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MEM661 : APPLIED WELDING ENGINEERING

SYSWELD Assignment
STUDENT NAME : MUHAMMAD AATIQ BIN AZALI 2010742349
MOHD FATHAN BIN MOHD IBRAHIM 2010547301
SITI NUR FASEHAH BINTI ROSLAN 2010333339
MOHD ILYAS HAKIM BIN IBRAHIM 2010967927
LECTURER NAME : SUNHAJI KIYAI ABAS (ASSOC. PROF)





1.0 INTRODUCTION
Simulation is the best approach to master design, manufacturing process and in service problems
at the earliest product stage possible. SYSWELD is the leading tool for the simulation of heat treatment,
welding and welding assembly processes, taking into account all aspects of material behaviour, design
and process. SYSWELD is a powerful tool that guides engineers to find out the optimum process
parameters with respect to distortions, residual stresses and plastic strains.


Graph 1: The intersection point between distortions and plastic strains lines show the optimum point of
welding.
SYSWELD is a finite element (FEM) software that simulates all usual heat treatment
processes like bulk hardening, surface hardening, tempering and hardening and tempering, as
well as thermo-chemical treatment like case hardening, carbonitriding, nitriding and
nitrocarburising. The software computes distortions of parts, residual stresses, plastic strains and
yield strength depending on the mixture of phases of the material in use, during and at the end of
the heat treatment process, plus the hardness at the end of the process. Main results obtained after
a heat treatment simulation includes temperature field and thermal flux, phase proportions,
hardness, distortions, stresses, plastic strains, yield stress and others.
The Heat Source Fitting tool (HSF) is a facility available within SYSWELD, which
enables the user to calibrate the parameters of a heat source and then use this heat source to
perform a steady state thermal analysis of the welding process. This steady-state analysis takes a
relatively short amount of time to run. Therefore, the user is able to calibrate the heat source by
adjusting these parameters in an iterative manner.
Technical Background
The technical background of heat treatment is quite complex. It involves heat transfer, phase
transformations and mechanics including phase transformation.










Figure 1: Physical effects and their interaction in thermochemical-metallurgical simulation
of case hardening.

Figure 2: Interrelated physical phenomena





Simulation Engineering
With the help of the Heat Treatment Advisor, the set-up of a numerical computation is extremely
fast. This does not mean that the simulation engineering is simple. The physics behind a heat
treatment simulation is quite complex, and a user-friendly intuitively driven graphical user
interface will not change that. In order to avoid obtaining incorrect results from an incorrect
model and bearing in mind a remark from Albert Einstein, One should never do too much but
never less than necessary, SYSWELD provides a very detailed training course for the
simulation of heat treatment that covers all real life situations. An extended user guide for best
simulation engineering practice gives the best way to transfer practical problems into a 1 heat
treatment simulation and the advisor primer shows mouse-click by mouse-click how to use the
software. Using SYSWELD, heat treatment simulation engineering is now a straightforward and
efficient task.
Software and Applications Presentation
SYSWELD for heat treatment provides dedicated solutions for heat treatment practitioners as
well as for part designers. Heat treatment practitioners will focus on the feasibility of the heat
treatment process and need answers to their questions instantly. Consequently, a dedicated
packaged solution is available for them, fitting well to the needs of a heat treatment job shop.
Part designers focus on the design of parts and try to find the optimum between cost, part shape,
material, and heat treatment process. Consequently, a dedicated package is available for the
design engineer, providing unmatched meshing and computation capabilities, both on PC and
UNIX based computers.
Fitting the Continuous Cooling Diagram
If specific information is not yet available in the SYSWELD database, it is necessary to adjust
the continuous cooling transformation diagram of the steel, extracting basic parameters from an
ITT diagram and parameters for the fine-tuning from the CCT-diagram. For numerical reasons, it
is preferable to describe the cooling behavior of steel by differential equations rather then by
pairs of temperature-proportion values.
Those differential equations have been defined, for example by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami and
Leblond. They contain phenomenological parameters that have to be adjusted individually for
each CCT diagram. Using the PHASE module and the ITT / CCT display tool, the adjustment of
a CCT-diagram is a straightforward and simple task. It is important to notice that the adjustment
has to be done only once for each steel. The results can be stored in a database and are then
accessible for further computations via a mouse-click. The major steels used in heat treatment
are already available in the SYSWELD database.















Figure 4: CCT-diagram of a 100Cr6 steel source
Database for Thermal and Mechanical Material Properties
The thermal, metallurgical and mechanical material properties of a heat-treated steel are quite
complex and depend on temperature, phases and carbon content. SYSWELD features a
comprehensive material database including the major steels that are used for case hardening,
surface hardening and through hardening. It is important to notice that the values given in the
SYSWELD material database are average values extracted from experiments and literature;
missing values have been completed by best simulation engineering practice. It is important to
note that properties of steel depend on the manufacturer, the year, the country etc. The material
properties in the SYSWELD material database therefore represent an average material that will
give good tendencies. In no case, the data will fit precisely to individual steel.

The Heat Treatment Advisor
The Heat Treatment Advisor is a graphical user interface that allows an intuitive and process-
driven methodology to set-up simulations. Once a dedicated project is defined and stored, parts,
process, and material parameters can be exchanged with a few mouse-clicks within the project
and in less than 1 minute a computation of a variant can be started. With the help of the advisor,
case hardening and through hardening processes can be fully defined. In case of surface
hardening, a few more simple operations with the standard capabilities of the software are
needed to adjust the energy input through the surface. Delivered with the software is an
illustrated advisor primer that shows, systematically, how to perform an industrial heat treatment
study. Set-up of computations with the Advisor is therefore efficient.





Figure 5: Intuitive and
straightforward set up of a heat
treatment simulation with the Heat
Treatment Wizard

Automatic Solver
The SYSWELD solver provides an automatic solution for heat treatment problems, covering all
related complex mathematics and material physics. Depending on temperature, phase
proportions, and proportion of chemical elements, thermal and mechanical properties are
computed, including large strains. Isotropic and kinematic hardening (including phase
transformations), transformation plasticity, nonlinear mixture rules for the yield stress of phases,
phase dependent strain hardening, restoring of strain hardening during diffusion controlled phase
transformations, melting and solidification of material, material properties depending on
temperature, phases and proportion of chemical elements and all features dedicated to the
methodology of finite elements are taken into account. The solver is unique and a result of about
50 men-years of development work. It is important to notice that the user does not need to be
familiar with the mathematics involved in this solver in order to perform heat treatment
computations. The only work needed to perform a computation is to load the project and to start
the solver.







Figure 6: Launching a computation the only work necessary is to load the project name
Multi-Physics Post-Processor
The multi-physics post-processing capabilities provide instantaneous process information for the
evolution of [6]
Temperature field
Heating and cooling rates
Metallurgical structure of the material
Distortions
Stresses
Yield stress of the modified material
Plastic strains

SYSWELD provides a variety of techniques for reviewing process results including
Contour plots
Iso-lines and iso-surfaces
Vector-Display
X-Y diagrams
Symbol plots
Numerical presentation
Cutting planes
Animations


















The Jominy Test
In SYSWELD, the jominy test is implemented as predefined ready-to-run simulation project.
The user has to define only the chemical composition of the steel, the computation of the jominy
test is done fully automatically. At the end of the computation, the most important results like for
example the hardness profile are displayed. The jominy test is the key to a precise heat treatment
simulation: Once the computed hardness coincides well with the measured hardness, it is secured
that the CCT-diagram of the steel under examination is numerically well implemented for the
full bandwidth of possible cooling rates. In case of discrepancies, the CCT diagram can be
modified in order to meet precisely the measured hardness profile.
Due to the fact that the formulas used for the hardness computation are empirically approved,
existing CCT diagrams can be tuned following recent hardness measurements. Based on the
optimized CCT-diagram, the core hardness of complex parts can be precisely predicted, which is
of utmost importance for the lifetime of parts and components under dynamic loads.
Figure 7: Computed
hardness of a through
hardened train wheel


Figure 8: Distortions after
quenching
Figure 9: Distortion of a
large gear after quenching














Figure 10: Comparison of computed and measured hardness of a jominy test of 16MnC
















2.0 LITERATURES REVIEW
Welding Distortion
Welding distortion can be defined as the non-uniform expansion and contraction of weld metal
and adjacent base metal during the heating and cooling cycle of the welding process. Distortion
is a consideration when arc welding all materials, and the principles behind this reaction are
fundamentally the same. However, when welding aluminum, compared to carbon steels, the
effects of some of the main contributing factors for distortion are increased. Aluminum has high
thermal conductivity, a property that substantially affects weldability. The thermal conductivity
of aluminum is about five times that of low-carbon steel. Aluminum also has high solidification
shrinkage, around 6% by volume, and also a high coefficient of thermal expansion. When arc
welding aluminum, high localized heating to the material in and around the weld area is applied.
There is a direct relationship between the amount of temperature change and the change in
dimension of a material when heated. This change is based on the coefficient of expansion the
measure of the linear increase per unit length based on the change in temperature of the material.
Aluminum has one of the highest coefficient of expansion ratios, and it changes its dimension
almost twice as much as steel for the same temperature change. Type of welding distortion such
as:-

Cause Of Distortion
Because welding involves highly localised heating of joint edges to fuse the material, non-
uniform stresses are set up in the component because of expansion and contraction of the heated
material. Initially, compressive stresses are created in the surrounding cold parent metal when
the weld pool is formed due to the thermal expansion of the hot metal (heat affected zone)
adjacent to the weld pool. However, tensile stresses occur on cooling when the contraction of the
weld metal and the immediate heat affected zone is resisted by the bulk of the cold parent metal.
The magnitude of thermal stresses induced into the material can be seen by the volume change in
the weld area on solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature. For example, when
welding steel, the molten weld metal volume will be reduced by approximately 3% on
solidification and the volume of the solidified weld metal/heat affected zone (HAZ) will be
reduced by a further 7% as its temperature falls from the melting point of steel to room
temperature.
If the stresses generated from thermal expansion/contraction exceed the yield strength of the
parent metal, localised plastic deformation of the metal occurs. Plastic deformation causes a
permanent reduction in the component dimensions and distorts the structure. [2]
Limited Way To Reduce The Distortion
The effects of weld shrinkage can never be entirely eliminated but you can keep them to a
minimum by taking a few practical steps as follows:
Reducing the metal weld volume to avoid overfill and consider the use of intermittent
welding
Minimizing the number of weld runs and positioning and balancing the welds correctly
round the axis
Using backstep or skip welding techniques, which involves laying short welds in the
opposite direction
Making allowance for shrinkage by pre-setting the parts to be welded out of position
Planning the welding sequence to ensure that shrinkages are counteracted progressively
When cutting, it is possible to limit distortion by supporting the plate so it can expand
freely without buckling; ensuring the plate is flat; allowing sufficient weld material when cutting
in from corners and using a jig-saw pattern to lock the cut pieces together when multiple cutting.
Distortion can be avoided or significantly reduced when welding structural steelwork by using
fixing devices, such as strongbacks or wedges to pre-set seams in plates; flexible clamps to
bring parts to the required gap before welding or clamps for thin sheet welding. Longitudinal
stiffeners can also be used to limit this type of bowing. It is also important to use the correct
welding sequence, such as welding the frame before a cover plate. Pre-bending or pre-setting
techniques may also help to prevent distortion and water can be used to cool the process. Pipes
and tubes can suffer distortion after welding and this can be prevented by using strongbacks
attached with straps and wedges inside or outside the longitudinal joint; using backing strips to
overcome transverse shrinkage or pre-setting or using back to back pairs when welding flanges
to pipes. In summary, if welding distortion is likely to be a problem, it can be avoided or
minimised by advance planning and following best practice. [3]
Also for the same problem that is, a way to reduce the distortion effect, using the
preheating base metal by raising the temperature of the entire part before welding reduces
temperature difference, residual stress and distortion. Second solution is peening means
hammering the weld metal usually with an air hammer, slightly reshapes the metal and
redistributes concentrated forces. In a multi-pass weld this is done between each pass. This
method can be helpful but depend on the skill and judgment of the weldor, peening consistency
is difficult to control. Next is stress relieving heat treatment by using an oven or electric heating
coil, the entire part or the weldment area is heated high enough to remove weld induced stress.
This commonly done in structural steel work. Lastly are brazing or soldering instead of welding.
Since brazing and soldering expose the work piece to much lower temperature than weling, these
two process can be used when the strength of welding s not required. [5]




Way To Reduce The Effect Of Distortion From Welding
First, preset the part. Then tacking welds the part slightly out of position and let residual force
bring them into proper position. Such as showing hot a t- joint are handled.

Use equal distortion force to balance each other by using two ( or more ) weld beads this could
be done by putting a filler weld on the both side of the t-joint. Initial joint design (left) and
balance force designs (right)

Use chain intermittent or staggered intermittent weld beads. Intermittent beads not only balance
one another, but also by reducing the total amount of the weld bead, reduce total residual force.
Even a single intermitted weld bead will have less distortion than a single continuous weld bead
and often the strength of a continuous bead is not needed. Using chain intermittent (left) or
staggered intermittent weld (right) to balance a force and reduce total weld bead metal.


Use a v-groove and filler weld in place of a fillet weld alone to balance residual stress[5]

Factors Affecting Distortion
If a metal is uniformly heated and cooled there would be almost no distortion. However,
because the material is locally heated and restrained by the surrounding cold metal, stresses are
generated higher than the material yield stress causing permanent distortion. The principal
factors affecting the type and degree of distortion are:
1. Parent material properties
Parent material properties which influence distortion are coefficient of thermal expansion and
specific heat per unit volume. As distortion is determined by expansion and contraction of the
material, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material plays a significant role in
determining the stresses generated during welding and, hence, the degree of distortion. For
example, as stainless steel has a higher coefficient of expansion than plain carbon steel, it is more
likely to suffer from distortion.
2. Restraint
If a component is welded without any external restraint, it distorts to relieve the welding stresses.
So, methods of restraint, such as 'strong-backs' in butt welds, can prevent movement and reduce
distortion. As restraint produces higher levels of residual stress in the material, there is a greater
risk of cracking in weld metal and HAZ especially in crack-sensitive materials.
3. Joint design
Both butt and fillet joints are prone to distortion. It can be minimised in butt joints by adopting a
joint type which balances the thermal stresses through the plate thickness. For example, a
double-sided in preference to a single-sided weld. Double-sided fillet welds should eliminate
angular distortion of the upstanding member, especially if the two welds are deposited at the
same time.
4. Part fit-up
Fit-up should be uniform to produce predictable and consistent shrinkage. Excessive joint gap
can also increase the degree of distortion by increasing the amount of weld metal needed to fill
the joint. The joints should be adequately tacked to prevent relative movement between the parts
during welding.
5. Welding procedure
This influences the degree of distortion mainly through its effect on the heat input. As welding
procedure is usually selected for reasons of quality and productivity, the welder has limited
scope for reducing distortion. As a general rule, weld volume should be kept to a minimum.
Also, the welding sequence and technique should aim to balance the thermally induced stresses
around the neutral axis of the component.[4]




What Residual Stress Occur In A T-Joint And What Deformation Produce.
Figure showing both longitudinal and transverse stresses in the weld bead. There is a second
weld bead on the back side of the t-joint. Because the longitudinal stress on each side of the joint
balance each other the vertical member of the t-joint remains straight. Such as longitudinal an
transverse stress in the t-joint (left) and the distortion the cause (right) [5].





5.0 DATA AND RESULT
GMAW Fillet Specific Data Test











Simulation From Welding Simulation Software (SYSWELD)

Figure: Result from SYSWELD software

Figure : Distortions effect


Figure : Weld Bead from SYSWELD software









DISCUSSION
A welding defect is any flaw that compromises the usefulness of a weldment. There is a
great variety of welding defects. Welding imperfections are classified according to ISO
6520 while their acceptable limits are specified in ISO 5817 and ISO 10042.
Distortion or deformation can occur during welding as a result of the non-uniform
expansion and contraction of the weld and base metal during the heating and cooling cycle.
Stresses form in the weld as a result of the changes in volume, particularly if the weld is
restrained by the fixed components or other materials surrounding it. If the restraints are partly
removed, these stresses can cause the base material to distort and may even result in tears or
fractures. Of course, distortion can be very costly to correct, so prevention is important.

Welding methods that involve the melting of metal at the site of the joint necessarily are
prone to shrinkage as the heated metal cools. Shrinkage then introduces residual stresses and
distortion. Distortion can pose a major problem, since the final product is not the desired shape.
To alleviate certain types of distortion the workpieces can be offset so that after welding the
product is the correct shape. The following pictures describe various types of welding distortion.


Transverse shrinkage Angular distortion Longitudinal shrinkage



Fillet distortion Neutral axis distortion



There are many factors that can cause welding or cutting distortion and it is very difficult
to predict the exact amount of distortion that is likely to occur. Some of the factors that should be
considered include the degree of restraint; the thermal and other properties of the parent material;
inherent stresses induced from previous metal-working processes such as rolling, forming and
bending; design of weldment; accuracy of manufacture and the nature of the welding process
itself the type of process, symmetry of the joint, preheat and the number and sequence of welds
required.
Based on the SYSWELD simulation, the weld bead of GMAW is overall good. The heat
affected zone, weld metal and base metal is passed based on AWS. There were some distortions
effect from welding process. The figure below show that the comparison between before and
after welding process. For the test distortion, we use Coordinate Measuring Machine to calculate
distortion happen in specimen after welding process.

So, we use three points to test the specimen distortion. For the point 1 before welding
process is 78.040 millimeters and after welding process, the steel becomes distorted to 74.107
millimeter. For the 2 and 3 points before weld is 77.940 and 77.777 millimeters, after weld
process the value distort to 73.766 millimeter and 73.618 millimeter.


Figure : Before Welding Process

Figure : After Welding Process
The effects of weld shrinkage can never be entirely eliminated but can keep them to a minimum
by taking a few practical steps as follows:
i. Reducing the metal weld volume to avoid overfill and consider the use of intermittent
welding
ii. Minimizing the number of weld runs
iii. Positioning and balancing the welds correctly rounds the axis
iv. Using backstep or skip welding techniques, which involves laying short welds in the
opposite direction
v. Making allowance for shrinkage by pre-setting the parts to be welded out of position
vi. Planning the welding sequence to ensure that shrinkages are counteracted progressively
vii. Shortening the welding time

When cutting, it is possible to limit distortion by supporting the plate so it can expand freely
without buckling; ensuring the plate is flat; allowing sufficient weld material when cutting in
from corners and using a jig-saw pattern to lock the cut pieces together when multiple cutting.
Distortion can be avoided or significantly reduced when welding structural steelwork by using
fixing devices, such as strongbacks or wedges to pre-set seams in plates; flexible clamps to bring
parts to the required gap before welding or clamps for thin sheet welding. Longitudinal stiffeners
can also be used to limit this type of bowing. It is also important to use the correct welding
sequence, such as welding the frame before a cover plate. Pre-bending or pre-setting techniques
may also help to prevent distortion and water can be used to cool the process.
CONCLUSION

In summary, if welding distortion is likely to be a problem, it can be avoided or
minimized by advance planning and following best practice. So, from this project, we can
conclude the project finished successfully after taking some measurement all the specifications in
SYSWELD simulation and Distortion Test.




REFERENCE
1. Thermal Distortion In Aluminum Welded Structures Strategies Minimize Non-uniform
Dimensional Changes Caused By Heat Stress Tony Anderson
2. Computational Materials Science A Study On The Influence Of Clamping On Welding
Distortion 45 (2009) 9991005 T. Schenk, I.M. Richardson, M. Kraska, S. Ohnimus
3. www.airproducts.co.uk/safewelding
4. http://www.twi.co.uk/technical-knowledge/job-knowledge/distortion-types-and-causes-
033/
5. Controlling Distortion by H.G Bohn