value items such as packaging uneconomic in richer countries, leading to the demise of many reuse schemes - in deed we have gone a long way down the road to being a disposable society. Current environmental awareness is gradually changing attitudes and regulations, such as the new packaging regulations, are gradually beginning to reverse the situation.The classic example of conventional reuse is the doorstep delivery of milk in reusable bottles; other examples include the retreading of tyres and the use of plastic delivery trays (transit packing) in place of cardboard cartons.

Recycling:
Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. Recycling prevents useful material resources being wasted, reduces the consumption of raw materials and reduces energy usage, and hence greenhouse gas emissions, compared to virgin production.[1] Recycling is a key concept of modern waste management and is the third component of the waste hierarchy.Recyclable materials, also called "recyclables" or "recyclates", may originate from a wide range of sources including the home and industry. They include glass, paper, aluminium, asphalt, iron, textiles and plastics. Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or garden waste, is also recyclable with the assistance of microorganisms through composting oranaerobic digestion. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Rethink", with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Some "re-think" solutions may be counterintuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -the now larger scraps are then used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net waste. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry.Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction.

Procedure of Waste Management

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The above four key aspects of waste management – disposal, processing, recycling and minimization – is presented here in the form of a dual-axis continuum (see Figure 1), which will help in understanding the actions to be taken, and in building a comprehensive waste management strategy for local governments in cities of developing countries. Waste Processing Waste Disposal Waste Minimization Waste Recycling

Waste Disposal

Historically, efforts in the management of waste have focused primarily on the disposal part of the waste. Whilst there is now a general move towards the recovery of resources from waste, disposal is still the most common form of managing waste. Dumping, landfilling of waste and incineration are some of the most common methods of waste disposal. Waste Processing Waste Disposal Waste Minimization Waste Recycling

Waste Recycling

Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new product (open loop), generally including waste separation and material reprocessing. There are various materials that are capable of being recycled, and technology is advancing to allow the recycling of more materials. The benefits of recycling do not lie solely in diversion of waste away from disposal but, even more importantly, in the reduction of the amount of virgin resources that need to be harvested and processed for the manufacture of new products.

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Waste Processing Waste Minimization

Waste Disposal

Waste Recycling

Waste Processing

Waste processing is the range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery (use) of materials or energy from waste through thermal, chemical, or biological means. It also covers hazardous waste handling. Generally, there are two main groups of processes to be considered, (1) Biological processes, such as open composting, enclosed composting, anaerobic digestion, and vermiculture, and (2) Thermal processes, such as incineration, and gasification.

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Types of Waste Management
Urban waste management
• The overall goal of urban solid waste management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid wastes generated by all urban population groups in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner using the most economical means available. Local governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid waste management services, and most local government laws give them exclusive ownership over waste once it has been placed outside a home or establishment for collection. As cities grow economically, business activity and consumption patterns drive up solid waste quantities. At the same time, increased traffic congestion adversely affects the productivity of the solid waste fleet. Productivity loss is exacerbated by longer hauls required of the fleet, as open lands for disposal are further and further away from urban centers. The challenge is to rationalize worker and vehicle performance, while expanding services to a growing urban population.

• • • •

Municipal waste management
• Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. Other states should follow the example of this region and ban the use of items that cause harm to the environment. One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle.

• • • •

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Radioactive waste management
• • • Radioactive waste management involves dealing safely with the wastes from processes involving radioactivity. This waste comes from a number of sources, and ranges from paper towels used in hospitals to nitric acid solution formed as a result of reprocessing nuclear fuel. Most radioactive waste is currently stored safely on major sites under license from the Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and is subject to strict regulatory control.

Segregation
Certain things that are not needed around the house are kept aside to be sold to the kabadiwala or the man who buys old items. These items are newspapers, used bottles, magazines, carry bags, old exercise books, oilcans, etc. This is one form of segregation, which is done as a routine in all households in India. Separating our waste is essential as the amount of waste being generated today causes immense problem. Segregation of municipal solid waste can be clearly understood by schematic representation. Certain items are not biodegradable but can be reused or recycled. In fact, it is believed that a larger portion can be recycled, a part of it can be converted to compost, and only a smaller portion of is real waste that has no use and has to be discarded. Household waste should be separated daily into different bags for the different categories of waste such as wet and dry waste, which should be disposed of separately. One should also keep a bin for toxic wastes such as medicines, batteries, dried paint, old bulbs, and dried shoe polish. Wet waste, which consists of leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels, etc., should be put in a compost pit and the compost could be used as manure in the garden. Dry waste consisting of cans, aluminium foils, plastics, metal, glass, and paper could be recycled. If we do not dispose of the waste in a more systematic manner, more than 1400 sq. km of land, which is the size of the city of Delhi, would be required in the country by the year 2047 to dispose of it.

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Waste can be segregated as
1. Biodegradable 2. Nonbiodegradable Biodegradable waste It includes organic waste, e.g. kitchen waste, vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves from the garden, and paper. Nonbiodegradable waste It can be further segregated into: a) Recyclable waste – plastics, paper, glass, metal, etc. b) Toxic waste – old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. c) Soiled – hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids. Toxic and soiled waste must be disposed of with utmost care

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Waste Prevention Techniques
In general waste prevention can be achieved either:
• •

by reducing the demand to be met (immaterialisation) by using less or less harmful material for meeting the demand (dematerialisation)

Usually a waste prevention techniques is related to a certain process, to a certain product, service or product service system or to a certain consumption behaviour.

Process related waste prevention comprises those techniques which reduce waste arisings during production by - establishing internal cycles for auxiliary materials and production wastes substituting hazardous materials introducing more efficient technologies Product related waste prevention comprises techniques which - allow a repeated use of products or parts of the product - extend product life and/or make products easier to repair or - change the design of a product in a way that it contains less material or less harmful material Service oriented waste prevention either replaces products by services for meeting the demand, or complements products with a service system in order to maintain the products in an efficient way. Consumption related waste prevention comprise those techniques which effect the life style or the consumption behaviour.

Examples of Waste Management in Japan (1997-2001)

Recycle tote bag Sapporo City and the local Lions Club designed and distributed special tote bags to encourage people to carry recyclables to market with them when they go shopping. Many supermarkets collect styrofoam trays, paper milk cartons, plastic grocery bags and even empty cans. Ibaraki recycling Pay by the bag garbage collection is catching on all over the country. In Ibaraki prefecture a coalition of seven communities is improving their recycling and waste handling by requiring residents to put out garbage in special bags.

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Citizen payoff In Kumamoto City in Kyushu , the city has been paying registered citizen groups 3 yen/kg for collecting paper, glass, cans, etc. The 586 registered groups collected over 7300 tons in the ten month period ending last June. In addition, since the program's introduction, the city's regular recycling collection service has experienced a 20% jump in volume. Officials feel the program has been successful not only in reducing waste but in changing the public's awareness regarding recycling. Waste reduction coalition In Yokohama, the nation's third largest city, a coalition of 38 groups representing citizens, business and government formed a city-wide group for waste reduction and recycling promotion. It's the first of its kind in the nation. The city already has ward-level groups with a similar purpose so the new group will serve as an umbrella and help coordinate activities among the ward-level groups. Waste Exchange As of 1991 there were fourteen industrial waste exchanges in Japan , the first one having been established in Kanagawa prefecture in 1987. Hokkaido came on line with it's program last year and already has had over 1000 inquiries. The exchange, a prefecture-sponsored project, publishes a booklet twice a year and provides a telephone referral service. Alternate pulp Paper products made from waste corn and sugar cane are slowly finding their way into conventional markets. Stores in Kyoto are stocking notepaper and stationery made from corn waste and some department stores are using sugar cane paper for shopping bags. Waste reduction Aichi prefecture has joined the ranks of government entities forming Garbage Reduction Commissions. The Aichi version is made up of various local governments and citizen groups and plans to undertake at least five different projects including: utilization of collected household recyclables, litter, especially empty cans, appropriate dispasal methods for large garbage items, and using special garbage bags.

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Construction waste The Construction Ministry is setting up an information service for the re-use of waste construction materials. They are starting out with concrete and if that is successful, they will add more materials. Other major components are asphalt, dirt and wood. In 1990, the industry generated 76 million tons of waste nationally, which represents 20% of the entire industrial waste stream. Recycled goods One fourth of all supermarkets in Hokkaido have special "recycled goods" sections. Main items are toilet paper, notebooks, aluminum foil and other foil-type products, garbage bags, etc.

Buy green The Environment Ministry has been providing assistance for governmental agencies to join the Buy Green Network to buy "earth-friendly" recycled items, including toilet paper, copy paper, paper clips, pencils, soap, vacuum bags, etc

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Efforts towards Waste Management
• The World Bank Group currently has about 120 active projects with solid waste management components. There are about 85 projects under supervision with $3.5 Billion in loan/grant commitments, of which about 85% is designated for ‘urban environment’ activities. Solid waste management is the main component in more than half of these projects. At least 20 projects with large solid waste components are now under preparation within the $4.5 Billion (minimum) Urban Environment pipeline. An estimated 20 additional projects are in the pipeline. A large number of NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are working in the field of solid waste management such as Clean Ahmedabad Abhiyan in Ahmedabad, Waste-Wise in Bangalore, Mumbai Environmental Action Group in Mumbai, and Vatavaran and Srishti in Delhi. They are all successfully creating awareness among the citizens about their rights and responsibilities towards solid waste and the cleanliness of their city. These organizations promote environmental education and awareness in schools and involve communities in the management of solid waste.

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About WM

Waste Management, Inc. is the leading provider of comprehensive waste and environmental services in North America. The company is strongly committed to a foundation of financial strength, operating excellence and professionalism. Waste Management tailors its services to meet the needs of each customer group and to ensure consistent, superior service at the local level. Headquartered in Houston, the company's network of operations includes 413 collection operations, 370 transfer stations, 283 active landfill disposal sites, 17 waste-to-energy plants, 131 recycling plants, 95 beneficial-use landfill gas projects and 6 independent power production plants. These assets enable Waste Management to offer a full range of environmental services to nearly 21 million residential, industrial, municipal and commercial customers. Drawing on their resources and experience, they actively pursue projects and initiatives that benefit the waste industry, the communities they serve and the environment. Waste Management works to make a positive difference for the environment in every aspect of its business. They recover and process methane gas, naturally produced in landfills, into an energy source for generating power. they currently supply enough landfill gas to create more than 250 megawatts of green energy that could power about 225,000 homes or replace about 2 million barrels of oil per year. With 495 vehicles now converted from diesel fuel to clean-burning natural gas, they operate one of the nation's largest fleets of heavy-duty trucks powered exclusively by natural gas. • They have taken a leadership role in promoting the recycling and reuse of materials that would otherwise end up in landfills. Waste Management, combined with its wholly owned subsidiary WM Recycle

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America, is North America’s largest recycler. They process 5.8 million tons of commodities each year, saving approximately 41 million trees through paper recycling alone. • Through its waste-to-energy plants, WM uses solid municipal waste to generate power. This reduces the volume of the waste by 90 percent and saves space in local landfills while providing an economical alternative to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels. • WM partners with communities, government and industries to redevelop closed landfill sites into recreational and commercial facilities such as parks, athletic fields, campgrounds and golf courses. Across North America, they work with environmental groups to set aside land to create and manage wetlands and wildlife habitats. Their landfills provide more than 16,000 acres of protected land for wildlife; 15 landfills are certified by the Wildlife Habitat Council. • WM helped found the Chicago Climate Exchange, an organization established to provide a voluntary marketplace for reducing and trading greenhouse gas emissions. Waste Management's environmental initiatives have drawn recognition numerous times from organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Wildlife Habitat Council.

Operations
COLLECTION: Waste Management provides solid waste collection services to millions of customers across North America, ranging in size from the single residential subscription to large national customers requiring comprehensive, one-source waste programs to serve hundreds of locations. With 22,000 collection and transfer vehicles, the company has the largest trucking fleet in the waste industry. The company uses advanced technology and disciplined programs to bring improved efficiency to the process of solid waste collection. TRANSFER: With most of the waste collected by Waste Management going to its own landfills, a supporting network of transfer stations provides an important link for efficient disposal. Waste Management has 370 strategically located transfer stations to consolidate, compact and load waste from collection vehicles into long-haul trailers, barge containers and rail cars for transport to landfills. DISPOSAL: Waste Management operates the largest network of landfills in its industry, with 283 active sites managing the disposal of more than 125 million tons of waste per year. The company operates its sites according to standards of safety and environmental compliance that go beyond regulatory requirements. Waste Management is focused on 20

solutions that impact the future of solid waste management, including bioreactor technology, which accelerates the decomposition of organic waste through the managed introduction of air and liquids into the waste mass. Currently, the company is conducting research at 10 landfills to confirm the environmental benefits of bioreactor technology as an alternative method for managing landfill waste. RECYCLING: As the largest recycler of municipal solid waste in North America, Waste Management processes more than 5.8 million tons of recyclable materials each year through its 131 material recovery facilities. Through the resources of WM Recycle America, a majority-owned subsidiary, WM provides cost-efficient, environmentally sound recycling programs for municipalities, businesses and households across the U.S. and Canada. RENEWABLE ENERGY: For many years, Waste Management has worked with businesses, industries and public utilities across North America to develop beneficial-use projects from landfill gas. This gas is a reliable, renewable energy source that is produced naturally as waste decomposes in landfills. When collected, it can be used directly as medium Btu gas for industrial use or sold to gas-to-energy plants to fuel engine or turbine-driven generators that produce electricity. Through 95 landfill gas projects, we currently supply enough landfill gas to create more than 250 megawatts of green energy that could power about 225,000 homes or replace about 2 million barrels of oil per year. In addition, our waste-to-energy subsidiary Wheelabrator Technologies Inc. burns solid waste to generate clean energy. Its 17 waste-to-energy plants have the capacity to process up to 24,200 tons of waste per day and have an electric generating capacity of more than 650 megawatts of energy, potentially saving more than 6 million barrels of oil and generating clean, renewable energy that could power about 600,000 homes each year.

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THINK GREEN
At Waste Management, green is more than just the color of their trucks and containers. It is a daily reminder to their over 50,000 employees across North America of the important role each of them play as stewards of the environment. Waste Management has a deep commitment to making a difference for the environment, for communities and for people.To them, to Think Green® means embracing the tremendous responsibility they have, as leaders in their industry, to use their strength, talents, resources and technologies to better the communities they serve. As the leading provider of comprehensive waste management, recycling and environmental services in North America, Waste Management serves municipal, commercial, industrial and residential customers throughout the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico. Waste Management serves more than 20 million residential and commercial customers though its network of collection operations, transfer stations, landfill disposal sites, waste-toenergy plants, recycling facilities, and other related services. In one of their Think Green® TV commercials they ask the question, "Who would ever think that the waste they generate could generate enough green energy to power an entire community?" The answer is, "They would." Waste Management is actively committed to the development of green energy projects - whether it's collecting and processing the methane gas that is naturally produced in landfills, using solid waste to generate clean power or powering a fleet with clean-burning alternative fuel. In one of our Think Green® TV commercials we ask the question, "Who would ever think that the Converting waste to energy. Another way that they are helping to conserve fossil fuels is by converting municipal solid waste into energy. Waste Management’s subsidiary, Wheelabrator Technologies Inc., uses trash as fuel to generate electrical power through its 17 waste-to-energy plants, which has the capacity to process up to 24,000 tons of waste per day. Converting trash to energy substantially reduces the volume of the waste disposed of in landfills and provides a viable and economical alternative to the use of fossil fuels. A leading waste-to-energy provider in the United States, Wheelabrator helped pioneer the process of converting waste into energy more than 30 years ago. Since then, the company has processed more than 118 million tons of municipal solid waste into energy, saving more than 120 million barrels of oil while generating 65 billion kilowatt hours of clean, renewable electricity.

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In a letter to the industry, the EPA has stated that waste-to-energy plants, like those operated by Wheelabrator, produce electricity “with less enviromental impact than almost any other source of electricity.” And studies conducted in conjunction with the EPA have demonstrated that waste-to-energy plants prevent the release of millions of tons of greenhouse gases. Together, Waste Management’s landfill gas projects and waste-to-energy projects produce enough electricity to power more than 800,000 homes, saving the equivalent of about 8.2 million barrels of oil per year. The opportunity to lead the way. Reduce, reuse, recycle. Through their subsidiary, WM Recycle America (WMRA), they provide recycling programs that are cost-effective and environmentally sound for cities, businesses and households. Waste Management is the largest provider of recycling services in North America, processing 5.8 million tons of commodities in 2005. As North America’s largest recycler, they processed 5.8 million tons of commodities in 2005, saving more than 41 million trees and enough energy to power about 848,000 households. They continue their role as an industry leader, offering communities and businesses more effective and affordable recycling options as well as providing manufacturers and end users with the secure, consistent stream of high-quality raw materials they need to maintain operational efficiency. As the nation’s largest collector of recyclables from businesses and households, they are taking the reduce-reuse-recycle concept into every venue. In residential areas, they are creating sustainable recycling programs through working partnerships with local communities and municipalities. As a leading marketer of post-consumer and post-industrial commodities, they are providing fiber, nonfiber, scrap metal, textiles, rubber, electronic scrap and plastics to end-users of recycled materials worldwide. It’s one thing to say they support recycling. It’s quite another to step up to the challenge of making it work. They are working to make it easier for people to recycle. They are dedicated to making it more cost-efficient for businesses and industries. And they creating a sustainable model for the future growth of recycling programs.

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