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### inventory and social and economic systems may be approached from the theory of automatic control. This is based on Control Theory, which is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems with inputs. The external input of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. The control theory’s function is to calculate solutions for the proper corrective action from the controller that result in system stability, that is, the system will hold the set point and not oscillate around it.

interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics that deals with the behavior of dynamical systems with inputs. The external input of a system is called the reference . When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system . The control theory’s function is to calculate solutions for the proper corrective action from the controller that result in system stability, that is, the system will hold the set point and not oscillate around it . FIGURE 1.1: Basic components of a control system Basic Components of a Control System The basic ingredients of a control system can be described by: 1. Objectives of control. 2. Control-system components. 3. Results or outputs. The basic relationship among these three components is illustrated in Fig. 1 - 1.Technically, the objectives can be referred to as inputs, or actuating signals, u, and the results are be called outputs, or controlled variables, y. Basically, the objective of the control system is to control the outputs in some prescribed manner by the inputs through the elements of the control system. Examples of Control-System Applications Intelligent Systems Applications of control systems have significantly increased through the development of new materials, which provide unique opportunities for highly efficient actuation and sensing, thereby reducing energy losses and environmental impacts. State-of-the-art actuators and sensors may be implemented in virtually any system, including biological propulsion; locomotion; robotics; material handling; biomedical, surgical, and endoscopic; aeronautics; " id="pdf-obj-18-21" src="pdf-obj-18-21.jpg">

### MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM: This is a system in which a machine is controlled by the human element (human being). An example is shown below.

A diagram of the system is shown below.

Figure a

To begin with the shower is cold. To start the heating process the valve in the hot water line is opened. The operator can then determine the effectiveness of the control process by standing in the shower. If the water is too hot, the valve should be closed a little or even turned off. If the water is not hot enough then the valve is left open or opened wider.

Another example is a man driving a car.

## Functions of a Manual Control System

This control system which is completed by the operator possesses the following functions:

## Measurement

This is essentially an estimate or appraisal of the process being controlled by the system. In this example, this is achieved by the right hand of the operator.

## Comparison

This is an examination of the likeness of the measured values and the desired values. This is carried out in the brain of the operator.

## Computation

This is a calculated judgment that indicates how much the measured value and the desired values differ and what action and how much should be taken. In this example, the operator will calculate the difference between the desired temperature and the actual one. Accordingly the direction and amount of the adjustment of the valve are worked out and the order for this adjustment is sent to the left hand from the brain of the operator. If the outlet water temperature is lower, then the brain of the operator will tell the left hand to open the steam valve wider. If there is any disturbance, or variation of flow rate in water to the shower inlet, some adjustment must be made to keep the outlet water temperature at a desired value.

## Correction

This is ultimately the materialization of the order for the adjustment. The left hand of the operator takes the necessary actions following the order from brain.

The accuracy and the continuous involvement of operators.

## Figure 1

### In this system (compared to figure b);

  A temperature measurement device is used to measure the water temperature,  which replaces the right hand of the operator. This improves the accuracy. Instead of manual valves, we use a special kind of valve, called a control valve,  which is driven by compressed air or electricity. This will replace the left hand of the operator. A temperature controller replaces the brain of the operator. This has the  functions of comparison and computation and can give orders to the control valve. The signal and order connections between the measurement device, control valve and controller are transferred through cables and wires, which replace the nerve system in the operator.

## Hardware of a Control System

  Sensor – This is a piece of equipment used to measure system variables. It  serves as the signal source in automatic control. Controller – This is a piece of equipment used to perform the functions of  comparison and computation. Control Element – This is a piece of equipment used to perform the control action or to exert direct influence on the process. It receives signals from the controller and performs some type of operation on the process. Generally it is simply a control valve.

## Software of a Control System

Associated with a control system are a number of different types of variables.

### variable. The objective of the control system is to regulate the controlled variable at its set-point. Manipulated Variable: This is the adjustable value which can be altered, in order to achieve the control objective. It is acted on by the control system to maintain the controlled variable at the specified value or within the specified range. In the above example, this was the input hot water flow rate.

Conclusively, in the control system we adjust the manipulated variable to maintain the controlled variable at its set-point. This meets the requirement of keeping the stability of the process and suppressing the influence of disturbances.

CLASSES OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL

  SERVO (TRACKING CONTROL): This is an automatic control system not measure the actual output and there is no correction to make that output  designed to follow a changing reference. An example is a remote controlled car. REGULATOR: This is an automatic control system designed to maintain an  output fixed (regardless of the disturbances present) e.g. cruise control. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL (NON-FEEDBACK CONTROL): This system does conform to the desired output. It is such that the control action is independent of the output. An example is an electric toaster.  CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL (FEEDBACK CONTROL): This system includes

a sensor to measure the output and uses feedback of the sensed value to influence the control input variable. It is such that the control action is

dependent on the output. Feedback is the information in a closed-loop control system

which is about the condition of a process variable. An example is the water tank of a flushing toilet.

Figure

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An error detection element: It first compares the value of the controlled

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variable to the desired value, and then signals an error if a deviation exists between the actual and desired values A final control element: It responds to the error signal by correcting the

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manipulated variable of the process.