"AUT0UR

l l E LA VI 0LE DE GAI ' I BE"
An Exhi bi t i on of Phot ogr aphi c Repr oduct i ons
of t he Vi ol t hr ough Fi ve Cent ur i es
20-22 Apri l 1979
Amer i can Musi cal I nst r ument
Soc i ety
Ei ght h Annual Meet i ng
Uni ver si t y of Chi cago
Chi c ago, I l l . USA
4- 5 May 1979
I nt er nat i onal
Reper t or Y of
Musi cal I conogr aPhY
Sevent h I nt er n' l Conf er ence
Ci t y Uni ver si t y of l { ew Yor k
I ' l ew Yor k, NY USA
Lent by l e Cent r e d' I conogr aphi e Musi cal e du Cent r e nat i onal
de l a r echer che sci ent i f i que
Sponsor ed by t he CUNY Resear ch Cent er f or Musi ca' l I conogr aphy
The Ci t y Uni ver si t y of New Yor k Gr aduat e Cent er
33 West 42nd St .
Cat al ogue t r ansl at ed and edi t ed
RCMI Cat al ogue
Barbara Coeyman by
#2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pr ef ace v
Cont r i but or s t o t he Exhi bi t i on vi
Summary of Catal
Sampl e Cat al ogui
CATALOGUE OF THE
Ti t l e panel
0r ganol ogy
I conography
ogue Abbr ev' i at i ons
ng Car d
v i i
v i i i
EXHI BI TI Oi \
Pl ayi ng Techni c
i nst r ument al Ensembl e
Ar t j st s, Tr eat i ses, and Scor es
Themes
I
2
il
t 6
20
25
32
- v -
PREFACE
The pr esent cat al ogue, t he exhi bi t i on i t i nvent or i es, and t he t wo
eonf er ences f or whi ch i t was pr epar ed r epr esent an i mpor t ant st eP f or war d f or
t he R6per t oi r e I nt er nat i onal d' I conogr aphi e Musi cal e
( RI dI ) 1) and t he Resear ch
Cent er f or Musi cal I conogr aphy.
The exhi bi t i on pr esent s a r i ch vi sual document at i on about t he vi ol a da
gar nba f r om t hr ee vant age poi nt s: hi st or i cal , compr i si ng i conogr aphi cal
evi dence of per f or mer s, ensembl es, scor es, et c. f r om t hr ee cent ur i es; t heor et i cal ,
i ncl udi ng r epr oduct i ons f r om Ehe wor ks of maj or t r eat i ses; and or ganol ogi cal ,
i nvol vi ng pi ct ur es, measur ement s, et c. of ext ant i nst r ument s. I t i s t he
wor k of t he r esear ch t eam est abl i shed i n Par i s by t he l at e Comt esse de Chambur e'
Co- Pr esi dent of RI dI $ under t he auspi ces of t he Cent r e Nat i onal de l a Recher che
Sci ent i f i que. The exhl bi t i on r / as sent t o us t hr ough t he ki nd of f i ces of
t he Bi bl i ot hEque Publ i que df l nf or mat i on of t he Cent r e Geor ges Pompi dou, wher e
t he exhi bi t i on i s per mnnent l y housed. I t has pr ovi ded t he spr i ngboar d f or t wo
conf er enc" " l or
t t l conogr aphy
of t he Vi ol as a Resear ch Tool f or t he Musi col ogi st ,
Bui l der , Rest or er , Per f or mer , and Col l ect or ' r wi t h di st i ngui shed r epr esent at i ves
of each di sci pl i ne par t i ci pat i ng. Pr el j - mi nar y consul t at i on has al r eady
pr oduced exchanges of i nf or mat i on t hat pr omi se t o pr ovi de val uabl e r esul t s.
I t i s pr eci sel y t hi s kl nd of cooper at i ve
+nt er nat i onal
i nt er change t hat was
envi saged when RIdB{ was founded i n L97L.z
The cat al ogue i t sel f r epr esent s t he second such bi bl i ogr aphi cal t ool
pr oduced under RI dI M and RCMI auspi ces. The f i r st , ent i t l ed
" The
Musi cal Ensembl e
ca. 1730- 1830r t ' was pr oduced t o accompany t he Si xt h I nt er nat i onal Conf er ence
on Musi cal I conogr aphy hel d at t he Gr aduat e Cent er of t he Ci t y Uni ver si t y of
New Yor k i n Apr i l 1978.
Toget her , t hese cat al ogues, exhi bi t i ons, and conf er ences r ePr esent
t angi bl e evi dence of pr ogr ess i n t he achi evement of RI dt r 4 goal s.
Barry S. Brook
Presi dent , I nt erna. i f i * Joi nt Commi ssi on
r See
cover page.
2see
nIdIM/nCUr Newsl etter Vol umes I -W.
- v l
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE EXHIBITION
I e Cent r e d' I conoqr aphi e Musi cal e
du Cent r e nat i onal de l a r echer che sci ent i f i que
and l a Sal l e d' Ac t ual i t 6 de l a B. P. I .
wi t h t hg cooper at i on of
Bri gi t t e Devaux
Pi erre Yves Duchemi n
Paul e Gui omar
Bernadet t e Mi l ant
Syl vet t e Mi l l i or
Raymond
Quere
rr6d6ri c Thi eck
Techni cal r eal i sat i on! Deni s
pl ai nchamp
Phot ographi c l aborat oryi
publ i rnages
Negat i ves: Gi raudon. Rduni ons des *. r"6u" nat i onaux,
Bi bl l ot hi que nat i onal e
The f ol ' l owi ng museums and I i br ar i es
pr ovi ded
t he document s i n t he exhi bi t
M. Arnaud de Chambure
M. and. Mme Bernst ei n, Edi t ors of Ast rde Records
Mme Bran-Ri cci . , Conservat eur du Mus5e I nst rument al du C. N. S. M.
M. Dumoul i n, Bui l der of I nst rument s
Mne Gol denberg, Conservat . t rr I l rHdt el des Monnai es
M. Jacqul er, Bui l der of I nst rument s
SUMMARY OF CATALOGUE ABBREVIATIONS AND PROCEDURES
The abbr evi at i - ons used i n t hi s cat al ogue, i ndeed t he ent i r e
cat , al ogui ng pr oeedur e, ar e based on t he i nt er nat i onal l y agr eed upon RI dI M
Mast er Cat al ogui ng I nst r uct i ons.
( Cat al ogui ng i nst r uct i ons ar e
avai l abl e on r equest , as ar e caEal ogue car ds' f or vol unt eer s i n al l
accumul at , i on pr oj ecEs of RI dI M. )
I n br i ef , count r i es ar e desi gnat ed wi t h t he I SO
( I nt er nat i onal
Standards Organi zati on) abbrevi atl ons used by RISI"I and RILM
(and based
on aut omobi l e l - i cense pl at es) , e. g. CS, Czechosl ovaki a;
E, Espaf r a;
S, Swedeni CH, Conf 6d6r at i on Hel v6t i que
( Swl t zer l and) .
The descri ptl ve data i n the catal ogue entry begi ns wi th an
i ndi cati on of the number of partl ci pants that appear to be i nvol ved i n
musi c- maki ng. When t wo or mor e di st i nct per f or mi ng gr oups ar e depi ct ed,
the entry reads
t' Duo
, .
//TrLo
. .' t Thi s i s fol l owed by a term
descr i bi ng t he
. soci al
st at us of t he per f or mer s, e. g.
t ' bour geoi si e,
nobi l i t y. "
The sex of each per f or mer i s t hen desi gnat ed by an
" M"
or
" W" ;
chi l dr en
ar e not ed wi t h a
" C" .
An
r r xr r
i ndl cat es t hat an i nst r ument i s hel d
but not pl ayed, whi l e an
t ' xx"
r ef er s t o an i nst r ument t hat i s pi ct ur ed,
but nei t her hel d nor pl ayed. Each ent r y concl udes wi t h a t hr ee- t er m
st at ement specl f yi ng t he pi ct or i al cat egor y, set t i ng, and occasi on f or
musi c-maki ng. Whenever the ambi gui ty of the pi -ctori al materi al makes
cat egor i zat i on i mpossi bl e, t he wor d
" i ndet er mi nat e"
i s used.
-
v i i i
-
SAMPLE CATALOGUING CARD
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The r ever se si de of
document at i . on. See
t he car d ( not
shown)
al so cat al ogue number
cont ai ns r el evant
1 8 8 .
- 1-
THE CATALOGUE
PANEL 1: TI TLE
1 oudr y, Jean- Bapt i st e
( 1685- 1755)
Fr ench. Bass vi oL, Book or
Musi c, and. sword, si gned and dated L734, detai l
'
pa' i nti ng.
F, Par i s, Mus6e du Louvr e.
BASS VI OL/ xx; musi c wi t h t he i nsrci pt i on
"Boyer. "
St i 1l l i f e; i nt er i or ; decor at i ve.
-2-
PANEL 2: 0RGAN0L0GY
Tabl e of Di f f er ences Bet ween t he Vi ol and Vi ol i n Fami l i es
Thi s chart surnmari zes t he di f f erences bet ween t he t wo f ami l i es
of i nstruments. In thi s current exhi bi t one can fi nd many exam-
pl es of i nst rument s whi ch do not correspond i n every det ai l t o
t he decri pt i ons
ci t ed bel ow: nevert hel -ess, t hese hybri ds do not
change thl fundamental - di fferences aeParati ng the two fami l i es
of i nst rument s.
VIOLS
VIOLINS
Fl at back
Top near t he si des i s f l at
Sl opi ng shoul ders
Thi cker si des
Sl ope of cor ner s at r i ght
angl e
Sound hol es
"C"
shaped or
t ' f l amet t
shaped
Br i dge f l at t er
Tai l "pi ece at t ached by a bar at
the l ower si des
5, 6, or 7 st rj -ngs, under l ess
t ensi on
Tuni ng i n fourths and one thi rd
Neck l ar ge and f l at ' wi t h f r et s
Decor aEi on of t en el abor at e,
very personal for each i nstru-
ment
Bow convex, fornl ng an arch,
wi th l onger poi .nt
Curved back
Top near t he si des i s rounded,
maki ng a
Pr oj ect i on
Rounded shoul ders
Thi nner si des
Sl ope of cor ner s
Pr oj ect s
out war d
Sound hol es i n
t t st t
o:
" t t t
snaPe
Br i dge mor e cur ved
Tai l pi ece at t ached bY a cor d
ext endi ng f r om a st ud
4 st r i ngs, under mor e t ensi on
Tuni ng i n f i f t hs
Neck smal l er and rounder
Decor at i on mor e si r npl e; of t en
t he same model used f or manY
i nstruments
Bow concave, poi nt shor t er and
el evated awaY from hai r
-3-
PANEL 2: 0RGAN0L0GY
(cont)
2 Pr ocessi onal bass vi ol . F, Par i s, Col l ect i on G. T. Chambur e.
A: Front vl ew.
B: Si de vi ew of neck and scrol l . One can see at t he bot t om
of . t he neck t he hol e t hrough whi ch passes t he st ri ng
used to carry the i nstrument.
3 Fami l y of vi ol i ns f r om t he 17t h and 18t h cent ur i es.
Vl ol l n: Jacques Bocguay, French, 1718. F, Pari s, Mus6e
Instrumental du cNsM.
Al t o: Jean Chr i st ophe dt Avl gnon, L695.
Tenor: Barbay, no dat e (18t h cent ury),
prLvat e col l ect i on.
Vl ol oncel l o: Jacques Bocquay, French, L7L4.
q
Parl s'
Mus6e Instrumental du CNSM.
4 Fami l y of vi ol s. F, Par i s, Col l ect i on G. T. Chambur e.
( No
f ur t her i dent i f i cat i on
pr ovi ded.
)
-4-
PANEL 3: ORGAN0LOGY
Ber t r and, Ni col as
( f i r st
hal f of l . 8t h cent ur y) Fr ench. Par -
dessus v' i ol , si gned and dat ed 170q. F, Par i s, Mus6e I nst r u-
ment al du CNSM, I nv. E 1005- C138.
Det ai l of head.
Front and part i al sl de vi ew. Tot al l engt h, 619 rnm; l engt h
of body, 317 m; maxi mum wi dt h, 185 rnrn; varni sh i s orange
brown;
t ai l pi ece
and brl dge are probabl y not ori gi nal .
A:
B:
Gavi ni es, Fr ancoi s ( f i r st
hal f of
vi ol , 1740' s, Par i s. F, Par i s,
I nv. E1435- C1020.
Tot al l engt h, 641 nn; l engt h of
maxi mum wi dth, 206 m.
A: Fr ont ( NB,
t al l pi ece) .
B: Back.
Louvet , Jean, Fr ench.
G. T. Chambur e.
To t a l l e n g t h , 5 6 0
18t 11 cent ur y) Fr ench. Tr ebl e
Mus6e I nst r ument al du CNSM,
back t o t he crack 286 mrn;
Par dessus vi ol . F, Par i s, Col l ect i on
um; rnaxi mum
hel ght of si des, 85mm.
Guer san, Loui s?
( ca.
17l 3- af t qr 1781) Fr ench. Par dessus vi ol ,
L747, Par i s. F, Par i s, Mus6e I nst r ument al du CNSM, Par i s
I nv. E371- C- 141.
Total Length, 610 m; l ength of body, 325 mn; maxi mum wi drh,
195 nm; hei ght of sLdes. 60 nn; dark yel -l ow varni sh; fl ar
back; al ternati ng bands of 1l ght and dark, 3 i n i edar and
2 l n napl e; 2 doubl e l l nes of ebony out l i ne t he edges; t he
t op l s spruce.
- 5-
PANEL 4: 0RGAN0LOGY
9 Jaye, Henr y
( l at e
16t h- ear l y- l 7t h cent ur i es) Engl i sh. Di vi si on
Vi ol , L624. F, Par i s, Musbe I nst r ument al du CNSM, I nv. E 73-
c 171.
A: Pr of i l e.
B: Total l ength, 1170 nm; l ength of body, 640 rmr: maxi mum
wi dt h, 355 m; brown varni sh; pegs and
t ai l pi ece
are
possi bl y not ori gi nal .
One can see a mark at t he f ourt h f ret where t he neck
was extended to nake the i nstrument more sui tabl e for
French musi c. I t appears t hat t he pegs have been re-
pl aced and t he pegbox aLt ered. The f i ngerboard l s French,
f rom t he begl nni ng of t he 18t h cent ury.
C: Back.
10 Di eul af ai t ( f i r st hal f of 18t h ceqt ur y) Fr ench. 7- st r i ng
Bass Vi ol , 1720. F, Par i s, Mus6e I nst r ument al du CNSM,
I nv. E 505- C172.
Total l ength, 1320 nn; l ength of body, 700 nn; maxl mum
wi dt h, 250 mn; dark brown varni sh; t he neck i s ori gi nal
but t he l nsi de of t he body has been al t ered.
A: Fr ont .
B:
t ' Dl eul af al t t '
marki ng on back.
C: Back.
- 6-
PANEL 5: 0RGAN0L0GY
11 Lewi s, Edwar d
( l at e
17t h cent ur y) Engl i sh. 7- st r i ng Bass Vi ol ,
London, 1687. F, Par i s, Mus6e I nst r ument al du CNSM, I nv.
l ength of body, 700 nn; naxi mum
l l ght . The neck i s probabl y French,
and reworked a great deal i n the
E 1443-C 1037
Tot al Lengt h, 1270 m;
wi dt h, 400 m; varnl sh
frorn the 18th century,
19t h cent ury.
A: Fr ont .
B: s l d e .
C: Back.
L2 Nor man, Bar ak
( l at e
17t h- ear l y 18t h cent ur i es) Engl . i sh.
7- st r i ng Bass Vi ol , London, L723. F, Par i s, Mus6e I nst r u-
ment al du CNSM, I nv. 1080- C 1- 38.
Total l ength, 1170 rnrn; l ength of body, 565 mn; maxi mum
wi dth, 3L0 rnn; l i ght varni sh. On the back i s Normanrs
i ni tl al . In changl ng the neck and pegbox, a seventh stri ng
was added. The
"C-hol es"
have been f i l -l -ed l n and repl aced
wi t h
"F-hol es. "
Thi s work, as wel l as t he f i ngerboard,
the purftl ng, and the pegbox, appear to date frour the
L9t h cent ury.
A: Fr onr .
B: Pr of l l e.
C: Back.
- 7-
PANEL 6: ORGANOLOGY
14 Ber t r and, Ni col as
( f i r st hal f of 18t h cent ur y) Fr ench. 7- st r i ng
Bass Vi ol
,
1720. F, Par i s, MusEe I nst r ument al du CNSM.
Total l ength, 1312 rnrn; l ength of body, 710 nn; maxi mum
wi dth, 409 rnn; brl ght varni sh. The enti re l nstrument i s
ori gi nal , except f or t he bri dge, whi ch has been recon-
st ruct ed accordi -ng t o t he pl an of Mersenne.
A: Fr ont .
B: Ber t r andf s pl an f or a 7- st r i ng bass vi ol .
C: Pr of i l e.
15 Der at , Guy
( 20t h
cent ur y?) Fr ench. Copy of t he Ber t r and Bass
Vi ol i n Pl at e #14, Par i s.
A:
gack.
B: Pr of i l e.
C: Fr ont .
16
-8-
PANEL 7: 0RGAN0L0GY
Col i chon, Mi chel (end
of 17t h cent ury) French.
pardessus
vi ol . BRD, Nuremberg, &rmani sches
Museum, I nv. MI R 782.
A: Fr ont .
B: Pr of i l e.
C: I nt erl or l n prof l l e.
D: Back.
Pl an f or a
Nati onal
- 9-
PANEL 8 ORGANOLOGY
Or: e of t en f orget s t hat rest . orat i on of art obj ect s has exi st ed
as l ong as man has creat ed art . Even t hough most rest orat i on t oday
i s general l y based on fi rm knowl edge of the ori gi nal - stat,e of most
i nst rument s, t hi s was not al ways t he case. Each epoque has rest ored
musi cal i nstruments accordl ng to i ts own taste and wi th the parti -
cul ar use of t he rest ored i nst rument i n mi nd. Thus, t he rest orat i on
of a vi ol mi ght have occurred af t er an i nj ury t o t he i nst rument , or
to adapt the i nstrument to the i ndi vi dual - requi rements of a musi ci an,
or i n an at t enpt t o l nf l at e i t s pri ce and possi bl y even t o decei ve
an amat eur, or al so t o t ransf orm t he vi ol i nt o anot her t ype of i nst ru-
ment .
In the 18th century much vi ol restorat,i on i nvol ved al teri ng
17t h-cent ury i nst runent s; i n part i cul ar, a sevent h st rl ng was added
t o many i nst rument s. I n t he 19t h cent ury vi ol s became obJect s f or
col l ect ors and were of t en resLored accordi ng t o t hat cent uryf s con-
cept s of const ruct i on and sound. Especi al l y at t he end of t he cent ury
many began t o pLay
t ' ol d"
musi c on ori gi naL l nst rument s. I n order t o
produce a l ouder sound t o sat i sf y t he t ast e of t he t i me, many part s
of t he i nst rument , such as t he si des, f ront , and back, were rei nf oreed,
resul ti ng i n a corrupti on of the ori gi nal sound. Many i nstruments
t hus suf f ered great l y.
Most rest orers t oday are seekl ng t o recapt ure i n t he l nst ru-
ments thei r ori gi nal appearance and sound. They do thi s by comparl ng
several i nstruments by one buLl der or one school , by studyi ng the
t reat i ses and wri t i ngs of t he 17t h and LSt h cent uri es, by usl ng
l conographi cal evi dence, and by consul -ti ng nusi ci ans speci al l zi ng
i n t he perf ormance of Renai ssance and Baroque musi c. Nevert hel ess
even t he most scrupul ous rest orat i . on i s al ways more or l ess l ef t
t o chance. I n order t o mai . nt ai n as wel l -
as possi bl e t he i nt egri t y
of the i nstruments, many restorers have found i t qui te hel pful to
phot ograph t hem bef ore rest orat i on i n order t o hel p f ut ure re-
storers who may encounter si mi l ar i nstruments.
The vi ol i n t he phot os i s by John Pi t t s, i n t he col l ect i on
of G. T. Chambure. The phot os are by Fi erre Jacqui er.
- 10-
PANEL 8
(cont)
17 A I nsi de of t he t op bef or e r est or at i on
The wood i s qui t e det eri orat ed, t he many pat ches correspondi ng
t o t he cracks. The separat , e pi ece at t he ri ght i s t he bass bar,
not ori gi nal . The not ch at t he end of t he neck i ndi cat es t hat
t he neck i s not ori gi nal .
B Pi eces for re' i nforcement
The pi ct ure shows al l t he pl eces used t o rei nf orce t he si des;
t he t wo pi eces marked wi t h red
rt xr' s' r
ard orl gl nal pl eces whi ch
have been great l y mut i l at ed. The bands are probabl y f rom re-
st orat i on work done i n t he 18t h cent ury, whi l e t he very t hi ck
l i ni ngs, marked wi t h bl ue
rt xrsrr,
are t ypi cal l y 19t h cent ury.
A11 t hese addi t i ons t o t he orl gl naL i npede t he nat ural pl ay
of the wood and modi fy the sound.
C I nsi de of t he back bef or e r est or at i on
Her e one f i nds a l ar ge couvr e- j oLnt , as' i n gui t ar s. The r e-
i nf orcement bar whl ch hol ds t he l abel may not be ori gi nal .
The heel of t he back, ext endi ng t oward t he neck, i s very deep.
D I nt eri or af t er rest orat i on
The courve-j oi nL on t he back has been cut of f and repl aced
by t he snal l pi eces of wood
(usual l y one uses parchment ). The
l i nl ngs for the si des and corners have been removed and re-
pl aced wi t h bands of canvas. One can al so see t he t hree
whi ch hol d the new neck.
E Reconst r uct i on
To connect the top to the si des one can make a wooden frame
whi ch hol ds the contour of the si des i n the exact shape of
l he t op.
-
11-
PANEL
Q:
ORGANOLOGY AND ICONOGRAPHY
I t i s l i kel y t hat t he ori gi n of t he vi ol pl ayed on t he knee
dates from the srme era as the begi nni ngs of the other bowed stri ng
i nst rument s. For exampl e, many i conographi cal obj ect s f rom t he L2t h
century and l ater show i nstruments whi ch are hel d between the l egs of
t he pl ayers. Unf ort unat el y no i nst rument s f rom t hese earl i er cent url es
survi vel t heref ore one can onl y specul at e on t he const ruct i on of t hese
vi ol s. I t i s onl y f ron t he 16t h cent ury onwards t hat we can speak wi t h
any rel l abl i ty about, the i nstrunents,becauge there are many vi ol s from
t hi s l at er t i me preserved i n publ i c and pri vat e col l ect i ons.
Begi nni ng i n t he 16t h cent ury t he charact eri st i cs general l y
associ at ed wi t h t he vi ol begi n t o appear. However, even t hese 16t h-
cent ury i nst rument s are di f f erent f rom t hose of t he Baroque peri od;
i t l s t hese l -at er i nst rument s whl ch are more f anl l i ar t o organol ogi st s.
The 16t h cent ury vi ol s are charact erl zed by a f requent use of rei n-
f orcement s made of canvas or parchment , as i n many l ut es and gui t ars
of t he same peri od, rat her t han t he wooden rei nf orcement s used 1at er.
The earl i er vi -ol s al so usual l y l ack a soundpost . Furt hermore, one can
observe i n the earl i er i ugtruments fl atter fi ngerboards. Arnong the
survi vi ng Renai ssance vi ol s, moat are Ital l an or Engl i sh; nany of
these can been found l n the l nstrument col l ecti ons i n Vi enna, Brus-
sel s, t he Hague, Oxf ord, and Veni ce, as wel l as i n several pri vat e
hol di ngs.
The Baroque vi ol l s known by the many actual l -nstruments whi ch
are t oday st i l l wel l preserved. From t hese i nst rument s one can draw
many concl usi ons. One can see a rel at i ve degree of st andardi zat i on of
i nstrurnents by school s; fron such reasoni ng one can see that the bass
vi ol l n Germany devel oped qui te dl fferent from that i n France, the
German i nstrument bei ng more l i ke the cel l o. The French school emerged
i n t he second hal f of t he 17t h cent ury. Bui l ders not onl y const ruct ed
new
j -nstruments
but al so, as the makers who were addi ng extra keys
t o t he Ruckers harpsi chords t o make t hem more sui t abl e f or l at e 17t h-
cent ury t ast e, added t o and t ransf ormed exi st i ng vi ol s. For exampl e,
the Mus6q Instrumental du CNSM owns a Henry Jaye vi ol whi ch was ori -
gi na
ut rras remade i . nt o a 7-st ri ng vi ol ,
probabl y at t he end of t he 17t h cent ury, probabl y by a French bui l der.
There were many vi .ol nakers i n several areas of tr' Iestern Europe.
Ihese i ncl uded makers al so famous for thei r excel l ent vi ol i ns, such
3s, i n l t al y, Gasparo da Sal o, t he Anat i s, and t he Gagl i anos; i n Ger-
many, t he Kl ot zes, Jakob St ai ner, and' A. Bachman; i n France, t hose of
t he school cal l ed
"ol d
Parj . s"; and i n Hol l and, J. Goumeest er and ot hers.
-L2-
PANEL 9 ( cont )
some better known for thei r pl ucked stri ng i nstruments al so made
vi ol s, such as t he Ti ef f enbr ucker s, H. Fr ey, t he Ti el kes, T. Edl i nger ,
t he seel os (of
Germany), G. Del epl anque, and c. Bowi n. some ot her
bul l ders speci al i zed i n t he vl ol al one, such as Mi chel col i chon,
Di eul af ai t (of
France), John Rose (of
Engl and), and Barak Norman.
rt i s i rupossi bl e Eo name every maker. A recent survey produced
no l ess than 244 bui l ders whose vl ol -s are contai ned i n publ i c and
pri vat e
col l ect i ons. searchi ng
-t hrough
t he archl ves can surel y pro-
duce addl tl onal names. The M,l q6e_l ngl rumental du GNSM possesses
t hl rt y-seven vi ol s of al l s
"i Uy Di eul a-
f ai t , i n ori gi nal condi . t i -on; a bass by Benoi t Fl eury, al so ori gi nal
(on
t hi s i nst rument t he unusual addi t i on of an ei ght h st ri ng has
not yet been sat l sf act ori l y expJ-ai ned); a t rebl e by Gavi ni es, whi ch
i s a good exampl e of an i nsf rument f rom t he second hal f of t he l gt h
century; and several other l nstruments whi ch have been al tered over
t he year s.
rn t he l 9t h cent ury, at a t i me when i t s repet oi re was f al l i ng
l nt o di suse, t he vl ol was f requent l y made over i nt o a cel l o by al t eri ng
t he neck, f i . ngerboard, and ot her part s. Fort unat el y, several - bui l ders
such as J. B, Vui l Laume and A. Tol becque, t hen became i nt erest ed i n
reconst ruct i ng vi ol s accordi ng t o hi st ori cal t reat i ses and i conogra-
phi cal document at i on. These reconst ruct i ons seem t o us t oday very
approxi mate i n rel ati on to the knowl edge about the ori gi nal i nstru-
menta whi ch hre currentl y have avai l abl e to us.
- 13-
PANEL 9 ( cont )
18 Anon. ( t Zt n
cent ur y) Engl i sh.
pavi d pl asi ns
a vi eTJe, det ai l
of an or nament ed l et t er f r om a manuscr i pt . Scot ' l and, Gl as-
gow Uni ver si t y Li br ar y.
M (Davt d)/ VI ELLE (on l aF). Mi nl at ure; i ndet ermi nare; i n-
det,ermi nate.
19 Vos, Mar t i n de
( 1532- 1603)
Fl emi sh; engr aved by Raphael ? Sade-
l er, Fl emi Sh. An I nst rument Bui l der i n t he 76t h Cent urg,
i l l ust r at i on f r om Genesi s I V showi ng t he wor kshop of Ju-
bal , myt hol ogi cal ancest or of i nst r ument bui ' l der s. F, Par i s,
Bi bl i ot hdque Nat i onal e, Cabi net des Est ampes.
Myt hol ogi cal -; out doors; i nst rument ' workshop.
20 Anon. ( begi nni ng
of 13t h cent ur y) Fr ench.
vi et-7e, detai l of an ornamented l etter
The Hague, Bi bl i ot heque Royal e, Ms 76
2r .
M (Davt d)/ Vt ml n. Ml ni at ure; i ndet errni nat e; i ndet ermi nat e.
Davi d PTagi ng a
" B( eat us ) " .
NL,
E I I
( exy.
421) f ol
2 L A
B
Fl eur y ( 18t h
cent ur y) Fr ench. Bass
Mus-ee Instrumental du CNSM.
Vl ers of f ront .
Di eul af ai t ( t et h
cent ur y) Fr ench.
F
,
Pari s, l ' fus6e Instrumental du
Vi ew of si de.
v i ol , 1769, Par i s . F, Par i s ,
Bass vi ol
,
L720, Par i s.
CNSM.
- 14-
PANEL 10: ICONOGRAPHY
22 Br eughel , Jan
( 1568- 1625)
Fl emi sh. r hesense of Hear i ns,
ca. 1618, det ai l , pai nt i ng.
E, Madr i d, Museo del Pr ado.
LARGE BASS VI OL (VI OLONE?)/ bow/ xx;
2 BASS VI OLS/ bows/ xx;
VIOI.A DA BRACCIO/bow/xx; VIOLIN/bow/xx; P0CHETTE/bow/xx;
l{ANDORA/xx; 2 CORNETTI/1x; TROMBONE/xx; RECORDER/xx;
SIIAI.IM/xx; HARPSICHORD/xx; DRUM/xx; plus a few orher in-
st rument s and musi c nanuscrt pt , part i al l y i n vi ew. Al l e-
goryi i . nt eri or; synbol l c.
PANEL
23
-
15-
11: I CON0GRAPHY
champai gnen Phi l i ppe de
( t 0oz- t 024) Fl emi sh; Fr ench school .
Portrai t of J. B. de Champni gne and Ni cofas de PLatten-
u"ri , tAS4, detai ' l
,
pai nti ng. I' l L, Rotterdam, Mus6e Boy-
mans Van Beuni ngen.
M/ BASS VI OL/ x. Por t r ai t ; Lnt er i or ; i ndet er mi nat e.
\ br onese, Paol o Cal i ar i
( 1528- 1588) I t al i an. r he Mar r i ase
of cana, 1563, det ai l ,
Pai nt i ng.
F, Par i s, Musbe du
Louvr e.
M
(Ti t i an)/ VI OLONE?; 2M (Veronese and Pal l adi o)/ nl ss
VIOLS (played on the lap, in the manner of the gui-tar);
M
(Bassano)/ connBt To; M (Tl nt oret t o)/ VI oLA DA BMcCI o.
Rel i gi ous; pa1-ace; f est i ve.
Bonnar t , Ni col as
( ca.
1636- 1718) Fr ench. wont an of soci et s
Pl agi ng a Par dessus vi oL, er a of Lou
j s
XI V, engr av' i ng.
F, Ver i ai l ' l es, Bi bl ' i ot hdque Mun' i ci pal e.
Nobl e, ! i l / PARDESSUS VI OL. I l l ust rat i onl i ndet ermi nat e;
musi c and soci et y.
The pardessus vi ol was partl cul arl y i n favor wi th the
French l romen of hi gh soci ety, but they rapi dl y became
dl sl nt erest ed i n i t ' as wi t h ot her
t ' i nst rument al
t oys"
such as t he muset t e and t he dul ci mer.
Gr i i newal d, Mat t i as
( t +SS/ gOt - ca.
1530) Ger man. AnseJ con-
cer t , cd, . 151. 6, det ai l f r om t he I senhei m A] t ar pi ece'
pai nt i ng. F, Col mar , Mus6e Unt er l i nden.
i W (ani ef s): 2 BASS VI OLS/ bows; VI OLA DA BMCCI O/ bor^r.
Rel i gi ous; i nt erl or and ext eri or; rel i gi ous musi c?.
Gni newal dts expressi oni sm i s conveyed not onl y i n the
f aci al f eat ures of t he angel s but al so i n t he exaggerat ed
shape of the i nstruments. The vi ol s are hel d and pl ayed
i n an unreal i st i c manner. one ought t o vi ew such pai nt i ngs'
very numerous i n the 16th century, especi al l y aurong the
' t ' l anneri st t r
pai nt ers, wi t h a great deal of caut i on'
24
25
26
- 16-
PANEL 12: PLAYI NG TECHNI C
27 Nat t i er , Jean- Mar i e
( 1685- 1766)
Fr ench. Madame Henr i et t e or
Fr ance Pl agi ng t he 8as. s Vi oI t pai nt i ng. F, Ver sai l ' l es,
Mus6es de Ver sai l l es et des Tr i anons, I nv. MV3800.
( See
a' l so Pl ate #38
)
.
NobJ"e, W/ 7-st rl ng BASS VI OL/ bow. Port ral t ; i nt eri or;
nusl c and socl et y.
-L7 -
PANEL 13: PLAYI NG TECHNI C
?B Cesar i , Gi useppe
( ca. , 1560- 1640)
t t al i an. r , l usj ci an, dr awi ng.
F, Par i s, I nst i t ut Neer l andai s, col l . Fr i t s Lugt .
M/ BASS VI OL/ bow. St udy; i ndet ermi nat e; i ndet ermi nare.
29 Anon. (era
of Loui s XI V) French. aadame de Grances
pJagi ng
t he Pard. essus 7i o-1, engravi ng i n wat erco' l or. F, Pari s,
pr i vat e
col 1 ect i on.
Nobl e, ! i l / PARDESSUS VI OL/ bow. Port rai t ; ext eri or; musi c
and soci et y.
30 Do' l met sch, l ' l at al i e ( 20t h
cent ur y) Engl i sh. ?he vi oJa da Gamba,
ext r act s
( London,
1968) .
Top l ef t : posi t i on of t he hand and f i nger s at t he begi n-
ni ng of the
"push"
stroke
Top r i ght : posi t l on of t he hand and f i nger s at t he begi n-
ni ng of the
ttpul -l f'
stroke.
Bot t om: posi t i on of t he l ef t hand on t he neck: wr i st cur ved,
f i nger s behi nd t he f r et s.
31 Kamper, Godaert (ca.
L6L3/14-L679) Dutch. rhe vi ot
!7aser,
si gned and dat ed L646, det ai l
,
pai nt i ng. BDR, D' r i ssel dor f
,
Kunst museum.
Bourgeoi s, M/ BASS VI OL/ bow. Port rai t ; i nt eri or; i ndet ermi -
nat e.
Ver kol j e, Jan, t he el der
( 1650- 1693)
Dut ch. r he
youns
vi ol
pt aget ,
pai nt i ng. PL, Cr acow, Ch$t eau de Wawel .
Nobl e,
-Ml BAsS
vI OL. wl t h f l ame hol es/ bow; V. I OLI N/ xx. Port rai t ;
palace; indet,erminate.
33 Ri gaud, Jean Fr ancoi s ( 1742- 1810)
Fr ench. r he vi ot i ncet l i st ,
engr avi ng i n Jean- Bapt i st e Br eval ' ( ca.
1756- 1, 825) Fr ench,
Le Tr ai t E du vi ol oncel l g, 1804. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hEque
ffi
Bourgeois, M/VIOL0NCELLO' /bow. Illustration; indererminate;
instrument technic.
34 Anon. ( mi d. l 7t h
cent ur y) Engl i sh? r he vi oJ
pt aser ,
€hgr dvi ng
i n Chr i st opher Si mpson
(
?
- 1669)
Engl i sh, The Di vi si on
Vi ol i st (London,
1659). F, Pari s, Bi bi i ot he' quf f i -Ei i ' i i ETE.
Bourgeol s, U (Si npson?)/ BASS
VI OL/ bow. I l l ust rat i . on; i n-
t eri or; pl ayi ng t echni c.
32
PAt ' l EL 13: PLAYI NG TECHNI C
( cont )
35 Met su, Gabr i el
( 1629- 1667)
si gned and dat ed 1663'
Young Memor i al Museum.
-18-
Nobl e, W/ BASS VI OL/ wl t h bout s
varnLsh,
t t c-hol es"/ bow/ nusl c.
9Cene.
Dut ch. Tha Bass vi ol " PTager,
pai nt i ng. USA, San Fr anci sco, M. H.
i n di f f erent shades of
Port rai t ; i nt eri or;
genre
34
(cOnt )
Conpari ng t hese t wo port rai t s (Pl at es / / 33 and / / 34) one
can easi l y see t he di f f erence i n bow t echni c bet ween t he
cel l o and t he vi o1. Wl t h t he vi o1, t he bow l s hel d l n t he
pal n of t he ri ght hand; on t he cel l o t he posi t i on i s re-
versed: t he hand pressee t he bow i nt o t he st ri ng' The
st ronger bow st roke on t he vi oL l s an
"up"
("push") bow,
whi Le on t he cel l o i t i s a
t t downt '
(t ' pul l ") bow.
- 19-
PANEL 14: PLAYI NG TECHNI C
Houel
,
Ni co' l as?
( 16t h
cent ur y) Fr ench? Musi c schoot , det a' i 1
f r om t he Pr ocessi on of Loui se de Lor r ai ne, 1584, dr awi nq,
par t of a i s, Bi Ut l ot hl que
Nat i onal e, Cabi net des Est ampes.
Prof essi onal musi ei ans, 4M/ BASS VI OLS/ bows. Fest i val ; ex-
t erl or?; rehearsal or musi c i nst ruct i on.
Bosse, Abraham (L602-1676)
French. rhe sense of Heari ng, e. f i -
gr avi l g af t er t he pai nt i ng ( See
Pl at e #49) . F, Par i s, Bi b-
' l i ot hBque
Nat i onal e, Cabi net des Est ampes.
Qui nt et ,
M/ si ngs/ nusi c; W/ si ngs/ rnusi c; W/ LUTE/ nusi c;
C/ si ngs/ rnusi c; M/ BASS Vl Ol / bow/ musi . c. Al l egory; i nreri or;
musi cal gat heri ng.
Nat t i er , Jean- Mar i e
( 1685- 1766)
Fr ench. Madame Henr i et t e of
France Plaging the Bass VioL. See Pl ate #27 .
Dol met sch, Ar nol d ( 1858- 1940)
Engl i sh. Phot o.
It i s Dol metsch who i .s pri mari l -y responsi bl e for the twen-
t i et h-cent ury revi val i n Engl i sh of not onl y t he vi ol but
most ot her t ypes of
t t earl yt t
i nst rument s and
t t earl y
musi ct t
perf ormance.
Saval l , Jor di
( 1946?- pr esent )
Spani sh.
Saval l current l y resi des i n Base1, Swi t zerl and. He i s pl ay-
i ng a
J. 7t h-cent ury,
7-st rLng French bass i n t hi s pi ct ure.
The phot o al so i ncl udes a harpsi chord by Desrui sseaux, a
French bui l der who i s oLherwi se unknown.
36
37
38
39
40
-20-
PANEL 15: INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE
4l Tourni er, Ni col as
(ca.-
1579
-L624' )
French? The concert, pai nt-
i ng. F, Par i s, Mus6e du Louvr e.
Qui nt et ,
M/ BASS VI OL/ bow; I ^t / cLAvI cHoRD?; c/ sl ngs/ musi cl
M/vrotrN/bow; M/LUTE.
-2L-
PANEL 15: INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE
42 Muel i ch, Hans ( t st o- t sz3)
Ger man. or r ando Lasso and t he chapel
Choi r of t l ze Duke of Bavat i a, Ci t . 1565-70, engravi ng,
mi ni at ur e of t he book of Psal ms by Lasso execut ed f or
Duke Al ber t . BDR, Muni ch, St aat sbi bl i ot hek, Ms. A I I ,
f ol 187.
Prof essi onal musLci ans: 2I' 1/BASS VIOLS, one hel d or pl ayed
on rhe l ap, l i ke a gui tar;
4MIVIOLAS D/r BMCCIOI M/SPINET;
M/RECORDm.; }I/FLUTE; M/SAcKBUT; M/coRNETTo; u/n.e,cxrr;
M/ LUTE; 3C/ si ng. Hl st orLcal port rai t ; pal ace; rehearsal
or concert of rel i gi ous musi c.
43 Anon. ( end
of 16t h- cent ur y) I t al i an. concer t , pai nt i ng.
F, Bour ges, Mus- ee de Bour ges.
Quarrer:
M/LUTE; I^I/FturE; I^I/sprNET; w/BAss Vrol/bow.
Genre scene; ext eri or; musl cal gat heri ng.
44 Muel i ch, Hans
( 1516- 1573)
Ger man. Duke ALber t or Bavar i a and
hi s wi f e Ar ong t he Muses, engr avi ng of mi ni at ur e i l l ust r a-
t i ng. a mot et by' Cypr i ano de Ror e, - 1559. BDR, Muni ch, St aat s-
bi bl i ot hek, cod. mus. 1288.
r^r/SAcKBUT; W/BASS SHAI,IM; W/CRUMHORN; W/TRIANGLE; W/r.Urr;
W/ BASS VI OL/ bow. Al l egory, port rai rl
i nreri or; symbol i c.
-22-
PAI' IEL 17: INSTRUMENTAL ENSE' IBLE
45 Dehue, J. C. ( ear 1y
18t h cent ur y) Ger mdr . concer t ot Re- zi -
gi ous Musi c, engr avi ng f r gm Johann Got t f r i ed Wal t her ' s
Musi kal i sches Lexi kon ( Lei pzi g
,
1732) . F
,
Par i s, Bi bl i o-
ffi
M/ ORGAN; M/ conduct s; M/ 5-srri ng BASS VI OL/ bow; 2Ml VI OLAS
DA BRACCIO; 2Ml SACIGUTS; CITTERN/XX; HORN/XX; TRIANGLE/XX.
Hi st ori cal port rai t ; i nt eri or; rehearsal or perf ormance
of sacred musi c.
46 Bal en, Hendr i ck van, t he el der ( 1575- 1632)
Fl emi sh. Banquet
of t he God. s, det ai l , pai nt i ng. F, Anger s, Mus/ ee des Beaux-
Ar t s.
I' I/BASS vlol/bow (overhand grip); w/lUrr; W/MANDoRA; w/vlo-
LIN; I' IIFLUTE; 2N/sing/muslc; W/ (cherub)
/conunrrot;
pocHETTE/
xx; 2 CORNETTI/xx; SACIGUT/xx; music/xx.
47 Anon. (t Zt t r
cent ury) French, concert of t he chapet Rogal of
Troges f or Loui s xI rr, pai nt i ng? F, Troyes, Mus6e des Beaux-
Ar t s.
Prof essi onal musi ci ans, 6M/VIOIS, POSSIBLY TI^r0 BASSES, TWO
TENORS, AND TWO I REBLES (bur
al l are srandi ng); M/ conducrs;
21, 1/ si ng. Hi st ori cal ?; park; rehearsal
,
eoncert , or musi c
l esson.
The di rector of the Chapel musl c of Sai nt-Etl enne was Eti .enne
Bergerat , who di ed i n
1671.
48
-23-
PAI{EL 18: INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE
4 8 A
49
Mol enaer , Jan Mi ense
( ca.
1610- 1668) Dut ch. r he r t i o, pai nt i ng.
N, The Hague, Gemeentemuseum.
Tri o: c/vrRcrMl /nusi c; c?ILIJTE; c?/TENoR oR DrvrsroN BASS
VI OL; TREBLE VI OL/ bow/ xx. Genre scene; i nt eri or; chamber
musi e.
Mol enaer , Jan Mi ense. Det ai l of t he vi ol
pl ayer i n Pl at e #48.
Bosse, Abr aham
( L602- L676)
Fr ench . The. sense of Hear i ng, , Pai nt -
i ng. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hdque Nat i onal e.
Qui nt et ,
M/ si ngs/ nusi c; W/ si ngs/ musi c; W/ LUTE/ musi c;
C/ si ngs/ nusi c; M/ BASS Vl ol / bow/ musi c. Al l egory; i nt eri or;
musl cal gatheri ng
See Pl at e l l 37 t or t he engravi ng based on t hi s pai nt i ng.
Loo, Jacob van
( ca,
1614- 1670) Fl emi sh. concer t , pai nt i ng.
USSR, Leni ngr ad, t he Her mi t age.
Quart,et:
I^I/BASS VIoL/bow; M/LUTEl sl rrgs
;
w/sl ngs/musi c;
w/SoPRANo RECORDER; M/si ngs? Genre scene; i nteri or; cham-
ber musl c.
Last man, Pi et er - Pi et er sz
( 1583- 1633)
Dut ch. Davi d i n t he
r empr e, 1618, pai nt i ng. BDR, Br unswi ck, Her zog Ant on Ul -
r i ch Museum.
M (Davi d)/ I I ARP/ si ngs?;
3C and WI l si ng; M/ BASS vrol ; C?/
vIoLIN; C/TAMBOURINE; C/SACTGUT; M/BASS SHAWM; LUTE/xx;
ORGAN/ xx. Bi bl i cal scene; church; rel i gi ous musi c.
See Pl at e / / 89 f or a det ai l - of t he vi ol pl ayer.
Anon (mi d-l 7t h
cent ury) German. I 4usi cat Gat heri ng, cd. 1. 640,
pai nt i ng. DDR, Lei Fzi g, Musi ki nst r ument en- Museum der Kar l
I t l arx Uni versi t et .
Bourgeoi s quartet: M/BASS VIOL/bow; l t/l Uff/rnusi c; l r/Ui tron-
Bo/nusi c; M/POCHETTE/urusi c; LUTE and TI^l o VIoLS/xx
(on
back
wal l ). Genre scene; i nt eri or; chamber musi c.
50
51
52
-24-
PANEL 19: INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE
53 Lancr et , Ni col as
( 1690- 1745)
Fr ench. concer t i n t he
par k,
pai nt i ng.
USSR, Moscow, Pouchki ne Museum.
Tri o: M/ FLUTE; W/ si ngs/ nusi c;
M/ BASS VI OL/ bow.
54 Bonnar t , Ni col as
( ca.
1636- 1718) Fr ench. concer t , engr avi ng.
Fn Ver sai l l es, Bi bl i ot hEque Muni ci pal e.
Nobl e, t ri o: I ^I / LUTE; t {/ si ngs/ conducrs?/ musi c; I ^I / TREBLE
VI OL. Genre scene; ext eri or?; musi c and soci et y.
( See al so Pl at e / 1100. )
55 Watteau, Jean-Antoi ne
(L684-L721)
French. outdoor concert,
engr avi ng by Audr an ( f ami l y
of Fr ench engr aver s i n 17t h
and 18t h cent ur i es) . F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot he- que Nat i onal e,
Cabi net des Est ampes.
Nobl e, M/ BASS VI eL/ bow; M/ FI UTE; 2Wl si ng/ musi c; I ^I / THEoRBo;
C/ VI OLI N/ XX; 2 f ol l os of musi c/ xx. Genre scene; park; rnu-
si c and soci et y.
The i npressi on i s reversed.
56 Car mont el l e, Loui s- Camogi s ( t Zt Z- t 806)
Fr ench. aader r aj sel , J, e
Pi toi n at het Pi ano(?) Accomrnni ed bq h,er Son on the Bass
vi o| , past el . F, Chant i l l y, mus6e Cona6.
NOb].C, dUO: M/BASS VIOL/bOW; W/KEYBOARD
(HARPSICHORD
OR
PI ANO?)/ urusi c. Port rai t ; verandai chamber musi c.
-25-
PANEL 20: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
57 Net schern Const ant i n (L668-L723)
Out cn. Johann schenck, r, t usi -
ci an t o t he ETect or of t he Pal at i ne, C4, 16900
Pai nt ' i ng.
Cht t eau de Bl oi s.
Prof essi onal musi ci an, M (Schenck)
/ 7-st ri ng
BASS VI OL / bow/
musi c (Mari n Marai s, Pi eces de vi ol -e
(1686), Book I , Sui t e
/ 13, Pr el ude, p, 9. ) Por t r ai t ; i nt er i or ; i ndet er r ni nat e.
Schenck (ca.
1656-after L7L6) was a German composer and
vi ol pl ayer. I n 1696 he became a chamber musi ci an f or Jo-
hann Wi l hel m II, pri nce El ector of the Pal ati ne, to whom
Schenck dedl cat ed hi s Scherzl musi cal i , op. 6, f or bass
vi ol and basso cont i nuo. Schenck al so wrot e t he f i rst
f ugues f or unacconpani ed bass vi ol .
( See
Pl at es l l 77 and / 178. )
-26-
PANEL 21: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SC0RES
The bass vi ol i s one of many
the porti on of the l l armoni e
58 Mersenne, Mari n
(1588-1648)
French. f i armoni e uni versel t e,
contenant ta th1orie et Ja pratique d.e l-a musiq,ue
(Paris,
Sebast i an Cr amoi sy, 1636) . F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hdque Nat i ona' l e.
BASS VI OL/ bow/ Z br i dges/ t uni ng pi r ches i n nor at i on.
i nst rument s i l l ust rat ed i n
deal i ng wi t h i nst rument s.
59 Ger l e, Hans
( ca.
1500- 1570) Ger man. Musi ca und r abt at ur auf f
die Instrunent der KJeinen und.Grossen Geggen,(NUremberg,
1546) , engr av i ng i l l us t r at i ng t he t uni ng oi t t r e v i o1. , F,
Pari s, Bi bl i ot hdque du CNSt ' l
, #478,
2 VI OLS, one 5-st ri ng and one 6-st ri ng.
The posi t i on of t he f i ngers i s i ndi cat ed by l et t ers on
t he f i ngerboard. These l et t ers are t he syrnbol s al so used i n
German l ut e t abl aLure of t he peri od.
Pr aet or i us, Mi chael ( 1571- 1621)
German . De organographi a,
( 1618- 20) ,
Pl at e xx. F, Par i s,
vol ume I I of Synt aqma Musi cum
Bi bI iothlque iti:ElffiTil---
3 VIOLS (IT.EBLE, TENOR, Al tD BASS?)/bows; VIOLA BASTARDA/
bow; LYRA DA BRACCIO/bow.
60
61
-27 -
PANEL 22: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
Jambe der Fer , Phi l i ber t (
?
- L572)
Fr ench. Epi t ome Musi cat -
( Lyon,
1556) , Pl at es A t hr ough F ar e f acsi mi l es of pages
6, 57, 58, 59, 61, and 63, r espect i vel y.
Thi s t reat i se i s qui t e unusual - i n t hat i t i s one of t he
f ew wrl t i . ngs of t he 16t h cent ury t o di scuss t he di f f erences
bet ween vi ol s and vi ol i ns as wel l as t he di st i rrct i on be-
t ween French and I t al i an vi ol s. The pages shown here de-
scrl be t he t uni ng of t he vi ol , i ndi cat ed by bot h not at j -on
and f i ngeri ng.
Anon. (end
of t he 16t h cent ury).
port rai t
of ct audi o Mont e-
ver di ,
pai nt i ng ( ?) .
GB, Oxf or d, Ashmol ean Museum.
Prof essl onal musi ci . an, M (Mont everdl )/ BASS VI OL (part i al
vi ew)/bow/nusi c/x; TREBLE or TENOR VIOL/bow/xx; TROMBONE/xx.
Ganassi , Syl vest r o di
( l at e
l St h- ear l y 16t h cent ur j es) I t a' l i an.
RegoJa Ruberti na
($qZ),
engravi ng.
Prof essi onal musi ci ans, quart et : 3M/ VI OLS
(basses
or t enors?),
at l east one wi t h 5 st ri ngs/ bows; M/ si ngs/ rnusi c. I l l ust rat i on;
i nt eri or; concert or rehearsal .
62
63
-28-
PANEL 23: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
I n Engl and t he vi ol enj oyed except i onal popul ari t y. I n Ehe
f i rdt hal f of t he l 6t h cent ury Henry VI I I brought t o Engl and
several l t al i an vi ol pl ayers who pl ayed i n hi s orchest ra
and i n ensembl es. These l at t er were t he f i rst vi ol consort s.
The forei gn vi .ol pl ayers formed a new school of pl ayi ng;
as a resul t , one can see t he Gol den Age of Engl i sh vi ol
nusi .c emerge at the end of the L6th century and conti nue
t hrough much of t he 17t h cent ury.
Cal dwel l , James ( 1739- 1789)
Engl i sh.
por r r ai t
of Mat t hew
Locke, engr avi ng cont ai ned i n Si r John Hawki ns, A Gener al
Hi st or y of t he sci en. ce and Pr act i ce of Musi c
( Lof f i -
,
p. 4L7. F,
Par i s, Bi bl i ot he- que Nat i onal e.
Mat t hew Locke (L630-1677)
was probabl y associ at ed wi rh
t he vi ol pl ayer W. Wake, t o whom he dedi cat ed hi s
"Li t , t l e
Consor t . of Thr ee Par t s" of 1655.
64
65
66
67
P' l ayf or d, John
( 1623- 1686)
Engl i Sh. Musi ck, s Recr eat i on on
t he vi oJ, Lgr a- wag ( London, pr i nt ed by A. G. and J. P.
f or J. Pl ayf or d, second edi t i on, 1682) , p. 26,
" The
Echo
Al mai n.
"
Gui gni on, C.
( 17t h
cent ur y?) .
por t r ai t
of r homas Mace, en-
gr avi ng, based on a pai nt i ng by Henr y Cool e and cont ai ned
i n Si r John Hawki ns, A Gener al Hi st or y of t he Sci ence and
hacti
qe_qf_
Iru
gl-g_
(
Lo
m.
450. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hdque Nat i ona' l e.
The t hi r d book of Macer s Musi ckt s Monument i s devot ed l n
par t t o t he vi ol , i ndi cat @i nt er est
j - n
t he
i nst r ument i n Engl and i n t he second hal f of t he LTt h cen-
t ury.
Locke, Mat t hew ( 1630- . | 677)
Engl i sh. Duos f or Bass vi ot - s,
aut ogr aph of t he I ast sect i on, a sar aband. GB, London,
Br i t i sh Museum Add Ms 17801, f ol . 6.
Mace, Thomas ( t 0t g- t ZO9)
Engl i sh. r r l usi ck, s Monument , ( Londonn
T. Pat cl i f f e and N. Thompson f or t he composer , 1676) ,
p. 252. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hFque Nat i onal e.
68
69
70
-29-
PANEL 24: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
A&B Maral s, Mani n
(1656-1728)
French. rhe Recovers and rhe Gatt-
BTadder oper at i on, P! eces de vi ol es
( Par i S,
bV t he compos-
€F, L725) , Book V,
mi ng.
F, Par i s, Bi bl i o-
t hEque Nat i onal e.
Anon. Engravi ng based oh
portrai t
of Mari n Marai s by Andr6
Bouys_( 1656- 1740) , pai nt i ng. See Pl at e #92. F, Par i s, Bi b-
l i ot he- que Nat i onal e, Cabi net des Est ampes.
Prof essi onal nusi ci an, ' M
(l l arbl s)/ 7-st ri ng BASS VI OL/ xr
bow/ musl c. Port rai t ; l nt eri or; i ndet ermi nat e.
A student of Sal nte-Co1-ombe, Marai s became one of the
l eadi ng vi ol pl ayers of the French school of the begi n:-
ni ng of t he L8t h cent ury. A very prol i f i c composer, he
wrot e approxi mat eJ-y 600 pl eces f or one, t wo, or t hree
vi ol s.
-30-
PANEL 25: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
7L Danovi l l e, ?
( l at e
17t h cent ur y) Fr ench. L' Ar t de t oucher
f e dessus et basse de vi oTe
( Par i so
Bal l ar d, 1687) pp. 30-
31. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hEque l i at i onal e.
These pages i l l ust rat e t he f i ngerboard wi t h t abl at ure
l et t ers and t he t uni ng of t he st ri ngs udi ng f ret s and
open st ri ngs.
72 Cai x, d' Her vel qi s Loui s de
( ca.
1670- ca. L76O) Fr ench. r r oi -
si l me oeuvre. . . cont enant quat re sui t es de pi dces
t rnur
7a
vi oLe avec basse chi f f r\ e en part i t i on
(Pari S,
bY t he com-
poser , 1731) , p. 6
( Fi r st
Sui t e) , engr avi ng. F, Par i s,
Bi b' l i ot hdque Nat i ona' l e.
The scor e cont ai ns t wo mi nuet s and
t ' La
Boussac. t t
73 Rousseau, Jean
( 1644- ?
)
Fr ench. r r ai t 6 de t - a vi or e qui
cont i ent une Dj ssert at i on curj euse sur son ori gi ne
(Pari s,
Bal l ar d, 1687) , Chap. V, pp. 38- 39. F, Par i s , Bi bl i ot he\ ue
t' lati onal e .
74 Fr edou, Jean Mar t i al
( ca.
1711- 1795) Fr ench. Por t r ai t of
Jean-Bapt i st e-Ant oi ne Forquerag, 1737, I ocat i on unknown'
phot o t aken f r om Geor g Ki nsky, Geschi cht e der Musi k i n
bi l der n,
( Lei pzi g, 1929) , p. - 227
Forqueray, one of t he f oremost vi ol pl ayers of t he 18t h
cent ury, l i ved f rorn 1699 t o L782.
75 Sai nt e- Col ombe, ? ( l at e
17t h cent ur y) Fr ench. concer t a\
deux vi ot es, ca. 1660- 1670,
P.
62, manuscr i pt . F, Par i s,
Bi bl i ot he- que Nat i onal e.
Page 62 i s t he score f or
"La
Bourrasque. "
76
- 31-
PANEL 26: ARTI STS, TREATI SES, AND SCORES
Gai nsbor ough, Thomas ( L7?7- 1788)
Engl i sh. st uas r or t he
por -
trai t of Karl --Fri edri ch Abel PTagi ng the Vi oLa da Gamba,
dr awi ng.
( Sol d
by Sot heby' s of London, Apr i l 1, t 976)
Prof essi onal musi ci an, M (Abel )/ neSS
VI OL/ bow. Porrrai r;
i nt eri or; i ndet ermi nat e.
Karl -Fri edri ch Abel (L723-L787)
was t he son of Chri st i an-
Ferdi nand, the cel ebrated garnbi st for whom Johann Sebas-
t i an Bach possi bJ-y composed hi s t hree sonat as f or vi ol
and harpsi chord. Karl -Fri edri ch was a musi ci an at t he
court of Dresden unt i l - L759, when he went t o Engl and, where
he, wi th Johann Chri stoph Bach, founded the Bach-Abel con-
cert s i n 1765, ri val i ng t he
I ' concert s
spi ri t uel s" i n Pari s.
He cont l -nued t o pJ. ay t he vi ol - unt i l hi s deat h l n 1787.
Netscher, Constanti n
(L668-L723)
tl utch. Johann schenk.
See Pl at e #57.
77
78 Schenk, Johann
( cq.
1656- af t er L7L6) Ger man.
op. s
( Amst er dam,
Est i enne Roger ) , t i t l e
Bodel ei an Li br ar y, l ' | us. SCH. c 199.
L' Echo du Danube,
page. GB, 0xf or d,
79
80
81
82
-32-
PAl ,l EL 27: THS4ES
Abbat e, i , l i ccol o del l ' ( ca.
L5LZ- I 571) t t af i an. apo: . t o and
t he r 4uses, dr awi ng. F, Par i s, t col e des Beaux- Ar t s.
M (Apol l o)/ nesS
VI OL; W/ si ngs/ musi c; W/ HARp; W/ FLUTE;
W/LUTE; W/TRUMPET; I4I/CORNETTO?; W/TAI,IBOURINE; w/VIOI,A DA
BRACCI O. Myt hol ogy; Parnassus; symbol i c.
Rubens, Pet er - Pau1
( 1577- 1640)
Dut ch. r he Educat i on or
I r ar i a de Medi c. i , 162I - 25, det ai l of Apol l o, pai nt i ng.
F, Par i s, MusEe du Louvr e I nv. 1771.
M ( Apol l o) / BASS VI OL/ bow; CHI TARRONE/ xx. Al l egor y; i n-
det er mi nat e; i nst r uct i on.
I n t hi s pai nt i ng, whi ch Rubens pr oduced as par t of t he
f amous ser i es of t went y- one panel s used t o decor at e t he
hal l s of t he Luxembour g Pal ace, Apol l o i nst r uct s t he
young queen i . n musi c, usi ng one of t he most f ashi onabl e
i nst r ument s of t he day, t he vi ol . Par t of t he panel was
pr obabl y pai nt ed by Rubens' pupi l s.
Anon.
( l at e
16t h cent ur y) Fr ench. r r i t on
pJasi ns
t he vi oJ,
1582, det ai l of an engr avi ng i l l ust r at i ng t he Bal l et
comi que de l a Royne by Bal ti sar de Beauj oyeux,ffi ed
by Rober t Bal l ar d and Mamer t Pat i sson. F, Par i s,
pr i vat e
col I ect i on.
Tr i r on/ BASS VI OL; Tr i t on/ LUTE. Decor ar i on f or bal 1et ;
sea; decorat . i ve.
Anon. (1at e
16t h cent ury) French. amphi on Bui t -di ns t he wal l
of r hebes, 1. 596, i l l ust r at i on i n Di scour s de l a
j oyeuse
et Tr i omphant e ent , r 6e d' Henr i I v. @
i -
f f i R5serve.
M ( Amphi on) / BASS
VI OL. I l l ust r at i on f r om myr hol ogy; en-
t r ance; f est i ve.
Anon. ( ear l y
17t h cent ur y) Ger mdh. car nj vaf at St ut t gar t ,
Par i s , Bi bl i o-
VI OL. Myt hol o-
The engravi ng depi ct s a f est i val f or t he marri age of Jo-
hann Fri edri ch of Wurtembourg wi th Barbara Sophi s of Branden-
bour g. The' quar t et of vi ol s accompani es t he bal l et .
16C9, engr avi ng
( Pl at e
#6 of a ser i es) . F,
t hdque Nat i onal e, Cabi net des Est ampes.
3M/VIOLAS DA BMCCTO; M/PRoCESSTOML BASS
gi cal ; i ndet er mi nat e; f est l ve.
83
i ' r
-33-
PANEL 28: THEMES
84 Pl uym, Karel van der
(L625-L672)
Dutch. rhe
phi Tosopher
Read-
i ns, pdi nt i ng. BRD, Co' l ogne, Museum Wal l r af - Ri char t zo
BASS VI OL / bow/ xx. Al l egory; i nt eri or; symbol i c.
85 Col ombel , Ni col as
( 1644- 17L7)
Fr ench. sai nt ceci t i a, pai nt -
i ng. F, Rouen, Mus- ee des Beaux- Ar t s.
I ' l (Sai nt
Ceei l i a) / 7-et ri ng BASS VI oL/ bow/ si ngs?; C (angel )/
sl ngs/ nusi c. Rel i gi ous al -l egory; i nt eri or; symbol i c.
86 Duck, Jacob
( cE.
1600- af t er 1660) Dut ch. Li f e' s vani t i es,
pai nt i ng.
Nor t hwi ck Par k, Col l ect i on of E. G. Spencer
Chur c hi l l .
PARDESSUS OR TREBLE VIOL/xx (i ncompl ete vi ew). Al l egory;
i nt eri or; syurbol i c.
87 Cl eynhens, Bernardus
(
?
-
?
)
Dutch. rhe v.i ces, end of
t he 16t h cent ur y, det ai l , engr avi ng. Locat i on unknown.
Prof essi onal musi ci ans, t ri o: M/ BAss vI oL; 2M/ VI oLAS DA
BMCCI O/ dance. A1-l egory; park; synbol i c.
88 Ver onese, Paol o Cal i ar i
( 1528- 1588)
I t al i an. r he Ri ch Eput on,
det ai l , pai nt i ng.
I , Ven' i ce, Accademy of Fi ne Ar t s.
TTi o: W/LUTE/musi c; M/BASS VIOL; M/I^IIND INSTRIJMENT?. Re-
l i gi ous al l egory; pal ace; f est i ve.
89 Last man, Pi et er - Pi et er sz
( 1583- 1639)
Out ch. Davi d i n t he
rempte. See Pl ate #51.
90
-34-
PANEL 29: THn' l ES
Horemans, Pi et er-Jacob
(I 700-1776)
F' l emi sh. Musi cat - Gat her-
i ng f or t he ELect or Charl es-Al bert , si gned and dat ed 1730,
pai nt i ng. USA, New Yor k, Met r opol i t an Museum of Ar t .
Nobl es, M/ LUTE; 7-st rl ng BASS VI OL/ bow/ xx. Porrrai t ; mu-
si c and soci et y.
90 A Hor emans, Pi et er - Jacob. Det ai l of bass vi ol i n #90.
( 7- st r i ng
vi ol , decor at ed f i nger boar d and t ai l pi ece, head of a woman)
Despor t es, Al exander - Fr angoi s ( 1661- L743) Fr ench . FJower s, ,
Fr ui t s, and. Ani nal s, l l L7, pai nt i ng. F, Gr enobl e, Mus6e
des Beaux- Ar t s.
7-string BASS Vlol/xx; VI0LIN/bow/xx; rnonkey/Vlol,lN/bow;
LUTE/ xx; musi c/ xx. St i l l l -i f e; ext eri or; decorat i ve.
Bouys, Andr 6
( 1656- 1740)
Fr ench.
por t r ai t
of Mar i n Mar ai s,
. q, L740,
pai nt i ng. F, Par i s, Mus6e du Louvr e i nv. ?0145,
Prof essi onal musi ci an, M (Marai s)/ 7-st rl ng BASS VI OL / bowl
musi c/ xx. Port rai t ; i nt eri or.
( See
al so Pl at e #70. )
Gar ni er , Jean
( 16SZ- 1ZO5)
Fr ench.
por t r ai t .
or Loui s xr v,
ca
. L672, pdi nt i ng. F, Ver sai l l es, Musdes de Ver sai ' l i es
et des Tr i anons.
BASS VIOL
/bow/xx;
TREBLE VIOL/bow/xx; VIOLIN/xx; GUITAR/xx;
MUSETTE/ xx. St i l l l i f e; i nt erl or; symbol i c.
Heem, Cor ne' l i s de
( 1631- 169S)
Dut ch, st i l t Li r e, det ai l of
vi ol , pai nt i ng. NL, Amst er dam, Ri j ksmuseum.
BASS Vl Ol bow/xx; VIOLIN/xx; POCHETTE/xx; CITTERN/xx;
LUTE/xx; SMALL LUTE/xx; BAGPIPE/xx; TRIMPET/xx; ALTO RE-
CORDER/xx; SOPMNINO RECORDER/xx; musi c/xx. Sti l l - l -l fe;
i nt eri or; decorat i ve.
91
92
93
94
i r : - " . , -
_6
- 35-
PAI' IEL 30: THE' IES
Ver kol
j e,
Jan, t he el der ( 1650- 1693)
Dut ch . r he r , r usi c Lesson,
pai nt i ng. Di spl ayed at t he Royal Accademy, London, 1952- 53,
cat . #451.
BASS VIOL wi th fl ane hol es and rose hol e/xx; W/Cl fffRW;
VI RGI ML/ xx. Genre scene; i nt eri or; i nst ruct i on?.
Pi car t , Ber nar d
( 1673- 1733)
Fr ench. out door concer t , 1707,
engr avi ng. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hbque Nat i ona' l e, Cabi net des
Est ampes.
M/BASS VIOL, M/VIoLIN; M/FLUTE, W/HARPSICHORD; 2MIRECORDERS;
M and i ,I/si ng/rnusi c. Genre scene; park; pusl cal - gatheri ng.
There are four pai rs of performers, possi bl y each rnaki ng
musi c l ndependentl y of each other.
Hooch, Pi et er de
( 1629- 1681)
Dut ch. r he Musi ci ans, pai nt i ng.
USA, Pi t t sf i el d
( Massachuset t s) ,
Ber kshi r e Museum.
Quarret:
W/VIRGIML; w/BAsS VIoL wi rh fl arne hol -es and a
rose hol e; M/ st ngs/ rnusi c; M/ VI OI I N. Port rai t ?; i nt eri or.
Bur gkmai r , Hans ( 1473- 1531)
Ger man. r he r r i umph of Kai ser
I , t axi mi l i an, 1515- 19, det ai l , engr avi ng. BRD, Muni ch, Baye-
r i sches Museum.
M/IUTE; M/BASS VIOL; M/BASS OR TENOR VIOL (PArtl AJ.J-Y
i N
vi ew). Hi st ori caL event , ; ext eri orl f est i ve.
(The
i mage i s reversed. )
Bosse, Abraham
(L602-1676)
French, rabari n, L623, engraved
f r ont spi ece, Par i s. F, Par i s, Bi bl i ot hBque Nat i ona' l e, Cabi -
net des Est ampes.
M/ VI OLA DA BRACCI O; M/ BASS VI OL. I l l usrrari on; i nreri orl
musi c and t heat er.
Bonnar t , Ni col as
( cq,
1636- 1718) Fr ench. concer t , See Pl at e
#s4.
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