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SYLLABUS

ADVANCED DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


(BCO 3.1)
Limit State Design of Beams For Flexure: Limit state design concepts-statistical and
probabilistic concepts of safety - Behavior of reinforced concrete beam under gradually increasing
flexural loads up to collapse - Limit state design of singly and doubly reinforced rectangular and
flanged beams for flexure check for deflection and crack width as per I.S.456 code.
Limit States Design of Beams For Shear, Torsion And Bond: Shear strength of beams -
Interaction diagrams for combined bending and torsion, Design of members subjected to
combined bending, shear and torsion - Skew bending theory-bond anchorage and splicing of
reinforcement.
Limit state design of columns: Behaviour. strength and Design of axially loaded and
eccentrically Loaded short and long columns-Design of columns carrying axial load and biaxial
moments
Limit Analysis and DeSign of Slabs: Behaviour of R.C slabs under gradually Increasing loads-
Assumptions made in yield -line theory of slabs -Analysis of isotropically and orthotropically
reinforced slabs of various shapes under different edge conditions by virtual work method and
equilibrium method-Application to practically design problem-effect of corner levers - Hillerborg"s
simple strip method of analysiS.
Design of Multibay Multistorey Frames: Analysis for vertical loads adopting substitute frames
Analysis for wind (orces using portal method -design of plane frames -Detailing of joints-joints of
space frames Shear walls-use of shear walls in high rise buildings -Types of shear walls
Behaviour of contilever walls-Interaction of shear walls and rigid jointed frames -Design for
earthquake forces.
Limit Analysis And Design of Statically Indeterminate Structures: Fundamental principles,
Moment redistribution-Limit analysis and design of continuous beams and simple portal frames-
check on rotation capacity.
DeSign of Miscellaneous Structures:
Simply supported and continuous deep beams-grid floors-Waffle slab - Corbels.
CHAPTER 1:- LIMIT STATE OF FLEXURE
Section- A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1.
The best suitable method which takes care about safety and serviceability is:
a. WSM
b. ULM
c. LSM
d. None of the above
2. Definite yield point is obtained in the following grade of steel:
a. Fe 250
b. Fe 415
c. Fe 500
d. Fe 550
3. The maximum strain in concrete at the outermost compression fibre is taken as:
a. 0.0025
b. 0.0030
c. 0.0035
d. None of the above
4. Stresses at neutral axis are:
a. Compressive
b. Tensile
c. Shearing
d. Zero
5. When the value of Xu < Xu(max). then the section is known as:
a. Balanced section
b. Under reinforced section
c. Over reinforced section
d. None of the above
6. In over reinforced sections, the failure is due to:
a. Compression
b. Tension
c. Torsion
d. Shearing
7. Doubly reinforced beams are used when:
13. A beam of reinforced concrete, when loaded, can fail due to
a. Impact forces are expected
a. Excessive tension in concrete
b. Stress reversal is expected
b. Excessive compression in steel
c. Seismic loads are expected
c. Shearing of reinforcement rods
d. All of the above
d. Excessive tension in steel
8. The ratio of width of rib to depth of rib is generally kept as
14. In a reinforced concrete section, if the area of the steel is more than that required for a
a. 1/2 to 1/3 balanced section, the moment of the section as compared to that of balanced section
b. 1/3 to 1/4 a. will remain the same
c. 2/3 to 1/3 b. will be less
d. None of the above c. will be more
9. In doubly reinforced beams, reinforcement is provided in:
d. none of the above.
a. Compression zone
15. The cement for concrete work is generally declared as 'unfit for use', if the moisture
b. Tension zone
absorbed is more than
c. Both compression and tension zone
a. 0.1%
d. None of the above
b. 0.5%
10. In case of cantilever beams, bottom portion is under:
c. 1%
a. Compression
d. 5%
b.
c.
d.
Tension
Shearing
Torsion
16. The ratio of compressive strength of concrete to the tensile strength is usually
a. 5
b. 1/5
11.
A section in which both the concrete as well as steel have been fully utilized to their c. 10
maximum capacity, is called d. 1/10
a.
b.
c.
Balance section
Critical section
Economic section
17. To which one of the following mixes would M 250 grade of concrete approximate
a. 1:1:2
d. Both (a) and (b)
b.
c.
1:1 Y2 :3
1:1 Y2:4
12.
As compared to an over-reinforced section, an under-reinforced. section is preferred
d. 1:2:4
because
18. In ordinary constructions, the factor of safety applied to the stress in steel is usually about
a. There is less chance of failure
a. 2
b. It is more economical
b. 3
c. Less steel is used
c. 4
d. It causes only compression failure for which the chances are least
d. 5
,
.}
2
3
"1
j

;1
I
19. Theunitweightofreinforcedconcreteistakenas
26. Theeffectivespanofafreelysupportedbeam orslabis
a. 15kN/m
3
a. Distancebetweenthecentresoftheendsupports
b. 20kN/m
3
b. Cleardistancebetweensupportspluseffectivedepthofbeam
c. 24kN/m
3
c. Cleardistancebetweensupportsplustwicetheeffectivedepthofbeam
d. 25kN/m
3
d. Leastof(a) and(b)
20. Normallymaximumvalueofspan/depthratioforsimplysupportedbeams istakenas
27. In case of a singly reinforced beam, the steel reaches its maximum allowable stress
a. 10 earlierthan concrete.Suchasectionisknown as
b. 12 a. Under-reinforcedsection
c. 15 b. Over-reinforcedsection
d. 20 c. Balancedsection
d. Criticalsection
21. Themaximumvalueofspan/depthratioforcantileverbeamsisnotallowedtoexceed
a. 10 28. Incaseofasinglyreinforcedbeam, the effectivedepthismeasuredfrom
b. 15 a. Toptobottom
c. 7 b. Tensileedgetocompressionedge
d. 20 c. Neutralaxistocompressionedge
d. Compressionedgetothecentreoftensilereinforcement
22. Increaseddepthofabeamleadsto
a. Economyinsteel 29. A rectangular beam 25 cm x 50 cm is designed in such a way so that the stressss
b. Economyin concrete
developedinsteelandconcretewillsimultaneouslybethesame, suchasectionisknown
c. Increasedstiffnessofthesection
as
d. Alloftheabove
a. Criticalsection
b. Economicsection
23. Inwhich casethemaximumvalueofspan/depthratiowould be least
c. Balancedsection
a. Simplysupportedslabsspanningin onedirection
d. Alloftheabove
b. Simplysupportedslabsspanning intwodirections
c. Continuousslabsspanning inonedirection
,
30. If in asingly reinforced beam, the concrete reaches itsmaximum allowablestressearlier
d. Cantileverslabs
thansteel,suchasection isknownas
a. Under-reinforcedsection
24. The effective span in case of slabs continuous over several beams and monolithically
b. Over-reinforced section
castwiththem, is
c. Balancedsection
a. Cleardistancebetweensupports
d. Criticalsection
b. Averagedistancebetweensupports
c. Cleardistancebetweensupportspluseffectivedepthofbeam
31. Adoublyreinforcedbeam isusedwhen
d. Cleardistancebetweensupportsplustwicetheeffectivedepthofbeam
a. the deformations in concrete and steel on both sides remain proportional totheir
I
distancesfromthe neutralaxis
25. Theratioofthestrengthofconcreteat28.daystothatafteroneyearis
b. tension is resistedbyconcreteonly
a. 0.60
I c. compressionisresistedbysteelonly
b. 0.80
d. both (a) and(b) above
c. 0.90
d. 0.95
4
5
32. Adoublyreinforcedbeamisused
a.
b.
c.
whenextrasafetyfactorisneeded
when the depth and the breadth of a beam have to be restricted for reason of
appearanceorotherwise
whenthedepthofbeamismorethanthebreadth
38. Theportionoftheslabthatactswiththebeamin resistingcompressiondependsupon
a.
b.
c.
d.
Itsownthickness
Thespacingofbeams
Thespanofthebeam
Alloftheabove
d. whenalargemomentofresistanceisdesired
33. Inadoublyreinforced beamthemaximumshearstressoccurs
a. alongneutralaxis
b. alongthecentroid
c. onplanesbetween neutral. axisandthecompressivereinforcement
d. on planesbetweenneutralaxisandthetensilereinforcement.
34. A doubly reinforced beam is considered as less economical as compared to a singly
reinforcedbeambecause
a. thesizeofsectionissmall
b. .thedepthofsectionissmall
c. concreteis notstressedto itsfullvalue
d. compressivesteelisunder-stressed
35. Thewidthof rib ofaT-beamshouldnotbe reducedtosuchanextentsothat
a. sufficientspaceforplacingthereinforcementisnotavailable
b. proportionateshareofstressbornebyitisreducedsubstantially
c. thesectionbecomesuneconomical
d. theeffectofTeeisnullified
36. Thewidthoftheslab(flange) ofaT-beamshouldbe
a. one-thirdofthespanofthebeam
b. thebreadthoftheweb(rib) plustwelvetimesthedepthoftheslab
c. thedistancebetweenthemiddlepOintsoftheadjacentspansoftheslab
d. leastofthe(a), (b) and(c) above
37. In case of L-beams in which the slab extends only on one side, the width of the slab
shouldbe
a. One-sixthofthespanofthebeam
b. Thebreadthofthewebplusfourtime$thedepthofslab
c. Halfofthecleardistancebetweenwebplusthewidthoftheweb
39. Forthe partofslabtoactastheflangeoftheT-beam
a. Itshouldbe builtintegrallywiththebeamoreffectivelykeyedwithit.
b. Steel should be provided near the top surface of the flange transverse to the
beam.
c. Thebondingbetweenthetwoshouldbemonolithic
d. All oftheabove
40. IncaseofaT-beam,thepositionofneutralaxis
a. Alwaysliessomewhereinthewebarea
b. Alwaysliessomewhereintheflangearea
c. Isalwaysatthejunctionofwebandflange
d. Maylieanywhereinthecross-section
41. In aTbeamtheratioofspantooveralldepthshouldnotexceed
a. 10
b. 12
c. 15
d. 20
42. TheeffectivedepthofaTbeam,forlightloadsi$takenas
a. 1/10 ofthespan
b. 1/12 ofthespan
c. 1/15ofthespan
d. 1/20 ofthespan
43. Adeepbeamdesignforasimplysupportedbeamwill havetheratioofdepthtospan
a. Lessthan 0.8
b. Morethan0.8
c. Lessthan0.6
d. Morethan0.6
d. Leastofthe(a), (b) and(c) above.
6 7
44. ForaT-beamthe ratioofthewidthtothe depthoftherib isgenerally
49. Thecoefficientoflinearexpansionofsteelisoftheorderof
a. Between.!.to .!. a. 0.098cm/oc
4 3
b. 0.0098cm/oc
b. Between .!. to 2
3 3
c. 0.00098cmjOc
d. 0.0000098cmfOc
c. Between !to
2 8
d. Between .!.to l
2 4
KEY
45. ATbeamcan be considered as arectangularbeam ofwidth equalto itsflange, provided
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a)
itsneutralaxis
7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (a) 11. (d) 12. (b)
a. Lieswithintheflangearea
b. Liesbelowtheslab
13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (d) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (a)
c. Liesanywherebutwithinthe section
19. (c) 20. (d) .21. (a) 22. (d) 23. (d) 24. (a)
d. Liesonlyatthejunctionofslab
25. (b) 26. (d) 27. (a) 28. (d) 29. (d) 30. (b)
46. TheeffectivedepthofaTbeam, formediumloadsistaken 31. (a) 32. (b) 33. (c) 34. (d) 35. (a) 36. (d)
a. J..- ofthe span
37. (d) 38. (d) 39. (d) 40. (d) 41. (d) 42. (d)
10
43. (b) 44. (b) 45. (a) 46.
b. 1 ofthespan
(c) 47. (b) 48. (d)
12
49. (d)
c. J..- ofthespan
15
d. J..- ofthespan
18
47. TheeffectivedepthofaTbeam, forheavyloadsistaken as
a. 1 ofthespan
10
b. J..- ofthespan
12
c. J..- ofthespan
15
d.
1
ofthespan
20
48. The ratioofcoefficientoflinearexpansionofsteeltothatofconcreteisroughly
a. 1.0
b. 1.71
c. 1.41
d. 1.19
8
9
Section- B Section- C
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
TrueI FaistTypeQuestions:
1. Indoublyreinforced beamsthemain steel isprovidedin compression zone
2. Whenthesizeofbeamis restrictedthendoublyreinforced beamsareprovided.
3. IfXu<Of, then N.A. lieswith intheflangeofT-beam
4. The nominal cover in a simply supported beam should not be less than the diameterof
the reinforcing bar
5. Maximumsteelreinforcementisprovidedintensionzone.
6. In limitstatedesign,overreinforcedsectionsarepreferred.
7. ThelimitingvalueofdepthofNAforFe415steel is0.48d
8. Effectivecover+Effectivedepth Overalldepthofbeamsection.
9. Failureofsteelisconsideredasbrittle.
10. Limitstate method resultsin lesserquantityofsteelreinforcementascomparedtoWSM.
11. Theratioofcoefficientoflinearexpansionofsteeltothatofconcreteisroughly1.19.
12. A deep beam design for a simply supported beam will have the ratio of depth to span
morethan0.8.
13. The portion ofthe slab that acts with the beam in resisting compression depends upon
thespacingofbeam.
14. Indoublyreinforcedbeamthemaximumshearstressoccursalongthecentroid.
15. A beam of reinforced concrete, when loaded, can fail due to excessive tension in
concrete.
16. Theratio ofcompressivestrengthofconcretetothetensilestrengthis usually0.2.
17. In ordinary construction, the factor of safety applied to the stress in steel is usually
about3.
18. Theunitweightofreinforcedconcreteistakenas25kN/m
3
.
19. Increaseddepthofabeam leadsto economyinconcrete.
20. Theratioofthestrengthofconcreteat28daystothatafteroneyearis 0.8
Key:
1. T 2. F .3. T 4.. F 5. T 6. T
7. T 8. F 9. F 10. T 11. T 12. T
13. T 14. F 15. F 16. F 17. F 18. T
19. T 20. T
10
Q.1. WhatarethefoursalientfeaturesofLimitStateMethodofdesign?
Ans. Salientfeaturesofthismethodare:
Itisthe bestsuitable method because it noton'lytakes intoaccountthe ultimatestrength
butalsotheserviceabilityanddurabilityrequirement.
In this method, the structure shall be designed to withstand safely all loads which are
expectedtoacton itthroughoutitslifespan.
This method of design is based upon safety at ultimate loads and serviceability
requirements.
The"LimitState" maybe defined asthe acceptable limitforthe safetyand serviceability
requirements.
Q.2 WriteashortnoteonLimitStateofCollapseandLimitStateofServiceability.
Ans. (a) LimitStateofCollapse:(AsperIS:456- 2000Clause35.2)
1. TheLimitStateofCollapse(orfailure) dependsuponultimatestrength.
2. LimitStateofCollapsehavebeenintroducedfrom safetyrequirements.
b) LimitStateofServiceability:(Asper:456 2000,Clause35.3)
1. Thelimitstateofserviceabilityrelatestothe performanceand behaviour
ofstructure atserviceloads(workingloads).
2. This limit state is introduced to prevent objectionable deflection and
cracking.
Q.3. Give any three points of differences between Limit State Method and Working
StressMethodofdesign.
Ans.
LimitStateMethod(LSM)
It is based on the behaviour of structure
WorkingStressMethod{WSM}
The structure shall be designed on the
basis of most critical limit state and
checkedforotherlimitstates.
ISafetyagainstultimateloadsisnotknown.
underserviceload(working loads).
It satisfies all the limit states of collapse
and serviceability.
i This method is based upon linear stress It is based upon non-linear stress
distribution taking inelastic strain into distribution.
conSideration.
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Q.4. Whatarevaluesofpartialfactorofsafety(Yf)fordifferentloadcombinations?
Ans.
LimitStateofCollapse . LimitStateofServiceability
I
ItoadCombinations
I
I
D.L. W.L. D.L. L.L. L.L. W.L.
-
I
1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 - ID.L. +L.L
I
1.5or0.9*
I-
1.0
I
ID.L. +W.L. - 1.5
i1.0
j
i
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.8
I
1 D.L. +L.L. +W.L.
e.g., ForloadcombinationD.L.+L.LandlimitstateofcollapsethevaluesofD.L.andL.L,
socalculated, aretobe multipliedwith 1.5(Le., partialsafetyfactor).
When (E.L.)areconsideredthensubstitute(W.L.)with E.L.
Thevalueof(D.L.) istobe multipliedby0.9*forthe load combinationof(D.L. +W.L.)for
limitstateofcollapse,onlywhenstabilityagainstoverturningorstressreversaliscritical.
Q.S. WhatdoyoumeanbySinglyReinforcedBeam?
Ans. The RCC beams in which the steel reinforcement is provided only in tension zone, are
called as singly reinforced beams. In case of simply supported beams, the tensile
stresses are developed in bottom portion, which are mainly resisted by tensile
reinforcement and the compressive stresses 'are developed in top portion and are
resistedbyconcretealone.
Q.S. Write down any two assumptions in the Designfor the limit state of collapse in
flexure.
Ans. Design forthe limitstateofCollapse in flexure shall be based on the assumptionsgiven
below:
Planesections normaltothe axisremain plane afterbending Le. strain developed in any
partofthecross-section isproportionaltoitsdistancefromtheneutralaxis.
Themaximum strain in concreteattheoutermostcompressionfibre istaken as0.0035in
bending.
Q.7. HowthedepthofNeutralAxisiscalculated?
Ans. DepthofNeutralAxis(Xu)
Depth of neutral axisfrom thetop compression edge is designatedas (Xu). The location,
ofN.A.canbedeterminedfromthestressstraindiagramofbeamsection.
0.45fck I
EC= 0.0035 I" ...
d- 0,42Xu
0.42 Xu
c=0.36 fel< b X'.1
Leverarm(Z) =
SectionofaBeam StainDiagram StainDistributionDiagram
Where,
b:;Widthofbeamsection
d=Effectivedepthofbeam
As!=Areaofsteelintension
Xu :;Depthofneutralaxisfromthetopedge
c
e
=Straininconcrete
fCk :; Characteristicstrengthofconcrete(N/mm2)
f
y
=Yieldstressofsteel(N/mm2)
C:;Resultantcompressiveforce
T=ResultantTensileforce
Z Leverarm, (distanceseparatingtwoforcesLe. TandC)
Es:;Modulusofelasticityofsteel
Atlimitstate ofcollapse, consideringthe equilibrium offorces (tensile and compressive.)
i.e.,Resultantcompressiveforce(C) =Resultanttensileforce (T)
0.36fckbxu =0.87 fy AS!
0.87 f AS!
Mathematically, Xu = ; b
0.36 ck
Q.S. WhatisLimitingMomentofResistance?
Ans. Limiting moment of resistance is designated as Mu(lim). The ultimate moment of
resistance(Mu) istheresistanceofferedbythebeamsectiontoresistbendingmomentat
collapse(Le., atfactoredB.M.).
In a balanced section, the steel reinforcement reaches its yield stress at the sametime
when the ultimate strain is reached in the concrete. The moment of resistance (Mu)
reaches its limiting value Mu(lim) which can be determined by taking moment of
compressiveforceaboutthecentreoftensilereinforcement.
0.9. WhatarethedifferenttypesofBeamSections?
Ans. Depending upon thepercentage oftensile steel, thesections can beclassified intothree
categoriesas under:
1 . BalancedSection
2. UnderReinforcedSection
3. OverReinforcedSection
0.10. Whataretheconditionsapplicableforbalancedsection?
Ans. Followingconditionsareapplicableforsinglyreinforcedbeams:
Xu(max) Xu
-d-=dorXu =Xu(max.}
(i)
(ii) pt:::pt(lim).
(iii) The momentof resistancewill bemaximum(orlimitingmoment)
MU(Iim) ::: exz
Mulim. =0.36ick bXu(max.) [ d 0.42Xu(max) ]
or
(where2::: leverarm, 2::: d0.42Xu andXu ::: xumax)
0.11. Giveanythreeconditionsunderwhichdoublyreinforcedbeamsareprovided.
Ans. Adoublyreinforcedbeam sectionisgenerallyprovidedunderfollowingcircumstances:
When the depth of beam section is restricted due to want of head room architectural
appearance, etc.
When itisrequired toincreasethestiffnessofthebeam.
When the bending moment (Mu), due to external applied loads, is very large than the
limitingvalue of momentof resistance (Mu lim.) of asingly reinforced beam and the pre-
determinedsize isrestricted.
0.12. Whatdoyoumeanbyeffectivewidthofflange?
Ans. The effective width of the flange of aT-beam is that portion of the slab which acts
monolithicwiththebeamandresiststhe compressivestresses;
The effective width of flange mainly depends upon the span, breadth of web and
thicknessofslabactingasflange.
013. WhatdoyoumeanbyDoublyReinforcedBeams?
Ans: Doubly Reinforced beam is that type of beam in which the reinforcement is provided in
both the zone of abeam i.e. tension zone as well ascompression zone also. The depth
ofdoublyreinforcedbeamislessthanthatofsinglyreinforcedbeams.
014. Whatarethedifferenttypeofloadswhichareactingonastructure?
Ans: Thefollowingarethedifferenttypesofloadsactingonthe structure:
Dead load: It includes the self weight of the structure, and weight of the permanent
objectsin astructure.
LiveLoad; Itincludestheweightofthestructurewhose Intensityvariesfrom pointtopoint
suchasweightofthefurnitureinabuilding,snowloadetc.
Earthquakeload.
o15. WhyOver-Reinforcedbeamsareavoided?
Ans: In case ofoverreinforced beams, the concrete ison the crushing pointwhich thetension
reinforcement is still in itselasticrange onlytensilestrainsaresmall. As such, there isno
visiblecracksinthe concreteinthetensilezoneevenwhen thecollapse isimminent.The
collapse of the beam takes place suddenly by the crushing of concrete in compression.
Suchafailure iscalledacompressionfailurewhich exhibitsbrittlebehavior.
o16. Onwhatfactors,thedepthofNeutralAxisdepends?
Ans: The location ofN.A. in case ofRCCbeam,dependsupontheamountofsteelprovidedin
the tension zone. The depth of neutral axis from the top most, compression edge,
increaseswith theincreasein amountofsteel.
0.17. WhatdoyoumeanbyLeverArm?
Ans: The distance between the resultantcompressiveforce (C) and tensileforce (T) is known
as Lever Arm and designated as (2). At equilibrium both the forces are equal and
oppositetoeachother.
TotalCompressionin Concrete(C):::TotalTension in Steel (T)
LeverArm, 2=d- 0.42Xu
0.18. A singlyreinforced beam ofsize250mmx 450mm (overall)isreinforced with steel
barsofarea1300mm
2
UseM20gradeofconcreteandFe415steel.Checkwhether
thebeamisunderreinforcedoroverreinforced?
Ans. DataGiven: b::: 250mm
D=450mm
Ast=1300mm
2
fck=20N/mm2 (ForM20concrete)
fy::: 415 N/mm2 (ForFe415gradeofsteel)
Assumingeffectivecovertobe 50mm :.d=450- 50:::400mm
Depthofneutralaxis,
0.87fA, 0.87x415x1300
x"
0.36fckb 0.36x20x230
Xu =288.43mm
I
Q.1. DiscussthesalientfeaturesofLimitStateMethod.
=192mm
C1 '3,';. \
Ans. Salientfeaturesofthis methodare:
We knowthatwhileWorking Stress Method (WSM)gives satisfactoryperformanceofthe
Xu > Xu(max). , Hencethebeamsectionisover-reinforced. :.Xu (max) ==192mm
structureatworking loads butitbecomes unrealisticat ultimatestateofcollapse. On the
otherhand, Ultimate Load Method (ULM) provides realisticassessmentofsafety, itdoes
notguaranteethesatisfactoryserviceabilityofworkingloads.
The best suitable method is that which not onlytakes into account the ultimate strength
butalsotheserviceabilityanddurabilityrequirement.
In this method, the structure shall be designed to withstand safely all loads which are
expectedtoacton itthroughoutitslifespan.
It shall also satisfy the serviceability requirements such as prevention of excessive
deflection,crackingandvibrations.
This method of design is based upon safety at ultimate loads and serviceability
requirements.
The"LimitState" may be defined astheacceptable limitforthe safetyandserviceability
requirements.
In LSM, design values are obtained by multiplying working loads with partial factor of
safety (FOS) and the design strength of materials is obtained by dividing characteristic
strengths(Ultimatestrength)withpartialFOS.
To make sure that each of above objectives are satisfied, the design should be based
i ~ i t i n g valueofdepthofneutralaxis, Xu(max) =0.48d (ForFe415steel)
X ~ <) G/.
u(max) =0.48x400
,-I,;.j(
\,)\ (jL'1V} , '}...J ~
SectionD
LongAnswerTypeQuestions:
Y' ~
upon characteristic values for material strengths and applied loads, taking into account
thevariationinthematerialstrength and loading.
Q.2. WhatarethedifferenttypesofLimitStates?
Ans. Limit sate is a state of impending failure beyond which a structure ceases to perform
satisfactorilyintermsofsafetyandserviceability.
Differenttypesoflimitstateswhicharetobeconsideredindesignare:
LimitStateofCollapse(orUltimateLimitState)
LimitStateofServiceability
OtherLimitStates
(a) LimitStateofCollapse:(AsperIS :456- 2000Clause35.2)
1. TheLimitStateofCollapse(orfailure)dependsupon ultimatestrength.
2. LimitStateofCollapsehasbeenintroducedfromsafetyrequirements.
Limit State of Collapse occurs when the structure as a whole or part of the
16
structurecollapsesunderfollowingconditions:
(i) LimitStateofCollapsein Flexure
17
-.l
(ii) LimitStateofCollapseinCompression
(iii) LimitStateofCollapseinShear
(iV) LimitStateofCollapseinTorsion
(v) LimitStateofCollapsein Bond.
(b)
limitStateofServiceability:(Asper:IS456- 2000, Clause35.3) ..
1. The limit state of serviceability relates to the performance and behaviour of
structureatserviceloads(workingloads).
2. This limitstateisintroducedtopreventobjectionabledeflectionandcracking.
3. Generally, design is based upon limit state of collapse at ultimate loads and
serviceability(in excessivecrackinganddeflection)atworkingloads.
Thetwoimportantlimitstateofserviceabilityare:
LimitStateofDefection
LimitStateofCracking
Note : All above mentioned limit states should be considered in design to ensure
adequate degreeofsafetyand serviceability. In general, thestructureshall be designed
onthebasisofthemostcritical limitstateandshallbecheckedforotherlimitstates.
(c)
OtherLimitStates(AsperIS:456- 400,Clause35.3)
Structures designed for unusual or special functions shall comply with any relevant
additional limit state considered appropriate to that structures such as limit states of
vibrations, impactresistance, durability,fire resistanceetc.
Q.3. DifferentiatebetweenLimitStateMethodandWorkingStressMethodofdesign.
Ans. ComparisonbetweenWorkingStressMethod'(WSM)andLimitStateMethod(LSM):_
,WorkingStressllllethod(WSM) . ..
limitStateMethod

..--
It is based on the behaviourof structure
designed on
underserviceload (workingloads).
basisofmostcritical limitstateand !
I
forotherlimitstates.

.--;--
This method is assumed to be Thismethod is because
deterministic because all loads, stresses loads and stresses are predicted based

i andfactorofsafetyareknown.
Iuponexperienceandfield datas.
Safety against ultimate loads is not Itsatisfiesallthe limitstatesofcollapse and
known.
serviceability.
This method is based upon linear stress It is based upon non-linear stress
distribution.
distribution taking inelastic strain into
consideration.
-. ..
18
Structures are proportioned to develop In this method, the design values are
I
.stresses upto a fraction of the ultimate obtainedbyapplyingpartialsafetyfactors.
I
I
stress ofconcreteandyield stressofsteel
i byapplyingFOS.
WSM leads to. comparatively larger LSM results in,lesser quantities of steel
I sectionsofstructuralmemberswith higher' reinforcementascomparedtoWSM.
quantitiesofsteel reinforcement.
Q.4. Whatdo you mean bypartial safetyfactor? Discussthe partial safetyfactors for
materialandload. - pc:'j .. G8 -
Ans. Partial safety factors are the varues which when applied to charactenstlc loads and
characteristic strength of materials give design values. There are two types of partial
safetyfactorsLe., forloadsandmaterialstrength.
(a) PartialSafetyfactorforStrengthofMaterials(AsperIS:456- 2000,Clause36.4.2)
,
It isdesignated as 'Ym'. The partial factor of safety for strength ofmaterial is thefactor,
which when.multiplied by characteristic.strength of material gives the design values for
materials.ThevaluesofYm foreach material will be differentfordifferentstatesand are
givenbelow:
ForConcrete = 1.5(ForLimitStateofCollapse)
= 1.0(ForLimitStateofServiceability)(Le., Deflection)
=
1.3(ForLimitStateofServiceability)(i.e.,Cracking)
ForSteel
=
1.15(ForLimitStateofCollapse)
= 1.0(ForLimitStateofServiceability)(i.e., Deflection)
=
1.0(ForLimitStateofServiceability)(Le., Cracking)
Higher value of Ym is taken for concrete (Le., 1.5) than Steel (ie., 1.15) because it is
expectedthatthestrengthofconcretemayvaryfromthetestresultsbecauseofimproper
performanceofconcrete operations (likemixing, transportation, placing compaction etc.)
whereas chances of deviation for steel from expected strength are less as compare to
concrete.
As the values ofdesign strength are same as that ofcharacteristic strengths, therefore
thevalueforconcreteandsteel istakenas1.0.
(b) PartialSafetyFactorforLoads:(AsperIS:456- 2000,Clause36.4)
Itisdesignated as'Yf'. Thepartialfactorofsafetyforloadsmaybe definedE!S thefactor,
which when multiplied with characteristic loads gives the value of design loads. It
dependsupontypeofload(Le., D.L. orL.L. orW.L.)andthetypeoflimitstate.
PartialsafetyfactorsforloadsunderdifferentlimitstatesaregiveninTable.
19
1
Table:Valuesofpartialfactorofsafety(Yf)forloads)
'i:08dCombinations IlimitStateofCollapse ilimi-t
i ." , Serviceability I
_____J<.. DL l.l. w.G
l.L 1.5 11.5, - 1.0 1.0
1.5 or0.9*1- 1.5 1.0 ,1.0
ID.l.+l.l.+ __ 11.2 1.2 I
e.g., ForloadcombinatIonDL+l.LandlimitstateofcollapsethevaluesofD.l.andl.L,
socalculated,aretobemultipliedwith 1.5 (Le., partialsafetyfactor).
When (EL)areconsideredthensubstitute(WL).with E.L
Thevalueof (D.L)isto be'multipliedby0.9* forthe loadcombinationof (DL+W.l.)for
limitstateofcollapse, onlywhenstabilityagainstoverturningorstressreversal iscritical.
0.5. WhatdoyoumeanbySinglyReinforcedBeam?Discussitsbehavior.
Ans. The RCC beams in which the steel reinforcement is provided only in tension zone, are
called as singly reinforced beams. In case of Simply supported beams, the tensile
stresses are developed in bottom portion, which are mainly resisted by tensile
reinforcement and the compressive stresses are developed in top portion and are
resisted byconcretealone.
Note: In simply supported singly reinforced beams, the tension zone is at bottom and
compression zone attop. Where as in case ofcantileverbeamsthe top portion isunder
tensionandbottomportionisundercompression (ie., reverseofsimplysupportedbeam).
"
Load
-'--- --
C'"CompressiveForces
T=: TenSile Forces

DeflectedPosition
(al SimplySupportedBeam
<
0.6.
Ans.
Steel---ir.tl
Stirrups
(Rings)
Neutral
KJs--
AnchorBars
CompressionZone
Tension
Zone
Nominal
Concrete-r
Cover ,.
TensileReinforcement(AsV
where D OverallDepth ofbeamsection
d=Effectivedepthofbeamsection
b Widthofbeamsection
Xu =Depthofneutralaxisfromtopfibre
Ast =Areaofsteelreinforcementintension
d
Xu
Effective
Cover
D
EffectiveCover=Distancebetweencentreoftensilesteel (mainsteel)tothe bottommost
edgeofthebeam.
Nominal Concrete Cover = Concrete cover provided tothe steel reinforcement on all
sides(Le., belowstirrupstothebottommostedgeofbeam).
. c.. t :> @. - p., ye 61
Writedowntheassumptionsinthelimitstateofcollapseinflexure.
Design forthe limitstate ofCollapse in flexure shall be based on the assumptionsgiven
below:
(i) Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending Le. strain
+
T

"
,
I
(b)Cantilever Beam
Figure:Showsthesectionofasinglyreinforcedbeam
20
developedin any partofthe cross-section isproportional to itsdistancefrom the
neutralaxis.
(ii) The maximum strain in concrete at the outermostcompression fibre is taken as
0.0035 in bending.
(iii) The relationship between the compressivestressdistribution in concrete and the
straininconcretemaybeassumedtobeparabolic.
21
fel<
t 0.67fck
..,
'"


0.002 0.0035
Slrain ...
Fordesignpurpose, thecompressivestrengthofconcreteinthestructureshall be assumedtobe
0.67timesthe characteristic strength (fck)' The partial factorofsafety Y m=1.5 shall be applied in
0.67f,. - 045J:
additiontothisi.e., Designcompressivestress= 1.5 -. ,.
Where,fck=Characteristiccompressivestrengthofconcrete.
(iv) Thetensilestrengthofconcreteisignored.
(v) The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from representative stress-strain curve for
thetypeofsteelused.
t
.0001
.0003
.0007
----!,'-------f
V
J
J
fy/1.15
,
I
,
,
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
.004
.003
Es=200000Nlmm2
Strain----....
(a) ColdWorkedDeformedBar
fy
fy
iy/1.15
t
II)
f
(j)
Es=200000N/mm2
Strain-----.
Fordesignpurpose,thepartialsafetyfactor(Ym) =1.15shallbeapplied.
(vi) The maximum strain in tension reinforcement in the section at failure shall not be less
than

1.15E,
0.87 fy +0.002
or
where, fy =Characteristicstrength ofsteel
Es=Modulusofelasticityofsteel.
Q.7. WhatdoyoumeanbyNeutralAxis?HowthedepthofNeutralAxisiscalculated?
Ans. It is an imaginary axis which divides the cross-section of a beam into two zones Le.,
compression and tensionzone. Thestresses are zeroatthis axis. Neutral axis isalways
situatedatthecentreofgravityofthegivensection.
In case of a simply supported beam the neutral axis divide the beam section into
Compression zone (top portion) and tension zone (bottom portion). But in case of
cantilever beams, the stresses are reverse i.e., top portion is tension zone and bottom
portioniscompressionzone.
ThelocationofN.A. incaseofRCC beam, dependsupon theamountofsteelprovidedin
the tension zone. The depth of neutral axis from the top most, compression edge,
increaseswith theincreaseinamountofsteel.
Note : It is important for a structural engineerto precisely locate the position of neutral
axisbecauseithelpsin calculatingthe amountofstrainsdevelopedin steelandconcrete
atthatparticularsection.
DepthofNeutralAxis(Xu)
Depth ofneutral axis from thetop compression edge is designated as (Xu). The location
ofNAcanbedeterminedfromthestressstraindiagramofbeamsection.t
EC'" 0.0035
SectionaBeam
SlainDiagram
Where, b=Widthofbeamsection
D=Effectivedepthofbeam
As!=Areaofsteelintension
Figure
Xu =Depthofneutralaxisfrom thetopedge
e St ..
c = rain Inconcrete
fck =Characteristicstrengthofconcrete(N/mm2)
fy =Yieldstressofsteel (N/mm2)
C== Resultantcompressiveforce
T ResultantTensileforce
r-.
0
.
451
ck.
"'1
0.42 Xu
c=0.36 fdeb ~
Leverarm(Z)=d- 0.42Xu
T =0.87 fy AS!
StainDistributionDiagram
Z=Leverarm, (distanceseparatingtwoforcesi.e.TandC)
Es Modulusofelasticityofsteel
At limit state of collapse, considering the equilibrium of forces (tensile and compressive.) i.e.,
Resultantcompressiveforce (C)=Resultanttensileforce(T)
0.36f
ck
bx
u
=0.87 fy Ast
. 0.87 f A
Mathematically, x y sf
u 0.36 f
c
k b
Note : The value of X. obtained from the above relation, must not exceed maximum depth of
neutralaxisbecauseitwill restrictthe useofoverreinforcedsections.
24
a.8. WhatisLimitingMomentofResistance?Howitiscalculated?
Ans.
.
..
Limiting momentofresistance isdeSignated as Mu(lim)' Theultimate momentof resistance
(Mu) isthe resistance offered bythe beam seGtion to resist bending momentatcollapse
(i.e.,atfactoredB.M.).
In a balanced section, the steel reinforcement reaches its yield stress at the same time
when the ultimate strain is reached in the concrete. The moment of resistance (Mu)
reaches its limiting value MU(lim) which can be determined by taking moment of
compressiveforce aboutthecentreoftensilereinforcement.
Thedistance betweenthe resultantcompressive force (C) and tensile force (T) is known
as Lever Arm and deSignated as (Z). At equilibrium both the forces are equal and
oppositetoeachother.
TotalCompressionin Concrete(C) == TotalTensionin Steel(T)
From Fig. (a.No,7) Z=d- 0.42Xu
Mu CxZorTxZ
Ultimatemomentofresistance, Mu::CxZ
::0.36fck bXu (d- 0.42Xu) _
As the maximum depth of neutral axis is limited to Xu (max.), therefore the maximum
valueofmomentisalsolimited.
Put x" :::: Xu(max) and M u ::::Mu(lim)
M .um. :::: 0.36fck b xu(max.) (d - 0.42 x.max)
Forexample,
ForFe250grade(i.e.,mildsteel),fy == 250N/mm2 andximax) =0.53d
AndforM25(fck=25N/mm2)
Xu :::: xu(mu) and MuMu(lim)
M lim 0.36fck b X.(mu) [ d - 0.42Xu(max) ]
MU(lim) 0.36x25xbXO.53d[d 0.42X 0.53d]
MU(lim) =4.77 b d [d -0.22d]== 4.77 bd xO.78d
Mu(lim) ::::3.72bd
2
Similarly for different grades of steel and concrete the, values of limiting moment of
resistancecanbecalculatedfromtheaboverelationandaregivenintablebelow.
IGrade
of GradeofSteel
! Concrete
Ifck
Fe250Grade Fe415Grade Fe500Grade
I
(N1mm
2
) (fv=250Nlmm
2
) (fv=415N/mm
2
) (fv=500N/mm
2
) !
In general
' - 0.148fCk bd'" 0.138fck bd" 0.133fCk bd"
! M20 20 2.98bd" 2.76bd" 2.66bd"
IM25 25 3.72bd" 3.45bd" 3.33bd"
IM30 30 4.47bd" i 4.14bd" 3.39bd
2
I
i M35 35 5.21 b d" 4.83bd" 1 4.66b d2.
IM40 40 5.96 b d" 15.52b d" 5.32 b d"
25
,
I
1,
i
!
l
0.9.
Ans.
1.
2.
3.
or
What are the types of Beam Section? Discuss Balanced Section in detail.
Maximum strain criteria has been accepted as the failure criteria for RCC members in
flexure. A reinforced concrete member is considered to have failed when the strain in
concrete (Ec) in extreme compression fibre reaches its ultimate value (Le., 0.0035). At
[
0.857!y J
.
this stage of failure, the actual strain in steel (Es) shall not be less than Es
Depending upon the percentage of tensile steel, the sections can be classified into three
categories as under:
Balanced Section
Under Reinforced Section
Over Reinforced Section
Balanced Section
The section in which the tensile steel reaches the yield strain
(. 0.087!y
ll.e.. +0.002)
simultaneously as the concrete reaches the failure strain (Es =0.0035) is known as
balanced section.
Conditions applicable for balanced section are:
pt =pt(lim).
(i)
Oi)
(iii)
The moment of resistance will be maximum (or limiting moment)
MU(lim)
CxZ
M
ulim
. :::O.36fck bxu{max) [d 0.42xu(maxl.]
(where Z =lever arm, Z == d - 0.42 Xu and Xu =Xumax)
EC= 0.0035
I" .. ,
N.A
I... ...,
..I Ils = 0.87 ty -+- 0.002
e;-
Section a Beam
Slain Diagram
26
0.10. What are the various conditions under which doubly reinforced beams are
provided?
Ans. A doubly reinforced beam section is generally provided under following circumstances:
0.11.
Ans.
(i) When the depth of beam section is restricted due to want of head room
architectural appearance, etc.
(ii) When it is required to increase the stiffness of the beam.
(iii) When the bending moment (Mu), due to external applied loads, is very large
compared to the limiting value of moment of resistance (Mu lim.) of a singly
reinforced beam and the pre-determined size is restricted.
(iv) In seismic prone areas, due to want of ductility the compression steel is provided.
(v) When the member is subjected to eccentric loading.
(vi) When the member is subjected to shocks or impact forces.
(vii) When there is possibility of stress reversal in beams.
(viii) In case of continuous beams, the section of beam at the support is designed as
doubly reinforced section.
What is the necessity of providing T-Beam?
Concrete below neutral axis (N.A.) does to resist any bending moment but simply holds
the tensile steel. Also, the portion of the concrete just above the N.A. carries very little
compressive force because the intenSity of compressive stress there is of very small
magnitude.
This suggests that the section of the beam should have greater width at top (Le.,
compression side) in comparison to its width, below the N.A. Such a section is known as
a T-section or simply aT-beam.
,
T-beams are more common than rectangular beams because when slabs and hanging
beams are cast monolithically, they automatically form a T-beam. Under the action of
extemally applied loads the beam along with some portion of slab deflects
simultaneously.
Flange
I
.. J
F
la
... ...
0
I .... __
-==-
.,... _.- #IfII' I
D
:.t l -
-
-- ---
..... Web{Rib)

....
Ast
The portion of slab assisting in resisting the effects of external loads is called as 'Flange'
of a T-beam and the portion of the beam below the slab is called "Web or Rib".
27

Beams are monolithically casted with RCC slab and the shear reinforcement (stirrups)
and bent up bars of beam are extended into slab and hence they both resist the
compressivestressesjointly.
AnchorBarsofbeam RCC Slab(actingasflange)
Bent-upbar_s-t_.....'"
ofslab 1::::::!:::;-===it'-"1ir=====::::1
Straightbars
....--Shearstirrupofbeam
ofslab
"'--1IVeb(Rib)
Mainsteelofbeam
InT-beam theslab extends an equal distanceon eithersideofarib. And asimilarbeam
attheendofaslabformsaL-bearnasshowninfigure.
Q.12. Whatdoyoumeanbyeffectivewidthofflange?Howwillyoucalculateit?
Ans. The effective width of the flange of a T-beam is that portion of the slab which acts
monolithicwiththebeamandresiststhecompressivestresses;
The effective width of flange mainly depends upon the span, breadth of weband
thicknessofslabactingasflange.
,
L_________ _
------, .. _-_ ... _- ----... - ..
---._-"
------.Ittr-------
I I
, I
I I
I t
t I lst mtrt:
I (UIitI SMfI)
)(
:!_ J
1 I
t _____ _
,,-------
------, ,..- .. ----
I
j----------
1 t
,. ..
I
I
'
WIwl-a..r.., 01 bNm
, Main.., or bum
c, ....
Where, L=Clearspanofbeam
I =Mainspan ofbeam.
Note:(AsperI.S. :456- 2000, clause26.5.1.8) Reinforcement inflanges ofT-beams (andalso
beams) shall satisfy 1(b).Whereflanges are in tension, apart ofthe main tension reinforcement
shall be distributed overthe effective flange width ora width ofequal to one length ofthespan,
whicheverissmaller.
Ifthe effective width offlange exceeds one length of span, nominal longitudinal reinforcement
shallbeprovidedintheouterportionofflange.
In absence of moreaccuratedeterminations, the effective width bfoftheflange maybe taken as
theleastofthefollowing :
(a) ForT-beams(leastofTwo)
1 .
=.Jl..+6D
I
+b b
l w
(i) . 6
b =b +11
(ii) I 2 (sum ofcleardistancestotheadjacentbeamson eitherside) W
AccordingtoI.S. 456-2000clause (23.1) aslabwhich is assumed to actas aflange ofa
T-beam (orofaL-beam)shallsatisfythefollowings:
The slab be casted integrallywith the web, orthe web and the slab shall be effectively
bondedtogetherin anyothermanner,and
It the main reinforcement of the slab is parallel to the beam, transverse reinforcement
shall be provided. Such transverse reinforcementshall notbe lessthan 60% ofthe main
reinforcementatthe midspanoftheslab.
28
Q.13
Ans.
Asinglyreinforcedbeamhavingsize250mm)(500mm(effective)isreinforcedwith
4barsof20mmdiameter.UsingM20gradeofconcreteandFe415steel,calculate
theultimateflexuralstrengthofthesection.
DataGiven: b=250mm
d=500mm
(
20)2
A =4 x7r =1256.64mm2
st 4
29
fck=20N/mm2 (ForM20concrete)
fy=415N/mm2 (ForFe415Steel)
0.87 0.87x415x1256.64
Dept
h
0fneutra
I
aXIS, x =__ ________
u 0.36fckb 0.36x20x250
Xu =252mm
X
Limitingdepthofneutralaxis, u(max).=0.48d (ForFe415gradeofsteel)
=0.48X500
Xu(max). == 240mm
Xu >Xu(max).
Hencethesectionisoverreinforced.
Thedepthofneutralaxis, Xu =Xu(max) =240mm
Ultimatemomentofresistance(Flexuralstrength),
M
ulim
. =0.138jckbd
2
ForFe415Gradeojsteel
MU(lim) =0.138x20x250x500
2
Mu(lim) =172500x10
3
N mm
Mu(lim) =172.5kNm
A singly reinforced beam of size 250mm x 450mm (overall) is reinforced with steel
bars of area 1300mm
2
Use M 20 grade of concrete and Fe 415 steel. Calculate the
ultimate moment of resistance of the beam section.
Ans. DataGiven: b=250mm
D==450mm
ASI=1300mm
2
fok =20N/mm2 (ForM20concrete)
fy =415N/mm2 (ForFe415gradeofsteel)
Assumingeffectivecovertobe50mm :.d=450- 50=400mm
. 0.87fyAst 0.87x415x1300
X - -
Depthofneutralaxis, - 0.36fck b- .0.36x20xf23O\ U
Xu =288.43mm \/
30
d;
400mm
o='450mm
I
ASl
50mm
b%250mm
r
X
Limitingvalueofdepthofneutralaxis, u(max) =0.48d (ForFe415steel)
Xu(max) =0.48x400
=192mm
Xu>xu(max)., Hencethebeamsection isover-reinforced. :.xU(max)=192mm
Limitingvalueofmomentofresistance. Mu(lim.) =0.138fok bd
2
MU(lim) =0.138x 20x 230x(400)2
== 101565X 10
3
Nmmor101.57kN m
A RCC slab 150mm thick is reinforced with 10mmbars @200mm clc. The effective
depth of slab is 125mm. If M 20 grade of concrete is used along with Fe 415 grade
of steel. Calculate the moment of resistance of the section.
Ans.
Considering1mwidthoftheslabLe., b=1m=1000mm
Data Given: d=C12dmm .
Fok N/mm2 (ForM20gradeofconcrete)
Fy=415n/mm2 (ForFe415steel)
As! == 10mm- 200mmc/c
A =bxAreaof onebarofmm== 1000x78.54
" cIcspacing 200
2
Ast=392.7mm
31
J
II
[-:Area;fonebaroflOmm= =78.54mm
2
]
O.87fA O.87X415X
Depthofneutralaxis, Xu := 0.36Jet b:= 0.36X20X1
V
Xu =19.69mm
x
Limitingvalueofdepthofneutral axis, u(max)=0.48d (ForFe 415steel)
=0.48x120
X
u(max) =57.6mm
X >X( ) ..
Uumax ., henceslabsectIon IS underremforced.
DepthofN.A.=Xu =19.69mm
0.87 fyASf(d 0.42x
u
)
=
0.87x415x392.7(120-0.42x19.69)
=
=
15841592Nmm
or
=
15.84kN m
J1.16.
A RCC beam is required to resist a bending moment of 65kNm. Calculate the
dimensionsofthecross-sectionofbeamandsteelrequired.Takewidthofbeamas
halfofthedepth.UseM20concreteandFe250gradeofsteel.Theeffectivecover
totensilereinforcementmaybetakenas50mm.
Ans. DataGiven: M:=65kN m=65x10
6
Nmm
b=!:!..
2
fy =250N/mm2 (ForFe250gradeofsteel)
fck =20N/mm2 (ForM20concrete)
Factored,B.M., Mu:= 1.5xM
=1.5x65x10
6
=97.5x10
6
Nmm
Step1.Limitingmomentofresistance, MU(lim):= 0.148 (ForFe250steel)
d 2 2.96 3
M (lim) :=O.148x20x-xd =--d
u 2 2
MU(lim)=1.48d
3
Nmm
Step2. Equating, Mu=Mu(lim)
97.5X 10
6
Nmm=1.48d
3
Nmm
32
.,97.Sx10
6
d = 1.48 :::: 403.88mm::::410mm
or
Overalldepthofbeam, D=d+effectivecover
=410+50
=460mm
b=:!:..=410
Step3. Also 2 2
=205mm
Hence,thesizeofbeamsectionis205mmx460mm.
X
Step4. Calculatethevalueof u(max) =0.53d (ForFe250steel)
=0.53x410=217.3mm
Step5. Forbalancedsection.
0.36fckh.xU(rD.ax.) =0.87fyAst
0.36x20x205x217.3=0.87x250xA
sf
A :=0.36x20x205x217.3
$I
0.87x250
2
As!:= 1474.64mm
Providing20mm steelbars,
Areaofonebarof20 mm =!!...(20i=314.l6mm
2
. 4
Numberofbarsrequired 147464.=4.69=5bars
Areaofonebar 314.16
Provide5barsof20mmdiameter.
2
5X314.16=1570.8mm Areaoftensilesteelprovided, ASt(PrOVided) =
:l17. Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the beam having the following
data:
Effectivesizeofbeam=350mmx900mm
Effectivecoverforcompressivesteel=50mm
Tensionreinforcement=5-20mmdia.Bars
Compressionreinforcement=2- 20mmdia.bars
UseM15concreteandFe415steel.
Ans. DataGiven: b=300mm
d=900mm
d':=50mm
33
A =5xn-(20)2 =1570.80mm2
sl 4
"'(20)2
2
A == 2x == 628.32mm
sc 4
fek =15NImm
2
fy 415 Nlmm?
(ForM 15concrete)
(ForFe415steel)
Step1.Calculatethemaximumdepthofneutralaxis (xu(max):
Xu(max) ;:: 1.48d
=0.48x900
=432mm
Step2.Findtheapproximatevalueoffsc :
!:=50 =0.55
ForHYSDFe415 steeland d 900
2
Theapproximatevalueof ise =355NImm
Step3.CalculatethevalueofXu :
Totalcompression=Totaltension
0.36x fek xbx Xu == 0.87fyx A.,
0.36x15x300xXu =0.87x415x1570.80
0.87x415x1570.80
X =
u 0.36x15x300
Xu =350.08mm<xu(max.) (UnderReinforced)
AsthevalueofXu islessthanXu max.
Therefore,useXu=350.08mmforfurthercalculation
NowcorrespondingtoXu =350.08,checkthevalueoffsc
( d')
esc =0.
OO35
l1- xJ

== 350.08
esc =0.003
Nowcorrespondingto esc 0.003 findfscfromTable.
ise =354.7NImm
2
=355NImm
2
HenceitisOK.
34
Step4.Findtheultimatemomentofresistance:
Mu =0.036fekbxu(d-0.42x.)+fseAsc(d -d')
=0.36x15x300x350.08(900- 0.42x350.08)+355x328.32(900-'- 50)
616.62X10
6
kNm
A RCC beam 200 mmx 300 mm effective carries afactored moment of 50 kN m.
JF18.
Findtheareaofsteelrequired,ifM20concreteandFe415steelareused.Assume
d'=50mm.
Ans. DataGiven: b=200mm
d=300mm
Mu =50kNm=50x10
6
N mm
fek =20Nlmm
2
fy =415NImm
2
M
ulim
=0.138fckbd2
0.138x20x200X(300)2
== 49680000Nmm
TofindMu(lim},
or =49.68x10
6
Nmm
M
ulim
=49.68kNm
or
Compare Mu andMu1im.AsMu "" Mu1im
Henceitwillbedesignedassinglyreinforcedbeam.
i.e.,nocompressionreinforcementisrequired.
0.36fckbxu(max.)
.4., == 0.
87
f
y
xu(max.) :::;0.48d
=0.48x300
xu(max.) =144mm
A 0.36x20x200x144
.
. . " 0.87x415
=574.32mm
2
Q.19. An RCC beam 400 mm x 600 mm effective is subjected to a working bending
moment of 400 kN m. Find the area of steel required for beam. Assume M 20
concrete,Fe415steelandd'=50mm.
Ans. DataGiven: b=400mm
d=600mm
I
35
/
I
:/
.1
II

fck =20N/mm2
fy =415N/mm2
d' =50mm
B.M.=40kNm
Ultimate(Factored)B.M.=400
=600kN m
Mu=600x10
6
Nmm
Step1.FindMulim
M"lim 0.138fck
bd2
=0.132x20x400x(600)2
=397.44x10
6
N mm=397.44kNm.
As Mu >Mlim , thereforethebeamwillbedesignedasdoublyreinforcedbeam.
Step2. Find M/:
== 600- 397.44 202.56kNm
M.2 =202.56X 10
6
N mm
Step 3. FindAst:
Q.20. FindtheultimatemomentofresistanceofT-beamhavingeffectivedepthandwidth
ofweb as 450 mm and 250 mm respectively..The flange width and thickness of
flange are 750 mm and 120 mm respectively. The T-bE*!lm is reinforced with
Astl
0.87fy(d-0,42x
u
(max)
xu(max.} =OA8d
Where,
=0.48x600=288mm
397.44X10
6
.
A,.tl 0.87x415(600-0.42x288j
. .
Astl=2297.94mm
2
A = MU2
$12 0. 87f/d- d ')
Also,
202.56xl0
6
=-----,-----:-
0.87x415(600-50)
=1020.05mm
2
Ast =Astl +Ast2
=2279.91 +1020.05
3600mm
2
Fe415steelontensionside.M20concretehasbeenused.
Ans. DataGiven:
=750mm
D
f
==120mm
d=450mm
As, =:3600mml
=250mm b
w
2
tk=20Nlmm
fy 415Nlmm
2
Step1. AssumingthattheN.Alieswith intheflangeportion(i.e., Of>xu) :
0.87x fy xA.t 0.87x415x3600
x = =
OepthofN.A., 0.36xfckXbf 0.36x20x750
Xu =240.7mm>D
f
(i.e.,120mm)
x H t' .
As u
>D
f
,ence,ourassumpIonISwrong.
D
f
\
Step1(a).Assuming Xu (i.e., N.A.liesoutsideflangeandinsideweb)
Usingthefollowing relationtocalculatethevalueofXu
0.36fckbwxu+OA5fckDf (bf - b
w
) =0.87fyAst
0.36x20x250xx.+0.45x20xI20(750- 250)=0.87x415x3600
1800x.+54000=1299780
Xu =422mm>D
f
D
f
=120=0.28<0.43
x. 422
also
x
Step2. Calculate u(max):
Xu(max) =0.48d
Ast =3300mm
2
36
=0.48x450
X
u(max) =216 mm<422mm
37
I
x >x
As u u(max) Hencethebeamisoverreinforced.
Note:ButIScode does notpermit, the useofoverreinforced beam. Hencethe depth ofN.A. xu
isrestrictedto Xu(max).
x ==x
Le., u u(max) =216mm
120 D
f
Alsocheckfor d=450=0.27>0.2
D
j
-==0.27 X =x
Hence,thecasebecomes d and u u max.
i.e.,thebeam willbedesignedasabalancedsection.
:. Mu ==0.36fck
x
u(rnax.)bw(d -0.42x
U
(max) +0.45!CkYj(b
j
-b
w
)(d-0.5y )
f
where, Yj =0.15xu(max.) +0.65Dj and Yj/D
j
== 0.15x216+0.65x120
Yj == 1l0.40mm<Dj(i.e., 120mm)
SubstitutingallvaluesinaboveequationtoobtainMu
Mu =0.36x20x216x250(450- 0.42x216)+0.45x20x110.40
(750- 250)( 450- 0.5x110.40)
=139.688x10
6
+196.136X10
6
=335.824x10
6
Nmm
M. == 335.82kN m
38
CHAPTER 2: SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Shearreinforcementinbeamsmaybeprovidedas
a. Verticalstirrups
b. Bentupbars
c. Combinationofverticalstirrupsandbentupbar
d. All oftheabove
2. Inflexuralmembers,thefailureofconcretetakesplacedueto:
a. Tensilestresses
b. Diagonalcompression
c. Diagonaltension
d. Alloftheabove
3. Formakingastandardu-shapedhook,theanchoragevalueprescribedis:
a. 4xdiameterofbar
b. 8 xdiameterofbar
c. 12 xdiameterofbar
d. 16 xdiameterofbar
4. Fordeformedbarsintension,thevalueofbondstressisgreaterthanthatofplainbarby:
a. 20%
b. 25%
c. 30%
d. 60%
5. Flexureshearcracksaredevelopedwhen ratioofshearspantoeffectivedepthisgreater
than:
a. 1.0
b. 2.5
c. 3.0
d. 3.5
6. Thediagonaltensioninconcretecanbe resistedbyproviding:
a. Diagonaltensionreinforcement
b. Shearreinforcement
c. Inclinedtensionreinforcement
d. All oftheabove
39
7.
Thespacingofvertical stirrupsinrectangularbeamsis:
a. Maximumnearthesupports
b. Minimumnearthesupports
c. Maximumnearthecentre
d. Minimumnearthecentre
8.
Theradiusofabarbendtoform ahook, shouldnotbelessthan:
a. Twicethediameter
b. Thricethediameter
c. Fourtimesthediameter
d. Fivetimesthediameter
9.
The anchorage value of a hook is assumed eight times the diameter of the bar ifthe
angleofthebendis:
a. 30degrees
b. 45degrees
c. 90degrees
d. Alloftheabove
10.
The minimumlengthofbar, which mustbe embeddedinconcretetodevelopfullstrength
ofconcreteiscalledas:
a. Bond
b. Shearstrength
c. Developmentlength
d. Alloftheabove
11.
In a beam of rectangular section, the ratio of maximum shear stress to average shear
stressis
a. 1.1
b. 1.25
c. 1.53
d. 1.65
12.
The minimum spacing between horizontal parallel reinforcements ofthe same diameter,
.isusuallynotlessthan
a. 5timesthediameterofthe.bar
b. 4timesthediameterofthe bar
c. 3timesthediameterofthebar
d. Equaltothediameterofthe bar
40
13 In orderthatthe cost ofweb reinforcement be minimum, the angle of inclination ofweb
reinforcementshouldbe
45
0
a. tohorizontal
b. 300 tohorizontal
60
0
c. tohorizontal
d. 67 Y2 0 tohorizontal
14. In a rectangular beam the distribution of shear intensity overthe cross-section, follows
thecurveas
a. Cycloid
b. Parabolic
c. Circular
d. Elliptical
15. Theresistance offeredtoslippingofsteelbarsinconcreteisdueto
a. Adhesion
b. Frictionalresistance
c. Mechanicalresistance
d. Alloftheabove
16. An R.C.C. beam with clear span of 6m is carrying a load 3000kg/m inclusive of self
weight. Ifthe tensile reinforcementat the support consists of 4.bars of 25mm diameter
andtheleverarmsis38cm, the maximumvalueof'bondstresswillbeintherange
a. 2-3kglcm
2
b. 4-6kg/cm
2
c. 6-7kg/cm
2
d. .8-9kglcm
2
17. ARC beam isusuallyredesignedincasetheshearstressismorethan
a. 5kg/cm
2
b. 10kg/cm
2
c. 20kg/cm
2
d. 30kg/cm
2
18. Ifthe ends ofabeam are restrained andthe structure cannotadjust itslengthtovarying
temperaturecondition, ariseintemperaturewouldsetup
a. Tensilestressinsteelandcompressivestressinconcrete
b. Compressivestressin steelandtensilestressesinconcrete
c. Tensilestressesin bothmaterials
d. Compressivestressesinbothmaterials
41
19.
Thesafebondstressbetweentheconcreteandsteelisdeterminedby
a. Sonictest
b. Compressiontest
c. Pullouttest
d. Tensiletest
20.
ForM150gradeconcrete, iftheaveragebond stressis6g/cm
2
, thenasperIS:456,the
lengthoftheembedmentofbarofdiameterdshouldbe
a. L=20d
b. L=28d
c. L=48d
d. L=58d
21.
Incasereinforcementrods oftwo differentdiametersd
1
andd
2
(d
1
>d
2
) areusedin aR.C.
beam,theminimumspacingbetweenthehorizontalparallelbarswouldbe
a. d
1
b. 2d
1
c.
d.
22.
Thebondstrengthofconcreteincreaseswith
a. Thequantityofconcrete
b. Thequantityofsteel
c. Thetensilestrengthofsteel
d. Alloftheabove
23.
TheaveragevalueofbondstressforM200maybetakenas(in Mpa)
a. 0.10
b. 2.0
c. 0.40
d. 8.0
24.
However rich the concrete may be, the value of average bond stress usually does not
exceed (inMPa)
a. 0.6
b. 0.80
c. 1.2
d. 2.50
42
25. Inwhichcasethebondvalueisgenerallyhigh
a. Verysmoothsteelbars
b. Polishedsteelbars
c. Rustedsteelbars
d. Torsteelbars
26. Accordingto IS:456forM100gradeconcrete,thesafediagonalstressis(in MPa)
a. 0.1
b. 0.3
c. 0.8
d. 1.5
27. As per IS specifications, the average value of bond stress in case of M250 grade
concreteistakenas(inMPa)
a. 0.3
b. 0.4
c. 0.5
d. 0.9
28. AR.C. beam25cm x50cm carriesaloadof3000kglm. Itisreinforced with 8barsof12
mm diameter at the bottom and the depth of neutral axis below the top is 23 cm, the
permissiblebond stress is 10kg/cm
2
The numberofbarsthatshouldbe bentto takethe
diagonaltensionwouldbe
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5
29. Forarod ofdiameterd, theanchoragevalueofthehookaloneisequivalentto
a. 2d
b. 4d
c. 9d
d. 16d
30. In areinforcementbarwhen ahookis providedforanchoragethe minimum radius ofthe
hookisgenerallynotlessthan(d=diameterofbar)
a. d
b. 2d
c. 4d
d. 6d
43
31.
In compressionastandardhookofabarofdiameterdprovidesananchorageequalto
a. 2d
b. 4d
c. 8d
d. 16d
32. Incaseofshearstirrups. completeanchorageshallbeassumedtobe providedit.
a. The baris bentthrough 90round a barin the compression zone and continued
beyondtheendofcurveforlengthof8diameters
b. Thebarisgivenastandardhookatitsendandtakenashighinthe compression
zone aspossible.
c. All thebarsareatanangleof30andweldedtogether
d. Anyof(a)and(b) above
33.
The anchorage value of a standard hook is taken as 16 times the diameter of the
reinforcementbar. iftheangleofthebendisequalto
a. 600
0
b. 45
c. 30'"
d. Anyoftheabove
KEY:
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (d)
7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (d)
13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (d) 16. (d) 17. (c) 18. (d)
19. (c) 20. (d) 21. (a) 22. (a) 23. (d) 24. (c)
25. (d) 26. (b) 27. (d) 28. (d) 29. (d) 30. (b)
31. (d) 32. (d) 33. (d)
44
SECTION - B
True I False Type Questions: I:
Stirrupsandbentupbarsareprovidedinbeamsasshearreinforcement.
Sectionneedsredesignifthevalueof1:.<1:<(max).
Verticalstirrupsaregenerallymadeofbarsfrom diameter6mmto 10mm.
Crackswhichare at45degreewiththeaxisofbeamsarecalledflexuralcracks.
Shearstirruphelpsinconfiningtheconcreteandincreasesshearresistance.
Hooksofstirrupsshouldbelocatedincompressionzone.
Higherthegradeofsteel, lesserwillbetheshearstrength.
Increasedbondstresswillbeachievedwithmildsteelplainbars.
The anchorage value of a hook is assumed eight times the diameter of the bar if the
angleofthebendis30degrees.
Thespacingofverticalstirrupsinarectangularbeam ismaximumnearthe supports.
Theminimum spacingbetweenhorizontalparallelreinforcementofthesamediameter, is
usuallynotlessthan3timesthediameterofthebar.
In compression astandard hookon abarofdiameterd provides an anchorage equal to
2d.
As per IS specifications, the average value of bond stress in case of M250 grade
concreteistakenas0.3(in MPa).
Thesafe bondstressbetweentheconcreteandsteelisdeterminedbypullouttest.
Thebondstrengthofconcreteincreaseswiththequalityofconcrete.
KEY:
1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. T
7. T 8. F 9. F 10. T 11, F 12. F
13. F 14. T 15. T
.,
i
.
. I
45
j
46 47
SECTIONC
Shearisaterm usedwhenthetwosectionsoneithersideofaplanein amemberhavea
tendencytoslidealongthatplane.Thistendencyiscausedbytheshearforcesthatactin
theoppositedirectionsontwosidesoftheshearplaneasshowninfigure.
I
IX
IX
n
D
d

Code
'Alt---Parabolic
ElasticTheory
........-.....,.... - A
Uniform
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q.1. WhatisShearForce?
Ans.
IX
I
IX
PositiveShear NegativeShear
Thisshearforceispresentinbeamswherethereischangeinbendingmomentalongthe
span.
Q.2. NamethedifferenttypesofCracksthatoccurinabeam
Ans. Varioustypesoffailures (cracks) which could occurduetopossiblecombination ofshear
andbendingmomentactingatagivensectionareasfollows:
1. Regionofflexuralcracks.
2. Regionofflexureshearcracks.
3. Regionofwebshearcrackordiagonaltensioncracks.
Q.3. Howcrackscanbepreventedinabeam?
Ans. Thedifferenttypesofcracksoccurringinabeamcanbe preventedbyproperlydesigning
theshear reinforcement. Themostimportantpartofdesigningthe shearreinforcement is
to provide reinforcement for diagonal tension. Reinforcement can be provided in the
following forms:
1. Verticalorinclinedshearstirrup
2. Bentup bars
3. Combinationofverticalstirrupsand bentupbars.
Ii
Q.4. ExplainNominalShearStresswiththehelpofdiagram
Ans. Shearstress diagram clearly indicatesthat it remains uniform from N.A. tothe centre of
thetension reinforcement.
, .... 'tv ....,
I'" q ... \
(a) Section (b) ShearStressDiagram
where, b=Widthofthebeam
d=Overalldepthofbeam
d=Effectivedepthofbeam
n=Depthofneutralaxis
'Tv =Nominalshearstress
Q.S. Whatarethedifferentformsofshearreinforcement?
Ans. When nominal shear stress ('Tv) exceeds the design shear strength of concrete ('T
c
)'
shearreinforcementshallbedesignedandprovidedin anyofthefollowingforms:
a. Vertical stirrups
b. Bentupbarsalongwithstirrups, and
c. Inclinedstirrups
Q.6. ExplainRegionofWebShearCracks.
Ans.
Thesetypes ofcracks develop in region adjacenttoeach support ofa beam at45
0
with
theaxisofthebeam.Thecracksduetoshearforceareprominentinthisregion.
Shear stresses are maximum at neutral axis in this region, therefore the cracks start
developingfrom NAtowardsthediagonalofsuch portion. Inthistypeoffailurethe ratio
ofshearspantoeffectivedepthisgreaterthan2.8and lessthan6.
Q.7. Howyouwillincreaseabondbetweensteelandconcrete?
Ans. Thebondbetweensteelandconcretecan beincreasedinthefollowingways:
1. By usingrichconcretemix
2. Byusingdeformedbars(Torsteel)
3. Byprovidingsufficientlengthofembedment
4. Byproperlycompactingtheconcrete
5. By providingsufficientcovertoreinforcement
or two bars have to be
overlapped, itis essential thattheymusthavesufficientlengthofembedmentoroverlap
Q.12. ExplainRegionofflexure-shearcracks.
Ans. Thesetypesofcracksgenerallydevelopatthequarterportiononbothsides,whereB.M.
and S.F. are significant. Cracks in this region start vertically from the tension side and
Q.S. Whatisdevelopmentlength?
Ans. Whenever some steel reinforcing bar is to be anchored
suchthatthereisnoslippage.
Therefore, thedevelopmentlengthisdefinedasthe lengthofsteel barrequired oneither
side of the section under consideration, to develop the required stress in steel, at that
section,throughbonding.
Q.9. Whysplicingofreinforcementisnecessary?
Ans. Splicing of the reinforcing bar becomes necessary because it is impossible to get
required length of the bar from the market. At site, splicing becomes essential due to
either construction requirement or due to non availability of bars of desired length.
Therefore,overlappingbecomesnecessarytogetthedesiredlength.
Thepurpose ofsplicing is toeffectivelytransferthe axial pullfromthe terminating barto
theconnectedbarsothatlineofaction, atthejunctionpoint, remainssame.
Q.11. -GivetwoISrecommendationsforthePositivemomentreinforcement.
Ans. Following recommendations have been made in IS code for positive moment
reinforcement:-
(i) Atleast the positivemomentreinforcel1)entinsimplemembersand th the
3 4
positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall extend along the
samefaceofthememberintothesupport,toaLengthequalto Ld [Le., one-third
3
ofthedevelopmentlength(Ld)].
(ii) When a flexural memberis partofthe primary lateral load resisting system, the
positivereinforcementrequiredtobeextendedintothesupportasdescribedin (i)
shall be anchored to develop its design stress in tension at the face of the
graduallytendstodevelopaninclineddirectionneartheneutralaxis. '
Thesetypesofcracksdevelopunderthecombined action ofbendingmomentandshear
force.Theratioof variesfrom 1.0to2.8forflexureshearcracks.
Effective Depth
Q.13. GivetheexpressionforcalculatingNominalShearStressinabeam.
Ans. IS :456-2000recommendstheuseofnominalshearstressgivenbytheexpression
V
=-"
v bd
where, "C =Nominalshearstress
v
Vu =Factoredshearforceinbeamatcriticalsection.
b=Widthofthebeam
d=Effectivedepthofbeam Q.10. Explaindifferenttypesofresistancesoccurringinbond?
Ans. a. Pure adhesion resistance (or chemical adhesion): When water is added in
concrete, gel is formed which helps in adhesion of concrete to the surface of
steel.Thisistheweakestbondandhencebreaksfirstonapplicationofload.
b. FrictionalResistance: Frictionalresistanceisinducedwhenshrinkagein concrete
takes place which in turn grips the steel reinforcement. Frictional resistance
providesaconsiderablebondresistance.
c. Mechanical Resistance: Use of deformed bars (Tor steel), having projections on
thesurface,helpincreasingthemechanicalresistance.
Q14. Howyouwillcalculatethespacingofstirrups?
Ans: Spacingofverticalstirrups(AsperIS:456- 2000,Clause40.4).
O.
87
fA"d
Sv
Vus
where, Sv=Centretocentrespacingofstirrups(inmm)
fy = Characteristicstrengthofthestirrup,whichshouldnotbegreaterthan415N/mm2
Asv =Totalcross-sectionalareaofstirruplegs.
d=effectivedepth
Vus =Netdesign shearforcetoberesistedbyshearreinforcement
Q15. Underwhatconditions,theshearcracksinabeamareverticalinpositionandat
whatpointinabeam?
Ans: Shearcracksin abeamvariesfrom45degreeinclinationto90degreeverticalcracks.
Thepositionwhere, B.M. isdominatingtheshearforce,thatisatthecentreofthebeam,
shearcrackswillbeverticalin position.
i I
support.
48
49
:
I
i
. :1

Q.2.
Ans.
Therefore,flexural shearisdefinedasshearassociatedwithavaryingbendingmoment.
WhatarethedifferenttypesofCracksthatoccurinabeam?
Varioustypesoffailures(cracks)which couldoccurduetopossiblecombination ofshear
andbendingmomentactingatagivensectionareasfollows:
1. Regionofflexuralcracks.
2. Regionofflexureshearcracks.
3. Regionofwebshearcrackordiagonaltensioncracks.
50
dependentuponthefollowingfactors:
1. Gradeofconcrete: Higherthegradeofconcrete, moreistheshearresistance.
2. Grade of tensile steel reinforcement: Higher the grade of tensile
reinforcement. less is the shear strength Le., Grade of steel is
proportional to shear strength. Mild steel reinforcement gives better
resistance.
3. Percentage oftensile steel reinforcement(PI) : Increasein percentageoftensile
reinforcementincreasestheshearstrength.
51
SECTIOND
RegionofFlexuralCracks
LongAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q.1. What is Shear Force? What is the relation between shear Force and Bending
t Moment?
Ans. Shearisaterm usedwhenthetwosectionson eithersideofaplanein amemberhavea
tendencytoslidealongthatplane.Thistendencyiscausedbytheshearforcesthatactin
theoppositedirectionsontwosidesoftheshearplaneasshowninfigure.
IX
NegativeShear
Thisshearforce ispresentin beamswherethereischangein bendingmomentalongthe
span.TherelationshipbetweenshearforceVandbendingmoment'M'isgivenbelow:
V dM
dx
where, dM=Changein BendingMoment
dx=Changein Distance
t
I
IX
1
PositiveShear
I
I
I
I
IX
V ShearForce
Oncetheshearforce 'V' isknown, then shearstress Tv can beobtainedbydividingthe
shearforcewiththeareaofcross-sectionon whichshearisacting.
Duetovariation of BendingMoment(B.M.) attwosectionsofdistanced
x
apart. there are
unequal bending stresses at the same fibre. An exact analysis of shear in a reinforced
concrete beam isquitecomplex. Commonly. flexural shearis simplyreferredto asshear
failureofan R.C.C. beaminflexuralshear.
Flexural shear may not lead to an immediate collapse by itself. However, flexural shear
can significantlyreducetheflexuralstrength(Le. momentresistingcapacity) and ductility.
These types of cracks occur near the mid span where bending moment is large and
shearforce issmall. Duetolowtensilestrengthofconcretesuchtypesofcracksdevelop.
Thedirectionofsuchtypesofcracksisvertical.Theratioof
Shear
-------'--- > 6 for flexuralcracks.
EffectiveDepth
h She S BendingMoment
were, ar pan ShearForce
Regionofflexure-shearcracks:
Thesetypesofcracksgenerallydevelopatthequarterportion on both sides, where B.M.
and S.F. are significant. Cracks in this region startvertically from the tension side and
graduallytendtodevelopaninclineddirectionneartheneutralaxis.
Thesetypes ofcracksdevelopunderthecombined actionofbending momentand shear
force.Theratioof ShearForce variesfrom 1.0to2.8forflexureshearcracks.
EffectiveDepth
RegionofWebShearCracks(DiagonalCracks)
These types ofcracks developin region adjacentto each supportofa beam at45with
theaxisofthebeam.Thecracksduetosh(?arforceareprominentinthisregion.
Shear stresses are maximum at neutral axis in this region, therefore the cracks start
developingfrom N.A. towardsthediagonal ofsuch portion. Inthistypeoffailurethe ratio
ofshearspantoeffectivedepthis greaterthan2.8andlessthan 6.
PreventionofCracks
The above mentioned cracks can be prevented by properly deSigning the shear
reinforcement.Themostimportantpartofdesigningtheshearreinforcementistoprovide
reinforcementfordiagonaltension. Reinforcementcanbeprovidedinthefollowingforms:
1. Verticalorinclinedshearstirrup
2. Bentup bars
3.. Combinationofyertical stirrupsandbentupbars.
Q.3. WhatarethevariousfactorsaffectingtheshearresistanceforRCC members?
Ans. The shear resistance of a rectangular RCC beam. without shear reinforcement is
steel
inversely
shear
4. Compressive force: Axial compression force (if present) helps in increasing the
shearingresistance.
5. Compressive reinforcement: Morethe percentage of compression steel. more is
theshearresistance.
6. AxialTensileForce: Itreduces. partially.theshearstrengthofconcrete.
7. Shear reinforcement: The shear resistance of RCC beams increases with
increaseinshearreinforcement.
0.4. ExplaintheconceptofNominalShearstress?
Ans. In case of reinforced cement concrete beams, the concrete area below N.A. (Neutral
Axis) is neglectedandthesodevelopedshearforce is resisted bythebond betweenthe
concrete and steel. Shearstresses in RCC beamsincreasefrom zero atthetop face of
thebeamtoitsmaximumvalueattheneutralaxis.
Shearstress diagram clearly indicatesthatit remains uniform from N.A. tothe centre of
thetensionreinforcement.
Code
n
d
o
'//Alt---Parabolic
______ ElasticTheory

(a) Section

q
(b) ShearStressDiagram
where, b== Widthofthebeam
d=Overall depthofbeam
d=Effectivedepthofbeam
n=Depthofneutralaxis
Tv== Nominalshearstress
q== Maximumshearstress
V istheconventionalshearstressformula, nowithasbeenabandoned.
q=bjd
IS:4562000recommendstheuseofnominal shearstressgiven bytheexpression
V
1: =-"
v bd
52
fy =Characteristicstrengthofthestirrup reinforcementinN/mm2 whichshallnotbetaken
greaterthan415N/mm2
0.6. What are the different forms of shear reinforcement?
\
providingverticalstirrups?
Ans. When nominal shear stress (Tv) exceeds the design shear strength of concrete (Tc )'
shearreinforcementshallbedesignedandprovidedinanyofthefollowingforms:
a) VerticalStirrups
b) Bentupbarsalongwithstirrups,and
c) InclinedStirrups
53
where, Tv == Nominalshearstress
Vu =Factoredshearforceinbeamatcriticalsection.
b=Widthofthebeam
d== Effectivedepthofbeam
Thus in figure, themaximumshearstress q=Lobtainedfromelastictheory, isgreater
bjd
thanthenominalshearstress (oraverage shearstress) Tv suggestedbythecode.
0.5. Whenyouwill provideminimumshearreinforcement?
Ans. When thevalue ofnominal shearstress(Tv) islessthan orequal totheshearstrength
of concrete ('f )' then there isno need to design shear reinforcement but under such
c
cQnditions,minimum shear reinforcement (nominal shear reinforcement) in the form of
stirrupsshallbeprovided(AsperIS:456-2000,Clause26.5.1.6)
Asv > 0.4_
bS
v
- 0.87fy
Where, Asv=totalcross-sectionalareaofstirruplegseffective inshear.
b=breadth ofthebeamorbreadthofthewebofflangedbeam
Sv=Stirrupspacingalongthelengthofthemember
(Maximumspacingofstirrupsshallbeleastamong0.75dor300mm.)
Discuss the method of
J
(a)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Vertical Stirrups :
- .......
Reinforcement
_04'-- Tension
Reinforcement
Vertical Stirrups
Support
ft. of Bearing
When shear reinforcement is provided vertically in the form of stirrups (rings), it is known
as vertical stirrups.
The diameter of the steel used for making stirrups varies from 6 mm to 10mm.
Stirrups are bent around the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement in
the form of a loop. This reduces the chances of slippage during tension.
The hook forming the free ends of stirrups are always provided in the compression zone.
The magnitude of shear force (Vs), to be resisted, decides the number of legs of stirrups
e.g. stirrups can be single legged, two legged, four legged and are shown in figure.
UD
SIngle Legged Sti rrup TwO LAlgged Stirrups

[ [ []
Four Legged Stirrup.
Use of closely spaced stirrtJps of smaller diameter bars gives better control over cracks
than using stirrups of larger diameter reinforcement bars placed relatively far apart.
Spacing of vertical stirrups (As per IS : 456 - 2000, Clause 40.4)
S == 0.87 fyAsv
d
Vus
where, Sv =Centre to centre spacing of stirrups (in mm)
fy =Characteristic strength of the stirrup, which should not be greater than 415 N/mm2
54
Asv= Total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs.
d =effective depth
Vus = Net design shear force to be resisted by shear reinforcement
Q.7. An RCC beam 250 mm x 500 mm effective has a shear force of 300 kN.lf the tensile
steel is 1%, find the nominal shear stress in the beam and comment upon shear
design. Assume that concrete used is of M 20 grade.
Ans. Data Given : b = 250 mm
d =500 mm
As! =1% of cross-sectional area
:::: 1 x250x500=1250mm
2
. 100
Shear force, V = 300 kN
Factored Shear Force (V u) = V x Factor
=300 x 1.5
Vu = 450 kN = 450 x 10
3
N
Nominal Shear Stress ( '"C
v
)
1'V Vu == 450x10
3
N =3.6 N Imm
2
bd 250 x 500
Maximum shear strength of concrete, '"Cc(max.) = 2.5 N/mm2
Shear strength of concrete, '"C
c
Pt= 1%
For Pt =1% and M 20 grade of concrete, from Table the value of '"C
c
=0.62 N/mm
2
.
Conditions for Shear Reinforcement:
1. 1:. > 1:
c
(max.)' 1:
v
= 3.6 N I mm
2
and 1:
c
(roax.) = 2.8 N I mm
2
It is not OK. Hence,needs redesign.
2. 1:
c
> 1:
c
(max.)' 1:
c
=0.62NImm? and 1:c(max.) == 2.8 N Imm
2
This is OK.
3. If '"C
v
< '"C
c
' then no shear reinforcement is required. '"C
v
=3.6 Nlmm
2
and '"C
c
=0.62
N/mm2 but '"C
v
> '"C
c
Hence shear reinforcement is required.
Comment for Shear Design
Section needs redesign because value of '"C
v
is greater than '"Cc(max.) and shear
reinforcement is required because value of '"C
v
is greater than '"C
c
'
55
a.s.
An RCCbeamhasaneffectivedepthof700mmandawidthof300mm.Itcontains
6 bars'of25 mm .Use M 25 concrete and Fe 415 steel. Check whether shear
reinforcementisrequiredforafactoredshearforceof250kN.
Ans. DataGiven:
Effectivedepth,d=700mm
Width, b=300mm
(25)2
Areaoftensilesteel, A
sl
6X_1C__== 2945.24mm
2
4
Factoredshearforce, V
u
= 250kN=250x10
3
N
3
Nominalshearstress, 1: == = 250x10 :::: 1.19NImm2
v b.d 700x300
Maximumshearstressin concrete, 1: ( ) forM25gradeofconcrete
c max,
1: 3.1NImm? ,
c(m.ax.)
Shearstrengthofconcrete, 1:
c
where, _ lOOAs1 lOOx2945.24=1.40%
p,---;;;-
300x700
Forpt=1.40%and M25concrete,
Forpt=1.25%,valueof 1: =0.70
c
Forpt= 1.50%,Valueof 1: =0.74
c
Therefore, forpt=1.40%thevalueof 1: =0.70+0.74-0.70x(1.40-1.25)
c
1.50 1.25
=0.70+0.024
1: 0.724N/mm2
c
Conditionsforshearreinforcement:
1.
2 2
1:v <1:c(max,)' Tv =1.19N/mm , TC(max,) =3.1N/mm
Thiscondition isOKHence, thesizeofsectionisOK.
2 2
2.
Tc <1:c{max,)' Tc 0.724N/mm , Tc(max.) 3.1N/mm
HenceitisOK
2.
1:
v
<1:
c
' Fornoshearreinforcement
1: =1.19N/m2, 1: =0.724N/mm2but 1: >1:
v c v c
Hence, shearreinforcementis required.
56
a.9. An RCC beam350mmx 600 mmeffectivehasfactoredshearforceof350 kN.The
beam is reinforced with 1.5% steel on tension side. Comment whether shear
reinforcementisrequiredifconcreteusedisM20grade.
Ans. DataGiven:
Widthofbeam, b=350mm
Effectivedepthofbeam,d=600 mm
Factoredshearforce, Vu =350kN =350x10
3
N
Percentage oftensilereinforcement, PI=1.5%
Gradeofconcreteused,M20
NominalShearStress(1: )
v
u 3
1: == V =350x10 =1.67Nlmm
2
v bd 350x600
Maximumshearstressin concreteforM20grade,
1: 2.8NImm
2
c{max.)
Shearstrengthofconcrete, 1: ' For Pt=1.5%andM20grade 1: =0.72N/mm2
c c
ConditionsforShearReinforcement:
1. 1:
v
<1:
c
{max.)' 1:
v
=1.67NImm
2
, 1:
c
(max.) =2.8NImm
2
Hence,thisconditionissatisfied,thesizeofsectionisO.K.
2. 1:
c
<1:
c
(max.)' 1:
c
=0.72NImm
2
, 1:
c
(max.) =2.8NImm
2
Thisconditionis alsoOK
3. If 1: <1: ,thennoshearreinforcementisrequired.
xc' \
1:" =1.67N/mm2, 1: =0.72N/mm2
c
:.1: >1: thatmeansshearreinforcementisrequired.
v c
a.10. A RCC slab 80mm thick, effective, carries a u.d.l. of 12 kNlmm
2
(including self
weight). Tensile reinforcement consists of 10 mm bars @ 100 mmc/c. IfM 20
gradeofconcreteand Fe250gradeofsteelareused,examinetheshearstress,if
clearspanis4m.Taketheloadfactor=1.5.
Ans. Consider1mwidthoftheslab
DataGiven:Widthoftheslab, b 1m, =1000mm
Effectiveofdepth,d=80mm
u.d.1. (includingselfweight),w=12kN/m2=12x10
3
Nlm
2
Gradeofconcrete=M20
Gradeofsteel=Fe250
57
Loadfactor=1.5
Weknowthat,forsimplysupportedslabtheshearforce, V= wL=12x10
3
x4
24000N
2 2
Clearspan, L=4m= 4000mm
2 2
2.
3.
Factoredshearforce, Vu =V x1.5=24000x1.5=36000N
NominalShearStress, (rv)
T =Vu - 36000 _ 0 2
v bd- 1000x80- .45NImm
MaximumShearStressin Concrete (r )
cmax
Maximumshearstress rc(max.) forM20grade=2.8N/mm
2
ShearStrengthofconcrete, (rc)
Forcalculatingthevalueof P
t
_lOOAS[
P'-[;d
where, A =bxArea onebar
sl
clcspacing
Areaofonebarof10mm r/J=;X (10)2=78.54mm2
A., =bxArea ~ n e bar
spacmg
A
"
l000x78.54
100
78 2
5.4mm
.
.. 100x78.54 098
P, - lOOOx80 . %
Pt =0.75andM 20grade, Tc =0.56
forPt= 1.00andM20grade, rc =0.62Nlmm
2
ForPt:::; 0.98, thevalueof r
c
056 (0.62- 0.56)
. + .
1.00-0.75
(
x 0.98-0.75)
Tc =0.56+0.0552
Tc =0.62NImm
2
Conditionsforshearreinforcement:
1..
Tv >Te' whereTv =0.45N Imm
2
, Tc =0.62N Imm
2
Hence,thesizeofsectionisOK
58
Te >Tc(max.)' whereTc =0.62N Imm , Tc(max.) =2.8N Imm
Hence,This isOK
rx <r ' fornoshearreinforcement.
c
where, rv ::; 0.45N/mm2and rc :::; 0.62N/mm2
Hencedesignis OKi.e.,noshearreinforcementisrequired.
Q.11. What do you mean by bond? How you will increase a bond between steel and
concrete?
Ans. Bond: It is assumed in the theory of reinforced concrete design, thatthere is a perfect
bond betweenconcreteand reinforcing bars, whichmeansthereareverylittlechancesof
slippingofsteel reinforcement, wheneversomeforcesareappliedon it.
In RCC structures, steel isembedded in concrete. On dryingshrinkageofconcretetakes
placewhichhelpstheconcretetogetadherearoundthesurfaceofsteelbar.Withoutthis
bond,the reinforcementwill beofno usebecauseitwill notarrestthe widening ofcracks
in tension zone. The intensityof adherenceforce attheinterfaceofsteel andconcreteis
known as "bond stress". Bond stress is sometimes also referred as interfacial shear
stress.
Hence, bond stress is the shear stress acting parallel to the reinforcing bar on the
interfaceofbarand concrete. Thebond between steel and concretecan beincreased in
thefollowingways:
1. Byusingrichconcretemix.
2. Byusingdeformedbars(Torsteel).
3. Byprovidingsufficientlengthofembedment
4. Byproperlycompactingtheconcrete.
5. Byprovidingsufficientcovertoreinforcement.
.Q.12. What.isdevelopmentlength?Givetherelationforcalculatingit?
Ans. Whenever some steel reinforcing bar is to be anchored or two bars have to be
overlapped, itisessential thattheymust havesufficient length ofembedmentoroverlap
suchthatthereisnoslippage.
Therefore, thedevelopmentlength is definedasthe length ofsteel barrequired on either
side of the section under consideration, to develop the required stress in steel, at that
section,throughbonding.
In order to develop the full design stress (0"" =0.87iy) in the bar at a section, a
minimumlengthisnecessaryon bothsidesofthesection.
DevelopmentlengthisdeSignatedas . ~ and mathematically, itisrepresentedby
59
Where, Ld =Developmentlength
=Nominaldiameterofthesteel bar
(J'st =Stressinbaratthesectionconsideredatdesignlaod,and
=0.87 fy
Designbondstress
0.13. What do you mean by splicing of reinforcement? What are different methods of
splicingthebars?
Ans. Splicing of the reinforcing bar becomes necessary because it is impossible to get
required length of the bar from the market. At site, splicing becomes essential due to
either construction requirement or due to non availability of bars of desired length.
Therefore,overlappingbecomesnecessarytogetthedesiredlength.
The purpose ofsplicing isto effectivelytransferthe axial pull from theterminating barto
the connected bar so that line of action, at the junction point, remains same. Thus, it
becomesessentialtoprovidesuitableoverlaptodevelopfullstrength.
The splices should be staggered so that not more than 50% of the bars are spliced at
samesection. Splicingofbarsshouldbeavoidedatsectionsofmaximumtensilestress.
(a)

2xSpliceLength .,
(b)
(6 mm,)all00mm Pilch
""llJI,r","1.-'''' .. '''''1'- .....
" " I
(c)
As per IS :456-2000 Clause 26.2.5.1, following recommendations must be followed for
lapsplicing:
a) Lap splicing shall not be usedfor bars largerthan 36 mm ;for largerdiameterbars may
be welded. In case wherewelding is non practicable, lappingof bars largerthan 36 mm
60
may be permitted, in which additional spirals should be provided around the lapped bar
asshowninfigure.
b) Lap splices shall be considered as staggered if the centre to centre distance of the
splices isnotlessthan 1.3timesthelaplengthcalculatedasshowninfigure.
c) Lap Length (splice length) for bars in flexural.Tension) :Lap length including anchorage
valueofhooksforbarsinflexuraltensionshallbegreaterof.thefollowings:
a. 30timesthediameterofbar(I.e.,30)
b. Developmentlength, L
d
d) Lap length for bars in directtension :Forbars subjected to directtension, the minimum
overlaplengthofbars(includinganchoragevalueofhooks)shallbeofthefollowing :-
a. 30timesdiameterofbar(I.e.,30 )
b. 2timesthedevelopmentlengthI.e.,2Ld
Note:Thestraightlength oflapshallnotlessthan15 or200mm.
e) LapLengthofbarsin Compression :- Theminimumlaplengthforbarssubjectedtodirect
compressionshallbegreaterofthefollowing:
a. 24timesthediameterofbar(I.e.,24 )
b. Developmentlength, L _0.87liP
(1- 41':
btl
j) Splicing Bras of Different Diameters : When two bars of different diameters are to be
spliced,thelap length shallbecalculatedon thebasisofthesmallerdiameter.
0.14. Underwhatconditionsthecurtailmentof'barsinatensionzoneisnotdone.
Ans. Flexural reinforcement shall be terminated in atension zone unless any ofthe following,
conditionsissatisfied:
.a) The shear at the cut off point does not exceed two third of the value that is
permitted,includingtheshearstrengthofwebreinforcementprovided.
b) Curtailment of flexural reinforCing bars in tension portion results in the loss of
shearstrength in the region ofcutoffhenceitis necessarytodesignthisportion
with utmostcare. Thereforefollowingrecommendationsmustbetakencareof:
(i) Stirrup area in excess of that required for shear and torsion is provided
along each terminated baroveradistance, equal to 'id from thecut off
4
point.
,r:'H' lr> \,"; , .. -',
(ii) Theexcessstirrupareashall notbe 0.4bs
, , ..,.,. fy
,",.ji<
Where, b=Widthofbeam
61
s== Spacing
fy == Characteristicstrengthofreinforcementin N/mm2
Theresulting spacing I~
8f3b
Where, f3b Areaofcutoffbarsatthatsection
Totalareaofbarsatthatsection
and d=Effectivedepthofthesection.
c) For36mm andsmallerbars, thecontinuing barprovidedoublethe arearequired
for flexure at the cutoff point and the shear does not exceed 3 times the
4
permittedvalue.
Q.15.
GivetheISrecommendationsforthePositivemomentreinforcement.
Ans.
Following recommendations have been made in IS code for positive moment
reinforcement:-
i) Atleast .!.. rd thepositive moment reinforcement in simplemembersand.!.th the
3 4
positive moment reinforcement in continuous members shall extend along the
samefaceofthememberintothe support,toaLengthequalto Ld [Le., one-third
3
ofthedevelopmentlength(Ld)].
ii) When a flexural member is partofthe primary lateral load resisting system, the
positivereinforcementrequiredtobeextended intothesupportasdescribedin (i)
shall be anchored to develop its design stress in tension at the face of the
support.
iii) At simple supports and at points of inflection, positive moment tension
reinforcement shall be limited to adiametersuch that Ld computed for0.87fy by
therelation
Developmentlength, L = ~ _O._87_fy_t/J doesnotexceed_M_l+T
a 41"bd 4.1"bd V '-Il
or in otherwords, L
4'Thisconditionmustbe satisfied
~
v
Where, M, == momentofresistance ofthesection assumingall reinforcementatthesection to be
stressedto fd (Where fd =0.87forlimitstatedesignand'= (J'st forworkingstressdesign)
V=Shearforceatthatsectionduetodesignload
Lo == Sum of the anchorage beyond the centre of the support and the equivalent
anchoragevalue ofanyhookormechanical anchorage at simple supportsand the point
62
ofwhicheverisgreaterinflection, La islimitedtotheeffectivedepthofthemembersor12
,whicheverisgreater.
Where, nominaldiameterofthebar.
Note: The value of Ml in theabove expression may be increased by 30%, when the ends of
V
the reinforcement are confined by a compressive reaction. Therefore, the above
expressionwillbecome Ld :,:; 1.3Ml +In
V
Q.16. Discussthemechanismofbondresistance?
Ans. The adhesion between steel and concrete can be increased by improving mechanical
resistance, frictional resistance and chemical adhesion at the interface of steel and
concrete. Duringplasticstage(greenstage), cementgelwhich acts asabinding matrixis
produced which adhere to the surface of the steel reinforcement. It is relatively weak
bondwhichbreaksimmediatelywhen loadis appliedon beam. Itcauses slippageofsteel
barwhich in turn utilizesthefrictional resistance. When frictional resistance is overcome
andbarispulledleavingaholein concrete.Topreventthis, endanchorageisprovidedin
theform ofhooksatends.
a) Pure adhesion resistance (or chemical adhesion): When water is added in
concrete, gel is formed which helps in adhesion of concrete to the surface of
steel.Thisistheweakestbondandhencebreaksfirstonapplicationofload.
b) Frictional Resistance: Frictional resistanceis inducedwhenshrinkagein concrete
takes place which in turn grips the steel reinforcement. Frictional resistance
providesaconsiderablebond resistance.
Frictional resistance is low for a plain bar (smooth bar surface) e.g., mild steel
and is higherforrough surfaces. Thusbeforeplacingconcrete, itisessential that
thesteelbarsmustbecleanand freefromdirt,grease,scalingetc.
d) Mechanical Resistance: Useof deformed bars (Torsteel), having projectionson
the surface, helps increasing the mechanical resistance. These projections
provide interlocking between steel and.concrete. The plain bars slip easily and
cause localized serious cracking while deformed bars tend to distribute the
deformationinconcreteasseriesofcloselyspacedhairlinecracks.
Q.17. An RCC beam300mm x600mmissimplysupportedoveraclearspanof55 mand
carriesafactored u.d.lof62 N/m(includingselfweight). The sectionisreinforced
with 6bars of20 mm bars. Using M20 concrete and HYSD steel. If2barsare
bentupat45. then checkthe beam fordevelopmentlength.Take effectivecover
ofconcreteas40mm.Assumewidthofsupport=250mm.
Ans. DataGiven:
Widthofbeam, b= 300mm
63
Overalldepth, D;:: 600mm ..d=600-40=540mm
,
ClearSpan, L=5.5m
Factoredu.d.l, Wu;;; 62 kN/m=62x10
3
N/m
fok =20N/mm2.
fy:::415N/mm2.
Cover=40mm
Widthofsupport=250mm
L
3
FactoredS.F. atthecentreofsupport, V wu 62x10 x5.5 =170500N
2 2
DevelopmentLength, Ld =0.
87
1/p 0:87x415x20
4.1"00 4x1.92
[FromTable 1:bd:;;;1.92 forM20and HYSDSteel]
l.:J ::: 940.23
As per IS :456-2000 atthe simple support, the bars of20 mm fjJ must extend beyond
andthefaceofsupportbyadistancenotlessthan::: =940.23:::313.41mm
3 3
Length of bar available from inner face of support = Width of support - End cover
(Assumeendcover=40 mm) 250_40 210mm<Ld
3
.
.
. Providestandard90bend with extensionof 4 fjJ, havingtotal anchoragevalue of 12 fjJ
;;::: 12x20=240mm.
Be.ftm
. .2 bars of 20'mm + '
Support
64
.. Available lengthfromcentreofsupport, La
L [Widthofsupport E d 5 ] 12
v:;;; 2 - n cover t/J + t/J
= [ 2 ~ -40-5x20J+240
[125- 40- 100]+240
4=225mm
As perIScode,
Maximum value of Lo is 'd' of beam or 12 fjJ (including hook or bars) which ever is
greater.
Maximumvalueisgreatervalueamong, 540or12x20=240i.e.,540mm

.
ItisOK

.
Embedmentlengthprovidedfrom innerfaceofsupport
.
=250+4
2
=125+225
350mm>Ld
3
Since the beam is simply supported, the compressive reaction will confine the
reinforcement,thereforevalueof Ml isincreasedby30%i.e., 1.3 M!
V Xv
.. Conditiontobesatisfiedfordevelopmentlength, Ld ::;1.3Ml +Lo
\ V
Where, M1 =Momentofresistanceprovidedby4barsof20mm fjJ
M
J
0.87fyAstl[d_fyAstl]
fck
b
;:: 0.87x415x1256.64[540 415X1256.64]
20x300
[-:ASll =4x : (20)2=1256.64mm
2
]
=453709.87[453.08]
=2.0556687x10
8
Nmm
8
1.3xMJ +4=1.3x2.0556687x10 +225
V 170500
=1792.37mm>l.:J
1792.37mm>940.23mm
65
HencecheckfordevelopmentlengthisOK.
Note:ForHYSDsteelbarsU-shapedhooksareavoidedbut90bendcanbeprovidedif
anchorageis required.
Q.1B. A simply supported RCC beam 300 x500mm (effective), has a clear span of 5 m.
Thefactored shearforceatthecentreof300mmwidesupportis120kN.The beam
is reinforced with 4 bars of 20 mm (out of 4 bars, 2 bars are bent up). Check for
development length if M20 concrete and Fe 250 steel are used. Assume cover to
reinforcementonall sidesas30mm.
Ans. DataGiven:
Widthofbeam. b=300mm
Effectivedepth, d=500mm
Factoredshearforce, Vu=120kN 120x10
3
N
fck :::; 20N/mm2
fy =250N/mm2
.
.. Developmentlength. Ld :::; 0.87x fy x 0.87x250x20
4''Z"bd 4x1.2
Tbd :::; 1.2N/m2 forM20andFe:::; 250
Ld =906.25mm
As percodal provision. atsimplesupportthetwobars of20mm f/J mustextend beyond
theface ofsupportbyadistancenotlessthan
La =906.25=302.08mm
2 3
Lengthofbaravailablefrom innerface ofsupport:::; Widthofsupport- Endcover
=300 30 [Assuming endcover:::;30mm]
L
=270mm<_dor302.08mm
3
Asthelengthofbaravailablefrom innerfaceofsupportislessthan La therefore. endanchorage
3
shouldbeprovided.
Anchoragehastobeprovided.eitherintheformof:
i) StandardU-shapedhook
(ii) Standard90bend.
(i) Providingstandard U-shaped hookwith anchoragevalue =16timesthe nominal
diameterofbari..e. 16 f/J :::; 16x20 320mm, asshownin figure.
66
l",mm,_...,
,Ii of Support
Availablelengthfromcentreofsupport.Lo
Widthofsupport ]
4
[
2 endcover 3 +l6
: : : ; [ ~ -30-3x20]+16X20
Lo =[150- 30- 60]+320
Lo 380mm
:. Embedment length of 20 mm f/J bars
from inner face of support
Width ofsupport ]
[ 2 +4
=300+380
2
:::; 530mm> Ld Le., 302.08mm, ItisO.K.
3
Conditionfordevelopmentlength=I.3M! T >L
V +-'-Q- a
Where,M =O.87f.A [d_IvAn]
1 yst .p.b
Jek
(
20)2
Where. Astt 2x1r:X -'-:::;628.32mm
2
4
.
.. M [ 250x628.32]
1 =0.87x250x628.32 500
20x300
=136659.6[500- 26.18]
:::; 64752052Nmm
67
l.3M1 T >L
V +'-tl- d
(
20)2
Where, Astl =2xJrx-- 628.32mm
2
4
.
. . 1.3M1 +T >L
V '-tl- d
1.3x64752052+380
120x
701.48+380=1081.48mm>906.25mmLe., Let
Hence,thecheckisOK
Q.19. A RCC beam 250 mm x 500 mm (effective) is reinforced with 4 bars of 20 mm
diameter. Two legged 8 mm tjJ stirrupsare @ 200 mm clc. Estimate the ultimate
(design) shear strength of the support section if the grade of steel for main
reinforcementandstirrupsisFe415andconcreteusedisM20.
Ans. DataGiven :
Widthofthebeam,b:;:: 250mm
Effectivedepthofbeam,d:;:: 500mm
2
Areaoftensilereinforcement, ASI 4x Jr( 20) 1256.64mm
2
4
Cross-sectionalareaofstirrupslegseffectivein shear, A =2xJr(8)2
l00.53mm2
Sy 4
clcspacingofstirrups:;:: 200mm
Characteristicstrengthofsteelused, fy:;:: 415N/mm2
Percentageoftensilesteel, p 100A., lOOx1256.64 1%
t bd 250x500
CorrespondingtoPt:;:: 1%andM20gradeofconcrete,
'fc =0.62NImm
2
Shearresisting byconcrete:;:: Tc b.d
=0.62x250x500=77500N
...(1)
Shearresistedbyverticalstirrups, V 0.
87
/
y
A.y.d
us Sv'
0.87x415xlO0.53x500 90741N
200 ... (2)
Totalshearstrengthofthesection:;::(1)+(2)
=77500+90741 =168241 N ... (3)
ForM20gradeofconcrete,thevalueof Tc(max.)
68
Tc(max.) :;:: 2.8N/mm2
Maximumlimitforthestrengthofsupportsection:;:: T ( ) X bX d
c max.
=2.8x250X500:;:: 350000N
Ultimateshearstrengthofsupportsection:;::Leastof(3) and(4)
:;:: 168241 N
... (4)
Q.20. Discussthe method ofprovidingshearreinforcementintheformofbentupbars
alongwithstirrups?
Ans.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
/
Bentup-bar
WidthofSupport
.- Compressor
Reinforcement
Tension
-., ..-Reinforcement
In case of simply supported beams, the bending moment is maximum at centre and
graduallyreducestozeroatthesupports.
Tensilereinforcement(longitudinal bars) can be bentupnearthe supportwheretheyare
nolongerrequiredtoresistthe bendingmoment. Barscan be bentupatthesamecross
sectionoratdifferentcrosssectionsalongthelengthofthebeam.
Combination of vertical stirrups and bent up bars is generally used in case of heavily
loaded beams. Both bent up bars and vertical stirrups are used for resisting the shear
forcesorstresses.
Thebentupbarsareinclinedatanangle a (generallytakenas45tothehorizontal)
As perIS :456 2000, Clause40.4, where bentupbarsareprovided, theircontribution
towards shear resistanceshall notbemorethanhalfthatofthetotalshearreinforcement
(Le., Vus ), where Vus = Tc andsheartakenbybentupbarsiscalculatedas
2
Vu (forbentupbar) 0.87/y Asv sina
where, Vu (forbentupbar):;:: Sheartakenbybentupbarandislimitedto Vus
2
69
... . ~ ..... ~ ..... ~ . ~ ..... ~ ~ = = ~
fy = Characteristic strength of the steel used for shear reinforcement and shall not be
morethan415 N/mm2
Asv =Areaofbentupbars
a =Anglebetweenbentupbarsandtheaxisofmember,butnotlessthan 45.
70
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Section - A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. When the ratio of effective length of column- to its least lateral dimension does not
exceeds12, itistermedas:
a. Longcolumn
b. Shortcolumn
c. Verticalcolumn
d. Strut
2. Thediameteroflongitudinalbarsofacolumnshouldneverbelessthan:
a. 6mm
b. 12mm
c. Smm
d. 10mm
3. The lateral ties in a reinforced concrete rectangularcolumn underaxial compression are
usedto:
a. Avoidbuckling
b. Provideadequateshearcapacity
c. Provideadequateconfinementtoconcrete
d. Noneoftheabove
4. Theminimumpercentageofsteelusedin R.C.C. Columnis:
a. O.S%
b. 2.5%
c. 6.0%
d.. Noneoftheabove
5. In a rectangular column, loaded eccentrically, there is no tension itthe eccentricitye is
lessthan, (width ofcolumn=d):
a. d/2
b. d/3
c. d/4
d. d/6
6. Laplengthorsplicelengthoflongitudinalbarsin acolumnshouldbe:
a. Notlessthan24xdiameterofsmallerbar
b. Notmorethan24xdiameterofsmallerbar
c. Notlessthan30xdiameterofthelargerbar
d. Notmorethan30xdiameterofthelargerbar
71
: 1
I
.i
!
~
7. Thepitchoflateralties in acolumn should notbe morethan:
a. 300mm
b. 4xdiameteroflongitudinalbars
c. 6mm
d. 2xleastlateraldimensionofcompression members
8. Minimumnumberoflongitudinalbarsin CircularColumn are:
a. 4
b. 5
c. 6
d. 8
9. Minimumcover, whichshouldbeprovidedtocolumnis:
a. 25mm
b. 30mm
c. 40mm
d. 50mm
10. Thevalueofeffectivelengthofacolumnwhichisfixed at boththe.endsis:
a. 0.65 xunsupportedlengthofcolumn
b. 0.80 xunsupportedlengthofcolumn
c. 1.00 xunsupportedlengthofcolumn
d. 1.20 xunsupportedlengthofcolumn
11. The momentofresistancefactorforM150gradeconcreteis
a. 10
b. 8.5
c. 7.4
d. 6.0
12.
The slenderness ratio of
length
a.
breadth
b. length
width
length
c.
diameter
length
d.
a reinforced cement concrete column is generally taken as
least lateral dimension
72
13. As perIS:456recommendation,theareaoflongitudinal reinforcementin acolumn
a. Shall not be lessthan 0.8% and shall not be more than 8% of the gross cross-
sectionalareaofthecolumn
b. Shall notbe lessthan 0.5% andshallnotbe morethan3% ofthe gross-sectional
areaofthecolumn
c. Shall not be less than 0.01%and shalfnotbe more than 2% ofthe grosscross-
sectionalareaofthecolumn
d. Shall notbelessthan 0.05%and shall notbe morethan 2%ofthe grosscross-
sectionalareaofthecolumn
14. Themaximumareaofreinforcementsectionin RCCcolumnsislimitedto8%because
a. Excessinforcementwillcausebuckling
b. Excessreinforcementwill unnecessarilyincreasethecostdisproportionately
c. Excessreinforcementwillcausedifficultyinconcertingparticularlyramming.
d. Excessreinforcementwillcausetoomuchcongestion
15. In RCC columns with spiral reinforcement, minimum number of longitudinal bars in
contactwiththespiralshallbelessthan
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6
16. TheIS 456 recommendationforminimum reinforcement in acolumnshallnotapplyifthe
ratiooflengthtoleastradiusofgyrationislessthan
a. 20
b. 18
c. 16
d. 12
17. InaRCCcolumnthediameterofthe longitudinalbarsusedis25cm.thecolumndiameter
is650mm. the minimumcoverofconcreteclearoflongitudinalbarsshouldbe
a. 12.5mm
b. 25mm
c. 40mm
d. 50mm
73
r ~
I
18.
In a Reecolumn when alaphastobeprovidedtomakethe barsequaltothefull length
I
ofthecolumn,thelapbetweenthebars, inanycase,shouldnotbelessthan
a. 4timesthediameterofbars
b. 8timesthediameterofbars
c. 12timesthediameterofbars
d. 24timesthediameterofbars
19. In a Ree column, the transverse reinforcement provided should have diameter
equivalenttoone-fourthofthediameterofthemainrodsbutinanycasenotlessthan
a. 3mm
b. 5mm
c. 12mm
d. 20mm
20. InaReecolumn,thepitchofthetiesshall
a. betheleastlateraldimensionofthecolumn
b. be16diameterofthesmallestlongitudinalbar
c. be48diameteroftransversereinforcement
d. notmorethananyofthe(a), (b)and(c) above
21. A column is considered as a long column if its slenderness ratio (effective length/least
radiusofgyration)exceeds
a. 12
b. 20
c. 24
d. 30
22. AReecolumn having 180mmaslateraldimension, in which longitudinal barsof 12mm,
diametershavebeenused,theminimumcoverrequiredwouldbe
a. 12
b. 18
c. 25
d. 30
23. Theratioofcostofsteeltothecostofcement,onweightbasisisintherange
a. 2t03
b. 3to5
c. 7t010
d. 15to20
74
,
'r
24.
The effective length of a column continuing through two or more storeys, properly
restrained atbothendsinpositionanddirection,istakenas
a. 2L
b. 1.5L
c. L
d. 0.75L
KEY:
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (d) 6. (a)
7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (a) 11. (b) 12. (d)
13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (e) 17. (c) 18. (e)
19. (b) 20. (d) 21. (a) 22. (c) 23. (c) 24. (d)
.75
, ,
~
I
SECTION-B
TrueI FalseTypeQuestions:
SECTIONC
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. Stateanyfourassumptionsmadeforlimitstateofcollapsein compression.
Ans. Followingassumptionsaremadeinthelimitstateofcollapseincompression.
1. Planesectionsnormaltotheaxis remainplaneafterbending.
2. The maximum strain in concrete at the outermostcompression fibre is taken as
0.0035inbending.
3. Therelationshipbetweenstress-straindistributionin concreteisconsideredtobe
parabolic.
4. Thetensilestrengthofconcreteisignored.
Q2. Definetheterm:a)Columnsb)Strutsc)Pedestal.
Ans. a) Column:- Acolumn maybe definedas amembercarryingdirectaxial loadwhich
causes compressive stresses of such magnitude that these stresses largely
controlitsdesign.
b) Strut:- Compressionmemberswhich are inclinedin naturelike membersoftruss
aretermedasstruts.
c) Pedestal:- Those member whose effective length is less than three times the
leastlateraldimension are called pedestal and maybe casted with plain cement
concrete.
Q3. Howcolumnsareclassifieddependinguponthematerialsusedin construction?
Ans. Columnscanbeclassifiesas under:
1. Dependinguponmaterialsusedinconstruclion :
a) TimberColumns:Timberisusedasconstructionmaterialfortheconstructionof
houses. Wooden columns are generally named as posts and generally used
whereload intensityisless.
b) Steel Columns: In steelstructure,thevertical memberscarryingaxial loadsare
generally termed as stanchions. The load carrying capacity of steel columns is
higherascomparedtotimber.
RolledsteelsectionslikeISHB,ISMBareusedascolumns.
c) Masonry Columns : When columns are made with the help of brick masonry
thentheyareknown aspillarsorpiers.
77
......:..JJ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
.7.
8.
9.
10.
KEY:
1.
6.
The vertical members whose effective length is more than three times the least lateral
dimensionarecalledcolumns.
A long column can carry lesser load as compared toa short column ofthe same cross
sectionalarea.
Theeffectivelengthofacolumnwith oneendfixedandoneendfreeis0.65l
Transverse reinforcementdoesnotcontributetothestrengthofacolumn
Theminimumnumberofbarsin rectangularcolumnis6.
Theminimumpercentageofsteelinacolumnis0.8%
Thediameterofbarusedaslateraltiemayvaryfrom10mmto25mm
Eccentricloadedcolumnarepreferredthanaxiallyloadedcolumns.
Thelengthwhichtakespartin bucklingistermedaseffectivelengthofcolumn.
As per IS recommendations, spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery
ofthecolumnshallnotexceed300mm.
T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. F
T 7. F 8. F 9. T 10. T
76,
i
---- _._-------
Q4. Givetheeffe<7.tive lengthofthecolumnfordifferentendconditionsasperIS456?
Ans. Effectivelengthofcolumn asperIS:456-2000:
r--:-D-e-gr-e-e-o-:f--=E;;-n-d;---:R=-es--:t-ra-;in---::07f'-;:S'-""y=m::'-;:b=o:ll-- Theoretical Recomr11el1d
CompressionMember Value of ed Value of
Effective Effective
Length Length
Effectively held in position and
restrained against rotation at
both ends (i.e., both ends are
!
i
\.
0.65/ L 0.5/ L
fixed).
Effectively held in position at
,""
both ends, restrained against
!
rotation atone end(i.e., fixed at
l
0.80/ L \ 0.7/L oneendandhingedatthe other
end).
Effectively held in position at
both ends, but not restrained
against rotation (Le., both ends 1.00/ L
I 1.001L
are hinged.)
Effectively held in position and
restrained against rotation at
one end, and at the other end
partially retrained against
rotation butnotheldinposition. 1.00 IL 1.20/ L
Q5. Whatisthefunctionoflongitudinalreinforcementincolumns?
Ans. Ithasthefollowingfunctions
1. It helps the concrete in taking up the compression jointly, which in turn reduces
the sizeofcolumn.
2. It provides ductility to the column and reduces the chances of brittle failure.
Ductile detailing of columns reduces the chances of collapse against
earthquakes.
78
3. It reproduces the effect of shrinkage and creep. Creep and shrinkage are the
properties which tend to increase the stresses in longitudinal steel but on the
otherhand reducesthestressesin concrete.
Q6. Explaindifferenttypesofreinforcementprovidedin columns.
Ans. Therearetwotypesofreinforcementprovidedincolums:
1. Longitudinal reinforcement :- Longitudinal reinforcement is also known as main
steel.lthelpsthe concrete in taking upthe compressionjointly, which in turn reduces
thesizeofcolumn;!tprovidesstrengthtothecolumn.
2. Transverse reinforcement : Reinforcement which is provided in transverse
directiontothe longitudinal steel is known as transverse reinforcement. Areinforced
concrete compression member shall have transverse or helical reinforcement so
disposed that every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face has effective
lateralsupportagainstbuckling.
Q7. Whatisthefunction ofprovidingtransversereinforcementin column?
Ans. Function oftransversereinforcement:
1. Ithelpsin confiningthe concreteand helpsintakingcircumferentialtension.
2. Itholdsthemain bars in position.
3. Itpreventsbucklingoflongitudinalsteel.
4. Itpreventslongitudinalsplitting ofconcrete.
QS. How transverse reinforcement is provided in columns? Also give the uses of
helicalreinforcementcolumns..
Ans. Thetransversereinforcementmaybeprovidedincolumnsas :
,
a) Lateralties(Le., LinksorRings)
b) Helicalreinforcement(Spirals)
UsesofHelical ReinforcedColumns:
1. The columns with helical reinforcement are more effective in providing lateral
restraintandalso resistsomecompressiveload.ThusthechancesofBucklingof
longitudinal steel, longitudinal splitting of concrete and diagonal tension gets
reduced.
2. Spiral reinforcement increases the ductility and toughness of the reinforced
column and henceare usefulin earthquakeproneareas.
Qg. GivetheISSpecificationforhelicalreinforcementregardingitsdiameterand pitch.
Ans. I.S.SpecificationsforHelical(spiral) reinforcement:
i) Diameterofbarsforhelicalreinforcementshould begreaterthatthefollowings:
a) 6mm
79
~
I
i
b) ..!.. timesthediameteroflargestlongitudinalbar:
4
ii) Pitch:
Pitch of helical reinforcement shall neither be less than 25 mm, norless than 3
timesthediameterofsteelbarformingthehelix.
Pitch >75mm
1
>- xdiameterofcore
6
Pitch <25mm
<3xdiameterofhelixbar
Q10. Whatareshortand longcolumns?
Ans. ShortColumn:Acolumnis consideredasshortwhenboththeslendernessratios (Le., in
xandydirection)arelessthanequalto12.
Long Column : A column is considered to be long when either orboth the slenderness
ratiosaremorethan12.
Q11. Differenciatebetweenshortandlongcolumns.
Ans.
2. Inaccurateconstructionpractices.
3. Inaccurateloadingofcolumns..
80
Sr. No. Description I ShortColumn ILongColumn
1
..-
1. Slendernessration= ::; 12 >12
EffectivelengthofcolumnI
Leastlateraldimension
2. Buckling Less
More
3. Loadcarrying More
Lessas compared
capacity
I
to short
Q12. Whythecolumnishavingsomeeccentricity?
Ans. The ideal condition of axial loading hardly ever exist. In general practice, a truly axially
loaded column is rarely found. There is always certain inherent minimum eccentricity in
thecolumnsduetothefollowingreasons.
1. Lateraldeflectionofthecolumn.
SECTIOND
Lonq AnwerTypequestions:
Q1. Whataretheassumptionsmadeforlimitstateofcollapseincompression?
Ans. Assumptionsforthe LimitStateofCollapsein Compression (As perclause 39and38.1).
Followingassumptionare madeforthelimitstateofcollapseincompression.
1. Planesectionsnormaltothe axisremainplaneafterbending.
2. The maximum strain in concrete atthe outermostcompression fibre is taken as
0.0035inbending.
3. Therelationship between stress-straindistribution in concrete is consideredtobe
parabolic.
Maximum compressive strength in concrete is assumed as 0.67 times the characteristic
strength.Thepartialsafetyfactor Ym =1.5 shallbeappliedin additiontothisLe.
Maximumcompressivestress 0.67/ck =0.447ick =0.45/
1.5
ck
Where ,fck characteristiccompressivestrengthofconcrete(N/mm2)
1. Thetensilestrengthofconcreteisignored.
2. Thestresses in the reinforcementarederivedfrom the stress-straincurve forthe type of
steelused.
3. Fordesignpurposes,thepartialsafetyfactor Ym =1.5 shallbeapplied.
4. Themaximumcompressivestraininconcretein axialcompressionistaken as0.002
5. The maximum compressive strain at the highly compressed extreme fibre in concrete
subjected to axial compression andbendinQ- andwhen there is notension onthe section
shall be0.0035minus0.75timesthestrainattheleastcompressedextremefibre.
Q2. Definetheterm columns. Whataredifferenttypesofcolumnsdependingupon the
materialsusedin construction?
Ans. A column is an important component of RCC structures. It is a vertical compression
member used to transfer the loads of the structures such as super-structures, building,
factoryfloors, balconies,floorsofframedstructuresetc.tothefoundation.
In RCC framed construction, column playavital role in supporting the beams which in
turn supportwalls and slabs. It should be realized thatfailure ofanyotherpart (Le., slab
orbeam) orastructuremaycause alocalizeddamage,where asfailure ofacolumn may
lead to collapse ofthe structure. Therefore, the design ofcolumn should receive special
importance.
81
Definition:
Columnis definedasverticalcompression member,theeffectivelengthofwhichexceeds
threetimestheleastlateraldimension.
OR
A column . may be defined as a member carrying direct axial load which causes
compressivestressesofsuchmagnitudethatthesestresseslargelycontrolitsdesign.
Compressionmemberswhichareinclinedinnature(likemembersoftruss) aretermedas
struts. Those member who effective length is less than three times the least lateral
dimensionarecalledpedestalandmaybecastedwithplaincementconcrete.
ClassificationofColumn:Columnscanbeclassifiesasunder:
1. Dependingupon materialsusedinconstruction:
a) TimberColumns:Timberisusedasconstructionmaterialfortheconstruction of
houses. Wooden columns are
whereloadintensityis less.
Longitudinal
Reinforcement .H"'Ttt-,ll
...t-T'"Tl"I"1o....__ LatoralTies
(a)CircularColumnwith (b)CircularColumnwith (c)SquareColumnwith
LateralTies(Rings) helicalreinforcement LateralTies
b) SteelColumns:In steelstructure, the vertical memberscarrying axialloadsare
generally termed as stanchions. The load carrying capacity of steel columns is
higherascomparedtotimber.
RolledsteelsectionslikeISHB, ISMBareusedascolumns.
c)
Masonry Columns : When columns are made with the help of brick masonry
thentheyareknownas pillarsorpiers.
.A
r
R.
.. 41
..
r-- Metalor
'..
CementPipe
..
r
SectionalElevation
. L
D-J...Joist SectlonaiElevation
ID- LongitudinalReinforcement
SectionalPlan ....
...
..
CompositeColumn
SectionalPlan
ColumnConcreteFilledType
82
generally named as posts and generally used
LateralTies
Longitudinal Longitudinal
Reinforcement Reinforcement
Spiralof
Reinforcement
; \
03. What is effective length of column? Give the effective length of the column for
differentendconditionsasperIS456?
Ans. Effective length of column : The clear distance (height ) between the two ends of
columnisknownasactual lengthand is designatedas'I':
Thelengthofthecolumnwhichtakespartinbuckling (outwardbending), when subjected
toexternal loading,isknownaseffectivelength. Effectivelengthisdesignatedas Jeff .
Theeffectivelengthofthecolumnisnotnecessarilyitsactua'llength. Itdependsuponthe
end conditions of the column, "Hence, Effective length (I .) may be defined as the
eif
unsupportedlengthofthecolumnwhich is likelytobuckleandisdependentupontheend
conditions.
Table gives the value of I
eff
Of a column is terms of unsupported length (I) of various
endconditionsasperIS:456-2000
Table:effectivelengthofcolumnasperIS:456-2000
GDegree of End Restrain of Symbol Recomme- Theoretical-
Value of ICompression Member nded
Effective Value of
Length Effective
...,",
-7
,..."
1.00/ L
Length

Effectively held in position and
restrained againstrotation at both
ends (i.e" bothendsarefixed).
0.5/ L 0.65/ L
I
j"--' --c-------
Effectivelyheldinposition atboth
"
ends, restrained against rotation
at one end (Le., fixed a t one end
!
andhingedattheotherend). I. 0.7/ L 0.80/ L
\"
'."'''
j"------.,
,,.,,..,,
ends, but not restrained against
rotation (Le., both ends are
Effectivelyheld in position atboth
f
1.00/ L
hinged.) (
.
'\
i
83
. i
J
--
Effectively held in position and
r""j
restrained against rotation at one

end, and attheotherendpartially
t
"
retrained against rotation but not
/
heldinposition.
....
f
1.00/ L 1.20/ L
r
. I,
Effectively held in position and
restrainedagainstrotation atone I
..
end, andattheotherend partially (.....
."
restrained againstrotation but not
,./.'
heldinposition.
1.50 I L
'/
I
Effectively held in position at one
end but not restrained against ,1
!
.",,,.,'t
rotation, and at the other end
restrained against rotation but not f
heldin position
! 2.00I L 2.00 I L
/
Effectively held in position and
restrained against rotation at one
end but not held in position nor
2.00 I L
restrained against rotation at the ,.wL 2.00I L
other end (Le., fixed at one end
andfree attheotherend.
Q4.
Whataredifferenttypesofreinforcementprovided incolumns? GivethefUnction
oflongitudinalreinforcementincolumns?
Ans. ReinforcementinColumns:Steelreinforcementincolumnsconsistsoftwotypes.
a. Longitudinalreinforcement
b. Transversereinforcement
a. Longitudinal :- Longitudinal reinforcement is also known as main
steel. Ithasthefollowingfunctions:
1. It helps the concrete in taking upthe compression jointly, which in turn reduces
thesizeofcolumn.
2.
It provides ductility to the column and reduces the chances of brittle failure.
Ductile detailing of columns reduces the chances of collapse against
earthquakes.
84
3. It reduces the effect of shrinkage ad creep. Creep and shrinkage are the
properties which tend to increase the stresses in longitudinal steel but on the
otherreducesthestressesinconcrete.
4. Main steel helps in resisting tension which maydevelop dueto bending caused
bythetransverseloads,eccentricloadsandmoments.
5. Itprovidesstrengthtothecolumn.
Q5. GivetheIS456-2000specificationforlongitudinalsteel.
Ans. I.S.456-2000SpecificationsforLongitudinalSteel :-
a) The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement, shall not be less than 0.8
percentandnotmorethan6 percentofthegrosscrosssectionalareaoftheColumn.
b) Note: 1. Use of6 percent reinforcement may involve practical difficulties in placing
andcompactingofconcrete,hencelowerpercentageupto4%.
2. When the bars from the columns below have to be lapped with those in the column
underconsideration,thepercentageofsteelshall usuallynotexceed4percent.
b) Ifanycolumn thathasalargercross-sectionalareathan thatrequiredto supportthe
load, the minimum percentage of steel shall be based upon the area of concrete
requiredtoresistthedirectstressesandnotupontheactualarea.
c) The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column shall be four in
rectangularcolumnsandsixincircularcolumns.
d) The diameter ofthe bar, used as longitudinal reinforcement, shalf not be less than
12mm.
e) Areinforcedconcretecolumnhavinghelical reinforcementshallhaveatleastsixbars
oflongitudinalreinforcementwithinthehelicalreinforcement.
f) In a helically reinforced column, the longitudinal bars shall be in contact with the
helicalreinforcementandequidistantarounditsinnercircumference.
g) Spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of the column shall not
exceed300mm
SpaCIng
*300m
m
-
.,


..
-

h) In case of pedestals, in which the longitudinal reinforcement is not taken in


account in strength calculation, nominal longitudinal reinforcement not less than
0.15%ofthecrosssectionalareashallbeprovided.
85
I
i) The longitudinalbars in a column should betied attheirexactplacewith footing.
Before'filling the column with concrete, one must ensure the alignment and
positioningofthecolumns.
j) Ifthe bars are out oftheir position above plinth level then theycan be made in
position,joggled,withinalimitof1:8.
Splicingoflongitudinalreinforcement:
When itis necessarytosplicethe longitudinal reinforcement, the bars shall overlap fora
length not less than 24 times the diameter of the bar. When bars of two different
diameters are to be spliced then splicing should be on the basis of diameterofsmaller
bar.
Note : When the bars are to be joggled then it must be in within a limit of 1 : 8 for
effectivetransferofloadfromonebartoanother.
B. Transverse reinforcement: Reinforcement which isprovided in transversedirectionto
the longitudinal steel is known as transverse reinforcement. A reinforced concrete
compression member shall have transverse or helical reinforcement so disposed that
every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face has effective lateral support
againstbuckling.
Q6. What is transverse reinforcement? What is the function of providing transverse
reinforcementincolumn?
Ans. Transversereinforcement : Reinforcement which isprovided intransverse directionto
the longitudinal steel is known as transverse reinforcement. A reinforced concrete
compression member shall have transverse or helical reinforcement so disposed that
every longitudinal bar nearest to the compression face has effective lateral support
against buckling. The effective lateral supports is given by transverse reinforcement
either in the form of circular rings orby lateral ties with internal angles not exceeding
135.Theendsofthetransversereinforcementshallbeproperlyanchored.
Functionoftransversereinforcement:
1. Ithelpsinconfiningtheconcreteand helpsin takingcircumferentialtension.
2. Itholdsthemainbarsin position.
3. Itpreventsbucklingoflongitudinalsteel.
4. Itpreventslongitudinalsplittingofconcrete.
5. Ithelpsinresistingthediagonaltension.
Thetransversereinforcementmaybepro\(ided incolumnsas:
a. Lateralties(Le., LinksorRings)
b. Helicalreinforcement(Spirals)
86
Q7. GivetheISSpecificationfor helical reinforcementregardingitsdiameterandpitch.
Alsogivetheusesof helicalreinforcementcolumns.
Ans. I.S.SpecificationsforHelical(spiral)reinforcement(Asperclause26.5.3.2(d))
i) Diameterofbarsforhelicalreinforcementshouldbegreaterthanthefollowings:
a) 6mm
b) ..!.. timesthediameteroflargestlongitudinalbar:
4
ii) Pitch:
helical reinforcement shall be of regular formation with the turns of the helix spaced
evenlyand its endsshallbe anchoredproperlY,byprovidingone anda halfturnsextraof
thespiralbar.
Helical reinforcement shall not be more than 75 mm, nor more than ..!.. th of the core
6
diameterofthe column. Pitch ofhelical reinforcementshall notbe less than 25 mm, nor
lessthan3timesthediameterofsteelbarformingthehelix.
Pitch >75mm
1 .
> - xdiameterofcore
6
Pitch <25mm
<3xdiameterofhelixbar
UsesofHelicalReinforcedColumns
1. The columns with helical reinforcement are more effective in providing lateral
restraintandalsoresistsomecompressiveload. ThusthechancesofBucklingof
longitudinal steel, longitudinal splitting of concrete and diagonal tension gets
reduced.
2. Spiral reinforcement increases the ductility and toughness of the reinforced
columnandhenceareusefulin earthquakesproneareas.
3. Load carrying capacity ofcolumns, reinforced with helical reinforcement, is more
than thatofcolumns,providedwithlateralties.
QB-. Discusstheconceptofshortandlongcolumn
Ans. ShortColumn:Acolumnisconsidered asshortwhen boththeslendernessratios (Le., in
xandydirection)arelessthanequalto12.
i.e. Forshortcolumn,slendernessration
a) lex S; 12 b)
12
D b
Long Column :A column is considered to be long when either orboth the slenderness
ratiosaremorethan 12
Le., Forlong columns, slendernessratio
87
I
,
, I
-..J.J)
a) lex>12 b) ley>12
D b
Where Lex::: Effectivelengthinbendingwith respecttomajoraxix(Le.x-axis)
Ley::: Effectivelengthin bendingwith respecttominoraxis(Le., y-axis)
D::: Depthofthecolumnsectionwithrespecttomajoraxis.
b::: Widthofthesectionwith respecttominoraxis.
ComparisonbetweenshortandlongColumn
I Sr.No. i Description IShortColumn . .LongColumn

1. Slendernessration::: 12 >12
EffectivelengthofcolumnI
Leastlateraldimension
2. Buckling Less More
3. Loadcarrying More Lessascompared
L--____-LI__ __ ___ __ ______________ ___________ sh_o_rt co_l_umn_s__
Q9. Why the column is having some eccentricity? Give the IS recommendation
regardingtheminimumeccentricity.
Ans. The ideal condition of axial loading hardly ever exist. In general practice, a truly axially
loaded column is rarely found. There is always certain inherent minimum eccentricity in
thecolumnsduetothefollowing reasons.
1. Lateraldeflectionofthecolumn.
2. Inaccurateconstructionpractices.
3. Inaccurateloadingofcolumns.
As per IS 456-2000 recommendations : all columns shall be designed for minimum
eccentricity(emin) asunder:
Minimum in x-direction (exmin.) :::
500
or 20mmwhicheverisgreater.
Minimum iny-direction(eymin.) =
500 30
or20mmwhicheverisgreater.
Where, Ix and ly =unsupportedlenQth withrespectto andminoraxisrespective
D::: Depthofcolumnsectionwithrespecttomajorexis.
b=Widthofcolumnsectionwithrespecttominoraxis.
Note:AsperISspecifications. :
1. Each axiallyloaded column should be designedforaxial load plus biaxial moments,
developedduetoeccentricitiesintwoprincipaldirections.
88
2. Asperclause39.2, ifthecalculatedeccentricityislargerthantheminimum, thenthe
minimumeccentricityisneglected.
3. Ifthe appliedmoments,onthecolumn, arelargerthanthemomentsduetominimum
eccentricitythenthecolumnsshallbedesignedforappliedloadsplusmoments.
Q10.
Ans.
Howwillyoucalculatetheaxialloadcarryingcapacityofshortcolumns?
(A) Forshortcolumnswithlateralties(Rings)
Columnsaresaidtobeshortwhen :
a) Boththeslendernessratiosarelessthanorequalto12.
. l I
I.e.,.E..:512and ...2:..:512
D b
b) Minimumeccentricities: e ..== +.!2
. x min 500 30
or 20mmwhicheveris greater. e ..=
ymm 500 30
or
Note:
20mmwhicheverisgreater.
If e . <005D and e . <0.05h,then as per IS 456-2000 specification, formula for
x rrun yrrun
ultimate load carrying capacity (Pu) ofaxially loadedshortcolumn maybe expressed as
under:
=0.4 fekAc +0.67fyAse
Pu
fck
:::
:::
Ultimateloadcarrying (orFactoredaxial load inNorkN)
Characteristiccompressivestrengthofconcrete(N/mm
2
).
Ac :::Areaofconcreteexcludingsteel
Grossareaofcolumn- Areaofsteel(Le., Ag-Asc)
Characteristicstensilestrengthofsteel(N/mm2)
Age Areaoflongitudinal(main)steelincolumn.
Q.11
Ans.
Findtheultimateioadcarrying capacity and allowableloadfora short column of
size500mmx 500mm.Thecolumnisreinforcedwith4-25 mmdiameterbars.Use
M20concreteandHYSDgradeFe415steel.Assumeemin.<0.05D
DataGiven
Sizeofcolumn=500mmx500mm
Areaofsteelincompression(Age) ::: 4xn(25)2 :::1963.5mm
2
4
ick == 20NImm2
(ForM20concrete)
fy=415NImm
2
(ForFe415steel)
89
emin, <0.05D
Area ofconcrete=Grossareaofcolumn- Areaofsteel
i.e., Ac=Ag- Asc
2
where Ag=500x500=250000mm
2
Ac =250000- 1963.5 248036.5mm
As the minimum eccentricity in the column (emin.) <0.05 D, therefore the ultimate axial
loadcarryingcapacityoftheshortcolumn is givenbythe relation:
Pu =OAfckAc+0.67fyAsc
= OAx20x248036.5+0.67x415x1963.5
=1984292+545951.18
Ultimateload, P
u
=2530243.2Nor2530kN Ans.
Allowableloadoncolumn = Pu 2530=1668kN
PartialFactorSafety 1.5
Q12. A shortconcrete column isreinforced with 4 bars of20 mm diameter. Determine
the ultimateloadcarrying capacityofthe column, usingM20 gradeconcreteand
Fe 415 gradesteel, ifthesizeofthecolumnis450mm x450 mm.Whatwillbethe
allowableserviceload ineach case, iftheminimum eccentricityislessthan 0.05
timesthelateraldimension?
Ans. DataGiven:
A =4 7f(20)2;:;:; 125664 2
sc X .mm
4
fck 20NImm
2
(ForM20concrete)
fy;::::;415Nlmm
2
(ForFe415steel)
e
rnin
, <0.05D
Sizeofthecolumn=450mm x450mm
2
GrossArea, Ag =450x450=202500mm .
AreaofconcreteAc=Ag- Asc
=202500-1256.64
Ac=201243.36mm
2
Ultimatestrength (loadcarryingcapacity), p" =0.4fCkAc +0.67fyA"
OAx20x201243.26+0.67x415x1256.6
1959355.6Nor1959.36kN
.
.
. Allowanceserviceload, p" 1959.36
1306.24kN Ans .
L5 1.5
90
"

Q13. Ashortcolumn400mmx400mmisreinforcedwith4barsof20 mmdiameter.Find
the ultimate load carrying capacity of the column ifthe minimum eccentricity is
lessthan0.05timesthelateraldimension.UseM20concreteandFe415 steel.
Ans. DataGiven:
Sizeofthecolumn=400 mm x400mm
Areaofsteel incompression, A 4 X Jl'(20)2 =:1256.64mm
2
,fC
4
e
min
, <0.05D
fck =:20NImm
2
(ForM20concrete)
fy =415NImm
2
(ForFe415steel)
As
e
min
, <O.05D :. +0.67 fyAsc
Where Ag =400mmx400mm 160000mm
2
.
Ac =:Ag-Asc
=160000-1256.64
2
Ac=158743.36mm
Ultimateload P
u
=0.4x20x158743.36+0.67x415x1256.64
1269946.9+349408.75
P
u
=1619355.6Nor1619.36kN Ans.
Allowableloadon column= 1619.36 1079kN
1.5
Q14. A RCCcircularcolumnhasan unsupportedlengthof4.1 mandiseffectivelyheld
inpositionatbothendsandrestrainedagainstrotationatoneend.Thediameterof
columnis500mm.Mainsteelconsistsof6,barsof25 mmrjJ. Findtheultimateload
thecolumncancarry.UseM20concreteandFe415 steel.
Ans. DataGiven:
Unsupported(actual) lengthofcolumn, 1= lx ly =:4.1m=4100mm
End condition applicable: Effectively held in position atboth ends and restrained against
rotation atoneend.
Effectivelengthofcolumn, liff =0.81
=3.28m=3280mm
Diameter, D=500mm
Areaofsteel incompression, Asc = 6X1C(25)2 -2945.2mm
2

4
fck 20NImm
2
(ForM20concrete)
fy =415NImm
2
(ForFe415steel)
91
d

Grossareaofcircularcolumn, A
196349.S4mm
2
g
Netareaofconcrete, Ac == Ag - Asc
=196349.54- 2945.2
Ac =193404.34mm
2
Checkthecolumnforshortorlong
Slendernessratio, Ie! =3280=6.56<12
D SOD
Hence,theabovecolumnisashortcolumn.
Checkthecolumnforminimumeccentricity, I
min
1 D 4100 500
e, =-+-=--+-
mm 500 30 500 30
8.2+16.66== 24.86mm<20mm
Also, 0.05D=0.05x:'500==25mm>e
mln
,
Therefore,theloadcarryingcapacityofshortaxiallyloadedcolumn isgivenbytheformula:
Pu ==OAfckA+0.67fyAse
==OAx20x193404.34+0.67x415x2945.2
== 1S47234.7+818912.86
= 2366147.6N
:.Ultimateloadcarryingcapacity, P
u
2366.15kN Ans.
Allowablesafeload=1577kN
015. A RCC circular'columnof450 mm in diameterisaxiallyloaded."rhe unsupported
lengthofcolumn is4.0 m and iseffectivelyheldin positionatbothends, butnot
restrained against rotation (i.e, both ends are hinged). The area of longitudinal
reinforcement is 2945 mm
2
The grade ofconcrete and steel is M 20 and Fe 415
respectivelyDetermine.
i) theultimateloadcarryingcapacityofthecolumnand
ii) Allowablesafeload.
Ans.
DataGiven:Diameterofthecolumn, 0 == 450mm
Unsupported(actual}length~ thecolumn, 1= lx ~ ly =4.0m=4000mm
End Condition Applicable : Effectively held in position butnot restrained against rotation
(Le., both endsarehinged).
Effectivelengthofcolumn, left=1== 4.0=4000mm
Areaoflongitudinalreinforcement, A
sc
=2945mm
2
fck 20Nlmm
2
(ForM20concrete)
92
fy =415NImm
2
(ForFe415steel)
i} Ultimateloadcarryingcapacityofthecolumn,
Grossareaofcircularcolumn, A JZ'(4S0)2 =lS9043mm2
g 4
Netareaofconcrete,Ac== Ag- Asc
=159043- 2945
Ac == 156098mm
2
.
Checkforslendernessratio
l,jJ 4000=8.9<12
D 450
Hencethecolumnisshortcolumn
Checktheminimumeccentricity, emin.
, 1 D
e, -+-
min, 500 30
4000 450
e, =--+-
mm, 500 30
Or <23mm<20mm e
mln
.
Also ernin. <0.05D
Le., 0.05x450 22.5mm<23mm
As emin. Is less than 0.05 0, therefore, the load carrying capacity of the axially loaded
shortcolumnisgivenbythefollowingformula:
Pu =OAfckAc+0.67fvAsc
=OAx20x156098+0.67x415x2945
= 1248784+818857.25
UltimateloadPu :=: 2067641.3Nor2067.64kN Ans.
i) Allowablesafe load
Allowablesafeload
:=:
Ultimateload == p. =2067,64=1378.43kNAns.
Partialsafetyfactors 1.5 1.5
93
CHAPTER 4: DESIGN OF SLABS
SECTION A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1. Shapeoftheslabis:
a. Square
b. Rectangular
c. Circular
d. Alloftheabove
2. Whencomparedwithonewayslab,thethicknessofslabincaseoftwowayslabis:
a. Less
b. More
c. Equal
d. Noneoftheabove
3. Fordeflectioncontrol,theratioofspantodepthforasimplysupportedonewayslabis:
a. 7
b. 20
c. '26
d. 35
4. Minimum area of reinforcement in either direction of slab using tor steel should not be
lessthan:
a. 0.12%bD
b. 0.15%bD
c. 0.18%bD
d." 0.20%bD
5. Distributionsteelin onewayslabis providedto:
a. Distributethe load
b. Takethetemperaturestresses
c. Taketheshrinkagestresses
d. Alloftheabove
6. Mainsteelisprovidedin aslabto:
a. Distributetheload
b. Resistthebending
c. Takethetemperaturestresses
d. Allofthe above
94
7. In caseofonewayslab, mainsteelisprovidedalongthe:
a. Shorterspan
b. Longerspan
c. Bothway
d. Noneoftheabove
8. Minimumdiameterofbarused in slabis:
a. 8mm
b. 10mm
c. 12mm
d. Noneoftheabove
9. Whenthelengthofslabislessthan2timesthewidth, thenitisknownas:
a. Onewayslab
b. Twowayslab
c. Threewayslab
d. Noneoftheabove
10. Intwowayslab,withcornershelddown,thetorsionsteelis providedat:
a. Top
b. Bottom
c. Middle
d. Both(a) and(b)
KEY:
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (d)
6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (d)
95
SECTION-B
TrueI FalseTypeQUestions:
1. The vertical members whose effective length is more than three times the least lateral
dimensionarecalledcolumns.
2. A long column can carry lesser load as compared to a short column ofthe same cross
sectionalarea.
3. Theeffectivelengthofacolumn withone endfixedandoneendfreeis0.65I
4. Transversereinforcementdoesnotcontributetothestrengthofacolumn
5. Theminimumnumberofbarsinrectangularcolumnis6.
6. The minimumpercentageofsteelin acolumnis0.80/0
7. Thediameterofbarusedaslateraltiemayvaryfrom 10mmto25mm
8. Eccentricloadedcolumn arepreferredthanaxiallyloadedcolumns.
9. Thelengthwhichtakespartinbucklingistermedaseffectivelengthofcolumn.
10. As per IS recommendations, spacing of longitudinal bars measured along the periphery
ofthecolumnshallnotexceeds300mm.
KEY:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. F
6. T 7. F 8. F 9. T 10. T
96
SECTION-C
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. WhatarethedifferentClassificationofslabs?
Ans. Slabscanbeclassifiedintovariouscategoriesasmentionedhereunder.
1. Dependingupontheirshape:
Rectangular,square, circular,triangular, etc.
2.
Dependinguponratioof longspantoshortspan:
a) Onewayslab;When Long span> 2
Short span
b)
Twowayslab;When Long span
--"-''-- <2
Short span
3.
Dependinguponthedifferentboundaryconditions:
a) Free Edge.......................
b) Simplysupported .. E ....
c) Builtin111111111
Q2. Whatareonewayslabs?
Ans. Slabs which have ratio of longer span to shorter span greater than or equal to 2 are
called as one way slabs. Such slabs are also categorized as edge supported slabs (Le.,
Slab supported on two edges/side walls).This type of slab spans in one direction i.e.,
perpendicular to the supporting edges. That way they are also termed one way slabs.
The bending in such slabs also takes place in one direction (Le., perpendicular to
supports).
Q3. Describethetypesofreinforcementinonewayslabs.
Ans. Therearetwotypesofreinforcementprovidedin onewayslabs:
1. MainSteel:
Mainsteel isprovidedalong(parallelto) shorterspan.Thepurposeofthissteelisto
97
DistributionSteel
LongSpan
"I I"
a) takeuptheloads
b) toresistbending
c) tosupportthedistributionsteel.
2. DistributionSteel:
Distribution steel is provided in a direction perpendicular to the direction of main steel
(Le., along longerspan). The distribution bars are notprovided with hooks (Standard U
Shaped)evenifmildsteelisused.
The distribution steel must be tied above the main steel, otherwise the lever arm
(distance between C,G's of compressive and tensile areas) will decrease and thus
resultingin reductionofmomentofresistance.
Momentofresistance=CompressiveortensileforcexLeverarm
WhyDistributionSteelisknownas"stressreinforcement"?Whatisthepurposeof
providingDistributionSteel?
Distribution Steel is known as "stress reinforcement" because It helps in resisting
Q4.
Ans.
shrinkageandtemperaturestresses.
PurposeofProvidingDistributionSteel :
1. Itkeepsthemainreinforcementin position.
2. The most important purpose of providil"!g distribution steel is to distribute the
concentratedloadcomingovertheslab.
Giveany5differencesbetweenonewayandtwowayslabs.
Ans.
Q5.
TwowaySlab OnewaySlab
<2
ItemDescription S.No.
1.
Ratioof Longspan
Shortspan
2.
Alongboththespans BendingofSlab Alongshorterspan
Provided along both Main Steel Provided along
shorterspan
3.
thespans
Less ThicknessofSlab More 4.
Less Quantity of Steel
More 5.
required
Q6. GivetheISspecificationsfortheeffectivespaninthefollowingcases:
a) simplysupportedslab
b) Cantilever
Ans. Effectivespanforvariousendsupportingconditionsareasfollows:
98
a) Forsimplysupportedslabs:
Theeffectivespanofasimplysupportedslabistakenastheleastamong
i) distancebetweencentretocentreofsupports.
ii) Cleardistancebetweenthesupportsplustheeffectivedepthofslab.
b) Cantilever:
The effective length of cantilever shall be taken as its length to the face of the
support plus half the effective depth, except where it forms the end of a
continuousbeamwherethelengthtothecentreofthesupportshallbetaken.
Q7. Whataretheverticaldeflectionlimitsforslabs?
Ans. Forslabs, thevertical deflectionlimits maybesatisfied provided the span todepth ratios
arenotgreaterthanthevaluesobtainedasbelow:
a) Forspansupto10m
CantileverSlabs 7
SimplySupported 20
ContinuousSlabs 26
b) For spans above 10 m, the values in (a) maybe multiplied by in meters,
Span
exceptforcantileversinwhichcalculationsfordeflectionshouldbe made.
Q8. WhataretheISrecommendationsforthecover- to-reinforcementinslabs?
Ans. The provisions for providing concrete cover, excluding plaster or other decorative
finishes, to the reinforcement depends upon the exposure conditions and fire safety.
Reinforcement shall have concrete cover and the thickness of such cover (excluding
plaster) shallbeasfollows:
\
a) The reinforcement shall have a minimum clear cover of 20 mm or diameter of
suchbarwhich everis greater.
b) At each end of reinforcing bar(end cover) notlessthan 25 mm and in no case
shouldbelessthantwicethediameterofbars.
c) When exposed to harmful chemical attacks the increase may be permitted but
notmorethan75mm.
Q9. Writeshortnoteona)Overlappingb)Loadingonslabs.
Ans. A) Overlapping: Not more than 50% of the bars be spliced at one point. The
overlapping of bars must not be in the region of maximum bending moments.
Splicelengthmaybethegreatervalueamong 30 orLd
B) Loading on slabs: Slabs are generally designed to carry transverse loads
comingoverit. Thetotal loadon slabconsistsofthecombinationsof:
1. DeadLoad(D.L.)alsoknownasselfweightofslab.
2. Externaldeadloadsi.e.,weightofpartitions,finishing,etc.
99
,
3. Live.load (L.L.) The other types of loads on structural slab can be snow load,
windload,seismicloadsetc.
Q10. Whataretwowayslabs?Howwillyouclassifythetwowayslab?
Ans. When ratio oflongerspantoshorterspan ofaslab, supported on four sides, is lessthan
2, thenitisknown asatwowayslab.
In twowayslabs,thetotal load isdividedon both the spans insteadofone as in case of
one way slab. Therefore, the main reinforcement is provided in both the direction. That
meansnodistributionsteelisprovided.
Theslabsspanningintwodirectionscanbeclassifiedintwocategories. :
i) Simplysupportedslabs
ii) RestrainedSlabs
Q11. Whatarethevariousendconditionsforrestrainedslab?
Ans. Variousendrestrainedconditions:
1. InteriorPanels(withallfouredgescontinuous)
2. Oneshortedgediscontinuous(Butotherthreeedgesarecontinuous)
3. Onelongedgediscontinuous(Butotherthreeedgescontinuous)
4. Twoadjacentedgesdiscontinupus(Othertwoedgesarecontinuous)
5. Twoshortedgesdiscontinuous(othertwolongedgescontinuous)
6. Twolongedgesdiscontinuous(twoshortedgescontinuous)
7. Threeedgesarediscontinuous(onelongedgeiscontinuous)
8. Threeedgesdiscontinuous(oneshortedgeiscontinuous)
9. Fouredgesdiscontinuous.
Q12. Whatwillbetheminimumdiameterofbarusedintheconstructionofslabs?
Ans: Slabconsistsofthreetypeofreinforcements, which include, Mainsteel, Distributionsteel
andstirrups.Therequirementofdiameterofbarforthesetypeofsteelisasperfollows:
1. Mainsteel: Minimumdiameterofbar8mm
2. Distributionsteel:Minimumdiameterofbar8mm
3. Stirrups: Minimumdiameterofbar6mm
100
SECTIOND
Long AnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. Whatareslabs?Classifythem.
Ans. Slabs are plane structural members whose mickness is quite small as compared to its
other dimensions. Slabs are mostly used as floors and rO?f coverings.Slabs can be of
variousshapessuch as circular, rectangular, square and triangularin abuilding, storage
tanks, etc. Slabs supportmainlytransverse loads and transferthem to end supports by
bendingactioninoneofdirections.
The slabs are generallydesigned like beams but on the assumption thattheyconsist of
number of beams (strips) of breadth one metre. For designing the slabs, the bending
moments and shear forces are calculated in the same way as it is done in case of
rectangular beams. The load perunit area will be considered as load per unit length of
theimaginarybeamhavingunitwidthand span (I).
Classificationofslabs
Slabscanbeclassifiedintovariouscategoriesasmentionedhereunder.
1. Dependingupontheirshape:
Rectangular,square,circular,triangular, etc.
2. Dependinguponratiooflongspantoshortspan:
a) Onewayslab;When Longspan>2
Shortspan
b) Twowayslab;When Longspan <2
Shortspan
3. Dependinguponthedifferentboundaryconditions:
a) Free Edge ..........
b) Simplysupported 7i...
c) Builtin//1//1///
DO
Fig.Slabswith Differentboundaryconditions.
Q2. What are one way slabs? Also describe the types of reinforcement in one way
slabs.
Ans. Slabs which have ratio oflongerspan to shorterspan greaterthan orequal to arecalled
as one way slabs. Such slabs are also categorized as edge supported slab (Le., Slab
supportedontwoedges/sidewalls).
101
I'"
This type of.slab spans in one direction Le., perpendiculartothe supporting edges. That
waythey are alsotermed one way slabs. The bending in such slabs alsotakes place in
one direction (Le., perpendiculartosupports).Thatiswhythe main reinforcementisalso
providedalongshorterspananddistributionsteelalonglongerspanasshowninFig.
LongSpan
WalllBeam
Iiol
Fig.SlabSpanningAlongOneDirection Slab)
TypesofReinforcementin onewayslabs:
Therearetwotypesofreinforcementprovidedinonewayslabs:
1. MainSteel:
Mainsteelisprovidedalong(parallelto)shorterspan.Thepurposeofthissteelisto
a) takeuptheloads
b) to resistbending
c) tosupportthedistributionsteel.
. Generally alternative main bars are bent up at 117 distance from the centre of supports
whichmeanshalfthenumberofbarsarestraightbarsandhalfbarsarebentupbars.
2. DistributionSteel:
Distribution steel is provided in a direction perpendicular to the direction of main steel
(Le., along longer span). The distribution bars are not provided with hooks (Standard U
Shaped) even ifmildsteelisused.
The distribution steel must be tied above the main steel, otherwise the lever arm
(distance between C,G's of compressive and tensile areas) will decrease and thus
resultinginreductionofmomentofresistance.
Momentofresistance=CompressiveortensileforcexLeverarm
Itis clearlyseenfrom theaboverelationthatmomentof resistanceisdirectlyproportional
toleverarm.
PurposeofProvidingDistributionSteel:
1. Itkeepsthemainreinforcementin position.
2. The most important purpose of providing distribution steel is to distribute the
concentratedloadcomingovertheslab.
3. It helps in resisting shrinkage and temperature stresses and that's why itis also
knownas"stressreinforcement."
102
Q3. Whataretwowayslabs?Differentiatebetweenonewayandtwowayslabs.
Ans. When ratio of longerspan to shorterspan ofaslab, supported on four sides, islessthan
2,thenitisknownasatwowayslab.
Intwowayslabs, thetotal load is dividedon boththe spansinsteadof one asin case of
one wayslab. Therefore, the main reinforcement is provided in both the direction. That
meansnodistributionsteelisprovided.
Providingmainsteel alongboth spansreducesthe shearforce, bendingand deflection in
slabs. Therefore resulting in slabs of smaller thickness with less quantity of steel
reinforcement.
Hence,twowayslabsareconsideredto beeconomical.
Comparisonbetweenonewayslabandtwowayslab.
S.No.
1.
Ratioof
2.
3.
MainSteel
4.
5.
6.
required
.7.
Q4. GivetheISspecificationsfortheeffectivespaninthefollowingcases:
a) simplysupportedslab
b) continuousslabs
c) Cantilever
. Ans. Effective Span : Proper assessment'of the effective span is very important because it
playsavital role incalculatingthe bendingmoment. Bendingmomentvariesas asquare
ofeffectivelength.
Effectivespanforvariousendsupportingconditionsareasfollows:
a) Forsimplysupportedslabs:
103
ItemDescription OnewaySlab TwowaySlab
Long span 2':2 <2
Short span
Alongshorter Alongboth the
BendingofSlab
span spans
Providedalong Providedalongboth
shorterspan thespans
Providedalong Nodistributionsteel
DistributionSteel
longerspanand requiredandthe
abovethemain mainsteelis
steel. providedalongboth
spans.
ThicknessofSlab
More \ Less
QuantityofSteel
More Less
CostofSlab
,
.More ILess(I.e. I
_____---LI_--'-__ ___
Theeffective-spanofasimplysupportedslabistakenastheleastamong
i) distancebetweencentretocentreofsupports.
ii) Cleardistancebetweenthesupportsplustheeffectivedepthofslab.
RCCSIab
EffectiveSpan(t) -----
Supports 1..........-----:.- ClearSpan(L}I-----....
..._.:...:...::.....-------- TotalSpan,-----------...:-=-....... \...
b) ForContinuousSlab:
In caseofcontinuousslabs, ifthewidthofthesupportislessthan 1 oftheclearspan,
12
theeffectivespanshallbecalculatedbyfollowingtheproceduregivenin(a) above.
In case the supports are widerthan ofthe clearspan or600 mm which everis less,
12
theeffectivespanshallbetaken as under;
i) Forend spanwithoneendfixed andthe otherend continuousorforintermediate
spans,theeffectivespan shallbetheclearspanbetweenthesupports.
ii) Forend span with one end freeand othercontinuous, theeffectivespan maybe
taken equal toclearspan plushalfthe effectivedepth offthe slab, orclearspan
plushalfthewidthofthediscontinuoussupport,whicheverisless.
c) Cantilever:
The effective length of cantilever shall be taken as its length to the face ofthe support
plus halfthe effective depth except where itforms the end of acontinuous beam where
thelengthtothecentreofthesupportshall betaken.
05. GivetheISrecommendationsforthedeflectioncontrolinslabs.
Ans. The deflection ofstructureorpartthere ofshall notadversely affectthe appearance and
efficiency of the structure orfinishes or partitions. For slabs, the vertical deflection limits
may be satisfied provided the span to depth ratios are not greater than the,values
obtainedasbelow:
a) Forspansupto10m
CantileverSlabs 7
SimplySupported. 20
ContinuousSlabs 26
b) For spans above 10m,the values in (a) may be multiplied by in meters,
Span
exceptforcantileversinwhichcalculationsfordeflectionshouldbemade.
104
c)
Depending on the areaand type ofsteel fortension reinforcement, the values in
(a) or(b) shallbemodifiedasperFig.
o 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 0.4 2.8 3.0
2.0
1\ \ \ \ \
1\
\
1"-
\
-"-
"- f',
.......
t--..
1.6
!\. "I'...
......
'" --
-

f8'O.145

f'.
r--

I-- - l-
I-

I'-

Note: - , salvice
4
, .' mj
o.
PercentageTensionReinforcement
15=0.58tv Area ofcrosssectionol$!oolrequired
Area 01 ClOSS' eection ofsteelprOlrided
1.5
1,.4

If
1.3

...
1.2
1.1
V
1.0
o
-

, ,


L
/'"
V
./
V
!
P
to-
0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00
,PercentageTensionReinforcement
1.00
1/
0.95
/
0.90
!
If
L
0.85
/
lO.80
0.75
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
RatioofWebwidth
toFlangewidth
SolidSlabs:
(i) For slabs spanning in two directions, the shorter of the two slabs shall be used for
calculatingslabto effectivedepthratios.
(ii) For the special case of two way slabs of small spans (upto 3.5m) with mild steel
reinforcement, the shorter span to overall depth ratios given below may generally be
105
r
I
I
assumed to satisfy vertical deflection limits (without using the check for deflection
control)forloadingclassupto3000N/m
2

Forsimplysupportedslabs=35
Continuousslabs =40
But for HYSD (high yield strength deformed bars of Fe 415 grade), the values given
aboveshallbemultipliedby0.8
Note(iii)Permissibleshearstressinslab(AsperIS:456-2000,Clause40.2.1.1)
Forsolidslabs, permissibleshearstressinconcreteshallbe k.T thevalueofkisgivenbelow:
c
ave,,,,, depthof,'ab 300on"ore 275 2so 2:!51200
175
1150
(D)mm I I Less
~ I u e of k_-=-=-- 1.00----tT05 1.10 1 1 ~ 5 If2- 1.2ST'f.30
Q6. DiscusstheISrecommendationsforthereinforcementinslabs.
Ans. i) Minimumareaofreinforcement:
The area of reinforcement in either direction in slabs shall not be less than
0.12% of the gross cross-sectional area of the slab i.e.. , O.12bQ_ For HYSD
100
steel 0.15% of the gross cross-sectional areaof the slab i.e.,0.15bD - Formild
100
steel
(ii) Maximul')1diameterofsteelbar:
As per IS specifications, the maximum diameter of the reinforcing barin a slab
shouldnotexceed ! timestheoverallthicknessoftheslab.
8
(iii) Covertoreinforcement:
Theprovisionsforprovidingconcretecover, excluding plasterorotherdecorative
finishes, to the reinforcement depends upon the exposure conditions and fire
safety. Reinforcementshallhaveconcretercoverandthethicknessofsuchcover
(excludingplaster)shallbeasfollows:
a) The reinforcement shall have a minimum clear cover of 20 mm or
diameterof-suchbarwhicheverisgreater.
b) Ateachendofreinforcing bar(endcover) notlessthan25mmand in no
caseshouldnotbelessthantwicethediameterofbars.
c) When exposed to harmful chemical attacks the increase may be
permittedbutnotmorethan75mm.
iv) Spacingofreinforcement:
a) Minimumspacingbetweenindividualbars:
106
v) Theminimumhorizontaldistancebetweentwoparallelmainreinforcingbarsshall
hot be less than the diameter of the bar or 5 mm more than the nominal
maximumsizeofcoarseaggregateusedintheconcrete,whicheverismore
Note: In case of unequal diameter bars, the diameter of larger bar is considered for
calculations.
vi) In case if it is desiredto provide main bars in two ormore layers (one overthe
other), the minimum vertical clear distance between anytwo layers of the bars
shall normally be 15 mm or 3. timesthe nominal maximum size ofaggregate or
3
themaximumsizeofthebarwhicheverisgreater.
a) Maximumdistancebetweenbarsintension:
i) The centretocentre distance (pitch) of the main tensile bars in slab should not
exceed three times the effective depth of the slab or 300 mm whichever is
smaller.
ii) Thepitchofthebars providedtoactas distributionbarorbars,providedtoguard
againsttemperature orshrinkage in slabs, shall notexceed5 timesthe effective
depthofslabor450mmwhicheverissmaller.
iii) Curtailmentofmainbars:
The main reinforcement bars may be curtained orbent-up, beyond a particular
point atwhich itis no longer required to resist bending. Theoretical cutoff point
may be calculated as mentioned in design of beams. And then actual point of
curtailmentmaybeascertained.
iv) Splicingofreinforcement(Overlapping) ~
Notmorethan 50% ofthe bars be spliced atone point. The overlappingofbars
must notbe in the region ofmaximum bending moments. Splice length maybe
thegreatervalueamong 30! orLd
vi) Loadingon Slabs:
Slabs are generally designed to carrytransverse loadscoming over it. The total
loadonslabconsistsofthecombinationsof:
1. DeadLoad(D.L.) alsoknownasselfweightofslab.
2. Externaldeadloadsi.e.,weightofpartitions,finishing, etc.
3. Live load (L.L.) The othertypes ofloads on structural slab can be snow
load,wind load, seismicloadsetc.
Note: UnitweightofRCC=25000N/m
3
(ifnotmentioned)
UnitweightofPCC=24000N/m
3
(ifnotmentioned)
Unitweightoflimeconcrete=19200N/m
3
(ifnotmentioned)
107
Q7. Givethestepbystepprocedureforthedesignofonewayslab.
Ans. DataGiven':
1. ExternalD.L. andL.L.
2. Clearoreffectivespanofslab.
3. Gradeofconcreteandsteelused.
StepwiseProcedure:
Step1 Dividetheslabintostripsof1mwidthandthestripwill bedesignedasbeamAssume 1m
widthoftheslab (Le., b= 1m). Thedesignforthis 1m stripwill be appliedto all other1 m
strips.
Step2 Assumeeffectivedepth :
Tocalculatetheselfweightofslab,overalldepth(D)oftheslabisrequired.
D= d+ effectivecover
Where, d=Effectivedepth andd=EjfectieSpan EjfectieSpan
, to'-""----'-
25 30
EffectiveCovermaybeassumed=20mmto30mm
Step3.Findtheeffectivespan
Findeffectivebearing/wallthickness
i) Forspansupto3.5m, bearing 200mm
ii) Forspansupto5.5m, bearing 300mm
iii) Forspansupto7.0m, bearing=400mm
Effectivespanisleastofthefollowings
i) L+!bearing+!bearing
2 2
ii) 1=L+d
Where l=Effectivespan
L Clearspan
d=Effectivedepth
Step4 Calculatethefactoredlead(wuJ ontheslab
TotalFactoredload(wu)=1.5xw
Where, w=D.L.+L.L.+Finishingload.
Step5 Calculatefactoredmaximumbendingmoment(MuJ
Mu=
(Where,Wu =Factoredloadperunitlength)
8
Step6 Designslabasbalanced.section.
Forabalancedsection, Mu=Mu{lim)
Where, Mu(lim) =0.148jckbd2 (ForFe250steel)
(ForFe415steel)
0.138fck
bd2
(ForFe500steel)
0.133fck
bd2
108
Note: Determine the value of d from the above equation and if the value of d (calculated) is
morethan d (assumed)then revisethedesign. Byincreasingthe effectivedepthin step 2
andagainrepeatsteps3, 4, 5, 6tillthed(calculated)islessthand(assumed).
Step7 Calculatetheareaofmainsteel(AsJ
Mu 0.87f A [d fyASl J
y $1 +b
Jck
Normallybarsofdiameter8mm, 10mmand 12mmareusedasmainbars.
Checkforminimumareaofsteelrequired:
Minimumareaofsteel 0.12hD ForHYSDsteel(Fe415grade)
100
0.15bD
100 formildsteel(Fe250grade)
Step8 Calculatespacingofmainbars
c/cspacingofmainsteel= Areaojonebarxb
Ast
c/cspacingshouldnotbelessthan
i) 3timeseffectivedepth(Le. ,3d)
ii) 300mm.
Assumingthatalternatebarsarebentupatdistanceof0.10Lfromthefaceofsupport
Step9 Determinetheareaofdistributionsteel:
Areaofdistributionsteel =O.12bD ForHYSDsteel(Le. Fe415and Fe500grade)
And
100
0.15bD
Formildsteel(Le. Fe250grade)
100
Findc/cspacingofdistributionbars Axb
Where AlP Areaofonebar
B=Width 1m=100mm
As! == Areaofsteelintension
Calculatedspacingshouldbelessthan
i) 5timeseffectivedepthslab(Le., 5b)
ii) 450mm.
Step10ApplyCheckforShear
Mostlythe slabs are safe in shear because alternative bars (Le. half the steel) are bent
up. Find 'l"v' 'l"c' 'l"c(max.) and assuming that alternative bars are bent up Le., half the
steelisreachingsupports.
109
Conditions:
1:v <1:c(max,)
1:c <1:c(max,)
Noshearreinforcementis required
Shearreinforcementis required
Step11. Apply check for development length
Ld 1.03
M1
+4
V
Step 12.Apply check for deflection (Limit State of Serviceability)
Findthevalueof fsc andfindcorrespondingmodificationfactors kt,kc,kj
(
i) >(ii
d max dJProvided
Q8. Design the reinforcement details of a simply supported slab resting on masonry
walltothefollowingrequirements:
i) Clearspan=3.00m
ii) Liveload=2.5kN/m2
iii) UsM20concreteandFe 415steel.Assumeanyothermissingdata,
Ans.: ClearspanL:::!. 3.0m=3000mm
2
LiveloadL.L.=2.5 kN/m =2500N/m21ck == 20N/mm
2
fCk =20NI mm
2
fy == 415 N/mm
2
.
Step1 Assuming 1mwidthofslabLe., b=1m== 1000mm.
Step2 Assumeeffectivedepthofslabb= SpantoSpan
25 30
Assumingeffectivecovertoreinforcement =30mm
.
.
. Effectivedepth,d= 3000""120mm
25
D d+effectivecover
=120+30== 150mm
Step3. Findeffectivelength (leastofthefollowings)
Assumingbearingof200mmoneachend
1=L+.!. Bearingfrom bothsides
2
110
_3000 200 200
- +-+
2 2
=3200mm==3.2m
l=L+d
== 3000+120=3120=3.12m
.
.. Effectivelengthofslab (I) =3.12m
Step4 Finddesign(factored)Load(wu)
Selfweight(Dol.)ofslab=bxDxUnitwightofRCC
[UnitweightofRCC=
= 1.0x0.150x2500
=3750N/m
L.L.onSlab =2.5kN/m2 =2,5x1=2.5kN/m
== 2500N/m
Wu=1.5(2500+3750)
Totalfactored loadWu =9375N/m
Step5 Findfactored maximumbendingmoment(Mu)
M =W)2
u 8
9375x(3.12)2
==
8
=11407.5Nm
Mu=11407.5x 10
3
Nmm
Step6 FindM
ulim
2
M"(lim) =0.138f
ck
bd
MU(lim) =0.138x20xlOOOxd
2
=2760d
2
ForBalancedsection
Mu ==Mu(liffi)
11407.5X10
3
=2760d
2
d
2760
d 64.28mm<120mm(assumedvalue)
HencedepthassumedisOK(Le., d==120 mmand D=150mm)
Step7 Calculatetheareaofmainsteelrequired :
Mu:=0.87fyAst[d_fyAst ]
fckb
111
415xA"
11407.5xlO!==0.87x415xN'
[
120
11407.5x10
3
361.05A
s
J120-0.021AS/]
2
11407.5xl0
3
:::: 43326A -7.58Ast
sr
43326A
s,
+11407.5x103==0
A,/- 5715.83A
s1
+1504947::::0

5715.83.,)(5715.83)- 4x1x1504947
As, 2
5715.835162.45
::::--------
2
5715.83+5162 5715.83-5162.45
::::
2 2
== 5439,176.10
2
TakevalueofAs! :::: 276.10mm (Considering-vevalue)
i.e., Areaofsteelpermeterwidthofslab=276.10mm2
Checkforminimumareasteel required
Minimumareaofsteel _0.126D
- 100
== 0.12x1000x150 180mm2
100
2 2
Steelprovided(276.70mm minimumsteelrequired (180mm )
Henceitis OK.
StepS Calculatespacingofmainbars
Assuming of main bar 10mm
Areaofone bar == J'l"(10)2 78.54mm
2
4
c/c spacing:::: 78.54x1000::::283.84mm
Ast 276.70
Letthec/c spacing=280mmC/C
Itshouldbelessthan
i) 3d :::: 3x120:::: 360 mm
ii) 300mm
Hence, spacingsatisfytheabovementionedcriteria
.
. . clearspacing between bars== 280- 10=270mm
Itshould be morethan
i) Diameterofbar:::: 10mm
ii) Nominalsizeofaggregate+5mm:::: 15+5:::: 20mm
Provide10mm <I> steel @ 280mmc/c]
112
Step9 Calculatetheareaofdistributionsteel
Areaofdistributionsteel 0.12bD
100
0.12x1000x150
100
2
Areaofdistributionsteel::::180mm
Providing8mm barsasdistributionsteel
Areaofonebar(of8mm ), A = JZ"(8)2 50.26mm2
4
c/cl spacing of8mm bars:::: xb
Areaojdistributionsteel
50.26x1000
180
= 279.22mm"-"275mm
Itshouldbe lessthan
i) 5d :::: 5x120:::: 600mm
ii) 450mm
Henceitis OK.Provide8mm distributionbars @ 275mmc/c
Step10Checkforshear
Thecritical sectionforshearis atadistanced, i.e., 120mm from innerface ofsupportor
220mm (120+ 220mm) from centreofsupport.
FactoredS.F. atcriticalsection, V
u
2
-wx
u,
= 9375x3.l2-9375x0.220
2
:::: 14625-2062.5
Vu == 12625.5N
NominalShearFor.ce,
V
t' ==_u
v bd
t' = 12562.5 ==0.lONlmm
2
v 1000x120
Maximumshearstressin concrete, t'c(max.) =2.8NImm
2
[ForM20concrete}
p:::: 100As lOOx140 =0.12%
bd 1000x120
A =l[78.SX1000]=140mm
2
'2 280
Forp:::: 0.12%and M20concrete,thevalueof t'c
113
1: =0.28 N/mm2
c
Forsolidslabs 1: ::;; 0.28xk (k=1.30fordepthofslab<150)
c
0.28x130 0.36
Conditionsforshearconsiderations
1. 1:
c
<1:
c
(max)
0.10N/mm2<2.8N/mm2 HenceitisOK.
2.
1:
c
< 1:
c
(max)
0.36N/mm2<2.8N/mm2 Henceitis OK.
3.
1:
c
<1:
c
(max)
0.10N/mm2<0.36N/mm2 HenceitisOK.
.
.
. NO extra shear reinforcement is required, the slab is safe in shear because half the
numberofbarsarebentup.
Step 11 Check fordevelopment length
L <I.3M1 T
d- V +'-1)
Where, Ld == 0.87fill=0.87x415xlO
4Tbd 4x1.92
[ForM20and Fe415, 1:bd =1.6x1.2: 1.92N/mm2 FromTable]
L
d
::;; 470.12mm
M1 Momentof resistanceprovidedby10mm fjJ bars @ 280mmc/c
M =O.87xf xA [d_fyAS/I] W)2
1 y st! f b 8
ck
Where, A =Areaof onebaroflOmmxb::;; 78.5=280mm2::;;280 mm
2

s11 Spacing 280


..
,, M =0.87X415X280[120-145X280]=11543924Nmm
1 20xlOOO
V =wi=9375x3.12==14625N
2 2
Lo ::;; Length ofbaravailablesupport=widthofsupport- endcover,
=200- 20180mm
Embedmentlengthfrom centreofsupportLO =Supportwidth - EndOver: 200-20=80mm
2 2
13M
l
+0=1.3x1l543924+80=1l06.13mm>470.12mm.
V 14625
Hence,the requirementsofdevelopmentlengthareOK.
114
.;' ~ ..
Step 12 Check for deflection (Check for limit state of serviceability)
p =100Asf =100x276.70==0.23%
t bd lO00x120
fs =0.58f[Areao
f
steelrequiredJ0.58X415[276.70]
Y Areaofsteelprovided 280
is=237.86NImm
2
Where, As! Provided =Areaof onebarx1000 78.5x1000 280mm2
Spacing 280
.
.
, Modificationfactors.
k! == 1.62 [Forpt=0.23%andf5:237.86N/mm2]
kc 1.0[':nocompressionreinforcementisprovided]
kt=1.0[':slabsectionisrectangular]
.
.
,
::;; 20x1.62xlxl=32.4
(
I) 3120=26i)
d Provided 120 d llll!X
Hence, the slab satisfies the check for deflection and satisfies the limit state of
serviceability.
Step 13Summary of design
Effectivedepthofslab{d} == 120mm
Overalldepthofslab, D 150mm
ClearCover : 20mm
Mainsteel ::;; 10mm fjJ 280mmc/c
Distribution steel ::;; 8mm fjJ @ 275mmC/C
115
J
Thereinforcementdetailsareasshownin fig.
i./- ..
.-_.

I.... ... I-------Eff-Spant-------tloo-ll
(I}SecllonalelevationaIAA
A DiStributionSteel",
/
V
b
a /
---
,-
--- --- -- --- '---- ",-- 1---
c
MalnSleol
-?"
.+
A
(II)S->Plan
Note: Dotted of (a, b) are bent up portion where, a and b are main bars 10mm 280 mm
clc, cisdistribution steel8mm fjJ275mmclc.
i) Arrangementofbendingofmainbarsshown below
__________ ____
______
ReinforcementDetailsinOnewayslab.
09. DesignasimplysupportedR.C.C.onewayslabtocarryafactoredloadof16kN/m2
(includingselfweight)onaneffectivespanof3.1 m. Bearingonwall=300mm.use
M20gradeofconcreteandFe415gradeofsteel.Assumeanyothermissingdata.
Ans. DataGiven :
FactoredLoad, Wu =16kN1m
2
=16000N1m2
fck =20NImm
2
fy =415NImm
2
Effectivespan, 1=3.1m=31OOmm
Bearing onwalls=300mm
Step1 Assume1mwidthoftheslab
i.e. b=1m=1000mm
116
Step2 Assumedepthofslab
........ D Span= 3100=124mm ""130mm
25 25
Assumingeffectivecover=30mm
..

Overalldepth, D=130+30=: 160mm.


.. Adopt d 130mmand D 160mm
Step3 Effectivelengthofslab= 3.1 m=3100mm (Given)
Step4 Factoredload(wu) =16kN/m2 (includingselfweight)=1600N/m
2
(Given)
Step5 Findultimatemaximumbendingmoment(Mu)
M =wf 1600x(3.1i=19220Nm
u 8 8
Mu =1 9220x103Nmm
Step6 Checkthedepthofslab
Forabalancedaction Mu MU(lim)
Where M
u
(llm) =1.138fck
bd2
Mu(lim)=0.138x20x1000Xd
2
.
19200x103=0.138x20x1000X d
2
Adoptd=130mm and D=160mm.
.
.
Or
d=
19220x10
3
O.l38x20xlOOO
.
=83mm<130mm(assumed)
.
Step7 Calculationofmainsteel reinforcement(Ast)
Mu =0.87/yAst[d /yA"]
/ck
h
19220x10
3
=O.87X415XA"[130- 415XAs/]
20xlOOO
.19220x10
3
361A,,[130-0.021A,,}
19220x10
3
=46930A" - 7.58As/
7.58A,,2 46930A
s
'+19220X10
3
=0
A,,2 =6191A,t+2535620=0
A = -(-6191).J(6191)2-4xIX253620
s/ 2
6191-5309
2
2
Ast =441 mm
ProvideAst =441 mm
2
forevery1mwidthofslab.
117

I
Checkforminimumareaofsteel (main)bars 0.12bD
100
0.12xlOOOx160 192mm2
100
Theareaofsteelprovidedis morethanminimum I.S. requirements, HenceitisOK.
Step 8 Provide10mm barsasmain reinforcement
Areaofonebarof10mm fjJ, A; =78.54mm2
C/C spacingof1 0mm bars::: t\.xb 78.54x1000
N' 441
179mm "'" 175mm
Itshouldbelessthan
i) 3d:::3x130:::390mm
ii) 300mm
Providemainsteelof10mm @175mmc/c.
Clearspacingbetweenbars:::175- 10::: 165mm
Itshouldbemorethan
i} Diameterofbar:::10mm
ii} Nominalsizeofaggregate+5mm;::15+5:::20mm
Provide 10mm @175 mmclc
Alternate bars are bent-up near the supports. These bars may be bent-up at 0.101 ;::
310mm(0.10x3.1 m 310mm)fromfaceofsupport.
Note: If the alternate bars (maximum 50% of total barscan be bent-up at one section) are
bent-up then the area of remaining bars going into the support shall not be less than
minimumareaofrequired.
Step 9 DistributionSteel.
Areaof distributionsteel 0.12hD 0.12xlOOOx160=192mm2
100 100
Providing8mm barsasdistributionsteel.
Areaifone8mm bar;::'::x8
2
=50.26mm
2
4
C/C spacingof8mm bars::: 50.26x1000=262mmorsay260mmclc
192
Itshouldbelessthan :
i} 5d;:: 5x130;:: 650mm
ii) 450mm
.
.
. Providedistributionsteelof8mm @260mmC/C
118
Step 10Check for shear. Thecritical section forshear is at adistanced, i.e., 130mmfrom inner
faceofsupportor0.28m
(130+ =260mm=0.28m) fromcenterofsupport.
(widthofsupport::: 300mm)
Factoredshearforceatcriticalsection, V
II
16000x3.1 16000xO.28
2
Vu == 24800 4480=20320N
Nominalshearstress, l' == Vu
" bd
= 20320. =0.16NImm
2
<2.8NImm
2
Thisisall right
1000x130
[ForM20concrete, l' ;::28NImm
2
(ReferTable]
e(max) .
P
t
;:: 100As ;:: 100x224 0.17%
bd 1000x130
[(As 224mm
2
J]'Alternatebarsarebent-up
Forpt=0.17%andM20concrete,fromtable
l' =0.28+0.36-0.28x(0.17-0.15) 0.29NImm
2
c 0.25-0.15
Forsolidslabs,fromTablek::: 1,28
k 1.30_1.30-1.25x(160-150)::1.28J (Forove(alldepthofslab:::160mm)
[
175 150
l'
c
=0.29x1.28 0.37NImm
2
Ic<Ic
Hence, noshearreinforcementis required.
Theslabissafein shear.
Step-II Checkfordevelopmentlength.
Developmentlength, Ld 0.87liP
41'bd
::: 0.87x415xlO 470mm
4x1.92
119
[For M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel, 'Coo =1.6x1.2=1.92Nlmm
2
, As per code at the
.
simple supoort the bar must extend beyond the face of support by a distance not less
than Ld 470=157mm
3 3
Lengthavailablefrom face ofsupport Supportwidth- Sidecover=300-20=280mm
Embedmentlengthfromcentreofsupport,Lo
= 300_20 130mm
2
Since the slab is simply supported, the compressive reaction will confine the
reinforcement.
L ::;
d
V
M
1
=Momentofresistanceprovidedby10mm t/J bars @380 mmclc
[Forbarscontinuing intosupport]
::: 0.87!A [d- !yA'<f1J
Y sll f. b
ck
M [ 415X224]
1::: O.87x415x224x 130
20xlOOO
- Il'78.5x1000\J - 224 2J
h A ---- - mm were --
[ , "I 2 175
::: 10.137868Nmm
V:::Factoredshearforceatthecentreofsupport:::w)
2
::: 16000x3.1 =24800N
2
13Mj +LO=!.3xlO137868+130=531+130=661mm>L
V 24800 it
Hence,developmentlengthrequirementsaresatisfied.
Step12Checkfordeflection.
_lOOA" 100X441=0.34%
p, -t;;J 1000x130
. d 78.5X1000 2
(A,,(provlde )
175
f =0.58f [AreaO
f
steelrequired J
., Y Areaofsteelprovided
2
=0.58X415X[ J=236.4NImm
120
Modificationfactors:
kt ::: 1.5(ForPt ::: 0.34%andf
s
=236.N/mm
2
: From Figure)
kc =1.0 (".'No compression reinforcementprovided)
kf=1.0('.' Slabsectionisrectangular)
(
!) =20k,xkcxk
f
d max
=20x1.5xlxl=30
l) 3100
- =--=23.8<30
(
d Provided 130
Theslabsatisfiesthelimitstateofserviceability.
Step13SummaryofDesign
Effectivedepthofslab,d=130mm
Overalldepthofslab,D 160mm
Clearandendcover=20mm
Mainsteel 10mm t/J 175mmc/c
Distributionsteel:::8mm t/J260mm c/c
Thereinforcementdetailsareshowninfig.
ClearSpanL..2.97m (3.1-0.13_ 2.97m)
SectionalElevation(SectionA-A)
(a) \
..0175rnrnc;Jc
..
,
I b II'
-----t----
a
j
----
I
.... - --
t
f---r---- - I---- ---. -
---,-..----

I
----J----- .

I
I

I I

I
I I

I
I
I

I
I
".
'--8 mrn<I> 0260mmc/c
BottomPlan(DottedWn....ShowBent-upPortionotBars)
(b)
_________________ _________
,,_________ ____________________
Bar Benc:lingAf'angarnem
(C) .
DetailsofReln'e>.rce........1 InOn...._aySlab
121
Q10. Howwillyouclassifythetwoway slab?Discusssimplysupportedslabindetails.
.
Ans. Theslabsspanningintwodirectionscanbeclassifiedintwo categories. :
I. Simplysupportedslabs
II. RestrainedSlabs
Fortwowayslabs, <2where, 1y and I." =Effectivespansin longerandshorterspans
.
respectively.
Simplysupportedslabs(Withcornersnothelddown)
When simply supported slabs are subjected to external loads, they have tendency to lift
atcornersduetotorsional momentin the slab. Thefactored maximum bending moments
perunitwidthincaseofasimplysupportedslabaregivenby:
Mux=axw);
Mil)'
Where, M and M = Factoredmaximumbendingmomentsatmidspan
ax uy
stripsunitwidthspanningIx andIy respectively.
ax and a
y
=Bendingmomentcoefficients
Wu =Totaldesign(Factored) load(u.d.l.)perunitarea.
Ix =Effectivespanofshorterspan
ly =Effectivespanoflongerspan
Table : Bending moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions at right angle, simply
supportedonfoursided.

1.0 0.062 .0.062 I
1.1 0.074 i 0.061
i1.2
.0.084 1
0
.
059

.0.055 .1.3 .0.093


0.099 l0.051 1.4
0.104 0.046 i
11.5
i 1.75 i 0.113 0
.
037
1
! 0.118 0.029

0.122 0.020
i 2.5
0.124 ! 0.014 3.0
Note: 1. Theintermediatevaluescan be interpolated.
2. Withincreasein ly / Ix thevalueof ax increasewhereas a
y
decreases
122
As per IS :456-2000 (Clause D-2.1.1), at least 50 percent ofthe tension reinforcement
providedatmidspanshould extendtothe supports.
The remaining 50 percent should extend to within in 0.1 Ix or 0.1 lyof the support as
appropriate.
Q11. Under what conditions, slab is termed as restrained slab? What are the various
endconditions?
Ans. RestrainedSlabs(withcornershelddown) :
When the cornerofaslab are prevented from lifting, then it itcalled as restrained slabs
suchacase ariseinthefollowingconditions:
1. When slabs are supported on all the four edges by beams and are casted
monolithically.
2. When slab are supported on all the four edges by walls and on all four edges,
superstructurewallareresting.
Restrained slabs are classified based upon the continuity and discontinuity of longer
edgesorshorteredge(Asshowninfig.)
Where, C=ContinuousEdge
And DC =DiscontinuousEdge
Note: Discontinuous Edge (DC) : It do not resist bending moments and permit free rotations.
ContinuousEdge(C) :Itresistbendingmomentsfreerotations.
(2)
(I)
'r \!.ftcI"-'
e CSI c (I) c
c c
,0
1<11
,0
_.c.eo.-EdQt
IrId .....
00
(I)
00
Variousendrestrainedconditions(Fromfig.)
i
123 , I
1. InteriorPanels(with allfouredgescontinuous)
2. Oneshortedgediscontinuous(Butotherthreeedgesarecontinuous)
3. Onelongedgediscontinuous(Butotherthreeedgescontinuous)
4. Twoadjacentedgesdiscontinuous(Othertwoedgesarecontinuous)
5. Twoshortedgesdiscontinuous(othertwo longedgescontinuous)
6. Twolongedgesdiscontinuous(twoshortedgescontinuous)
7. Threeedgesarediscontinuous(onelongedgeiscontinuous)
8. Threeedgesdiscontinuous(oneshortedgeis continuous)
9. Fouredgesdiscontinuous.
10. The factored maximum bending moments per unit width in a simply supported slab are
givenbythefollowingequations.
Mux =a
x
w)x
2
Muy =ayw)/
Where M!IX and Muy =Factoredmaximumbendingmoments(for middlestrip) ofspan Ix and
Iy respectively.
ax and a
y
=Bendingmomentco-efficient
Ix and ly =Effectivelength ofshorterandlongerspanrespectively.
012. Design a slab simplysupported overa room 5 m x 7 m as perI.S. code method.
Theedgesoftheslabsarenothelddown.Theliveloadontheslabis3kN/m
2
The
slabhasbearing of150mm onthe supporting walls. Use M 20 concreterand Fe
Bearingonwall=150mm
a) Theeffectiveshortspanwillbeleastofthefollowing:
. i) Distancebetweenc/c ofsupports:: 5.0+0.150+0.150=5.15m
2 2
ii) Clearspan+Effectivedepth=5.0+0.180[d 180mm= 5.18m
.x
Effectiveshorterspan, Ix == 5.15m
b) TheeffectivelongerspanwillbeleastIfthefollowing:
i) Distancebetweenc/c ofsupports=7.0+0.150+0.150 7.15m
2 2
ii) Clearspan+Effectivedepth=7.07+0.17 [.;d
y
=170mml =7.17m
Effectivelongerspan, ly =7.15m
Calculationoffactored(design)load(w
u
) permlength
Selfweightofslab (D.L.)==
m
3
\
[.:Self weight b xDxDensity] =5000N/m
Liveload,L.L::;; 3000N/m2 =1 m=1 3000N I m
m m
2
Totaldesign load,Wu 1.5(D.L. +L.L.)
= 1.5(5000+3000)
Factored(design)Load, Wu =12000N/m
Calculateultimatemaximumbendingmoments (M M )
ux' tty
!.z. 7.15 1.39=1.40
Ix 5.15
ax =0.099
a
y
0.051
Ultimatemaximumbendingmoment(along longerspan),
125
. I

Adopta _ Span ratio 25
Overall depth
OveralldepthofSlab, D=500:=200mm
25
Assume10mm tjJ barsandclearcoverof15mmtolowerlayerofbars
.
Effectivedepthofslab, d =200-15-
10
=180mm ..
x 2
d
y
d
x
=1> 180-1O=170mm
Step3 Calculatetheeffectivespan
Step4
StepS
415steel.
Ans. DataGiven:
Clearspanofroom =5mx7m
Liveload=3kN/m
2
=3000N/m2
Bearing 150mm
fek 20N Imm
2
fy =415N Imm
2
Clear Long Span 7
=- 1.4<2
Clear Short Span Lx 5
Theslabwill bedesignedastwowayslabs..
Step1 Assume1mwidthoftheslabLe., b=1m=1000mm
Step2 Assumedepthof Slab:
[ForM20concrete]
[ForFe415steel]
The shorter span will be used to esti.mate the thickness of slab. As the shorter span is
greaterthan3.5m
124
I
M
<::::(X xw1
2
fly x U x
== 0.099x12000x(5.15)2
=31508.73Nm
Mux= 31508.73x10
3
Nmm
Ultimatemaximumbendingmoment(alonglongerspan), M uy =(Xy
:;: 0.099x12000x(5.15)2
= 16231.77Nm
M
uy
:;: 16231.77xl0
3
Nmm
Step6 Checkfordepthofslab
Theslabwillbedesignedasabalancedsection.
Forabalancedsection: Mux =0.138/
ck
bd
2
31508.73x103=0.138x20xlOOOxd
2
Or d 31508:Z3XI0
3
=
0.138x20xlOOO
d:;:106.85mm<180mm
Hence, effective depth selected (d =180mm) is sufficient to resist the ultimate maximum
x
bendingmoment.
Adopt, D:;: 200mm
d
x
=180mm
d
y
=170mm
Step7 DesignofReinforcement(alongshortandlongspan)
a) Areaofsteelalongshortspan(Ast)
Mwe =0.87fA,x [dx_ ]
M =087x415xA [180-
w;. SIX 20x1000

150873xlO
3
==316A 180------
.
. s'x 20xlOOO
387281.80:::180A
s1x
- O.021A
s1x
2
0.021Asrx2-180AslX+87281.80=0
2-8571+4156276:::0 A
s1x

-4x1x4156276
Or
2
126
8571-7539
=
2
Astx== 516mm
2
Minimumareaofsteel= 0.12bD
100
:;: 0.12xl00x200
100
== 240mm
2
Theareaofsteelprovidedis morethanminimumrequirements. HenceOK.
Areaofonebarof10mm J::: n-(l0)2 :::78.5mm2
< < 4
Spacingofbars:;: xb :::7JS5XlOQ.Q.:=152=150mm
As,. 516
Itshouldbelessthan
i) 3d.::::3x180=540
ii) 300mm
:. Areaofsteelprovided,Astx :;: == 78.5xlOOO=523mm
2
c/ cspacing 150
Bendalternatebarsatadistance=
0.101
x
=0.lOx5.15::::O.515m:::515mm from innerfaceofsupport.
< b) Areaofsteelalong longerspan {A
sty
}
M -087/A [d _/yA
sty
]
uy -. y sty Y /ck
b
415xA
16231.77x10
3
=O.87x415xA,ry
J
[
20xlOOO
44957=Asty[170-0.021A
sty
]
< 2
44957=170A
sly
-0.021Asty
0.021A
Sly
2
-170A
sry
+44957:=0
2
orAsty -8095A
sly
+2140809=0
-(-8095) -4xlx2140809.5
A,ry =: 2
I
I
8095-7548
=:----
2
As1y :::274mm
2
Provide10mm bars
127
Area of one 'bar of 10 mm (A(b) =
4
Spacing of bars ::::: Atxb= 78.5x100 =286.5 = 285mm
Asty 274
In should be less than
(i)3dy=3x170=510mm
(U)300mm
.
.. Provide 10 mm bars @ 285 mm clc.
Asty (Provided) =78.5 x 1000 = 275mm2
285
Along long span bars can not be bent up because if the alternate bars are bent up, then
the remaining area (i.e., 142mm2) will be less than minimum area of steel
O.l2bD=
(
100 100 )
However, provide additional bars (10 mm @ mm clc) at the top to take up the negative
moments.
128
l
I
I
!
CHAPTER 5 : DESIGN OF MUL TIBAV STRUCTURES
SECTION-A
Multiple Choice Type Questions:
1.
Portal frames are widely used in the construction of:
a. Office buildings
b. School buildings
c. Industrial buildings
d. All of the above
2.
The top member of Portal frame is:
a. Hor'lzontal
b. Curved
c. Pitched
d. All of the above
3.
The condition of portal frame at the base is:
a. Fixed
b. Hinged
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
4. A Portal frame is subjected to:
a. Horizontal loads
b. Vertical Loads
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None of the above
5.
The analysis of portal frames for determining the bending moment and shear force may
be done by the following methods:
a. Slope deflection methods
b. Moment distribution methods
c. Strain energy methods
d. All of the above
6. Portal frame subjected to horizontal loads due to:
a. Wind Load
b. Roof Load
c. Snow Load
d. None of the above
129
7.
ShearbarsorHingebarsareprovidedto resiststhe:

a. Bendingmoment
b. Shearforce
c. Torsionalmoment
d. Noneoftheabove
8.
Abuildingframeisastructure,which is:
a. Staticallydeterminate
b. Staticallyindeterminate
c. Both (a)and (b)
d. Noneoftheabove
9.
isthetypeofsubstituteframe.
a. Threespan structurewithtwostoreycolumns
b. Substituteframeforwall columns
c. Substituteframefortwopanelwidebuilding
d. Allofthe above
10.
Themostgeneraltypeofsubstituteframewithirregularspacingofcolumnsis:
a. Threespan structurewithtwostoreycolumns
b. Substituteframeforwallcolumns
c. Substituteframefortwopanelwidebuilding
d. All oftheabove
11. Abuildingframeis a:
a. One dimensionalstructure
b. Twodimensionalstructure
c. Threedimensionalstructure
d. All oftheabove
12.
Ratiooftherigidityofthebeamtothatofthe column is:
a. Largerin upperfloorsthan in lowerfloors
b. Largerin lowerfloorsthaninupperfloors
c. Samein lowerand upperfloors
d. Noneoftheabove
13.
ThevalueofPositiveBendingMomentin e ~ m s increaseswith:
a. Decreaseoftherigidity
b. Increaseofthe rigidity
c. Both(a)and (b)
d. Noneoftheabove
130
14. The bendingmomentsin the beamsandcolumnsofasUbstitute frame maybe computed
by method.
a. Slope- deflectionmethod
b. Momentdistributionmethod
c. Buildingframeformula
d. Alloftheabove
I
I
\
15. Whichmethod resultsintoomanyequationstobesolvedsimultaneously?
a. Slope- deflection method
b. Momentdistributionmethod
c. BUildingframeformula
d. Kani'smethod
16. Themethodusedfortheanalysisofbuildingframessubjectedtolateralforcesis:
a. Portal method
b. Cantilevermethod
c. Factormethod
d. All oftheabove
17. Point of contraflexure in each memberlies at its mid - span ormid - heightisassumed
in:
a. Portal method
b. Cantilevermethod
c. Factormethod
d. Alloftheabove
18. Which method is more accurate and is more
variousmembersaredifferent?
a. Portal method
b. Cantilevermethod
c. Factormethod
d. All oftheabove
19. Thefixed end momentiscalculatedusingexpression:
a. wt}/8
b. wL
2
/12
c. wL2/24
d. Noneoftheabove
131
useful when the moments of inertia of
20. Forcolumnswhicharefixedatthebase,thecolumnfactoristakenas:
a. 1.00
b. 1.50
c. 2.00
d. Noneoftheabove
Key:
1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (a)
7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (a) 11. (c) 12. (a)
13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (d) 17. (c) 18. (c)
19. (b) 20. (a)
132
SECTION B
True IFalse Type Questions:
1. Portalframesarealsousedin stiffeninglargespanbridgegirdersorasviaducts.
2. Portal frames essentially consist of vertical member and top member which may be
horizontal,curvedorpitched.
3. Theframeishavingrollersupportatthebase.
4. Therewillbeaswayinportalframeittheloadingissymmetrical.
5. Amulti-storeyed,multi-panelledframeisacomplicatedstaticallyindeterminatestructure.
6. Abuildingframeissubjectedtoboththeverticalaswellashorizontalloads.
7. Thehorizontalloadsconsistofwindforcesand earthquakeforces.
8. The ability of multi-storey buildings to resist wind and other lateral forces depend upon
the rigidityofconnectionbetweenthebeamsandcolumns.
9. In case of portal method, horizontal shear taken by each interior column is half the
horizontalsheartakenbyeachexteriorcolu(l1n.
10. Bendingmomentislargerinupperstoreysandsmallerinlowerstoreys.
Key:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T
6. T 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. T
133
l
SECTION-C
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. Whatarethevariousmethodsfortheanalysisofportalframes?
Ans. A portal frame is subjected tovertical loads from its roof etc. as well as horizontal loads
dueto wind. The loads coming on thecolumns as well as roof can be easilyfound. The
analysisoftheportalframesfordeterminingthebendingmomentandshearforce maybe
donebythefollowing methods.:
1. Slope-deflectionmethod
2. Momentdistributionmethod
3. Strainenergymethod
4. Kani'smethod
Q2. WriteashortnoteonBuildingFrames.
Ans. A building frame maycontain a numberof bays, and may have several storeys. A multi-
storeyed, multi-paneled frame is a complicated statically indeterminate structure. It
consists of a numberofbeamsandcolumns built monolithically, forming a network. The
floors and the walls are supported on beamswhich transmit the loadsto thecolumns. A
building frame is subjected to both the vertical as well as horizontal loads. The vertical
loads consists of the dead weight of structural components such as beams, slabs,
columnsetc., and live load.Thehorizontal loadsconsistofthe wind forces and the earth
quakeforces.
The bending moment at the end of anyone span of the continuous beam cannot be
transferred to the beam in the.next spanwithout subjecting the columns to bending.
Instead of transmitting the bending moment in full to the beam in the next span, part of
the momentistransferredtothecolumnsabove andbelowthebeam,andthebalanceto
thebeam.
Q3. Whataresubstituteframes?
Ans. The analysis of multi-storeyed multi-paneled building frame is very cumbersome, since
the frame contains a number of continuous beams and columns. The moments in any
beam or column are mainly due to the loads on spans very close to it.Due to this, a
simple methodof analysis, accurateenough for practical purpose, is used byanalyzinga
small portion of the frame, called 'substitute frame' rather than analysis of the whole
frame.
Q4. Whatarethedifferentendconditionsusedforsubstituteframes?
Ans. The restraining effect of anyone member, upon other members forming a joining
dependsalsoupontheconditionexistingon theotherend ofthe restraining member.
Theotherendmayhave threeconditions:
134
i) freetoturn(Le. hinged),
(ii) partiallyrestrained,or
(iii) rigidlyfixed.
The restraining effect is largestforthe rigidly fixed conditions ofthe end and smallestfor
free end. It should be noted that the restraining effect of a fixed member is one third
largerthanthe restrainingeffectif itwerefreetoturn.
QS.
Howthebeamsshouldbeloadedformaximumbendingmoments?
Ans.
Thebeamsshouldbeloadedwithliveloadsasfollowsformaximumeffects:
i) Formaximumpositive B.M. Atthe mid-pointCofaspan AB, the loadsshould be
placedonthespanandonalternativespans.
ii) Formaximum negative B.M.Atthemid-pointCofaspanAB,thespanABshould
be unloaded while load should be placed on spans adjacent to the span under
consideration.
iii) FormaximumnegativeB.M. AtthesupportA, loadsshouldbeplacedonthetwo
spansadjacenttothesupport..
Whenthe spans ofbeams are not equal, substitute frames should be selected in which
thelargestspanformsthe centrespanandalsoframes in whichthesmallestspanforms
thecentrespan.
Q6.
Writeashortnoteonanalysisofframessubjectedtohorizontalforces.
Aris.
A building frame is subjected to horizontal forces due to wind pressure and seismic
effects. These horizontalforcescauseaxialforces in columns and bending momentin all
the members ofthe frame. Building frame is a highly indeterminate structure. Each cut
beam will thus have three unknown reaction components: moment (M), shear (F) and
axial thrust (H). Each column with its cut' beams will act as a cantilever, which is a
staticallydeterminatestructure.
Following approximate methods are commonly used for the analysis of building frames
subjectedtolateralforces. :
1. Portalmethod.
2. Cantilev.ermethod.
3. Factormethod.
Q7. Whataretheassumptionsmadeinportalmethod?
Ans.
Theportalmethodisbasedon thefollowingtwoimportantassumptions:
i) thepOints ofcontraflexurein allthememberslieattheirmid-points.
ii) Horizontal shear taken by each interior column is double the horizontal shear
taken byeachofexteriorcolumn.
135
Q8. Whatareportalframes?
Ans: Frames.are widely used in the construction of large sheds for industrial buildings. They
arealsousedinstiffening largespanbridgegirdersorasviaducts.
Aportalframe essentiallyconsists ofvertical members(called columns) andtopmember
which may be horizontal, curved or pitched. The vertical and top members are rigidly
joined.Theframes maybe fixed orhinged atthe base. The portal frames are spaced at
suitabledistance,andsupporttheroofwhich mayconsistofeitheracontinuousslab,ora
beam-slabsystem.
Q9. Whataretheassumptionsmadeincantilevermethod?
Ans. Thecantilevermethodisbasedonthefollowingassumptions:
i) Pointsofcontraflexurein eachmemberliesatitsmid-spanormid-height.
ii) The direct stresses (axial stress) in the columns, due to horizontal forces, are
directly, proportional to their distance from the centroidal vertical axis of the
frame.
Q10. Whataredifferenttypesofsubstituteframes?
Ans. Underordinaryconditions,thefollowing fourtypesofsubstitutestructuresareconsidered
sufficient:
a) three-spanstructurewithtwostoreycolumns
b) substituteframeforwall columns
c) substituteframefortwopanelwidebuilding
d) substituteframeforone panelwidebuilding
136
SECTION- 0
LongAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. Whatare Portal Frames? Whatarethevarious methodsfor the analysisofportal
frames?
Ans: Frames are widely used in the construction of large sheds for industrial buildings. They
arealsousedinstiffeninglargespanbridgegirdersorasviaducts.
A portal frame essentiallyconsistsofvertical members(called columns) andtopmember
which may be horizontal, curved or pitched. The vertical and top members are rigidly
joined. Theframes maybefixed orhinged atthe base. The portal frames are spacedat
suitabledistance,andsupporttheroofwhich mayconsistofeitheracontinuousslab, ora
beam-slabsystem. Fig.showvariousforms ofportalframes.
nO
p
ee) (d)
Figure:Portal Frames
\
AnalysisofPortalFrames:-
A portal frame is subjected to vertical loads from its roof etc. as well as horizontal loads dueto
wind. The loads coming on the columnsas well as roof can be easilyfound. The analysis ofthe
portalframes for determiningthe bending momentand shearforce maybe donebythefollowing
methods. :
1. Slope-deflection method
2. Momentdistributionmethod
3. Strainenergymethod
4. Kani'smethod
Q2. WriteashortnoteonBuildingFrames.
Ans. A building frame maycontain a numberof bays, and mayhaveseveral storeys. Amulti-
storeyed, multi-paneled frame is a complicated statically indeterminate structure. It
consists ofanumberofbeams and columnsbuiltmonolithically, forming anetwork. The
137
: ;1
:Ii
.;,Ji
1
floors andthe walls aresupported on beams which transmittheloadsto thecolumns. A
building f.rame is subjected to both the vertical as well as horizontal loads. The vertical
loads consists of the dead weight of structural components such as beams, slabs,
columnsetc., and liveload. The horizontal loadsconsistofthe wind forces and the earth
quake forces. The ability of multi-storey-buildings to resist wind and other lateral forces
depends upon the rigidity of connections between the beams and columns. When the .
connections of beams and columns are fully rigid, the structure as awhole is capable of
resistingthe lateralforcesactingon thestructure.
In ordinaryreinforced concreteskeletonbuildings, acontinuousbeam isrigidlyconnected
with columns. Due to this, the moments in the beam depend not only upon the number
and lengthofspanscomposingthebeam itself, butalso upon the rigidity ofcolumns with
which itisconnected. Thebending momentatthe end ofanyonespanofthecontinuous
beam cannotbetransferred to the beam in the nextspan without subjecting thecolumns
to bending. Instead of transmitting the bending moment in full to the beam in the next
span, partofthe moment is transferred tothe columns above and belowthe beam, and
the balance to the beam. Due to this, the effect of loading on one span upon the other
spans is much lowerthan in ordinarycontinuous beams which are notconnected tothe
columns.
Q3. WhatareSUbstituteframes?Whatareitsdifferenttypes?
Ans. The analysis of multi-storeyed multi-paneled building frame is very cumbersome, since
theframecontainsa numberofcontinuousbeamsandcolumns., theeffectofloadingon
otherspansismuchsmaller. The momentsin any beam orcolumn are mainlyduetothe
loads on spansveryclose to it. Loads on distant spans do nothave appreciable effect.
Duetothis, a simple method ofanalysis, accurate enough for practical purpose, is used
byanalyzingasmall portionoftheframe, called 'substituteframe' ratherthan analysis of
thewholeframe.
It has been found by exact analysisthatthe momentscarried from floortofloor, through
columns, are very small in comparison to the beam moments. In other words, the
moments in one floor have negligible effect on the moments of the floors above and
belowit. Therefore, a substitute frame consists of onefloor, connectedaboveand below
with theirfarendeitherhingedorfixedorrestrained.
Fig. (a) shows a building frame consisting of five storey'sand three bays. Fig. (b) shows
the substituteframe fordetermining bending momentsin the secondfloor. Generally, it is
sufficientto considertwo'adjacentspanson each side ofjointconsidered. Thesubstitute
framegivestheresultswhich aresafeforallpracticalpurpose.
138

IItOOP' ~ e
v
4"'"U)OIIIt ... C.
IV
:10 ....... .....-
a.. c ....
-.
tit
c. "..."...-
II
,tot "LOOIt e.

'-

.... "SCMlNT .. ,
~ s
,.J ACT"... '1ItAMC
0"
0

A
a.
A

A
C.......TtTU'I"E fI1It....
TypesofSubstituteframes
Underordinaryconditions, the following fourtypes ofsubstitutestructuresareconsidered
sufficient:
a) three-spanstructurewithtwostoreycolumns
b) substituteframeforwallcolumns
c) substituteframefortwopanelwide building
d) substituteframeforonepanelwidebuilding
Q4.
Whatarethedifferentendconditionsusedforsubstituteframes?
Ans.
The restraining effect of anyone member, upon other members forming a joining
dependsalso upontheconditionexistingontheotherendoftherestraining member.The
otherend may havethree conditions: (i) free toturn (Le. hinged), (ij) partially restrained,
or (iii) rigidly fixed. The restraining effect is largest for the rigidly fixed conditions of the
end and smallest for free end. It should be noted that the restraining effect of a fixed
memberisonethird largerthanthe restraining effectif itwerefree toturn. The rigidityof
any memberisexpressed by the ratio IlL where I is momentof inertial and Iis its length
(for beam) or height (for column). If the loaded member has rigidity IlL, and the
restraining memberhas rigidity 111L 1 then this restraining memberisconsidered as fixed
139
)}
.I
at the other end if 11 1 is equal to or greater than 10. The end of a member is
-+-
II I
considered as partly restrained when it runs into another joint composed of several
member, a condition which is often found in concrete skeleton structure. No restraint
exists if !J. +1=0. The outerends ofthe memberof the substitute frame are sometimes
II I
taken as hinged (except for columns fixed in the ground). This gives severest condition
for a particular reaction under investigation. The moments obtained by assuming the
ends hinged gives the moments nearest to the value obtained from full frame analysis
and compensates to some extent for the error caused due to neglecting loads on
membersofdistantspan.
05. Howtheanalysisforverticalloadsisdonein caseofbeams?
Ans. A building frame is a three dimensional structure consisting ofa numberof bays in two
directions at right angles to each other. A building structure may be assumed to be
consisting of two sets of plane frames crossing each other at right angles. The vertical
members (Le., columns) are common to both these sets of frames. Each set of frames
areanalysedseparately. Since momentsin thevertical membersoccurin twoplanes, the
stress in columns should befound formomentsacting in twoplanes simultaneouslyand
thecorrespondingvertical loads.
a) Maximumbendingmomentsinbeams
The magnitude of bending moments in beams and columns respectively depend upon
theirrelative rigidity. Generally,thebeamsaremadeofthesamedimensionsin allfloors.
While the dimensions of column vary from storey to storey. Columns have smallest
dimensionsatthetopandlargestdimensionsatthe bottom. Due to this reason, the ratio
of the rigidity of the beam to that of the column is larger in the upper floors than in the
lowerfloors. The positive bending moments in the beams increase with decreaseofthe
rigidityofthe columns, whilethe negativeB.M. in them increaseswith the increaseinthe
rigidity of the columns. Due to this, the positive S.M. are largest in the upper storeys
wherethecolumnsareleastrigid andthenegativebendingmomentsaremaximuminthe
lowerstoreyswherethecolumnsarerigid.
In ordertofind the maximum momentsin agivenspan ofthebeam, thesubstituteframe
is so selected that span underinvestigation formsthe centre span. This substitute frame
maybe movedfrom floortofloor. However, sincethe beams in allfloorsare madeofthe
samedimensionsandprovidedwithsameamountofsteel, onlyone substituteframemay
besufficientwhen placedin apositioninthestructureforwhichthebendingmomentsare
thelargest.Thebeamsshouldbeloadedwith liveloadsasfollowsformaximumeffects:
i) FormaximumpositiveS.M. atthe mid-pointCofaspan AS, the loadsshould be
placedon thespanandon alternatespans.
140
ii) Formaximumnegative B.M. atthe mid-pointCofaspanAS,the span AS should
be unloaded while load should be placed on spans adjacent to the span under
consideration.
iii) Formaximum negative S.M. atthe supportA, loads should be placed onthe two
spansadjacenttothesupport.
When the spans of beams are notequal, substitute frames should be selected in which
the largestspan formsthe centre span and alsoframes in which the smallestspan forms
the centre span. Several trial computations maybe necessaryto gettheframe forwhich
thebendingmomentsaremaximum.
Thebendingmomentsduetodeadloadsarefound separately.Thebendingmomentsfor
deadandliveloadsarethenadded, andthebeamisdesigned.
06. Howtheanalysisforvertical loadsisdonein caseofcolumns?
Ans. Thebending moments in columns increasewith increasein theirrigidity. Hencetheyare
largest in the lower storeys, and smallest in the upper storeys. The maximum
compressive stresses in columns is found by combining maximum vertical loads with
maximum bending moments. The maximum tensile stresses in columns is found by
combiningthe maximumbending momentwith minimumverticalloads.
A c B
(0) LOADING FOR MAX. +Me
A B
(b'LOADING FOR MAX.-Mc
A
[C ) LOAOfNG FOR MAX.- M,t\
141
----

Thoughthe bendingmomentis smallestinthe upperfloors, itseffectis much largersince
the dimensions of the columns are the smallest there and also the vertical loads are
much smallerthan in lowerstoreys. Also the possibility of tensile stresses in columns is
much largerinupperstoreysthan in lowerstoreys.
The maximum momentsin columnsoccurwhen alternativespansare loadedasshownin
Fig. (a), (b). The corresponding axial loads are found. The column is designed to resist
thestressesprovidedbyeverycombinationofaxialloadandthecorrespondingmoment.
A
l
(0 J
(b)
07. Howframeisanalysedwhensubjectedtohorizontalforces?
Ans. A building frame is subjected to horizontal forces due to wind pressure and seismic
effects. These horizontalforces causeaxial forces in columns and bending momentin all
the members of the frame. As is known, building frame is a highly indeterminate
structure.Thedegreeofindeterminacyofabuilding(Fig.) isfoundbyprovidingacutnear
mid-span of each beam. Each cut beam will thus have three unknown reaction
components: moment ~ ) , shear(F) and axi.al thrust(H). Each column with itscutbeams
willactas acantilever, which is astaticallydeterminatestructure.
142
~ r - - - - - - - - . - - _______
....... _.__.. _-
-1----
(0' lb)
Thus if nis the numberof beams in abent, the degree of indeterminacywill be 3n. For
the buifding bent shown in Fig., there are eight beams and hence the bent is statically
indeterminate upto 20
th
degree. An ordinary 20 storey building with 20 storeys and 5
stacks ofcolumns has 80 beams, thus havingthedegreeof indeterminacyof240. Dueto
this reason, suitable assumptions are made so that the frame subjected to horizontal
forces can be analysed by using simple prinCiples of mechanics. Following approximate
methods are commonly used for the analysis of building frames subjected to lateral
forces. :
1. Portalmethod.
2. Cantilevermethod.
3. Factormethod.
08. Discusstheportalmethodfortheanalysisofframesubjectedtohorizontalforces?
Ans. For the purpose of analysis it is assumed that the horizontal forces are acting on the
joints.Theportal method is basedonthefollowingtwo importantassumptions:
i) thepointsofcontraflexurein all thememberslieattheirmid-points.
ii) Horizontal shear taken by each interior column is double the horizontal shear
taken byeachofexteriorcolumn.
Fig. shows athreestoreybuildingframewith three spans Let P1, P2, P3 be the external
horizontal forces acting at the jOints of the wall columns. Under the action of the
horizontalforces, theframe will deflect.Thepointofcontraflexurewill lieatthe middle of
each member. Onlyhorizontalshears will actatthese points ofcontraflexure, since B.M.
willbezeroatthesepoints.
143
AI
a, D,
P;+
'.
p

TOP STOREY

Consider the top storey having vertical members A1A
2
, B
1
B
2
, C
1
C
2
and 0
1
0
2
, The
horizontal shear for the outer columns A1A2 and 0
1
0
2
will be P each while that for the
inner columns B1B2 and C
1
C
2
will be 2P each, as marked.
The value of P is given by
P1=P + 2P + 2P + P
P=
6 1
Similarly, consider the second storey, where the exterior columns and 0
2
0
3
have
shear O. The value of shear 0 is found by :
P1+ P2= 0+20 + 20 + 0
0= !:.(P. + P.)
6 1 2
Similarly, for the bottom storey, the shear R is given by
P1 + P2+ P3 = R + 2R + 2R + R
R=l

6
Knowing the horizontal shears at the points of contraflexure, the bending moments in the
columns can be easily found.
Let us consider the floor A
2
B
2
C
2
0
2
between third and second storey. The shear acting at
the point of contraflexure are as shown in Fig. The joint A2 is subjected a clockwise
moment of Phl2 at A2 in column A
1
A
2
, and to a clockwise moment equal to Oh/2 at A2 in
column The beam A2B2 is thus required to resist a clockwise moment of m=(P + 0)
hl2 at A
2
. similarly, at joint B, there will be a clockwise moment equal to (2P + 20) h/2.
But there are two beams to resist this. Hence clockwise moment in each beam will be (P
+ 0) hl2. Thus the ends of each beam receive the same clockwise moment of (P + 0)hl2,
with the result that points of contraflexure will lie in the middle of the beams.
144
I
I
-... L L tool
ISs 10;
,s. tC, ,0,
,
I
I
I I
I
P
The m acting at each end of the beams A
2
B
2
, B
2
C
2
,C
2
0
2
, give rise to vertical
reactIons In columns. If L is the span of these beams, each beam will impose an upward
pull of 2m/L on windward column and a push of 2m/Lon leeward column connected to
the beam, for each span. The vertical reactions will neutralize for any intermediate
column, provided span of beams on either side are equal. Only the end columns will
experience vertical reactions. The windward column will have an upward pull of 2m/L and
the leeward column will have a downward push of 2m/L.
Q9.
Discuss the cantilever method for the analysis of portal frames.
Ans.
The cantilever method is based on the following assumptions:
PA MI 8 e
0
L
1
_
I
t
b
, p' E
G
H
"--LI
\
!
L2
t
h
,-
1
I
p.
J

L
.".ft
1 .".l:
i) Pointsofcontraflexureineach memberliesatitsmid-spanormid-height.
ii) The direct stresses (axial stress) in the columns, due to horizontal forces, are directly,
proportionaltotheirdistancefromthecentroidalverticalaxisoftheframe.
Fig. (a) shows a building frame subjected to horizontal forces. Fig. (b) shows the top
storey, up to the points of contraflexure of columns. The reactions at the points of
contraflexurewill bedirectandshearforcesonly. LetV
1
, V
2
,Vs andV
4
betheaxialforces
in the columns AE, BF, CG and DH, having areas of cross-sections ah a2, as and a4
respectively.
Fromstatics,wehave
P Hl +H2+Hs+H4 ..(i)
Fromassumption(2), wehave
v21a2 =V3
1a
3=V4 1a4 ..(ii)
Where Xl'X
2
,X:l and x
4
are the centroidal distance of the columns form the vertical
centroidalaxisoftheframe.
Bytaking momentsaboutthe point of intersection ofthe vertical centroidal axis and the
topbeam,weget
(Hl+H2+Hs+H4) !!:.::: +V
2
X
2
+V3X3 +V
4
X
4
2
Or
...(iii)
From(ii)and(iii), axialforcesV1, V2, VsandV4canbedetermined.
Inordertodeter\TIineH1, takemomentsaboutthepointof
A
M,
B
n Mt
t
WI!I!P-.I!!fIIIo
...........

A
P
L. j t2...J

Hz
HI
..L i WIIlII--


tal
contraflexureMlinbeamAB[Fig. (a, b)]
Hh
12
146

,fa) I
M1 isshowninFig. (a)
Similarly,taking momentsaboutpOintofcontraflexureM2 in beam BC,
+
2 2 2 2 2
.
+ +V
2
)
..
(HI+H
2
)= 2
h
SinceHl isknownfrom(a), H2 canbedetermined. Ina similarmanner, HsandH4 can be
determined.
Q10.
Analyse the building frame, subjected to horizontal forces, as shown in fig. Use
portalmethod.
y
r
tIO '__-_-_-_---_-_-.-;or-__;.c____.......::,o 1
__----__
H :a"'"
LAl
...Lt)'S......... Ll'5111 ---.,
\
Ans.
1. Horizontalshears
Letthe horizontal shearsin the exteriorcolumns be P and in the interiorcolumns be2P
for the top storey. Similarly, for the bottom storey, let the shears be Rand 2R for the
exteriorandinteriorcolumns.
Forthetopstorey,wehave
P+2P +2P+P 120
.
.. P 120 20kN
6
Forthebottomstorey, wehave
R+2R+2R+R::: 120+180
R 300=50kN
6
2.
Momentattheendsofcolumns
Forthetopstorey,
147
Ii,
....
MEA== MAE:z: MHD == MDH ==Px!!.=20x 3.5=35kN-m
2 2
MFB=MBF =MGC =MCG ==2Px!!:=20x3.5 =70kN-m
2
Forthebottom storey.
M1E =MEl =M
LH
==MRL =RX!!.==50x 3.5=87.5kN -m
2 2
,
h
,!
MJF =M
FJ
=M
KG
=M
GK
=2Rx-=50x3.5=175kN-m
2
3. Momentsattheendsofbeams
Firstfloorbeams:
MEF == MEA+MEl=35+87.5== 122.5kN-m
SI'ml'larly, m
EF
=m
FG
-= mRG == 122.5kN m,sincethepointofcontraflexure m
GF
=m
GR
liesatthemiddleofeachspan.
Ingeneral, m (P+ R)i: =(20+50)x3.5=122.5' sincethe pointof
2 2
Roofbeams:
3 5
=20x . =35kN-m
2
4. Shearinbeams
Sincenoexternalverticalforceisactingonthebeam, shearFisgivenby
F= +11Lz,
L
Wherem1 andm2 arethe momentsatendsofthebeamsofspanL.
Thus, F = + =35kN
EF 7
FFE 35
==F =
FFG GF 3.5
_ F 122.5+122.5.=49kN
FGR - RG 2
35+35
F/iB=FBA
7
35+35
F
BC
=FCB =20kN
3.5
35+35
FCD =F
DC
= == 14kN
5
148
5. Axialforceincolumns
Theaxialforceinthecolumnswillbeasunder:
Column AE=shearinbeamAB=10 l'
Column EI =axialforce inAE+shearin EF
== 10+35=45
Column DH =shearin beamDC=14KN J,
Column HL=axialforceinDH+shearinHG
== 14+49=63
Sincethespansarenotequal, interiorcolumnswillalsohaveaxialforces.
Column BF=F8A - F8c =10- 20:::-lO(i.e. t)
Column FJ-= (-10)+(F
pE
-F
pG
)
=(-10)+(35-70)=- 45(Le. 1')
Alternatively,axialforce inBF
== 2m'_ 2m' =2x35_ 2x35=-lOkN
4 4 7 3.5
And axialforceincolumn FJ=(_1)+(2m_2m]
.4
=(-10)+(2X122.5 2X122.5)=-45(1')
7 3.5
2m' 2m'
Axialforceincolumn CG
=2x35_ 2x35=6
3.5 5
Axialforce incolumn OK =6+( - J
=6+(2X122.5 2X122.5)=27J,
3.5 5
CheckTotalaxialforceatthebase Ii
:
I'
=-45(1')-45(1')+27(i)+63(i)
=zero
149
Chapter6: LimitAnalysisandDesignofStaticallyIndeterminate
Str.uctures & DesignofMiscellaneousStructures
SectionA
MultipleChoiceTypeQuestions:
1. Beamsofvery largedepthareused instructureslike:
a. Building
b. Bunkers
c. Tanks
d. Alloftheabove
2. Thebehaviourofdeepbeams is:
a. Differentfrom ashallowbeam
b. Same asashallowbeams
c. DifferentfromSlab
d. Sameasaslab.
3. Asimplysupportedbeammaybeclassifiedasdeepbeam, ifthe ratio ofliDis:
a. Lessthanorequalto2
b. Lessthanorequalto2.5
c. Lessthanorequalto3.0
d. Noneoftheabove
4. Whichtypeofreinforcement, deepbeamconsistsof?
a. Positivereinforcement
b. Vertical reinforcement
c. Sidefacereinforcement
d. All oftheabove
5. If forces are applied to adeep beam in such awaythat hanging action is required, then
provide:
a. Positivereinforcement
b. Vertical reinforcement
c. Sideface reinforcement
d. Noneoftheabove
6. Sidefacereinforcementisrequired whenthedepthofbeam exceeds:
a. 300mm
b. 450 mm
c. 750 mm
d. Noneoftheabove
150
7.
Which typeoffootingis providedforcolumnsincaseofsinglestoryedportalframe?
a. IsolatedFooting
b. Combined Footing
c. RaftFoundation
d. Noneofthe above
8.
Thebeamwhichissupportedon morethantwosupportsis:
a. Simplysupportedbeam
b. Cantileverbeam
c. Continuousbeam
d. Fixed beam
9.
ThevalueofB.M.duetodeadloadatthemiddleendofthe span iscalculatedby:
a. wll8
b. wr/10
c. wr/12
d. Noneoftheabove
10.
Rigidjointedreinforcedconcreteframesaremostlyusedfor: structuresetc.
a. Multistoreyedbuildings
b. Multilevelparkingstructuresetc.
c. Industrialstructures
d. Alloftheabove
KEY:
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (b)
6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (d)
151
,
-r
~
SECTION- B
TrueI FalseTybeQuestions:
1.
TheStressdistributionacrossthe sectionofdeepbeamislinear.
2.
Planesectionbeforebendingremainsplaneafterbendingisvalid in deepbeam also.
3.
Rigidjointedframedstructuremaybesinglestoreyedormultistoreyed.
4.
The portal frame may be analysed by any of the standard methods like the moment
distribution method, slope deflection method, strain energy method, Column analogy
methodetc.
5.
The ultimate bearing pressure on concrete should not be exceeded the allowable
pressure.
6.
Thespacingofverticalreinforcementshallnotexceedfivetimesthewidthofthebeam.
Whentheratiooftheclearspantotheoveralldepthisgreaterthan one,thesteelshall be
7.
evenlydistributedoveradepthof0.8 D.
8.
The beamgenerallyfailsduetoinadequatereinforcementtowardsthesupports.
9. Theeffectivespan 1shallbetakenasthedistancebetweenthefaceofsupports
10. Abeamiscontinuousdeepbeamiftheratioof ~ islessthanorequalto2.5
D
KEY:
5. T
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T
6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. T
i
! .
152
SECTION-C
ShortAnswerTypeQuestions:
Q1. WhatarethecharacteristicSofdeepbeams?
Ans. Thestressdistributionacrossthesectionofdeepbeamis,non-linear.
Abeam maybeclassifiedasadeepbeamdependingontheration ~ givenbelow:
D
Simplysupportedbeam: I ~ 2
D
Continuousbeam:D ~ 2.5
Where, D=Overalldepthofthebeamsection
1 Effectivespan
Theeffectivespan1shall betakenasthelesserofthefollowing:
i) Centretocentredistancebetweensupports
ii) 1.15timestheclearspan.
Q2. Namedifferenttypesofreinforcementin deepbeams?
Ans. Thedifferenttypesofreinforcementindeepbeamsare:
1. PositiveReinforcement
2. Vertical Reinforcement
3. SidefaceReinforcement
4. Minimumsidefacereinforcement
5. Shearreinforcement
6. NegativeReinforcement
Q3. Writeashortnoteon positivereinforcement.
Ans.
Positive Reinforcement is the tensile reinforcement required to resist positive bending
.momentinanyspanofadeepbeam. It
a) shallextendwithoutcurtailmentbetweenthesupports.
b) Shall be embedded beyond the face of each support, so that at the face of the
support it shall have a development length not less than 0.8 times the
developmentlengthforthedesignstressinthe reinforcement.
c) Shall be placed within a zone of depth equal to (0.25D-0.251)adjacent to the
tensionfaceofthebeam.
153
,
'r
--
--
Q4. Whataretheminimum percentageofsideface requirementsfordifferenttypes of
bars?
Ans.
rTypeofbar
Minimumpercentageofsidefacereinforcement
Verticalreinforcement
Horizontalreinforcement
Bar of diameter not larger
than 16mm in diameter and
with a characteristics
strength of 415 N/mm2 or 0.12% 0.2%
greater.
othertypesofbars.
0.15% 0.25%
Welded wire fabric notlarger :0.12%
0.20%
than 16mmindiameter
i
i
QS. WhatisSingleStoreyedportalframe?
Ans. Thisframe consists of abeam builtmonolithicallywith the columns. These portal frames
with roof slabs can be provided for spans upto 12m. The frames may be provided at a
spacing of 3 m to 4 m. Isolated footings are provided for the columns. The depth of
beamsmaybefrom one-twelfthtoone-sixteenthofthespan.Widthofbeammaybeone-
thirdtoone-halfthedepthofthebeam.
The portal frame may be analysed by any of the standard methods like the moment
distribution method, slope deflection method, strain energy method, column analogy
methodetc.
Q6. WhataredifferenttypesofSingleStoreyedPortalframes?
Ans. Rigid jointed reinforced concrete frames are mostly used for multi storeyed buildings
industrial structures, multilevel parking structuresetc. Rigid jointedframed structure may
be singlestoreyed ormultistoreyed. They maybe singleorofmanyspa.ns. Figureshows
some oftheforms ofrigidjointedframes in use.

nm_i _
r1
"""",-';;';";'__==n
-
154
Q7. Howleverarmforadeepbeamshouldbeselected?
Ans. Theleverarmaforadeepbeam shall betakenasfollows:
i) Simplysupportedbeams
a)
D
b)
When I <1is between 1and2, a 0.2(l+2D)
D
ii) Continuousbeams
a) When .<,a=0.5l
D
b) When . isbetween1and2.5,a=0.2(I+5D)
D
Q8. WriteshortnoteonNegativeReinforcement.
Ans. Negativereinforcement:
a) Termination of reinforcement. The tensile reinforcement required to resist
negative bending moment over a deep beam shall satisfy the conditions
mentionedbelow.
b) Distribution. When the ratio ofthe clear span to overall depth is in the range 1.0
to 2.5, tensile reinforcement over a support of a deep beam shall be placed in
twozonescomprising.
1. a zone of depth 0.2 Dadjacent to the tension face, which contains -0.5J
timesthe negativereinforcement.
2. Azone measuring0.3Don eitherside ofthe mid depth ofthe beam, which shall
contain,the remainderofthetensionsteel,evenlydistributed.
When the ratio of the clearspan to the overall depth is less than unity, the steel shall be
evenlydistributedoveradepthof0.8Dmeasuredfromthetensionface.
Q9. Whatisverticalreinforcementandsidefacereinforcement?
Ans. Verticalreinforcement: Ifforces are appliedtoadeepbeam in such awaythathanging
action is required, bars or suspension stirrups shall be provided to carry all the forces
concemed.
Side face reinforcement: Side face reinforcements shall be provided vertically and
horizontally.The spacing ofsuch reinforcementshall not exceedthreetimesthe width of
thebeam. Itshallnotalsoexceed450mm.
155
------- ---- ---
Q10. WhatarethedifferentstepsinvolvedinthedesignofCorbel?
Ans. Stepsinvolvedindesignofcorbel:
Step1. Dimensioningthecorbel
Step2. Determinationofleverarmdepth
Step3. Resolutionofforces
Step4. Calculateareaof mainsteel
Step5. Checkminimumandmaximumpercentageofsteel
Step6. Area of horizontal shear steel Asu should be at least one-half the area of main
tensionsteel
, I
i
" ,
I
, I
"
156
..
SECTION- 0
LongAnswertypeQuestions:
Q1. Whatarethecharacteristicsofdeepbeams?
Ans. Sometimes beams ofvery largedepth are used in structures like buildings, bunkersand
tanks. A beam of large depth behavesdifferentlyfrom ashallowbeam. Forinstancethe
stress distribution across the section of deep beam is non-linear. As a deep beam
deformstheassumptionthatplanesectionsbeforebendingremain planeafterbending is
notvalid. A beam may be classified as a deepbeam depending on the ration given
D
below:
Simplysupportedbeam : 52
D
Continuousbeam 52.5
D
Where, D=Overalldepthofthebeamsection
1=Effectivespan
Theeffectivespan 1 shallbetakenasthelesserofthe following:
i) Centretocentredistancebetweensupports
ii) 1.15timestheclearspan.
Fig. showsafailureof adeepbeam (notethedevelopmentofcracks). Afterthefailure of
concretethetensioninthereinforcementispracticallyuniformalongthe span. Thebeam
generallyfailsduetoinadequatereinforcementtowardsthesupports.
Leverarm.Theleverarmaforadeepbeamshallbetakenasfollows:
i) Simplysupportedbeams
a) When
D
b) When isbetween 1and2, a=0.2(I +2D)
D
_._-'.._--'..-------
157
I
Q10. WhatarethedifferentstepsinvolvedinthedesignofCorbel?
Ans. Stepsinvolvedin designofcorbel:
Step1. Dimensioningthecorbel
Step2. Determinationofleverarmdepth
Step3. Resolutionofforces
Step4. Calculateareaofmainsteel
Step5. Checkminimumandmaximumpercentageofsteel
Step6. Area of horizontal shear steel Asu should be at least one-half the area of main
tensionsteel
156
SECTION- D
LongAnswertype Questions:
Q1. Whatarethecharacteristicsofdeepbeams?
Ans. Sometimes beams ofvery large depth are used in structures like buildings, bunkersand
tanks. Abeam of large depth behavesdifferentlyfrom a shallow beam. For instancethe
stress distribution across the section of deep beam is non-linear. As a deep beam
deformstheassumptionthatplanesectionsbeforebending remain plane afterbendingis
notvalid. Abeam may be classified as a deep beam depending on the ration I given
D
below:
Simplysupportedbeam : :::;2
D
Continuousbeami :::; 2.5
D
Where, D=Overalldepthofthebeamsection
1=Effectivespan
Theeffectivespan 1 shall betakenasthelesserof following:
i) Centreto centredistancebetweensupports
ii) 1.15timestheclearspan.
Fig. showsafailureofadeepbeam (notethedevelopmentofcracks). Afterthefailureof
concretethetensionin thereinforcementis practicallyuniform alongthespan. The beam
generallyfails duetoinadequatereinforcementtowardsthesupports.
Leverarm.The leveFarm aforadeepbeamshall betaken asfollows:
i) Simplysupportedbeams
a) When
D
b) When I isbetween1and2, a=0.2(l +2D)
D
157
,
-r
ii) Continuousbeams
Minimumsidefacereinforcement.
I
a) When -<1,a=0.51
D
b) When ~ isbetween1and2.5, a::: 0.2(1+50)
D
Q2. Discussaboutreinforcementindeepbeams?
Ans. Reinforcementinadeepbeam
(i) Positive reinforcement. The tensile reinforcement required to resist positive
bendingmomentinanyspanofadeepbeam.
a. shallextendwithoutcurtailmentbetweenthesupports.
b. Shall be embedded beyond the face ofeach support, so that atthe face ofthe
support it shall have a development length not less than 0.8 times the
developmentlengthforthedesignstressinthereinforcement.
c. Shall be placed within a zone ofdepth equal to (0.250-0.0251) adjacentto the
tensionfaceofthebeam.
(ii) Negative reinforcement. The tensile reinforcement required to resist negative
bendingmomentoveradeepbeamshallsatisfytheconditionsmentionedbelow.
Termination ofReinforcement. Halfthe reinforcement may beterminated ata
distanceof0.50 fromthefaceofsupport.
DistributionReinforcement.Whenthe ratiooftheclearspantooverall depthis
intherange 1.0to2.5,tensilereinforcementoverasupportofadeepbeamshall
be placedin twozonescompriSing.
(a) Azone of depth 0.2 0 adjacentto the tension face, which contains a.s(~ - a . s
"D
timesthenegativereinforcement.
(b) Azone measuring0.3 0 on eithersideofthemiddepth ofthebeam,which shall
contain, theremainderofthetensionsteel, evenlydistributed.
When the ratio ofthe clearspan totheoverall depth is lessthan unity, thesteel
shallbeevenlydistributedoveradepthof0.80 measuredfromthetensionface.
(iii) Vertical reinforcement. Itforces areappliedtoa deepbeamin such a waythat
hangingaction is required, barsorsuspension stirrupsshall be providedto carry
alltheforcesconcerned.
(iv) Side face reinforcement. Side'face reinforcements shall be provided vertically
and horizontally.Thespacing ofsuch reinforcement shall notexceedthreetimes
the width of the beam. It shall not also exceed 450 mm. The minimum
percentagesofverticalsideface reinforcementsaregiveninthetablebelow.
158
Typeofbar
Minimumpercentageofsidefacereinforcement
Verticalreinforcement Horizontal
reinforcement
Bar of diameter not larger
than 16mm in diameter and
with a characteristics
strength of 415 N/mm2 or 0.12% 0.2%
greater
Othertypesofbars. 0.15% 0.25%
Weldedwire fabric notlarger
than 16mmin diameter
.0.12%
I.
0.20%
Shearreinforcement. A deep beam providedwith reinforcement as described above is
takentosatisfytheprOVisionsforshear
Q3. Howtheinitialdimensioningofcorbelsincarriedout?
Ans. TheinitialdimensioningofthebracketiscarriedoutformthefollowingprinCiples:
1. Theultimatebearingpressureon concreteshouldnotbeexceededtheallowable
pressure. The following arethe values generally recommended : (BS 8110 (85)
Clause5.2.3.4)
av::: a=distanceofloadfromthefaceofthesupport
b::: breadthofthecorbel
d=effectivedepthofthecorbelatthefaceofthesupport
z = lever arm distance (distance of the centre of compression from the centre of the
tensionsteel)
Fu= appliedvertical load
Ft=tensionin thehorizontaldirectionduetoFv
Fe= compressiondevelopedinconcreteasstrutactiontosupportFv
Usingtriangleofforces, weget
F; =Fv(alz) (1)
F (a
2
+Z2)/2
V
Fe ==.....L - - - = ~ - (2)
Z
Asexpressionforthecompressiveforce, Fecanalsobeobtainedfromthestrengthofthe
concrete which is in compression. Letx =heightofthecompression concrete atthe root
159
i
of the corbel from the bottom side Assuming that the resultant compression passes
throughthedepth 0.45x, theexpressionfortheleverarmcanbewrittenas
Hence z:::(d- 0.45x)
x=2.2(d-z)
As the area perpendicular to the force Fe over which the compression is built up is
xcospanexpressionforFe canbewrittenas
Fe :::O.4fckb(XCOSp)
Substitutingfor xandcosf3 weobtain
a
(3)
Fc 0.88fckb(d- z) 2 2 112
(a +z)
EquatingEqs.(2) and(3),weobtain
O.88fckbd(l- zld)az:::Fu(a
2
+Z2)
Byputting
Fv
(4)
k,aId r
0.88fckbd
Fromrelations(4) to(5), weobtaintheequation
(5)
Q4. Howtheanalysis offorcesarecarriedoutincorbels?
Ans. a
v
::;; a== distanceofloadfromthefaceofthesupport
b breadthofthecorbel
d::;; effectivedepthofthecorbelatthefaceofthesupport
z == lever arm distance (distance of the centre of compression from the centre of the
tensionsteel)
Fu== appliedverticalload
Ft=tensioninthehorizontaldirectionduetoFv
Fe::;; compressiondevelopedinconcreteasstrutactiontosupportFv
Usingtriangleofforces, weget
F; =FJalz) (1)
F(a
2
+ 2)1/2
F = v z (2)
c
z
Asexpressionforthecompressiveforce, Fccanalsobeobtainedfromthestrengthofthe
concretewhichisin compression.Let
160
x :;; height of the compression concrete at the root of the corbel from the bottom side
Assumingthatthe resultantcompression passesthrough the depth 0.45x, theexpression
fortheleverarmcanbewrittenas
Hence z=(d-0.45x)
x=2.2(d- z)
As the area perpendicular to the force Fe over which the compression is built up is
xcospanexpressionforFe canbewrittenas
Fe:::O.4fckb(XCOSp)
Substitutingfor xandcospweobtain
a
(3)
Fe =0.88f
c
kb(d- z) 2 2 112
(a +z)
EquatingEqs.(21.2)and(21.3),weobtain
0.88fckbd(1 zId)az::: Fu(a
2
+Z2)
Byputting
Fv
(4)
---=kald=r
0.88fckbd '
From relations(3)to(4), weobtaintheequation
(5)
=0
.Two calumn 811.ml'l""1O ba .
. pI!lOIIiJ........ tile'.ccrb!>ltop OISlance IM>tween _9edge
. .
and In.lllecf bar to bea mInimum
:':.:.:: Qt. 0.76. CO\IEN'. wtlfchever
.,1
----(p
f
g
:I
--:
l!
'15
1
I
J
S .. cHcn se
161

!
I'
Reinforcement drawing of corbels when using 18mm diameter or more as main tensile
reinforcement (1. main tensile bars 2. Horizontal links, total areaofwhich should not be
less 0.25 of area of main tensile reinforcement;3 Compression bars, total area of
whichshouldnotbelessthan1000mm
2
/metre widthofcorbel; 4. Extrabinders)
The values of z/d for given values of old and F)(fckbd)can be calculated from Eq. (5)
Alternatively, the value of old and z/d can be obtained from Chartforgiven values of old
and
ick
bd
ick
Once z is known the value of x F E can be easily calculated as shown in Example
, , v s
Alternatively, a graphical solution based on the aboe principles can be used to give the
necessaryvalues
aId
Fig.(1) Illustrationofz/dvaluesfordesignofcorbels.
05. Givethedesignprocedureofcorbels?
Ans. Step1.Dimensioningthecorbel
a) Breadth of bearing plate. Assuming a design bearing pressure of 0.81ck'
determinethelengthofbearingplate.
b) Depth ofbracketat support. As thedesign valueforshearnearsupports can be
much largerthan the normalvalue in Table 13 IS 456 butnotmorethan 'Tcmax'
Calculatethe effectivedepthdattherootandatthefaceofthebracket:
d =Fl1: b D=d + cover + '"
v c 'Y
162
c) Check the dimensions for criterion for corbel. The value of aid should be
preferablylessthan 0.6, butnotmorethan1.0
As aconservative estimate, one mayassume thatthe load is acting atthe outeredge of
theplate.
Step2. Determination of lever arm depth. Determine z, the lever arm depth, by using design
chart. Alsocalculate x =2.22d (1-z/d)'andcheckifitisgreaterthan the limitingvalue of
x
Step3. Resolutionofforces. ThevaluesofF
t
and Fecanbecalculatedfrom
F; =F.(alz)
TheBS codealsorequiresthatFt shouldbeatleast1/2Fv obtainedfrom equation (1)
Step4. Calculateareaofmainsteel. Stressinsteel Is shouldcorrespondtothe strain
ex=s,{d x xJ
Here, assuming c
e
;;: 0.0035, find Is corresponding to the value of C Steel may not
s
reachyieldstress.
AS! =F;lf
s
Ifthereisanyadditionalhorizontalforcethen
A F;+Fh
st F
S
Step5. Check minimum and maximum percentage of steel. Ast should not be greater than 1.3
percentand not lessthan 0.4percentofbd. If itexceedsthe maximumallowed, increase
thedepth and redesign..
Step6. Area of horizontal shear steelAsu be at least one-half the area of main tension
steel,Ash I.e.
Asu (112)A.t
Provide it as loops in the upper two -third part of the total depth of the corbel at the
support.
Step7. Check the. section for shear. Knowing the percentage of steel, the exact value of
allowableshear1: 1: (2dla.) isknown, andthesectioncan be checkedforsafety.
m c
Step8. Detailthe steel. Accordingtostandardpractice.
163
-xi
..--".."
4.
a.6. Designacorbeltocarryafactoredloadof500 kN atadistanceof200 mmfromthe
face of. a 300x300mm column. Assume that grade 30 concrete is used for
construction.
SP16
Fig.3
5.
6.
IS456
Table 13 7.
8.
Ref. Step. Calculations Output
Text
Section
IS 456
Table19
Dimensioning ofcorbel
Bearinglength=sizeofcolumn=300mm
Assumingbearingplate,
Bearingstrength 0.8i
ek
=0.8x30=24N1mm
2
Widthofplate=500xl0
3
69mm
3020x24
As corbel is an isolated member,
calculatedwidth by20mm (69+20)=89
Estimationofdepthd
increase the
Temax =3.5,Assume3N1 mm
2
d 500xl0
3
300x3
D=d+cover+J/2=555+40+10=605mm
Depthattheface=D/2 =300mm
Adopt
90x300
plate
Text
Eq. (5)
Text
ChartFig.
(1)
2
3.
Checkforstrutaction
aid=200/555 =0.36<0.6
Determinationofleverarm
(Z/d)2 _(-r-\Z/d) +(_k_\a/d)2=0
r+kJ r+kJ
k=F10.881. bd= 500x10
3
=0.114
v ck 0.88x30x300x555
aid= r=0.36
Substituting, weget
(zld)2-0.76(zld)+0.0312=0
Hence, (zld)0.72
Tocheckbychart, itisnecessarythat
Tocheckbychart, itis necessarythat
UIlek = Fv(fekbd)= 0.88k= 0.1
Foraid=0.36, zld=0.72
Z=0.72x555=400mm
(d - z) =0.45
(d - z) =0.45x
Hence x= (555- 400)=345mm
0.45
=345=0.62> limitforsteel
d 555 d
(x/d limit for Fe 250=0.531 and Fe 450=0.479)
Adequate steel should be used in compression also.
The support steel for the main steel and shear steel
cansatisfythiscondition.
Acts as
corbel
z/d
checked
Resolution offorces
F =500xa=500x200=250kN
I z 400
F ;(!F =500=250kN
I 2 v 2
Areaoftension steel
A =F,+Fn
st is
0.0035(d-x) 0.0035x21O 0.0021
C
s
= x 345
Fe250reachesyield.
AsforFE 250 = = 250xl0
3
0.87fy 0.87x250
=149mm
2

Fe415doesnotreachyieldstrain0.0038
2
is=330N1mm at C
s
=0.0021
3
Ast = 250x10 =758mm
2
Use4 rods of16mmdia.
330
Checkforminimumandmaximumsteel
100Ast=804xlOO= 0.48>0.4 but<1.3%
bd 300x555 '
Areaofshearsteel
(M
" ) 1 804
Inlmum A =- A =- =402mm
2
sv 2 sl 2
Provie 4 Nos. 10 mm links (each of 2 legs) in the
uppertwo-thirddepth.
Spacing = 2x555=92.5
3x4
\
Shearcapcityofsection
'fc for0.48percentsteel=0.49N/mm
2
.
Theshearcapacityofconcreteis
2.72x300x555=453kN
1000
Shearcapacityofsteel 0.87fyAsd
Su
=(0.87X415XI57
X
555)
92.5xlOOO
=340kN
TotalShearcapacity = (340+453)kN
=793kN >500kN
Detailssteel accordinqtostandardpractice.
Tension
steel
4T16
(804
2
mm )
4 T 10
links
(628
2
mm )
Design
issafe
165
164
Q7. Designasimplysupporteddeepbeamtothefollowingrequirements.
ClearSpan =4.20m
Bearingateachend =450mm
Overalldepth =3500mm
Widthofbeam =250mm
Superimposedload =225kNim
UseM20concreteandFe415steel.
Ans. Effectivespanofthebeam.Thisistakenasthelesserofthefollowing:
i) Centretocentreofbearings
4.20+0.45
=4.65
ii) 1. 15xclear span
= 1.15x4.20
=7.83m
Effectivespan =4.650m
\
\
3500
mm
..
f200mm
Ratio 4.65==1.33m
D 3.50
Deadloadofthebeam
0.25x3.50x25=21.875kNIm
Superimposedload .=225kN/m
Totalload =246.875kN.m
Maximumbendingmoment=M== we 246.875X4.65
2
67.257kN1m
8 8
Leverarm
== a==0.2(1+1.5D)== 0.2(4650+1.5x3500)== 1980mm
166
Areaofreinforcement
A. == B._M_.__
667.257x10
6
1466mm
2
t safestressxleverann 230x1980
Provide8barsof16mm tjJ (1608mm
2
)
This reinforcement should be provided.within a zone of depth (0.25- 0.051) from the
bottomface.
Embedmentlengthofbarsintothesupport
=0.8x developmentlength
== 0.8xsafestressinthebarxbar diameter
4 xbondstress
==0.8x230x14==644mm
4x1
Sidefacereinforcement
Percentageofverticalsteel =0.12%
Verticalsteelpermlength
0.12x250XIOOO 300mm
2
100
Spacingof8mm tjJ bars == 50x1oo0 166mm
300
Provide8mmtjJbars @300mmclcneareachface
Horizontalreinforcement
Percentageofhorizontalsteel =0.2%
Horizontalsteelpermheight
= 0.2x250xlOOO==500mm
2
100
Spacingof10mmtjJ bars - 80xlOOO 100 I
- mrrtc c
800
Provide8mmtjJbars@200mmclcnearface.
H' talsideface
. reinforcement10mm,.@ .
.r on=n
c/c .

,.
,
...
"
',' '
Vertieal side
face
8 mrn.@300mm
c/c
r-4bars-16mm.+
--r
640mm
---.....
'- 4 barS"- 16",m '"
ro-
... ' 4200",",
. '
. .
167
Q8. A simply supported deep beam 300 mm wide, 4200 mm deep, and has a clear span
of 6 I'!leter. The beam carries a superimposed load of 300 kN/m. The beam has a
bearing of 450 mm at each end. Design the beam with M 20 concrete and Fe 415
...
-
450
6000mm
mm
"""--
450
mm
.............
I I
I I
I I
I I
-
steel.
Ans. Effective span of the beam. Thisistakenasthelesserofthefollowing:
(i) Centretocentredistancebetweenbearings
6+0.45=6.45m
(ii) 1.15xclearspan =1.15x6=6.90m
. .
.
Effectivespan =I=6.45m
Ratio I =6.45 1.54
D 4.20
Deadloadofthe beam =0.30x4.20x25 31.5kN/m
Superimposed load 300kN/m
Totalload =31.5+300=331.5kN/m.
wl
2
331.5X 6.45
2
Maximumbendingmoment== M
1723.904kN1m
8 8
Leverarm
a=0.2(1+ 1.5 D) =0.2( 6450+ 1.5 x4200) =2550 mm
.
6
.. 1723.904x10 29393.3mm2
AS! 230x2550
Provide12barsof16mmdiameter(3132mm
2
).
This reinf9rcement should be provided within azoneofdepth (0.25 D- 0.05 I) from the
bottomfreei.e., 0.25 x 4200-0.05 x 6420) =727.5 mm fromthebottomface
Embedmentlengthofbarsintothesupport
stressinthebarX bardiameter
= 0.8x
4x bondstress
= 0.8x730x16 736mm.
4xl
Sideface reinforcement
Verticalsteelpermetrelength =0.12x300xl000 == 360mm
2
100
168
4200
mm
-
r--
Spacingof8 mm diameterbars== 50x1000 138mmsay130mm.
. %0
Provide8 mm fjJ bars @ 260mmclcneareachface
Horizontalsteelpermetreheight= 0.2 =300x1000:;::600mm
2
100
I
~ m +(8 260mmtIc
~ ~ - - - - ~ - ~ - - - ~ - - - - - - - -
.
r - r T T T - - ~ - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - -
l.-.-+-------------
t-t-:-------.-----
I
I
I
8mm@
160mm
e/c
I
l.
I
I
169
work. This provides rigidity to the connections of members. By this arrangement the
Spacing of 8 mm diameter bars = 50 x
1
000 = 83 mm
bending moments for the members of the structure are reduced. Earthquake loads and
600
other horizontal loads due to wind etc. are evenly distributed to the whole structure. This
Provide 8 mm bars @ 160 mm clc near each face.
makes the structure not only safe but economical.
Rigid jointed reinforced concrete frames are mostly used for multi storeyed buildings
0.10. What is Single Storeyed portal frame? What are its different types?
industrial structures, multilevel parking structures etc. Rigid jointed framed structure may
Ans. This frame consists of a beam built monolithically with the columns. These portal frames
be single storeyed or multi storeyed. They may be single or of many spans. Figure shows
with roof slabs can be provided for spans upto 12m. The frames may be provided at a
some of the forms of rigid jointed frames in use.
spacing of 3 m to 4 m. Isolated footings are provided for the columns. The depth of .
i beams may be from one-twelfth to one-sixteenth of the span. Width of beam may be one-
0.11. Discuss the method of analyzing continuous slab?
i
i third to one-half the depth of the beam.
Ans. Suppose a slab is supported at the ends and also at intermediate points on beams, the
The portal frame may be analysed by any of the standard methods like the moment
maximum sagging and hogging moments to which the slab is subjected to, due to a
distribution method, slope deflection method, strain energy method, Column analogy
uniformly distributed load can be computed approximately by the following methods.
Let the factored load intensity on the slab be Wu per square meter.
12 10
W [2
=+_u_
10
W [2
=__u_
10
W [2
=+_u_
12
171
method etc.
Slnsl' Bay
DO
00
_ .L...
- ....
1..
Gable
Structurally a building may consist of load bearing walls and floors. The floor slabs may
be supported on beams which in turn may be supported on walls or columns. But, for a
multi storeyed structure a building frame either of steel or of reinforced concrete is made.
This frame is designed for all the vertical and horizontal loads transmitted to it. The
openings between the columns, where necessary will be filled with thin brick walls. A
frame of this type will consist of columns and beams built monolithically forming a net
170
First Method:
Consider a one meter wide strip of the slab.
10
Maximum. sagging moment for the end span
Maximum hogging moment over penultimate support
Maximum sagging moment for interior spans
Maximumhoggingmomentoverinteriorsupportsotherthan penultimatesupports
we
=__u_
12
Secondmethod(suggestedbyI.S.Code)
2
Let Wd =Intensityoffactoreddeadloadpermetre
W1 =Intensityoffactoredliveloadpermetre
2

Bendingmomentduetodeadloadandliveloadmaybetakenasgiveninthetablebelow.
At. middle of Over penultimate Over
endspan
At middle of
support interiorspan interior
support
w[2 B.M. due to _ W,/2 W [2
wzz
+_u_ __u_ +_u_
deadload
12 12
10 16
B.M. due to w[2 wl2 _w.z
2
wf
__u_ +_u_ +_u_
liveload
9
10 9 12
The values of the bending moments given above are reasonably satisfactory when the
followingconditionsaresatisfied.
i) Theslabiscontinuousoverthreeormorespans
ii) Thespansdonotdifferbymorethan 15percentofthe longerspan.
B.M. attheendsupportofaslab. When aslabis builtintoamasonrywallwhichdevelops
only partial restraint, the member shall be designed to resist a negative moment at the
faceofthesupport, equalto wf where wu isthetotaldesignloadintensityandI isthe
24
effectivespan.
172
Figureshowsthegeneralarrangementofreinforcementinacontinuousslab.
D
I I
/--""'"IJo1
:4(1_-- I -....;.,;.:. .::---
, I
d .... .... ___ , ....
I 1
be: I;',-...___

I I a
I :::' ..,e :: J (=1 .... 9
tfII._..J::!-__-- -....;;.--- c::J...------------...,; h ...... I
6j f 1 1
I I I
I I I I
.L+.-...
e+:__ .... J;...*.J..a..e_---....1., 'h'1--Y L.....
ti +.t-----c... .... b"___ ___ ..
J _ft""rr
______---, ..
I _. ... ....J
1
I I'
__.__...
I
GeneralArrangementofReinforcement
Bottom Plan
I
\
173