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Title& The Story of Geographical Discovery
'ow the (orl Beca!e )nown
*uthor& Joseph Jacobs
+elease Date& Dece!ber ,, -../ 01Book 23/-435
%anguage& 1nglish
6haracter set encoing& 7S8$99:4$3
;;; ST*+T 8< T'7S P+8J16T G=T1>B1+G 1B88) G18G+*P'76*% D7S68?1+#
Prouce by +obert J" 'all"
07llustration& *r!s grante to S1B*ST7*> D1% 6*>8, 6aptain of the
@?ictoria@, the first vessel that circu!navigate the Globe
0@<or a escription, see pp"@ 3-4$A.55
The Story of Geographical Discovery
'ow the (orl Beca!e )nown
By Joseph Jacobs
(ith Twenty$four Baps, Cc"
7n atte!pting to get what is little less than a history of the worl,
fro! a special point of view, into a couple of hunre uoeci!o
pages, 7 have ha to !ake three bites at !y very big cherry" 7n the
*ppeniD 7 have given in chronological orer, an for the first
ti!e on such a scale in 1nglish, the chief voyages an eDplorations
by which our knowlege of the worl has been increase, an the
chief works in which that knowlege has been recore" 7n the boy
of the work 7 have then atte!pte to connect together these facts
in their !ore general aspects" 7n particular 7 have groupe the
great voyages of 3/4-$3:-3 roun the search for the Spice 7slans
as a central !otive" 7t is possible that in tracing the Portuguese
an Spanish iscoveries to the nee of titillating the parche
palates of the !eiEvals, who live on salt !eat uring winter an
salt fish uring %ent, 7 !ay have unuly si!plifie the proble!"
But there can be no oubt of the para!ount i!portance attache
to the spices of the 1ast in the earlier stages" The search for
the 1l Dorao ca!e afterwars, an is still urging !en north to
the #ukon, south to the 6ape, an in a south$easterly irection
to F(estralia"F
Besies the general treat!ent in the teDt an the special etails
in the *ppeniD, 7 have also atte!pte to tell the story once !ore
in a series of !aps showing the graual increase of !en's knowlege
of the globe" 7t woul have been i!possible to have inclue all
these in a book of this siGe an price but for the co!plaisance
of several publishing fir!s, who have given per!ission for the
reprouction on a reuce scale of !aps that have alreay been
prepare for special purposes" 7 have specially to thank Bessrs"
Bac!illan for the two ealing with the Portuguese iscoveries,
an erive fro! Br" Payne's eDcellent little work on 1uropean
6oloniesH Bessrs" 'oughton, Bifflin, C 6o", of Boston, for several
illustrating the iscovery of *!erica, fro! Br" J" <iske's FSchool
'istory of the =nite StatesHF an Bessrs" Phillips for the ar!s
of Del 6ano, so clearly isplaying the FspicyF !otive of the first
circu!navigation of the globe"
7 have besies to thank the officials of the +oyal Geographical
Society, especially Br" Scott )eltie an Dr" '" +" Bill, for the
reainess with which they have place the !agnificent resources
of the library an !ap$roo! of that national institution at !y
isposal, an the kinness with which they have answere !y Iueries
an inicate new sources of infor!ation"
J" J"
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%7ST 8< B*PS *>D 7%%=ST+*T78>S
68*T$8<$*+BS 8< D1% 6*>8 Mfro! Guille!ar, @Bagellan@" By kin
per!ission of Bessrs" PhillipsN"$$7t illustrates the i!portance
attribute to the Spice 7slans as the !ain object of Bagellan's
voyage" <or the blaGon, see pp" 3-4$A."
T'1 1*+%71ST B*P 8< T'1 (8+%D Mfro! the +ev" 6" J" Ball's @Bible
7llustrations@, 3949N"$$This is probably of the eighth century
B"6", an inicates the Babylonian view of the worl surroune by
the ocean, which is inicate by the parallel circles, an traverse
by the 1uphrates, which is seen !eanering through the !ile, with
Babylon, the great city, crossing it at the top" Beyon the ocean
are seven successive projections of lan, possibly inicating the
Babylonian knowlege of surrouning countries beyon the 1uDine
an the +e Sea"
T'1 (8+%D *668+D7>G T8 PT8%1B#"$$7t will be observe that the Greek
geographer regare the 7nian 8cean as a lanlocke boy of water,
while he appears to have so!e knowlege of the so ces of the >ile"
The general tenency of the !ap is to eDten *sia very !uch to
the east, which le to the !iscalculation encouraging 6olu!bus to
iscover *!erica"
T'1 +8B*> +8*DS 8< 1=+8P1 Mrawn specially for this workN"$$These
give roughly the li!its within which the inlan geographical knowlege
of the ancients reach so!e egrees of accuracy"
G18G+*P'76*% B8>ST1+S Mfro! an early eition of Baneville's
@Travels@N"$$Bost of the !eiEval !aps were otte over with si!ilar
T'1 '1+1<8+D B*P"$$This, one of the best known of !eiEval !aps,
was rawn by +ichar of *lingha! about 3A.," %ike !ost of these
!aps, it has the 1ast with the terrestrial paraise at the top,
an Jerusale! is represente as the centre"
P1=T7>G1+ T*B%1, (1ST1+> P*+T"$$This is the only +o!an !ap eDtantH
it gives lines of roas fro! the eastern shores of Britain to the
*riatic Sea" 7t is really a kin of bir's$eye view taken fro!
the *frican coast" The Beiterranean runs as a thin strip through
the lower part of the !ap" The lower section joins on to the upper"
T'1 (8+%D *668+D7>G T8 7B> '*=)*% Mfro! %elewel, @GOographie u
!on age@N"$$This !ap, like !ost of the *rabian !aps, has the south
at the top" 7t is practically only a iagra!, an is thus si!ilar
to the 'erefor Bap in general for!"$$BisrP1gypt, <arsPPersia,
68*ST$%7>1 8< T'1 B1D7T1++*>1*> Mfro! the @Portulano@ of Dulcert,
3AA4, given in >orenskiol's @<acsi!ile *tlas@N"$$To illustrate
the accuracy with which !ariners' charts gave the coast$lines as
contraste with the !erely sy!bolical representation of other !eiEval
<+* B*=+8 B*P, 3/:, Mfro! %elewel, @loc" 6it"@N"$$'ere, as usual,
the south is place at the top of the !ap" Besies the orinary
!eiEval conceptions, <ra Bauro inclue the Portuguese iscoveries
along the coast of *frica up to his ti!e, 3/:,"
P8+T=G=1S1 D7S68?1+71S 7> *<+76* Mfro! 1" J" Payne, @1uropean 6olonies@,
39,,N"$$Giving the successive points reache by the Portuguese
navigators uring the fifteenth century"
P8+T=G=1S1 7>D71S Mfro! Payne, @loc" 6it"@N"$$*ll the ports !entione
in orinary type were hel by the Portuguese in the siDteenth century"
T'1 T8S6*>1%%7 B*P Mfro! )retsch!er, @1nteckung *!erikas@, 394-N"$$This
is a reconstruction of the !ap which 6olu!bus got fro! the 7talian
astrono!er an cartographer Toscanelli an use to guie hi! in
his voyage across the *tlantic" 7ts general rese!blance to the
Behai! Globe will be re!arke"
T'1 B1'*7B G%8B1"$$This gives the infor!ation about the worl possesse
in 3/4-, just as 6olu!bus was starting, an is !ainly base upon the
!ap of Toscanelli, which serve as his guie" 7t will be observe
that there is no other continent between Spain an Qipangu or Japan,
while the fable islans of St" Branan an *ntilia are represente
briging the eDpanse between the *Gores an Japan"
*B1+7G8 ?1SP=667 Mfro! <iske's @School 'istory of the =nite States@,
by kin per!ission of Bessrs" 'oughton, Bifflin, C 6o"N
<1+D7>*>D B*G1%%*> Mfro! <iske's @School 'istory of the =nite
States@, by kin per!ission of Bessrs" 'oughton, Bifflin, C 6o"N
B*P 8< T'1 (8+%D, fro! the Ptole!y 1ition of 3:/9 Mafter )retsch!er's
@1nteckungsgeschichte *!erikas@N"$$7t will be observe that BeDico
is suppose to be joine on to *sia, an that the >orth Pacific
was not even known to eDist"
+=SS7*> *S7* Mafter the *tlas publishe by the +ussian *cae!y of
Sciences in 3,A,, by kin per!ission of Bessrs" 'achetteN" Japan
is represente as a peninsula"
*=ST+*%7* *S )>8(> 7> 3,/: Mfro! D'*nville's @*tlas@, by kin per!ission
of Bessrs" 'achetteN"$$7t will be seen that the >orthern an (estern
coasts were even by this ti!e tolerably well !appe out, leaving
only the eastern coast to be eDplore by 6ook"
*=ST+*%7*, showing routes of eDplorations Mprepare specially for
the present volu!eN" The na!es of the chief eDplorers are given
at the top of the !ap"
*<+76* *S )>8(> 7> 3R,R Mfro! Dapper's @*tlas@N"$$This inclues
a knowlege of !ost of the *frican river san lakes ue to the
eDplorations of the Portuguese"
*<+76* M!ae specially for this volu!e, to show chief eDplorations
an partitionN"$$The na!es of the eDplorers are given at the foot
of the !ap itself"
>8+T' P8%*+ +1G78>S, (1ST1+> '*%< Mprepare specially for the present
volu!e fro! the @6itiGen's *tlas@, by kin per!ission of Bessrs"
Bartholo!ewN"$$This gives the results of the iscoveries ue to
<ranklin eDpeitions an !ost of the searchers after the >orth$(est
>8+T' P8%*+ +1G78>S, 1*ST1+> '*%<"$$This gives the Siberian coast
investigate by the +ussians an >orenskiol, as well as >ansen's
@<arthest >orth@"
6%7BB7>G T'1 >8+T' P8%1 Mprepare specially for this volu!eN" Giving
in graphic for! the na!es of the chief *rctic travellers an the
latitue >" reache fro! John Davis M3:9,N to >ansen M394:N"
T'1 ST8+# 8<
G18G+*P'76*% D7S68?1+#
'ow was the worl iscovereS That is to say, how i a certain
set of !en who live roun the Beiterranean Sea, an ha acIuire
the art of recoring what each generation ha learne, beco!e
successively aware of the other parts of the globeS 1very part of
the earth, so far as we know, has been inhabite by !an uring the
five or siD thousan years in which 1uropeans have been storing up
their knowlege, an all that ti!e the inhabitants of each part, of
course, were acIuainte with that particular part& the )a!tschatkans
knew )a!tschatka, the Greenlaners, GreenlanH the various tribes of
>orth *!erican 7nians knew, at any rate, that part of *!erica over
which they wanere, long before 6olu!bus, as we say, FiscovereF
?ery often these savages not only know their own country, but can
eDpress their knowlege in !aps of very re!arkable accuracy" 6ortes
traverse over 3... !iles through 6entral *!erica, guie only by
a calico !ap of a local caciIue" *n 1ski!o na!e )alliherey rew
out, fro! his own knowlege of the coast between S!ith 6hannel
an 6ape #ork, a !ap of it, varying only in !inute etails fro!
the *!iralty chart" * native of Tahiti, na!e Tupaia, rew out
for 6ook a !ap of the Pacific, eDtening over forty$five egrees
of longitue Mnearly A... !ilesN, giving the relative siGe an
position of the !ain islans over that huge tract of ocean" *l!ost
all geographical iscoveries by 1uropeans have, in like !anner,
been brought about by !eans of guies, who necessarily knew the
country which their 1uropean !asters wishe to Fiscover"F
(hat, therefore, we !ean by the history of geographical iscovery is
the graual bringing to the knowlege of the nations of civilisation
surrouning the Beiterranean Sea the vast tracts of lan eDtening
in all irections fro! it" There are !ainly two ivisions of this
history$$the iscovery of the 8l (orl an that of the >ew, incluing
*ustralia uner the latter ter!" Though we speak of geographical
iscovery, it is really the iscovery of new tribes of !en that
we are thinking of" 7t is only Iuite recently that !en have sought
for knowlege about lans, apart fro! the !en who inhabit the!"
8ne !ight al!ost say that the history of geographical iscovery,
properly so calle, begins with 6aptain 6ook, the !otive of whose
voyages was purely scientific curiosity" But before his ti!e !en
wante to know one another for two chief reasons& they wante to
conIuer, or they wante to traeH or perhaps we coul reuce the
!otives to one$$they wante to conIuer, because they wante to
trae" 7n our own ay we have seen a re!arkable !iDture of all three
!otives, resulting in the 1uropean partition of *frica$$perhaps the
!ost re!arkable event of the latter en of the nineteenth century"
Speke an Burton, %ivingstone an Stanley, investigate the interior
fro! love of aventure an of knowlegeH then ca!e the great chartere
traing co!paniesH an, finally, the govern!ents to which these
belong have assu!e responsibility for the territories thus !ae
known to the civilise worl" (ithin forty years the !ap of *frica,
which was practically a blank in the interior, an, as will be
shown, was better known in 3R9. than in 39:., has been fille up
al!ost co!pletely by researches ue to !otives of conIuest, of
trae, or of scientific curiosity"
7n its earlier stages, then, the history of geographical iscovery
is !ainly a history of conIuest, an what we shall have to o will
be to give a short history of the ancient worl, fro! the point
of view of how that worl beca!e known" FBeca!e known to who!SF
you !ay askH an we !ust eter!ine that Iuestion first" (e !ight,
of course, take the earliest geographical work known to us$$the
tenth chapter of Genesis$$an work out how the rest of the worl
beca!e known to the 7sraelites when they beca!e part of the +o!an
1!pireH but in history all roas lea to +o!e or away fro! it,
an it is !ore useful for every purpose to take +o!e as our
centre$point" #et +o!e only ca!e in as the heir of earlier e!pires
that sprea the knowlege of the earth an !an by conIuest long
before +o!e was of i!portanceH an even when the +o!ans were the
!asters of all this vast inheritance, they ha not the!selves the
ability to recor the geographical knowlege thus acIuire, an it
is to a Greek na!e Ptole!y, a professor of the great university
of *leDanria, to who! we owe our knowlege of how !uch the ancient
worl knew of the earth" 7t will be convenient to eter!ine this
first, an afterwars to sketch rapily the course of historical
events which le to the knowlege which Ptole!y recors"
7n the Bile *ges, !uch of this knowlege, like all other, was
lost, an we shall have to recor how knowlege was replace by
i!agination an theory" The true inheritors of Greek science uring
that perio were the *rabs, an the few aitions to real geographical
knowlege at that ti!e were ue to the!, eDcept in so far as co!!ercial
travellers an pilgri!s brought a !ore inti!ate knowlege of *sia
to the (est"
The iscovery of *!erica for!s the beginning of a new perio, both
in !oern history an in !oern geography" 7n the four hunre
years that have elapse since then, !ore than twice as !uch of
the inhabite globe has beco!e known to civilise !an than in the
preceing four thousan years" The result is that, eDcept for a few
patches of *frica, South *!erica, an roun the Poles, !an knows
roughly what are the physical resources of the worl he inhabits,
an, eDcept for !inor etails, the history of geographical iscovery
is practically at an en"
Besies its interest as a recor of war an aventure, this history
gives the successive stages by which !oern !en have been !ae what
they are" The longest known countries an peoples have, on the whole,
ha the eepest influence in the for!ing of the civilise character"
>or is the practical utility of this stuy less i!portant" The way
in which the worl has been iscovere eter!ines now$a$ays the
worl's history" The great proble!s of the twentieth century will
have i!!eiate relation to the iscoveries of *!erica, of *frica,
an of *ustralia" 7n all these proble!s, 1nglish!en will have !ost
to say an to o, an the history of geographical iscovery is,
therefore, of i!!eiate an i!!ense interest to 1nglish!en"
0@*uthorities&@ 6ooley, @'istory of Bariti!e an 7nlan Discoveries@,
A vols", 39A3H ?ivien e Saint Bartin, @'istoire e la GOographie@,
6'*PT1+ 7
T'1 (8+%D *S )>8(> T8 T'1 *>671>TS
Before telling how the ancients got to know that part of the worl
with which they finally beca!e acIuainte when the +o!an 1!pire
was at its greatest eDtent, it is as well to get so!e iea of the
successive stages of their knowlege, leaving for the neDt chapter
the story of how that knowlege was obtaine" *s in !ost branches of
organise knowlege, it is to the Greeks that we owe our acIuaintance
with ancient views of this subject" 7n the early stages they possibly
learne so!ething fro! the Phoenicians, who were the great traers
an sailors of antiIuity, an who coaste along the Beiterranean,
venture through the Straits of Gibraltar, an trae with the
British 7sles, which they visite for the tin foun in 6ornwall" 7t
is even sai that one of their a!irals, at the co!!an of >echo,
king of 1gypt, circu!navigate *frica, for 'erootus reports that
on the ho!ewar voyage the sun set in the sea on the right han"
But the Phoenicians kept their geographical knowlege to the!selves
as a trae secret, an the Greeks learne but little fro! the!"
The first gli!pse that we have of the notions which the Greeks
possesse of the shape an the inhabitants of the earth is affore
by the poe!s passing uner the na!e of '8B1+" These poe!s show an
inti!ate knowlege of >orthern Greece an of the western coasts of
*sia Binor, so!e acIuaintance with 1gypt, 6yprus, an SicilyH but
all the rest, even of the 1astern Beiterranean, is only vaguely
conceive by their author" (here he oes not know he i!agines,
an so!e of his i!aginings have ha a !ost i!portant influence
upon the progress of geographical knowlege" Thus he conceives of
the worl as being a sort of flat shiel, with an eDtre!ely wie
river surrouning it, known as 8cean" The centre of this shiel
was at Delphi, which was regare as the FnavelF of the inhabite
worl" *ccoring to 'esio, who is but little later than 'o!er, up
in the far north were place a people known as the @'yperboreani@, or
those who welt at the back of the north winH whilst a corresponing
place in the south was taken by the *byssinians" *ll these four
conceptions ha an i!portant influence upon the views that !en ha
of the worl up to ti!es co!paratively recent" 'o!er also !entione
the pig!ies as living in *frica" These were regare as fabulous,
till they were re$iscovere by Dr" Schweinfurth an Br" Stanley
in our own ti!e"
7t is probably fro! the Babylonians that the Greeks obtaine the
iea of an all$encircling ocean" 7nhabitants of Besopota!ia woul
fin the!selves reaching the ocean in al!ost any irection in which
they travelle, either the 6aspian, the Black Sea, the Beiterranean,
or the Persian Gulf" *ccoringly, the olest !ap of the worl which
has been foun is one acco!panying a cuneifor! inscription, an
representing the plain of Besopota!ia with the 1uphrates flowing
through it, an the whole surroune by two concentric circles,
which are na!e briny waters" 8utsie these, however, are seven
etache islets, possibly representing the seven Gones or cli!ates
into which the worl was ivie accoring to the ieas of the
Babylonians, though afterwars they resorte to the orinary four
carinal points" (hat was roughly true of Babylonia i not in
any way answer to the geographical position of Greece, an it is
therefore probable that in the first place they obtaine their
ieas of the surrouning ocean fro! the Babylonians"
07llustration& T'1 1*+%71ST B*P 8< T'1 (8+%D5
7t was after the perio of 'o!er an 'esio that the first great
eDpansion of Greek knowlege about the worl began, through the
eDtensive colonisation which was carrie on by the Greeks aroun
the 1astern Beiterranean" 1ven to this ay the natives of the
southern part of 7taly speak a Greek ialect, owing to the wie
eDtent of Greek colonies in that country, which use to be calle
FBagna Grecia,F or FGreat Greece"F Barseilles also one of the Greek
colonies MR.. B"6"N, which, in its turn, sent out other colonies
along the Gulf of %yons" 7n the 1ast, too, Greek cities were otte
along the coast of the Black Sea, one of which, ByGantiu!, was
estine to be of worl$historic i!portance" So, too, in >orth
*frica, an a!ong the islans of the Kgean Sea, the Greeks colonise
throughout the siDth an fifth centuries B"6", an in al!ost every
case co!!unication was kept up between the colonies an the
>ow, the one Iuality which has !ae the Greeks so istinguishe
in the worl's history was their curiosityH an it was natural
that they shoul esire to know, an to put on recor, the large
a!ount of infor!ation brought to the !ainlan of Greece fro! the
innu!erable Greek colonies" But to recor geographical knowlege,
the first thing that is necessary is a !ap, an accoringly it is
a Greek philosopher na!e *>*L7B*>D1+ of Biletus, of the siDth
century B"6", to who! we owe the invention of !ap$rawing" >ow,
in orer to !ake a !ap of one's own country, little astrono!ical
knowlege is reIuire" *s we have seen, savages are able to raw
such !apsH but when it co!es to escribing the relative positions
of countries ivie fro! one another by seas, the proble! is not
so easy" *n *thenian woul know roughly that ByGantiu! Mnow calle
6onstantinopleN was so!ewhat to the east an to the north of hi!,
because in sailing thither he woul have to sail towars the rising
sun, an woul fin the cli!ate getting coler as he approache
ByGantiu!" So, too, he !ight roughly guess that Barseilles was
so!ewhere to the west an north of hi!H but how was he to fiD the
relative position of Barseilles an ByGantiu! to one anotherS (as
Barseilles !ore northerly than ByGantiu!S (as it very far away
fro! that cityS <or though it took longer to get to Barseilles,
the voyage was wining, an !ight possibly bring the vessel
co!paratively near to ByGantiu!, though there !ight be no irect
roa between the two cities" There was one rough way of eter!ining
how far north a place stoo& the very slightest observation of the
starry heavens woul show a traveller that as he !ove towars
the north, the pole$star rose higher up in the heavens" 'ow !uch
higher, coul be eter!ine by the angle for!e by a stick pointing
to the pole$star, in relation to one hel horiGontally" 7f, instea
of two sticks, we cut out a piece of !etal or woo to fill up the
enclose angle, we get the earliest for! of the sun$ial, known as
the @gno!on@, an accoring to the shape of the gno!on the latitue
of a place is eter!ine" *ccoringly, it is not surprising to fin
that the invention of the gno!on is also attribute to *naDi!aner,
for without so!e such instru!ent it woul have been i!possible for
hi! to have !ae any !ap worthy of the na!e" But it is probable
that *naDi!aner i not so !uch invent as introuce the gno!on,
an, inee, 'erootus, eDpressly states that this instru!ent was
erive fro! the Babylonians, who were the earliest astrono!ers, so
far as we know" * curious point confir!s this, for the !easure!ent
of angles is by egrees, an egrees are ivie into siDty secons,
just as !inutes are" >ow this ivision into siDty is certainly
erive fro! Babylonia in the case of ti!e !easure!ent, an is
therefore of the sa!e origin as regars the !easure!ent of angles"
(e have no longer any copy of this first !ap of the worl rawn
up by *naDi!aner, but there is little oubt that it for!e the
founation of a si!ilar !ap rawn by a fellow$towns!an of *naDi!aner,
'16*TK=S of Biletus, who see!s to have written the first for!al
geography" 8nly frag!ents of this are eDtant, but fro! the! we are
able to see that it was of the nature of a @periplus@, or sea!an's
guie, telling how !any ays' sail it was fro! one point to another,
an in what irection" (e know also that he arrange his whole
subject into two books, ealing respectively with 1urope an *sia,
uner which latter ter! he inclue part of what we now know as
*frica" <ro! the frag!ents scholars have been able to reprouce
the rough outlines of the !ap of the worl as it presente itself
to 'ecatEus" <ro! this it can be seen that the 'o!eric conception of
the surrouning ocean for!e a chief eter!ining feature in 'ecatEus's
!ap" <or the rest, he was acIuainte with the Beiterranean, +e,
an Black Seas, an with the great rivers Danube, >ile, 1uphrates,
Tigris, an 7nus"
The neDt great na!e in the history of Greek geography is that of
'1+8D8T=S of 'alicarnassus, who !ight inee be eIually well calle
the <ather of Geography as the <ather of 'istory" 'e travelle
!uch in 1gypt, Babylonia, Persia, an on the shores of the Black
Sea, while he was acIuainte with Greece, an passe the latter
years of his life in South 7taly" 8n all these countries he gave
his fellow$citiGens accurate an tolerably full infor!ation, an
he ha iligently collecte knowlege about countries in their
neighbourhoo" 7n particular he gives full etails of Scythia Mor
Southern +ussiaN, an of the satrapies an royal roas of Persia"
*s a rule, his infor!ation is as accurate as coul be eDpecte at
such an early ate, an he rarely tells !arvellous stories, or if
he oes, he points out hi!self their untrustworthiness" *l!ost the
only traveller's yarn which 'erootus reports without ue scepticis!
is that of the ants of 7nia that were bigger than foDes an burrowe
out gol ust for their ant$hills"
8ne of the stories he relates is of interest, as see!ing to show
an anticipation of one of Br" Stanley's journeys" <ive young !en
of the >asa!onians starte fro! Southern %ibya, (" of the Souan,
an journeye for !any ays west till they ca!e to a grove of trees,
when they were seiGe by a nu!ber of !en of very s!all stature, an
conucte through !arshes to a great city of black !en of the sa!e
siGe, through which a large river flowe" This 'erootus ientifies
with the >ile, but, fro! the inication of the journey given by
hi!, it woul see! !ore probable that it was the >iger, an that
the >asa!onians ha visite Ti!buctooT 8wing to this state!ent
of 'erootus, it was for long thought that the =pper >ile flowe
east an west"
*fter 'erootus, the ate of whose history !ay be fiDe at the
easily re!e!bere nu!ber of /// B"6", a large increase of knowlege
was obtaine of the western part of *sia by the two eDpeitions of
Lenophon an of *leDaner, which brought the fa!iliar knowlege of
the Greeks as far as 7nia" But besies these !ilitary eDpeitions
we have still eDtant several log$books of !ariners, which !ight
have ae consierably to Greek geography" 8ne of these tells
the tale of an eDpeition of the 6arthaginian a!iral na!e 'anno,
own the western coast of *frica, as far as Sierra %eone, a voyage
which was not afterwars unertaken for siDteen hunre years"
'anno brought back fro! this voyage hairy skins, which, he state,
belonge to !en an wo!en who! he ha capture, an who were known
to the natives by the na!e of Gorillas" *nother log$book is that
of a Greek na!e ScylaD, who gives the sailing istances between
nearly all ports on the Beiterranean an Black Seas, an the nu!ber
of ays reIuire to pass fro! one to another" <ro! this it woul see!
that a Greek !erchant vessel coul !anage on the average fifty !iles
a ay" Besies this, one of *leDaner's a!irals, na!e >earchus,
learne to carry his ships fro! the !outh of the 7nus to the *rabian
Gulf" %ater on, a Greek sailor, 'ippalus, foun out that by using
the !onsoons at the appropriate ti!es, he coul sail irect fro!
*rabia to 7nia without laboriously coasting along the shores of
Persia an Beluchistan, an in conseIuence the Greeks gave his
na!e to the !onsoon" <or infor!ation about 7nia itself, the Greeks
were, for a long ti!e, epenent upon the account of Begasthenes,
an a!bassaor sent by Seleucus, one of *leDaner's generals, to
the 7nian king of the Punjab"
(hile knowlege was thus gaine of the 1ast, aitional infor!ation
was obtaine about the north of 1urope by the travels of one P#T'1*S,
a native of Barseilles, who flourishe about the ti!e of *leDaner
the Great MAAA B"6"N, an he is especially interesting to us as
having been the first civilise person who can be ientifie as
having visite Britain" 'e see!s to have coaste along the Bay
of Biscay, to have spent so!e ti!e in 1nglan,$$which he reckone
as /.,... staia M/... !ilesN in circu!ference,$$an he appears
also to have coaste along Belgiu! an 'ollan, as far as the !outh
of the 1lbe" Pytheas is, however, chiefly known in the history
of geography as having referre to the islan of Thule, which he
escribe as the !ost northerly point of the inhabite earth, beyon
which the sea beca!e thickene, an of a jelly$like consistency" 'e
oes not profess to have visite Thule, an his account probably
refers to the eDistence of rift ice near the Shetlans"
*ll this new infor!ation was gathere together, an !ae accessible
to the Greek reaing worl, by 1+*T8ST'1>1S, librarian of *leDanria
M-/.$34R B"6"N, who was practically the founer of scientific geography"
'e was the first to atte!pt any accurate !easure!ent of the siGe of
the earth, an of its inhabite portion" By his ti!e the scientific
!en of Greece ha beco!e Iuite aware of the fact that the earth
was a globe, though they consiere that it was fiDe in space
at the centre of the universe" Guesses ha even been !ae at the
siGe of this globe, *ristotle fiDing its circu!ference at /..,...
staia Mor /.,... !ilesN, but 1ratosthenes atte!pte a !ore accurate
!easure!ent" 'e co!pare the length of the shaow thrown by the sun
at *leDanria an at Syene, near the first cataract of the >ile,
which he assu!e to be on the sa!e !eriian of longitue, an to be
at about :... staia M:.. !ilesN istance" <ro! the ifference in
the length of the shaows he euce that this istance represente
one$fiftieth of the circu!ference of the earth, which woul accoringly
be about -:.,... staia, or -:,... geographical !iles" *s the actual
circu!ference is -/,944 1nglish !iles, this was a very near
approDi!ation, consiering the rough !eans 1ratosthenes ha at his
'aving thus esti!ate the siGe of the earth, 1ratosthenes then
went on to eter!ine the siGe of that portion which the ancients
consiere to be habitable" >orth an south of the lans known to
hi!, 1ratosthenes an all the ancients consiere to be either
too col or too hot to be habitableH this portion he reckone to
eDten to A9,... staia, or A9.. !iles" 7n reckoning the eDtent
of the habitable portion fro! east to west, 1ratosthenes ca!e to
the conclusion that fro! the Straits of Gibraltar to the east of
7nia was about 9.,... staia, or, roughly speaking, one$thir of
the earth's surface" The re!aining two$thirs were suppose to be
covere by the ocean, an 1ratosthenes prophetically re!arke that
Fif it were not that the vast eDtent of the *tlantic Sea renere it
i!possible, one !ight al!ost sail fro! the coast of Spain to that
of 7nia along the sa!e parallel"F SiDteen hunre years later, as
we shall see, 6olu!bus trie to carry out this iea" 1ratosthenes
base his calculations on two funa!ental lines, corresponing in a
way to our eIuator an !eriian of Greenwich& the first stretche,
accoring to hi!, fro! 6ape St" ?incent, through the Straits of
Bessina an the islan of +hoes, to 7ssus MGulf of 7skanerunNH for
his starting$line in reckoning north an south he use a !eriian
passing through the <irst 6ataract, *leDanria, +hoes, an ByGantiu!"
The neDt two hunre years after 1ratosthenes' eath was fille
up by the sprea of the +o!an 1!pire, by the taking over by the
+o!ans of the vast possessions previously hel by *leDaner an
his successors an by the 6arthaginians, an by their sprea into
Gaul, Britain, an Ger!any" Buch of the increase knowlege thus
obtaine was su!!e up in the geographical work of ST+*B8, who
wrote in Greek about -. B"6" 'e introuce fro! the eDtra knowlege
thus obtaine !any !oifications of the syste! of 1ratosthenes,
but, on the whole, kept to his general conception of the worl" 'e
rejecte, however, the eDistence of Thule, an thus !ae the worl
narrowerH while he recognise the eDistence of 7erne, or 7relanH
which he regare as the !ost northerly part of the habitable worl,
lying, as he thought, north of Britain"
Between the ti!e of Strabo an that of Ptole!y, who su!s up all
the knowlege of the ancients about the habitable earth, there was
only one consierable aition to !en's acIuaintance with their
neighbours, containe in a sea!an's !anual for the navigation of
the 7nian 8cean, known as the @Periplus@ of the 1rythrEan Sea"
This gave very full an tolerably accurate accounts of the coasts
fro! *en to the !outh of the Ganges, though it regare 6eylon
as !uch greater, an !ore to the south, than it really isH but
it also contains an account of the !ore easterly parts of *sia,
7no$6hina, an 6hina itself, Fwhere the silk co!es fro!"F This
ha an i!portant influence on the views of Ptole!y, as we shall
see, an inirectly helpe long afterwars to the iscovery of
07llustration& PT8%1B*17 8+B7S5
7t was left to PT8%1B# of *leDanria to su! up for the ancient
worl all the knowlege that ha been accu!ulating fro! the ti!e
of 1ratosthenes to his own ay, which we !ay fiD at about 3:. *"D"
'e took all the infor!ation he coul fin in the writings of the
preceing four hunre years, an reuce it all to one unifor!
scaleH for it is to hi! that we owe the invention of the !etho
an the na!es of latitue an longitue" Previous writers ha been
content to say that the istance between one point an another
was so !any staia, but he reuce all this rough reckoning to
so !any egrees of latitue an longitue, fro! fiDe lines as
starting$points" But, unfortunately, all these reckonings were
rough calculations, which are al!ost invariably beyon the truthH
an Ptole!y, though the greatest of ancient astrono!ers, still
further istorte his results by assu!ing that a egree was :..
staia, or :. geographical !iles" Thus when he foun in any of
his authorities that the istance between one port an another was
:.. staia, he assu!e, in the first place, that this was accurate,
an, in the secon, that the istance between the two places was
eIual to a egree of latitue or longitue, as the case !ight be"
*ccoringly he arrive at the result that the breath of the habitable
globe was, as he put it, twelve hours of longitue Mcorresponing
to 39.UN$$nearly one$thir as !uch again as the real i!ensions
fro! Spain to 6hina" The conseIuence of this was that the istance
fro! Spain to 6hina @westwar@ was corresponingly i!inishe by
siDty egrees Mor nearly /... !ilesN, an it was this error that
ulti!ately encourage 6olu!bus to atte!pt his epoch$!aking voyage"
Ptole!y's errors of calculation woul not have been so eDtensive
but that he aopte a !etho of !easure!ent which !ae the!
accu!ulative" 7f he ha chosen *leDanria for the point of eparture
in !easuring longitue, the errors he !ae when reckoning westwar
woul have been counterbalance by those reckoning eastwar, an
woul not have resulte in any serious istortion of the truthH but
instea of this, he aopte as his point of eparture the <ortunatE
7nsulE, or 6anary 7slans, an every egree !easure to the east
of these was one$fifth too great, since he assu!e that it was
only fifty !iles in length" 7 !ay !ention that so great has been
the influence of Ptole!y on geography, that, up to the !ile of
the last century, <erro, in the 6anary 7slans, was still retaine
as the Gero$point of the !eriians of longitue"
*nother point in which Ptole!y's syste! strongly influence !oern
opinion was his eparture fro! the previous assu!ption that the
worl was surroune by the ocean, erive fro! 'o!er" 7nstea
of *frica being thus cut through the !ile by the ocean, Ptole!y
assu!e, possibly fro! vague traitional knowlege, that *frica
eDtene an unknown length to the south, an joine on to an eIually
unknown continent far to the east, which, in the %atinise versions
of his astrono!ical work, was ter!e Fterra australis incognita,F
or Fthe unknown south lan"F *s, by his error with regar to the
breath of the earth, Ptole!y le to 6olu!busH so, by his !istaken
notions as to the Fgreat south lan,F he prepare the way for the
iscoveries of 6aptain 6ook" But notwithstaning these errors,
which were ue partly to the roughness of the !aterials which he
ha to eal with, an partly to scientific caution, Ptole!y's work
is one of the great !onu!ents of hu!an inustry an knowlege" <or
the 8l (orl it re!aine the basis of all geographical knowlege
up to the beginning of the last century, just as his astrono!ical
work was only finally abolishe by the work of >ewton" Ptole!y
has thus the rare istinction of being the greatest authority on
two i!portant epart!ents of hu!an knowlege$$astrono!y an
geography$$for over fifteen hunre years" 7nto the etails of
his escription of the worl it is unnecessary to go" The !ap will
inicate how near he ca!e to the !ain outlines of the Beiterranean,
of >orthwest 1urope, of *rabia, an of the Black Sea" Beyon these
regions he coul only epen upon the rough inications an guesses
of untutore !erchants" But it is worth while referring to his !etho
of eter!ining latitue, as it was followe up by !ost succeeing
geographers" Between the eIuator an the !ost northerly point known
to hi!, he ivies up the earth into horiGontal strips, calle
by hi! Fcli!ates,F an eter!ine by the average length of the
longest ay in each" This is a very rough !etho of eter!ining
latitue, but it was probably, in !ost cases, all that Ptole!y
ha to epen upon, since the !easure!ent of angles woul be a
rare acco!plish!ent even in !oern ti!es, an woul only eDist
a!ong a few !athe!aticians an astrono!ers in Ptole!y's ays" (ith
hi! the history of geographical knowlege an iscovery in the
ancient worl closes"
7n this chapter 7 have roughly given the na!es an eDploits of
the Greek !en of science, who su!!e up in a series of syste!atic
recors the knowlege obtaine by !erchants, by soliers, an by
travellers of the eDtent of the worl known to the ancients" 8f this
knowlege, by far the largest a!ount was gaine, not by syste!atic
investigation for the purpose of geography, but by !ilitary eDpeitions
for the purpose of conIuest" (e !ust now retrace our steps, an
give a rough review of the various stages of conIuest" (e !ust now
retrace our steps, an give a rough review of the various stages
of conIuest by which the ifferent regions of the 8l (orl beca!e
known to the Greeks an the +o!an 1!pire, whose knowlege Ptole!y
0@*uthorities&@ Bunbury, @'istory of *ncient Geography,@ - vols",
39,4H ToGer, @'istory of *ncient Geography,@ 394,"5
6'*PT1+ 77
T'1 SP+1*D 8< 68>J=1ST 7> T'1 *>671>T (8+%D
7n a co!panion volu!e of this series, FThe Story of 1Dtinct
6ivilisations in the 1ast,F will be foun an account of the rise
an evelop!ent of the various nations who hel sway over the west
of *sia at the awn of history" Boern iscoveries of re!arkable
interest have enable us to learn the conition of !en in *sia
Binor as early as /... B"6" *ll these early civilisations eDiste
on the banks of great rivers, which renere the lan fertile through
which they passe"
(e first fin !an conscious of hi!self, an putting his knowlege
on recor, along the banks of the great rivers >ile, 1uphrates,
an Tigris, Ganges an #ang$tse$)iang" But for our purposes we
are not concerne with these very early stages of history" The
1gyptians got to know so!ething of the nations that surroune
the!, an so i the *ssyrians" * su!!ary of si!ilar knowlege
is containe in the list of tribes given in the tenth chapter of
Genesis, which ivies all !ankin, as then known to the 'ebrews,
into escenants of She!, 'a!, an Japhet$$corresponing, roughly,
to *sia, 1urope, an *frica" But in orer to ascertain how the
+o!ans obtaine the !ass of infor!ation which was su!!arise for
the! by Ptole!y in his great work, we have !erely to concentrate
our attention on the re!arkable process of continuous eDpansion
which ulti!ately le to the eDistence of the +o!an 1!pire"
*ll early histories of kingo!s are practically of the sa!e type"
* certain tract of country is ivie up a!ong a certain nu!ber
of tribes speaking a co!!on language, an each of these tribes
rule by a separate chieftain" 8ne of these tribes then beco!es
preo!inant over the rest, through the skill in war or iplo!acy
of one of its chiefs, an the whole of the tract of country is thus
organise into one kingo!" Thus the history of 1nglan relates
how the kingo! of (esseD grew into preo!inance over the whole
of the countryH that of <rance tells how the kings who rule over
the 7sle of <rance sprea their rule over the rest of the lanH
the history of 7srael is !ainly an account of how the tribe of
Juah obtaine the hege!ony of the rest of the tribesH an +o!an
history, as its na!e i!plies, infor!s us how the inhabitants of
a single city grew to be the !asters of the whole known worl"
But their e!pire ha been prepare for the! by a long series of
si!ilar eDpansions, which !ight be escribe as the successive
swallowing up of e!pire after e!pire, each beco!ing overgrown in
the process, till at last the series was conclue by the +o!ans
swallowing up the whole" 7t was this graual sprea of o!inion
which, at each stage, increase !en's knowlege of surrouning
nations, an it therefore co!es within our province to roughly su!
up these stages, as part of the story of geographical iscovery"
+egare fro! the point of view of geography, this sprea of !an's
knowlege !ight be co!pare to the growth of a huge oyster$shell,
an, fro! that point of view, we have to take the north of the
Persian Gulf as the apeD of the shell, an begin with the Babylonian
1!pire" (e first have the kingo! of Babylon$$which, in the early
stages, !ight be best ter!e 6halEa$$in the south of Besopota!ia
Mor the valley between the two rivers, Tigris an 1uphratesN, which,
uring the thir an secon !illennia before our era, sprea along
the valley of the Tigris" But in the fourteenth century B"6", the
*ssyrians to the north of it, though previously epenent upon
Babylon, conIuere it, an, after various vicissitues, establishe
the!selves throughout the whole of Besopota!ia an !uch of the
surrouning lans" 7n R./ B"6" the capital of this great e!pire was
!ove once !ore to Babylon, so that in the last stage, as well as in
the first, it !ay be calle Babylonia" <or purposes of istinction,
however, it will be as well to call these three successive stages
6halEa, *ssyria, an Babylonia"
Beanwhile, i!!eiately to the east, a so!ewhat si!ilar process
ha been gone through, though here the evelop!ent was fro! north
to south, the Bees of the north eveloping a powerful e!pire in
the north of Persia, which ulti!ately fell into the hans of 6yrus
the Great in :/R B"6" 'e then proceee to conIuer the kingo! of
%yia, in the northwest part of *sia Binor, which ha previously
inherite the o!inions of the 'ittites" <inally he proceee to
seiGe the e!pire of Babylonia, by his successful attack on the
capital, :A9 B"6" 'e eDtene his rule nearly as far as 7nia on
one sie, an, as we know fro! the Bible, to the borers of 1gypt
on the other" 'is son 6a!byses even succeee in aing 1gypt for
a ti!e to the Persian 1!pire" The oyster$shell of history ha
accoringly eDpane to inclue al!ost the whole of (estern *sia"
The neDt two centuries are taken up in universal history by the
!agnificent struggle of the Greeks against the Persian 1!pire$$the
!ost ecisive conflict in all history, for it eter!ine whether
1urope or *sia shoul conIuer the worl" 'itherto the course of
conIuest ha been fro! east to west, an if LerDes' invasion ha
been successful, there is little oubt that the westwar tenency
woul have continue" But the larger the tract of country which an
e!pire covers$$especially when ifferent tribes an nations are
inclue in it$$the weaker an less organise it beco!es" (ithin
little !ore than a century of the eath of 6yrus the Great the
Greeks iscovere the vulnerable point in the Persian 1!pire, owing
to an eDpeition of ten thousan Greek !ercenaries uner Lenophon,
who ha been engage by 6yrus the younger in an atte!pt to capture
the Persian 1!pire fro! his brother" 6yrus was slain, /.3 B"6", but
the ten thousan, uner the leaership of Lenophon, were enable,
to hol their own against all the atte!pts of the Persians to estroy
the!, an foun their way back to Greece"
Beanwhile the usual process ha been going on in Greece by which a
country beco!es consoliate" <ro! ti!e to ti!e one of the tribes
into which that !ountainous country was ivie obtaine supre!acy
over the rest& at first the *thenians, owing to the pro!inent part
they ha taken in repelling the PersiansH then the Spartans, an
finally the Thebans" But on the northern frontiers a race of hary
!ountaineers, the Baceonians, ha consoliate their power, an,
uner Philip of Baceon, beca!e !asters of all Greece" Philip ha
learne the lesson taught by the successful retreat of the ten
thousan, an, just before his eath, was preparing to attack the
Great )ing Mof PersiaN with all the forces which his supre!acy in
Greece put at his isposal" 'is son *leDaner the Great carrie
out Philip's intentions" (ithin twelve years MAA/$A-A B"6"N he ha
conIuere Persia, Parthia, 7nia Min the strict sense, @i"e"@ the
valley of the 7nusN, an 1gypt" *fter his eath his huge e!pire
was ivie up a!ong his generals, but, eDcept in the eDtre!e east,
the whole of it was a!inistere on Greek !ethos" * Greek$speaking
person coul pass fro! one en to the other without ifficulty, an
we can unerstan how a knowlege of the whole tract of country
between the *riatic an the 7nus coul be obtaine by Greek scholars"
*leDaner foune a large nu!ber of cities, all bearing his na!e, at
various points of his itineraryH but of these the !ost i!portant
was that at the !outh of the >ile, known to this ay as *leDanria"
'ere was the intellectual centre of the whole 'ellenic worl, an
accoringly it was here, as we have seen, that 1ratosthenes first
wrote own in a syste!atic !anner all the knowlege about the habitable
earth which ha been gaine !ainly by *leDaner's conIuests"
7!portant as was the triu!phant !arch of *leDaner through (estern
*sia, both in history an in geography, it cannot be sai to have
ae so very !uch to geographical knowlege, for 'erootus was
roughly acIuainte with !ost of the country thus traverse, eDcept
towars the east of Persia an the north$west of 7nia" But the
itineraries of *leDaner an his generals !ust have contribute
!ore eDact knowlege of the istances between the various i!portant
centres of population, an enable 1ratosthenes an his successors
to give the! a efinite position on their !aps of the worl" (hat
they chiefly learne fro! *leDaner an his i!!eiate successors
was a !ore accurate knowlege of >orth$(est 7nia" 1ven as late
as Strabo, the sole knowlege possesse at *leDanria of 7nian
places was that given by Begasthenes, the a!bassaor to 7nia in
the thir century B"6"
Beanwhile, in the western portion of the civilise worl a si!ilar
process ha gone on" 7n the 7talian peninsula the usual struggle
ha gone on between the various tribes inhabiting it" The fertile
plain of %o!bary was not in those ays regare as belonging to
7taly, but was known as 6isalpine Gaul" The south of 7taly, as we
have seen, was !ainly inhabite by Greek colonists, an was calle
Great Greece" Between these tracts of country the 7talian territory
was inhabite by three sets of feerate tribes$$the 1trurians,
the Sa!nites, an the %atins" During the -A. years between :3.
B"6" an -9. B"6" +o!e was occupie in obtaining the supre!acy
a!ong these three sets of tribes, an by the latter ate !ay be
regare as having consoliate 6entral 7taly into an 7talian
feeration, centralise at +o!e" *t the latter ate, the Greek
king Pyrrhus of 1pirus, atte!pte to arouse the Greek colonies
in Southern 7taly against the growing power of +o!eH but his
interference only resulte in eDtening the +o!an o!inion own
to the heel an big toe of 7taly"
7f +o!e was to avance farther, Sicily woul be the neDt step,
an just at that !o!ent Sicily was being threatene by the other
great power of the (est$$6arthage" 6arthage was the !ost i!portant
of the colonies foune by the Phoenicians Mprobably in the ninth
century B"6"N, an pursue in the (estern Beiterranean the policy
of establishing traing stations along the coast, which ha
istinguishe the Phoenicians fro! their first appearance in history"
They seiGe all the islans in that ivision of the sea, or at any
rate prevente any other nation fro! settling in 6orsica, Sarinia,
an the Balearic 7sles" 7n particular 6arthage took possession
of the western part of Sicily, which ha been settle by sister
Phoenician colonies" (hile +o!e i everything in its power to
consoliate its conIuests by a!itting the other 7talians to so!e
share in the central govern!ent, 6arthage only regare its foreign
possessions as so !any openings for trae" 7n fact, it ealt with
the western littoral of the Beiterranean so!ething like the 1ast
7nia 6o!pany treate the coast of 'inostan& it establishe factories
at convenient spots" But just as the 1ast 7nia 6o!pany foun it
necessary to conIuer the neighbouring territory in orer to secure
peaceful trae, so 6arthage eDtene its conIuests all own the
western coast of *frica an the south$east part of Spain, while +o!e
was eDtening into 7taly" To continue our conchological analogy, by
the ti!e of the first Punic (ar +o!e an 6arthage ha each eDpane
into a shell, an between the two intervene the eastern section of
the islan of Sicily" *s the result of this, +o!e beca!e !aster
of Sicily, an then the final struggle took place with 'annibal in
the secon Punic (ar, which resulte in +o!e beco!ing possesse
of Spain an 6arthage" By the year -.. B"6" +o!e was practically
!aster of the (estern Beiterranean, though it took another century
to consoliate its heritage fro! 6arthage in Spain an Bauritania"
During that century$$the secon before our era$$+o!e also eDtene
its 7talian bounaries to the *lps by the conIuest of 6isalpine
Gaul, which, however, was consiere outsie 7taly, fro! which it
was separate by the river +ubicon" 7n that sa!e century the +o!ans
ha begun to interfere in the affairs of Greece, which easily fell
into their hans, an thus prepare the way for their inheritance
of *leDaner's e!pire"
This, in the !ain, was the work of the first century before our
era, when the eDpansion of +o!e beca!e practically conclue" This
was !ainly the work of two !en, 6Esar an Po!pey" <ollowing the
eDa!ple of his uncle, Barius, 6Esar eDtene the +o!an o!inions
beyon the *lps to Gaul, (estern Ger!any, an BritainH but fro!
our present stanpoint it was Po!pey who prepare the way for +o!e
to carry on the succession of e!pire in the !ore civilise portions
of the worl, an thereby !erite his title of FGreat"F 'e poune
up, as it were, the various states into which *sia Binor was ivie,
an thus prepare the way for +o!an o!inion over (estern *sia an
1gypt" By the ti!e of Ptole!y the e!pire was thoroughly consoliate,
an his !ap an geographical notices are only tolerably accurate
within the confines of the e!pire"
07llustration& 1=+8P1" Showing the principal +o!an +oas"5
8ne of the !eans by which the +o!ans were enable to consoliate
their o!inion !ust be here shortly referre to" 7n orer that
their legions !ight easily pass fro! one portion of this huge e!pire
to another, they built roas, generally in straight lines, an so
solily constructe that in !any places throughout 1urope they
can be trace even to the present ay, after the lapse of fifteen
hunre years" 8wing to the!, in a large !easure, +o!e was enable
to preserve its e!pire intact for nearly five hunre years, an
even to this ay one can trace a ifference in the civilisation
of those countries over which +o!e once rule, eDcept where the
evastating influence of 7sla! has passe like a sponge over the
ol +o!an provinces" 6ivilisation, or the art of living together
in society, is practically the result of +o!an law, an this sense
all roas in history lea to +o!e"
The work of 6lauius Ptole!y su!s up to us the knowlege that the
+o!ans ha gaine by their inheritance, on the western sie, of
the 6arthaginian e!pire, an, on the eastern, of the re!ains of
*leDaner's e!pire, to which !ust be ae the conIuests of 6Esar
in >orth$(est 1urope" 6Esar is, inee, the connecting link between
the two shells that ha been growing throughout ancient history" 'e
ae Gaul, Ger!any, an Britain to geographical knowlege, an,
by his struggle with Po!pey, connecte the %evant with his northerly
conIuests" 8ne result of his i!perial work !ust be here referre
to" By bringing all civilise !en uner one rule, he prepare the!
for the worship of one Go" This was not without its influence on
travel an geographical iscovery, for the great barrier between
!ankin ha always been the ifference of religion, an +o!e, by
breaking own the eDclusiveness of local religions, an substituting
for the! a general worship of the !ajesty of the 1!peror, enable
all the inhabitants of this vast e!pire to feel a certain co!!union
with one another, which ulti!ately, as we know, took on a religious
The +o!an 1!pire will henceforth for! the centre fro! which to
regar any aitions to geographical knowlege" *s we shall see,
part of the knowlege acIuire by the +o!ans was lost in the Dark
*ges succeeing the break$up of the e!pireH but for our purposes
this !ay be neglecte an geographical iscovery in the succeeing
chapters !ay be roughly taken to be aitions an corrections of
the knowlege su!!e up by 6lauius Ptole!y"
6'*PT1+ 777
G18G+*P'# 7> T'1 D*+) *G1S
(e have seen how, by a slow process of conIuest an eDpansion, the
ancient worl got to know a large part of the 1astern 'e!isphere,
an how this knowlege was su!!e up in the great work of 6lauius
Ptole!y" (e have now to learn how !uch of this knowlege was lost
or perverte$$how geography, for a ti!e, lost the character of
a science, an beca!e once !ore the subject of !ythical fancies
si!ilar to those which we foun in its earliest stages" 7nstea of
knowlege which, if not Iuite eDact, was at any rate approDi!ately
!easure, the !eiEval teachers who concerne the!selves with the
configuration of the inhabite worl substitute their own ieas
of what ought to be"035 This is a process which applies not alone
to geography, but to all branches of knowlege, which, after the
fall of the +o!an 1!pire, cease to eDpan or progress, beca!e !iDe
up with fanciful notions, an only recovere when a knowlege of
ancient science an thought was restore in the fifteenth century"
But in geography we can !ore easily see than in other sciences
the eDact nature of the isturbing influence which prevente the
acIuisition of new knowlege"
0<ootnote 3& 7t is fair to a that Professor Biller's researches
have shown that so!e of the FunscientificF Iualities of the !eiEval
@!appoe !uni@ were ue to +o!an !oels"5
Briefly put, that isturbing influence was religion, or rather
theologyH not, of course, religion in the proper sense of the wor,
or theology base on critical principles, but theological conceptions
euce fro! a slavish aherence to teDts of Scripture, very often
seriously !isunerstoo" To Iuote a single eDa!ple& when it is
sai in 1Gekiel v" S, FThis is Jerusale!& 7 have set it in the
!ist of the nations""" roun about her,F this was not taken by
the !eiEval !onks, who were the chief geographers of the perio,
as a poetical state!ent, but as an eDact !athe!atical law, which
eter!ine the for! which all !eiEval !aps took" +oughly speaking,
of course, there was a certain a!ount of truth in the state!ent,
since Jerusale! woul be about the centre of the worl as known
to the ancients$$at least, !easure fro! east to westH but, at
the sa!e ti!e, the !eiEval geographers aopte the ol 'o!eric
iea of the ocean surrouning the habitable worl, though at ti!es
there was a tenency to keep !ore closely to the wors of Scripture
about the four corners of the earth" Still, as a rule, the orthooD
conception of the worl was that of a circle enclosing a sort of T
sIuare, the east being place at the top, Jerusale! in the centreH
the Beiterranean Sea naturally ivie the lower half of the circle,
while the Kgean an +e Seas were regare as spreaing out right
an left perpenicularly, thus iviing the top part of the worl,
or *sia, fro! the lower part, ivie eIually between 1urope on
the left an *frica on the right" The siGe of the Beiterranean
Sea, it will be seen, thus eter!ine the i!ensions of the three
continents" 8ne of the chief errors to which this le was to cut
off the whole of the south of *frica, which renere it see!ingly
a short voyage roun that continent on the way to 7nia" *s we
shall see, this error ha i!portant an favourable results on
geographical iscovery"
07llustration& G18G+*P'76*% B8>ST1+S5
*nother result of this conception of the worl as a T within an
8, was to eDpan *sia to an enor!ous eDtentH an as this was a
part of the worl which was less known to the !onkish !ap$!akers
of the Bile *ges, they were oblige to fill out their ignorance
by their i!agination" 'ence they locate in *sia all the legens
which they ha erive either fro! Biblical or classical sources"
Thus there was a conception, for which very little basis is to be
foun in the Bible, of two fierce nations na!e Gog an Bagog,
who woul one ay bring about the estruction of the civilise
worl" These were locate in what woul have been Siberia, an
it was thought that *leDaner the Great ha penne the! in behin
the 7ron Bountains" (hen the great Tartar invasion ca!e in the
thirteenth century, it was natural to suppose that these were no
less than the Gog an Bagog of legen" So, too, the position of
Paraise was fiDe in the eDtre!e east, or, in other wors, at the
top of !eiEval !aps" Then, again, so!e of the classical authorities,
as Pliny an Solinus, ha a!itte into their geographical accounts
legens of strange tribes of !onstrous !en, strangely ifferent fro!
nor!al hu!anity" *!ong these !ay be !entione the Sciapoes, or
!en whose feet were so large that when it was hot they coul rest
on their backs an lie in the shae" There is a i! re!e!brance
of these !onstrosities in Shakespeare's reference to
FThe *nthropophagi, an !en whose heas
Do grow beneath their shoulers"F
7n the !ythical travels of Sir John Bauneville there are illustrations
of these curious beings, one of which is here reprouce" 8ther
tracts of country were suppose to be inhabite by eIually !onstrous
ani!als" 7llustrations of !ost of these were utilise to fill up
the !any vacant spaces in the !eiEval !aps of *sia"
8ne author, inee, in his theological Geal, went !uch further in
!oifying the conceptions of the habitable worl" * 6hristian !erchant
na!e 6os!as, who ha journeye to 7nia, an was accoringly known
as 68SB*S 7>D768P%1=ST1S, wrote, about :/. *"D", a work entitle
F6hristian Topography,F to confoun what he thought to be the erroneous
views of Pagan authorities about the configuration of the worl" (hat
especially rouse his ire was the conception of the spherical for!
of the earth, an of the *ntipoes, or !en who coul stan upsie
own" 'e rew a picture of a roun ball, with four !en staning
upon it, with their feet on opposite sies, an aske triu!phantly
how it was possible that all four coul stan uprightS 7n answer
to those who aske hi! to eDplain how he coul account for ay
an night if the sun i not go roun the earth, he suppose that
there was a huge !ountain in the eDtre!e north, roun which the sun
!ove once in every twenty$four hours" >ight was when the sun was
going roun the other sie of the !ountain" 'e also prove, entirely
to his own satisfaction, that the sun, instea of being greater,
was very !uch s!aller than the earth" The earth was, accoring to
hi!, a !oerately siGe plane, the inhabite parts of which were
separate fro! the anteiluvian worl by the ocean, an at the
four corners of the whole were the pillars which supporte the
heavens, so that the whole universe was so!ething like a big glass
eDhibition case, on the top of which was the fir!a!ent, iviing
the waters above an below it, accoring to the first chapter of
07llustration& T'1 '1+1<8+D B*P"5
6os!as' views, however interesting an a!using they are, were too
eDtre!e to gain !uch creence or attention even fro! the !eiEval
!onks, an we fin no reference to the! in the various @!appoe
!uni@ which su! up their knowlege, or rather ignorance, about the
worl" 8ne of the !ost re!arkable of these !aps eDists in 1nglan
at 'erefor, an the plan of it given on p" :A will convey as !uch
infor!ation as to early !eiEval geography as the orinary reaer
will reIuire" 7n the eDtre!e east, @i"e"@ at the top, is represente
the Terrestrial ParaiseH in the centre is Jerusale!H beneath this,
the Beiterranean eDtens to the lower ege of the !ap, with its
islans very carefully particularise" Buch attention is given
to the rivers throughout, but very little to the !ountains" The
only real increase of actual knowlege represente in the !ap is
that of the north$east of 1urope, which ha 7 naturally beco!e
better known by the invasion of the >orse!en" But how little real
knowlege was possesse of this portion of 1urope is prove by
the fact that the !ap!aker place near >orway the 6ynocephali, or
og$heae !en, probably erive fro! so!e confuse accounts of
7nian !onkeys" >ear the! are place the Gryphons, F!en !ost wicke,
for a!ong their !isees they also !ake gar!ents for the!selves an
their horses out of the skins of their ene!ies"F 'ere, too, is
place the ho!e of the Seven Sleepers, who live for ever as a
staning !iracle to convert the heathen" The shape given to the
British 7slans will be observe as ue to the necessity of keeping
the circular for! of the inhabite worl" 8ther etails about 1nglan
we !ay leave for the present"
7t is obvious that !aps such as the 'erefor one woul be of no
practical utility to travellers who esire to pass fro! one country
to anotherH inee, they were not intene for any such purpose"
Geography ha cease to be in any sense a practical scienceH it
only !inistere to !en's sense of woner, an !en stuie it !ainly
in orer to learn about the !arvels of the worl" (hen (illia!
of (ykeha! rew up his rules for the <ellows an Scholars of >ew
6ollege, 8Dfor, he irecte the! in the long winter evenings to
occupy the!selves with Fsinging, or reciting poetry, or with the
chronicles of the ifferent kingo!s, or with the @woners of the
worl@"F 'ence al!ost all !eiEval !aps are fille up with pictures
of these woners, which were the !ore necessary as so few people
coul rea" * curious survival of this custo! laste on in !ap$rawing
al!ost to the beginning of this century, when the spare places in
the ocean were aorne with pictures of sailing ships or spouting
sea !onsters"
(hen !en esire to travel, they i not use such !aps as these,
but rather itineraries, or roa$books, which i not profess to
give the shape of the countries through which a traveller woul
pass, but only inicate the chief towns on the !ost$freIuente
roas" This infor!ation was really erive fro! classical ti!es,
for the +o!an e!perors fro! ti!e to ti!e irecte such roa$books
to be rawn up, an there still re!ains an al!ost co!plete itinerary
of the 1!pire, known as the Peutinger Table, fro! the na!e of the
Ger!an !erchant who first rew the attention of the learne worl
to it" * conense reprouction is given on the following page,
fro! which it will be seen that no atte!pt is !ae to give anything
!ore than the roas an towns" =nfortunately, the first section of
the table, which starte fro! Britain, has been !utilate, an we
only get the )entish coast" These itineraries were specially useful,
as the chief journeys of !en were in the nature of pilgri!agesH but
these often inclue a sort of co!!ercial travelling, pilgri!s
often co!bining business an religion on their journeys" The chief
infor!ation about 1astern 1urope which reache the (est was given
by the succession of pilgri!s who visite Palestine up to the ti!e
of the 6rusaes" 8ur chief knowlege of the geography of 1urope
aring the five centuries between :.. an 3... *"D" is given in
the reports of successive pilgri!s"
07llustration& T'1 P1=T7>G1+ T*B%1$$(1ST1+> P*+T"5
This perio !ay be regare as the Dark *ge of geographical knowlege,
uring which wil conceptions like those containe in the 'erefor
!ap were substitute for the !ore accurate !easure!ents of the
ancients" 6uriously enough, al!ost own to the ti!e of 6olu!bus
the learne kept to these conceptions, instea of !oifying the! by
the eDtra knowlege gaine uring the secon perio of the Bile
*ges, when travellers of all kins obtaine !uch fuller infor!ation
of *sia, >orth 1urope, an even, as, we shall see, of so!e parts
of *!erica"
7t is not altogether surprising that this perio shoul have been
so backwar in geographical knowlege, since the !ap of 1urope
itself, in its political ivisions, was entirely reajuste uring
this perio" The thousan years of history which elapse between /:.
an 3/:. were practically taken up by successive waves of invasion
fro! the centre of *sia, which al!ost entirely broke up the oler
ivisions of the worl"
7n the fifth century three wanering tribes, invae the 1!pire, fro!
the banks of the ?istula, the Dnieper, an the ?olga respectively" The
'uns ca!e fro! the ?olga, in the eDtre!e east, an uner *ttila, Fthe
'a!!er of Go,F wrought consternation in the 1!pireH the ?isigoths,
fro! the Dnieper, attacke the 1astern 1!pireH while the ?anals,
fro! the ?istula, took a triu!phant course through Gaul an Spain,
an foune for a ti!e a ?anal e!pire in >orth *frica" 8ne of the
conseIuences of this !ove!ent was to rive several of the Ger!an
tribes into <rance, 7taly, an Spain, an even over into BritainH
for it is fro! this stage in the worl's history that we can trace
the beginning of 1nglan, properly so calle, just as the invasion
of Gaul by the <ranks at this ti!e !eans the beginning of <rench
history" By the eighth century the kingo! of the <ranks eDtene
all over <rance, an inclue !ost of 6entral Ger!anyH while on
6hrist!as Day, 9.., 6harles the Great was crowne at +o!e, by the
Pope, 1!peror of the 'oly +o!an 1!pire, which professe to revive
the glories of the ol e!pire, but !ae a ivision between the
te!poral power hel by the 1!peror an the spiritual power hel
by the Pope"
8ne of the ivisions of the <rankish 1!pire eserves attention,
because upon its fate reste the estinies of !ost of the nations
of (estern 1urope" The kingo! of Burguny, the buffer state between
<rance an Ger!any, has now entirely isappeare, eDcept as the
na!e of a wineH but having no natural bounaries, it was ispute
between <rance an Ger!any for a long perio, an it !ay be fairly
sai that the <ranco$Prussian (ar was the last stage in its history
up to the present" * si!ilar state eDiste in the east of 1urope,
viG" the kingo! of Polan, which was eIually inefinite in shape,
an has eIually for!e a subject of ispute between the nations
of 1astern 1urope" This, as is well known, only isappeare as
an inepenent state in 3,4:, when it finally cease to act as a
buffer between +ussia an the rest of 1urope" +oughly speaking,
after the settle!ent of the Ger!anic tribes within the confines of
the 1!pire, the history of 1urope, an therefore its historical
geography, !ay be su!!e up as a struggle for the possession of
Burguny an Polan"
But there was an i!portant interlue in the south$west of 1urope,
which !ust engage our attention as a sy!pto! of a worl$historic
change in the conition of civilisation" During the course of the
seventh an eighth centuries Mroughly, between R-- an ,:.N the
inhabitants of the *rabian peninsula burst the seclusion which they
ha hel since the beginning, al!ost, of history, an, inspire
by the Geal of the newly$foune religion of 7sla!, sprea their
influence fro! 7nia to Spain, along the southern littoral of the
Beiterranean" (hen they ha once settle own, they began to recover
the re!nants of GrEco$+o!an science that ha been lost on the north
shores of the Beiterranean" The 6hristians of Syria use Greek
for their sacre language, an accoringly when the Sultans of
Baga esire to know so!ething of the wiso! of the Greeks, they
got Syriac$speaking 6hristians to translate so!e of the scientific
works of the Greeks, first into Syriac, an thence into *rabic" 7n
this way they obtaine a knowlege of the great works of Ptole!y,
both in astrono!y$$which they regare as the !ore i!portant, an
therefore the greatest, *l!agest$$an also in geography, though
one can easily unerstan the great !oifications which the strange
na!es of Ptole!y !ust have unergone in being transcribe, first
into Syriac an then into *rabic" (e shall see later on so!e of
the results of the *rabic Ptole!y"
The conIuests of the *rabs affecte the knowlege of geography
in a twofol way& by bringing about the 6rusaes, an by renewing
the acIuaintance of the west with the east of *sia" The *rabs were
acIuainte with South$1astern *frica as far south as QanGibar an
Sofala, though, following the views of Ptole!y as to the Great
=nknown South %an, they i!agine that these sprea out into the
7nian 8cean towars 7nia" They see! even to have ha so!e vague
knowlege of the sources of the >ile" They were also acIuainte
with 6eylon, Java, an Su!atra, an they were the first people to
learn the various uses to which the cocoa$nut can be put" Their
!erchants, too, visite 6hina as early as the ninth century, an we
have fro! their accounts so!e of the earliest escriptions of the
6hinese, who were escribe by the! as a hanso!e people, superior
in beauty to the 7nians, with fine ark hair, regular features,
an very like the *rabs" (e shall see later on how co!paratively
easy it was for a Boha!!ean to travel fro! one en of the known
worl to the other, owing to the co!!unity of religion throughout
such a vast area"
So!e wors shoul perhaps be sai on the geographical works of the
*rabs" 8ne of the !ost i!portant of these, by #acut, is in the for!
of a huge GaGetteer, arrange in alphabetical orerH but the greatest
geographical work of the *rabs is by 1D+7S7, geographer to )ing +oger
of Sicily, 33:/, who escribes the worl so!ewhat after the !anner
of Ptole!y, but with !oifications of so!e interest" 'e ivies the
worl into seven horiGontal strips, known as Fcli!ates,F an ranging
fro! the eIuator to the British 7sles" These strips are subivie
into eleven sections, so that the worl, in 1risi's conception,
is like a chess$boar, ivie into seventy$seven sIuares, an his
work consists of an elaborate escription of each of these sIuares
taken one by one, each cli!ate being worke through regularly, so
that you !ight get parts of <rance in the eighth an ninth sIuares,
an other parts in the siDteenth an seventeenth" Such a !etho
was not aapte to give a clear conception of separate countries,
but this was scarcely 1risi's object" (hen the *rabs$$or, inee,
any of the ancient or !eiEval writers$$wante wante to escribe
a lan, they wrote about the tribe or nation inhabiting it, an
not about the position of the towns in itH in other wors, they
rew a !arke istinction between ethnology an geography"
07llustration& T'1 (8+%D *668+D7>G T8 7B> '*=)*%"5
But the geography of the *rabs ha little or no influence upon
that of 1urope, which, so far as !aps went, continue to be base
on fancy instea of fact al!ost up to the ti!e of 6olu!bus"
Beanwhile another !ove!ent ha been going on uring the eighth an
ninth centuries, which helpe to !ake 1urope what it is, an eDtene
consierably the co!!on knowlege of the northern 1uropean peoples"
<or the first ti!e since the isappearance of the Phoenicians,
a great naval power ca!e into eDistence in >orway, an within a
couple of centuries it ha influence al!ost the whole sea$coast
of 1urope" The ?ikings, or Sea$+overs, who kept their long ships
in the @viks@, or fjors, of >orway, !ae vigorous attacks all
along the coast of 1urope, an in several cases for!e stable
govern!ents, an so !ae, in a way, a sort of crust for 1urope,
preventing any further shaking of its hu!an contents" 7n 7celan, in
1nglan, in 7relan, in >or!any, in Sicily, an at 6onstantinople
Mwhere they for!e the @?arangi@, or boy$guar of the 1!perorN,
as well as in +ussia, an for a ti!e in the 'oly %an, ?ikings or
>or!ans foune kingo!s between which there was a lively interchange
of visits an knowlege"
They certainly eDtene their voyages to Greenlan, an there is a
goo eal of evience for believing that they travelle fro! Greenlan
to %abraor an >ewfounlan" 7n the year 3..3, an 7celaner na!e
Biorn, sailing to Greenlan to visit his father, was riven to
the south$west, an ca!e to a country which they calle ?inlan,
inhabite by warfs, an having a shortest ay of eight hours,
which woul correspon roughly to :.U north latitue" The >orse!en
settle there, an as late as 33-3 the Bishop of Greenlan visite
the!, in orer to convert the! to 6hristianity" There is little
reason to oubt that this ?inlan was on the !ainlan of >orth
*!erica, an the >orse!en were therefore the first 1uropeans to
iscover *!erica" *s late as 3A9., two ?enetians, na!e Qeno, visite
7celan, an reporte that there was a traition there of a lan
na!e 1stotilan, a thousan !iles west of the <aroe 7slans, an
south of Greenlan" The people were reporte to be civilise an
goo sea!en, though unacIuainte with the use of the co!pass, while
south of the! were savage cannibals, an still !ore to the south$west
another civilise people, who built large cities an te!ples, but
offere up hu!an victi!s in the!" There see!s to be here a i!
knowlege of the BeDicans"
The great ifficulty in !ariti!e iscovery, both for the ancients
an the !en of the Bile *ges, was the necessity of keeping close
to the shore" 7t is true they !ight guie the!selves by the sun
uring the ay, an by the pole$star at night, but if once the
sky was overcast, they woul beco!e entirely at a loss for their
bearings" 'ence the iscovery of the polar tenency of the !agnetic
neele was a necessary prelue to any eDtene voyages away fro!
lan" This appears to have been known to the 6hinese fro! Iuite
ancient ti!es, an utilise on their junks as early as the eleventh
century" The *rabs, who voyage to 6eylon an Java, appear to have
learnt its use fro! the 6hinese, an it is probably fro! the! that
the !ariners of Barcelona first introuce its use into 1urope"
The first !ention of it is given in a treatise on >atural 'istory
by *leDaner >ecka!, foster$brother of +ichar, 6oeur e %ion"
*nother reference, in a satirical poe! of the troubaour, Guyot
of Provence M334.N, states that !ariners can steer to the north
star without seeing it, by following the irection of a neele
floating in a straw in a basin of water, after it ha been touche
by a !agnet" But little use, however, see!s to have been !ae of
this, for Brunetto %atini, Dante's tutor, when on a visit to +oger
Bacon in 3-:9, states that the friar ha shown hi! the !agnet an
its properties, but as that, however useful the iscovery, Fno
!aster !ariner woul are to use it, lest he shoul be thought to
be a !agician"F 7nee, in the for! in which it was first use
it woul be of little practical utility, an it was not till the
!etho was foun of balancing it on a pivot an fiDing it on a
car, as at present use, that it beca!e a necessary part of a
sailor's outfit" This practical i!prove!ent is attribute to one
<lavio Gioja, of *!alfi, in the beginning of the fourteenth century"
07llustration& T'1 B1D7T1++*>1*> 68*ST 7> T'1 P8+T=%*>7"5
(hen once the !ariner's co!pass ha co!e into general use, an
its inications observe by !aster !ariners in their voyages, a
!uch !ore practical !etho was at han for eter!ining the relative
positions of the ifferent lans" 'itherto geographers M@i"e"@,
!ainly the Greeks an *rabsN ha ha to epen for fiDing relative
positions on the vague state!ents in the itineraries of !erchants an
soliersH but now, with the ai of the co!pass, it was not ifficult
to eter!ine the relative position of one point to another, while
all the winings of a roa coul be fiDe own on paper without
!uch ifficulty" 6onseIuently, while the learne !onks were content
with the !iDture of !yth an fable which we have seen to have for!e
the basis of their !aps of the worl, the sea!en of the Beiterranean
were graually builing up charts of that sea an the neighbouring
lans which varie but little fro! the true position" * chart of
this kin was calle a Portulano, as giving infor!ation of the
best routes fro! port to port, an Baron >orenskiol has recently
shown how all these @portulani@ are erive fro! a single 6atalan
!ap which has been lost, but !ust have been co!pile between 3-RR
an 3-43" *n yet there were so!e of the learne who were not above
taking instruction fro! the practical knowlege of the sea!en"
7n 3AA4, one *ngelico Dulcert, of Bajorca, !ae an elaborate !ap
of the worl on the principle of the portulano, giving the coast
line$$at least of the Beiterranean$$with re!arkable accuracy" *
little later, in 3A,:, a Jew of the sa!e islan, na!e 6resIueG,
!ae an i!prove!ent on this by introucing into the eastern parts
of the !ap the recently acIuire knowlege of 6athay, or 6hina,
ue to the great traveller Barco Polo" 'is !ap Mgenerally known as
the 6atalan Bap, fro! the language of the inscriptions plentifully
scattere over itN is ivie into eight horiGontal strips, an on
the preceing page will be foun a reuce reprouction, showing how
very accurately the coast line of the Beiterranean was reprouce
in these portulanos"
(ith the portulanos, geographical knowlege once !ore ca!e back to
the lines of progress, by reverting to the representation of fact,
an, by giving an accurate representation of the coast line, enable
!ariners to aventure !ore fearlessly an to return !ore safely,
while they gave the !eans for recoring any further knowlege" *s
we shall see, they aie Prince 'enry the >avigator to start that
series of geographical investigation which le to the iscoveries
that close the Bile *ges" (ith the! we !ay fairly close the history
of !eiEval geography, so far as it professe to be a syste!atic
branch of knowlege"
(e !ust now turn back an briefly su! up the aitions to knowlege
!ae by travellers, pilgri!s, an !erchants, an recore in literary
shape in the for! of travels"
0@*uthorities&@ %elewel, @GOographie u Boyen *ge@, / vols" an
atlas, 39:-H 6" +" BeaGley, @Dawn of Geography@, 394,, an 7ntrouction
to @Prince 'enry the >avigator@, 394:H >orenskiol, @Periplus@,
6'*PT1+ 7?
B1D7K?*% T+*?1%S
7n the Bile *ges$$that is, in the thousan years between the
irruption of the barbarians into the +o!an 1!pire in the fifth
century an the iscovery of the >ew (orl in the fifteenth$$the
chief stages of history which affect the eDtension of !en's knowlege
of the worl were& the voyages of the ?ikings in the eighth an
ninth centuries, to which we have alreay referreH the 6rusaes,
in the twelfth an thirteenth centuriesH an the growth of the
Bongol 1!pire in the thirteenth an fourteenth centuries" The eDtra
knowlege obtaine by the ?ikings i not penetrate to the rest
of 1uropeH that brought by the 6rusaes, an their preecessors,
the !any pilgri!ages to the 'oly %an, only restore to (estern
1urope the knowlege alreay store up in classical antiIuityH
but the effect of the eDtension of the Bongol 1!pire was of !ore
wie$reaching i!portance, an resulte in the aition of knowlege
about 1astern *sia which was not possesse by the +o!ans, an has
only been surpasse in !oern ti!es uring the present century"
Towars the beginning of the thirteenth century, 6hinchiG )han,
leaer of a s!all Tatar tribe, conIuere !ost of 6entral an 1astern
*sia, incluing 6hina" =ner his son, 8kkoai, these Bongol Tatars
turne fro! 6hina to the (est, conIuere *r!enia, an one of the
Bongol generals, na!e Batu, ravage South +ussia an Polan, an
capture Bua$Pest, 3-/3" 7t see!e as if the prophesie en of
the worl ha co!e, an the !ighty nations Gog an Bagog ha at
last burst forth to fulfil the prophetic wors" But 8kkoai ie
suenly, an these ar!ies were recalle" =niversal terror seiGe
1urope, an the Pope, as the hea of 6hristeno!, eter!ine to sen
a!bassaors to the Great )han, to ascertain his real intentions"
'e sent a friar na!e John of Planocarpini, fro! %yons, in 3-/:,
to the ca!p of Batu Mon the ?olgaN, who passe hi! on to the court
of the Great )han at )arakoru!, the capital of his e!pire, of which
only the slightest trace is now left on the left bank of the 8rkhon,
so!e hunre !iles south of %ake Baikal"
'ere, for the first ti!e, they hear of a kingo! on the east coast
of *sia which was not yet conIuere by the Bongols, an which was
known by the na!e of 6athay" <uller infor!ation was obtaine by
another friar, na!e (7%%7*B +=#SB+81), or +ubruIuis, a <le!ing,
who also visite )arakoru! as an a!bassaor fro! St" %ouis, an got
back to 1urope in 3-::, an co!!unicate so!e of his infor!ation to
+oger Bacon" 'e says& FThese 6athayans are little fellows, speaking
!uch through the nose, an, as is general with all those 1astern
people, their eyes are very narrow"""" The co!!on !oney of 6athay
consists of pieces of cotton paperH about a pal! in length an
breath, upon which certain lines are printe, rese!bling the seal
of Bangou )han" They o their writing with a pencil such as painters
paint with, an a single character of theirs co!prehens several
letters, so as to for! a whole wor"F 'e also ientifies these
6athayans with the Seres of the ancients" Ptole!y knew of these as
possessing the lan where the silk co!es fro!, but he ha also hear
of the SinE, an faile to ientify the two" 7t has been conjecture
that the na!e of 6hina ca!e to the (est by the sea voyage, an is
a Balay !oification, while the na!es Seres an 6athayans ca!e
overlan, an thus cause confusion"
8ther <ranciscans followe these, an one of the!, John of Bontecorvino,
settle at )hanbalig Mi!perial cityN, or Pekin, as *rchbishop Mob"
3A:9NH while <riar 8oric of Porenone, near <riuli, travelle in
7nia an 6hina between 3A3R an 3AA., an brought back an account
of his voyage, fille with !ost !arvellous !enacities, !ost of
which were taken over boily into the work attribute to Sir John
The infor!ation brought back by these wanering friars faes, however,
into insignificance before the eDtensive an accurate knowlege of
al!ost the whole of 1astern *sia brought back to 1urope by Barco
Polo, a ?enetian, who spent eighteen years of his life in the 1ast"
'is travels for! an epoch in the history of geographical iscovery
only secon to the voyages of 6olu!bus"
7n 3-R., two of his uncles, na!e >icolo an Baffeo Polo, starte
fro! 6onstaninople on a traing venture to the 6ri!ea, after which
they were le to visit Bokhara, an thence on to the court of the
Great )han, )ublai, who receive the! very graciously, an being
i!presse with the esirability of introucing (estern civilisation
into the new Bongolian e!pire, he entruste the! with a !essage to
the Pope, e!aning one hunre wise !en of the (est to teach the
Bongolians the 6hristian religion an (estern arts" The two brothers
returne to their native place, ?enice, in 3-R4, but foun no Pope
to co!ply with the Great )han's reIuestH for 6le!ent 7?" ha ie
the year before, an his successor ha not yet been appointe" They
waite about for a couple of years till Gregory L" was electe, but he
only !eagrely respone to the Great )han's e!ans, an instructe
two Do!inicans to acco!pany the Polos, who on this occasion took
with the! their young nephew Barco, a la of seventeen" They starte
in >ove!ber 3-,3, but soon lost the co!pany of the Do!inicans,
who lost heart an went back"
They went first to 8r!uG, at the !outh of the Persian Gulf, then
struck northwar through )horasan Balkh to the 8Dus, an thence
on to the Plateau of Po!ir" Thence they passe the Great Desert
of Gobi, an at last reache )ublai in Bay 3-,:, at his su!!er
resience in )aipingfu" >otwithstaning that they ha not carrie
out his reIuest, the )han receive the! in a frienly !anner, an
was especially taken by Barco, who! he took into his own serviceH
an Iuite recently a recor has been foun in the 6hinese annals,
stating that in the year 3-,, a certain Polo was no!inate a
Secon$6lass 6o!!issioner of the Privy6ouncil" 'is uty was to
travel on various !issions to 1astern Tibet, to 6ochin 6hina, an
even to 7nia" The Polos a!asse !uch wealth owing to the )han's
favour, but foun hi! very unwilling to let the! return to 1urope"
Barco Polo hel several i!portant postsH for three years he was
Governor of the great city of #anchau, an it see!e likely that
he woul ie in the service of )ublai )han"
But, owing to a fortunate chance, they were at last enable to get
back to 1urope" The )han of Persia esire to !arry a princess of
the Great )han's fa!ily, to who! he was relate, an as the young
lay upon who! the choice fell coul not be eDpecte to unergo
the harships of the overlan journey fro! 6hina to Persia, it was
ecie to sen her by sea roun the coast of *sia" The Tatars
were riot goo navigators, an the Polos at last obtaine per!ission
to escort the young princess on the rather perilous voyage" They
starte in 3-4-, fro! Qayton, a port in <okien, an after a voyage
of over two years roun the South coast of *sia, successfully carrie
the lay to her estine ho!e, though she ulti!ately ha to !arry
the son instea of the father, who ha ie in the interi!" They
took leave of her, an travelle through Persia to their own place,
which they reache in 3-4:" (hen they arrive at the ancestral
!ansion of the Polos, in their coarse ress of Tatar cut, their
relatives for so!e ti!e refuse to believe that they were really
the long$lost !erchants" But the Polos invite the! to a banIuet,
in which they resse the!selves all in their best, an put on new
suits for every course, giving the clothes they ha taken off to
the servants" *t the conclusion of the banIuet they brought forth
the shabby resses in which they ha first arrive, an taking
sharp knives, began to rip up the sea!s, fro! which they took vast
Iuantities of rubies, sapphires, carbuncles, ia!ons, an e!erals,
into which for! they ha converte !ost of their property" This
eDhibition naturally change the character of the welco!e they
receive fro! their relatives, who were then eager to learn how
they ha co!e by such riches"
7n escribing the wealth of the Great )han, Barco Polo, who was
the chief spokes!an of the party, was oblige to use the nu!eral
F!illionF to eDpress the a!ount of his wealth an the nu!ber of
the population over who! he rule" This was regare as part of
the usual travellers' tales, an Barco Polo was generally known
by his friens as FBesser Barco Billione"F
Such a reception of his stories was no great encourage!ent to Barco
to tell the tale of his re!arkable travels, but in the year of
his arrival at ?enice a war broke out between Genoa an the Jueen
of the *riatic, in which Barco Polo was capture an cast into
prison at Genoa" There he foun as a fellow$prisoner one +usticano
of Pisa, a !an of so!e learning an a sort of preecessor of Sir
Tho!as Balory, since he ha evote !uch ti!e to re$writing, in
prose, abstracts of the !any ro!ances relating to the +oun Table"
These he wrote, not in 7talian Mwhich can scarcely be sai to have
eDiste for literary purposes in those aysN, but in <rench, the
co!!on language of chivalry throughout (estern 1urope" (hile in
prison with Barco Polo, he took own in <rench the narrative of
the great traveller, an thus preserve it for all ti!e" Barco
Polo was release in 3-44, an returne to ?enice, where he ie
so!e ti!e after 4th January 3AA/, the ate of his will"
8f the travels thus etaile in Barco Polo's book, an of their
i!portance an significance in the history of geographical iscovery,
it is i!possible to give any aeIuate account in this place" 7t
will, perhaps, suffice if we give the su!!ary of his clai!s !ae
out by 6olonel Sir 'enry #ule, whose eition of his travels is
one of the great !onu!ents of 1nglish learning&$$
F'e was the first traveller to trace a route across the whole longitue
of *sia, na!ing an escribing kingo! after kingo! which he ha seen
with his own eyes& the eserts of Persia, the flowering plateauD an
wil gorges of Baakhshan, the jae$bearing rivers of )hotan, the
Bongolian Steppes, crale of the power that ha so lately threatene
to swallow up 6hristeno!, the new an brilliant court that ha been
establishe by 6a!balucH the first traveller to reveal 6hina in
all its wealth an vastness, its !ighty rivers, its huge cities,
its rich !anufactures, its swar!ing population, the inconceivably
vast fleets that Iuickene its seas an its inlan watersH to tell
us of the nations on its borers, with all their eccentricities
of !anners an worshipH of Tibet, with its sori evoteesH of
Bur!a, with its golen pagoas an their tinkling crownsH of %aos,
of Sia!, of 6ochin 6hina, of Japan, the 1astern Thule, with its
rosy pearls an golen$roofe palacesH the first to speak of that
!useu! of beauty an woner, still so i!perfectly ransacke, the
7nian *rchipelago, source of those aro!atics then so highly priGe,
an whose origin was so arkH of Java, the pearl of islansH of
Su!atra, with its !any kings, its strange costly proucts, an
its cannibal racesH of the nake savages of >icobar an *na!anH
of 6eylon, the islan of ge!s, with its sacre !ountain, an its
to!b of *a!H of 7nia the Great, not as a rea!lan of *leDanrian
fables, but as a country seen an personally eDplore, with its
virtuous Brah!ans, its obscene ascetics, its ia!ons, an the
strange tales of their acIuisition, its sea$bes of pearl, an
its powerful sun& the first in !eiEval ti!es to give any istinct
account of the seclue 6hristian e!pire of *byssinia, an the
se!i$6hristian islan of SocotraH to speak, though inee i!ly,
of QanGibar, with its negroes an its ivory, an of the vast an
istant Baagascar, borering on the ark ocean of the South, with
its +uc an other !onstrosities, an, in a re!otely opposite region,
of Siberia an the *rctic 8cean, of og$sleges, white bears, an
reineer$riing Tunguses"F
07llustration& <+* B*=+8'S B*P, 3/:,"5
Barco Polo's is thus one of the greatest na!es in the history of
geographyH it !ay, inee, be oubte whether any other traveller
has ever ae so eDtensively to our etaile knowlege of the
earth's surface" 6ertainly up to the ti!e of Br" Stanley no !an
ha on lan visite so !any places previously unknown to civilise
1urope" But the lans he iscovere, though alreay fully populate,
were soon to fall into isorer, an to be close to any civilising
influences" >othing for a long ti!e followe fro! these iscoveries,
an inee al!ost up to the present ay his accounts were receive
with increulity, an he hi!self was regare !ore as FBarco BillioneF
than as Barco Polo"
1Dtensive as were Barco Polo's travels, they were yet eDceee in
eDtent, though not in variety, by those of the greatest of *rabian
travellers, Boha!!e 7bn Batuta, a native of Tangier, who began his
travels in 3AA/, as part of the orinary uty of a goo Boha!!ean
to visit the holy city of Becca" (hile at *leDanria he !et a learne
sage na!e Borhan 1in, to who! he eDpresse his esire to travel"
Borhan sai to hi!, F#ou !ust then visit !y brother <ari 7in an
!y brother +okn 1in in Scinia, an !y brother Borhan 1in in
6hina" (hen you see the!, present !y co!pli!ents to the!"F 8wing
!ainly to the fact that the Tatar princes ha aopte 7sla!is!
instea of 6hristianity, after the failure of Gregory L" to sen
6hristian teachers to 6hina, 7bn Batuta was ulti!ately enable to
greet all three brothers of Borhan 1in" 7nee, he perfor!e
a !ore eDtraorinary eDploit, for he was enable to convey the
greetings of the Sheikh )awan 1in, who! he !et in 6hina, to a
relative of his resiing in the Souan" During the thirty years
of his travels he visite the 'oly %an, *r!enia, the 6ri!ea,
6onstantinople Mwhich he visite in co!pany with a Greek princess,
who !arrie one of the Tatar )hansN, Bokhara, *fghanistan, an
Delhi" 'ere he foun favour with the e!peror Boha!!e 7nghlak,
who appointe hi! a juge, an sent hi! on an e!bassy to 6hina,
at first overlan, but, as this was foun too angerous a route,
he went ulti!ately fro! 6alicut, via 6eylon, the Balives, an
Su!atra, to Qaitun, then the great port of 6hina" 6ivil war having
broken out, he returne by the sa!e route to 6alicut, but are
not face the e!peror, an went on to 8r!uG an Becca, an returne
to Tangier in 3A/4" But even then his taste for travel ha not been
eDhauste" 'e soon set out for Spain, an worke his way through
Borocco, across the Sahara, to the Souan" 'e travelle along the >iger
Mwhich he took for the >ileN, an visite Ti!buctoo" 'e ulti!ately
returne to <eG in 3A:A, twenty$eight years after he ha set out on
his travels" Their chief interest is in showing the wie eDtent of
7sla! in his ay, an the facilities which a co!!on cree gave for
eDtensive travel" But the account of his journeys was written in
*rabic, an ha no influence on 1uropean knowlege, which, inee,
ha little to learn fro! hi! after Barco Polo, eDcept with regar
to the Souan" (ith hi! the history of !eiEval geography !ay be
fairly sai to en, for within eighty years of his eath began
the activity of Prince 'enry the >avigator, with who! the !oern
epoch begins"
Beanwhile 7nia ha beco!e so!ewhat better known, chiefly by the
travels of wanering friars, who visite it !ainly for the sake of
the shrine of St" Tho!as, who was suppose to have been !artyre
in 7nia" Bention shoul also be !ae of the early sprea of the
>estorian 6hurch throughout 6entral *sia" *s early as the seventh
century the Syrian 6hristians who followe the views of >estorius
began spreaing the! eastwar, founing sees in Persia an Turkestan,
an ulti!ately spreaing as far as Pekin" There was a certain revival
of their !issionary activity uner the Bongol )hans, but the restricte
nature of the language in which their reports were written prevente
the! fro! having any effect upon geographical knowlege, eDcept in
one particular, which is of so!e interest" The fate of the %ost
Ten Tribes of 7srael has always eDcite interest, an a legen arose
that they ha been converte to 6hristianity, an eDiste so!ewhere
in the 1ast uner a king who was also a priest, an known as Prester
John" >ow, in the reports brought by so!e of the >estorian priests
westwar, it was state that one of the Bongol princes na!e =ng )han
ha aopte 6hristianity, an as this in Syriac soune so!ething
like FJohn the 6ohen,F or FPriest,F he was ientifie with the Prester
John of legen, an for a long ti!e one of the objects of travel in
the 1ast was to iscover this 6hristian kingo!" 7t was, however,
later ascertaine that there i eDist such a 6hristian kingo! in
*byssinia, an as owing to the erroneous views of Ptole!y, followe
by the *rabs, *byssinia was consiere to sprea towars <arther
7nia, the lan of Prester John was ientifie in *byssinia" (e
shall see later on how this error helpe the progress of geographical
The total aition of these !eiEval travels to geographical knowlege
consiste !ainly in the aition of a wier eDtent of lan in 6hina,
an the archipelago of Japan, or 6ipangu, to the !ap of the worl"
The acco!panying !ap isplays the various travels an voyages of
i!portance, an will enable the reaer to unerstan how stuents
of geography, who ae on to Ptole!y's esti!ate of the eDtent of
the worl east an west the new knowlege acIuire by Barco Polo,
woul still further ecrease the istance westwar between 1urope
an 6ipangu, an thus prepare !en for the voyage of 6olu!bus"
0@*uthorities&@ Sir 'enry #ule, @6athay an the (ay Thither@, 39R:H
@The Book of Ser Barco Polo@, 39,:"5
6'*PT1+ ?
+8*DS *>D 68BB1+61
(e have now conucte the course of our inIuiries through ancient
ti!es an the Bile *ges up to the very eve of the great iscoveries
of the fifteenth an siDteenth centuries, an we have roughly inicate
what !en ha learne about the earth uring that long perio, an,
how they learne it" But it still re!ains to consier by what !eans
they arrive at their knowlege, an why they sought for it" To so!e
eDtent we !ay have answere the latter Iuestion when ealing with
the progress of conIuest, but !en i not conIuer !erely for the
sake of conIuest" (e have still to consier the !aterial avantages
attaching to warfare" *gain when !en go on their wars of iscovery,
they have to progress, for the !ost part, along paths alreay beaten
for the! by the natives of the country they inten to conIuerH an
often when they have succeee in warfare, they have to consoliate
their rule by creating new an !ore appropriate !eans of co!!unication"
To put it shortly, we have still to iscuss the roas of the ancient
an !eiEval worls, an the co!!erce for which those roas were
!ainly use"
* roa !ay be, for our purposes, !ost reaily efine as the !ost
convenient !eans of co!!unication between two townsH an this logically
i!plies that the towns eDiste before the roas were !aeH an in a
fuller investigation of any particular roas, it will be necessary
to start by investigating why !en collect their wellings at certain
efinite spots" 7n the beginning, asse!blies of !en were !ae chiefly
or altogether for efensive purposes, an the earliest towns were
those which, fro! their natural position, like *thens or Jerusale!,
coul be !ost easily efene" Then, again, religious !otives often
ha their influence in early ti!es, an towns woul grow roun te!ples
or cloisters" But soon consierations of easy accessibility rule in
the choice of settle!ents, an for that purpose towns on rivers,
especially at fors of rivers, as (est!inster, or in well$protecte
harbours like >aples, or in the centre of a istrict, as >ure!berg
or ?ienna, woul for! the !ost convenient places of !eeting for
eDchange of goos" Both on a river, or on the sea$shore, the best
!eans of co!!unication woul be by ships or boatsH but once such
towns ha been establishe, it woul be necessary to connect the!
with one another by lan routes, an these woul be eter!ine
chiefly by the lie of the lan" (here !ountains interfere, a large
etour woul have to be !ae$$as, for eDa!ple, roun the PyreneesH
if rivers intervene, fors woul have to be sought for, an a new
town probably built at the !ost convenient place of passage" (hen
once a recognise way ha been foun between any two places, the
conservative instincts of !an woul keep it in eDistence, even
though a better route were afterwars foun"
The influence of water co!!unication is of para!ount i!portance
in eter!ining the situation of towns in early ti!es" Towns in
the corners of bays, like *rchangel, +iga, ?enice, Genoa, >aples,
Tunis, Bassorah, 6alcutta, woul naturally be the centre$points
of the trae of the bay" 8n rivers a suitable spot woul be where
the ties ene, like %onon, or at conspicuous bens of a strea!,
or at junctures with affluents, as 6oblentG or )hartou!" 8ne nearly
always fins i!portant towns at the two ens of a peninsula, like
'a!burg an %ubeck, ?enice an GenoaH though for naval purposes
it is esirable to have a station at the hea of the peninsula,
to co!!an both ar!s of the sea, as at 6herbourg, Sevastopol, or
Gibraltar" +oas woul then easily be for!e across the base of
the peninsula, an to its eDtre!e point"
*t first the inhabitants of any single town woul regar those
of all others as their ene!ies, but after a ti!e they woul fin
it convenient to eDchange so!e of their superfluities for those
of their neighbours, an in this way trae woul begin" Barkets
woul beco!e neutral groun, in which !utual ani!osities woul
be, for a ti!e, lai asie for the co!!on avantageH an it woul
often happen that localities on the borer line of two states woul
be chosen as places for the eDchange of goos, ulti!ately giving
rise to the eDistence of a fresh town" *s co!!ercial intercourse
increase, the very inaccessibility of fortress towns on the heights
woul cause the! to be neglecte for settle!ents in the valleys or
by the river sies, an, as a rule, roas pick out valleys or level
groun for their natural course" <or !ilitary purposes, however, it
woul so!eti!es be necessary to epart fro! the valley routes,
an, as we shall see, the +o!an roas pai no regar to these
The earliest co!!unication between nations, as we have seen, was
that of the Phoenicians by sea" They foune factories, or neutral
grouns for trae, at appropriate spots all along the Beiterranean
coasts, an the Greeks soon followe their eDa!ple in the Kgean
an Black Seas" But at an early ate, as we know fro! the Bible,
caravan routes were establishe between 1gypt, Syria, an Besopota!ia,
an later on these were eDtene into <arther *sia" But in 1urope
the great roa$builers were the +o!ans" +o!e owe its i!portance
in the ancient worl to its central position, at first in 7taly,
an then in the whole of the Beiterranean" 7t co!bine al!ost
all the avantages necessary for a town& it was in the ben of
a river, yet accessible fro! the seaH its natural hills !ae it
easily efensible, as 'annibal foun to his costH while its central
position in the %atian Plain !ae it the natural resort of all
the %atin traers" The +o!ans soon foun it necessary to utilise
their central position by renering the!selves accessible to the
rest of 7taly, an they co!!ence builing those !arvellous roas,
which in !ost cases have re!aine, owing to their soli construction"
FBuilingF is the proper wor to use, for a +o!an roa is really a
broa wall built in a eep itch so as to co!e up above the level
of the surface" Scarcely any a!ount of traffic coul wear this
soli substructure away, an to this ay throughout 1urope traces
can be foun of the +o!an roas built nearly two thousan years
ago" *s the +o!an 1!pire eDtene, these roas for!e one of the
chief !eans by which the lors of the worl were enable to preserve
their conIuests" By placing a legion in a central spot, where !any
of these roas converge, they were enable to strike Iuickly in
any irection an overawe the country" Stations were naturally
built along these roas, an to the present ay !any of the chief
highways of 1urope follow the course of the ol +o!an roas" 8ur
!oern civilisation is in a large !easure the outco!e of this network
of roas, an we can istinctly trace a ifference in the culture of
a nation where such roas never eDiste$$as in +ussia an 'ungary,
as contraste with the west of 1urope, where they for!e the best
!eans of co!!unication" 7t was only in the neighbourhoo of these
highways that the fullest infor!ation was obtaine of the position
of towns, an the ivisions of peoplesH an a sketch !ap like the
one alreay given, of the chief +o!an roas of antiIuity, gives
also, as it were, a skeleton of the geographical knowlege su!!e
up in the great work of Ptole!y"
But of !ore i!portance for the future evelop!ent of geographical
knowlege were the great caravan routes of *sia, to which we !ust
now turn our attention" *sia is the continent of plateauD which
cul!inate in the Steppes of the Pa!irs, appropriately calle by
their inhabitants Fthe +oof of the (orl"F To the east of these,
four great !ountain ranges run, roughly, along the parallels of
latitue$$the 'i!alayas to the south, the )uen$7un, Thian Shan,
an *ltai to the north" Between the 'i!alayas an the )uen$lun is
the great Plateau of Tibet, which runs into a sort of cul$e$sac
at its western en in )ash!ir" Between the )uen$lun an the Thian
Shan we have the Gobi Steppe of Bongolia, running west of )ashgar
an #arkanH while between the Thian Shan an the *ltai we have
the great )irghiG Steppe" 7t is clear that only two routes are
possible between 1astern an (estern *sia& that between the )uen$lun
an the Thian Shan via )ashgar an Bokhara, an that south of the
*ltai, skirting the north of the great lakes Balkash, *ral, an
6aspian, to the south of +ussia" The for!er woul lea to Bassorah
or 8r!uG, an thence by sea, or overlan, roun *rabia to *leDanriaH
the latter an longer route woul reach 1urope via 6onstantinople"
6o!!unication between Southern *sia an 1urope woul !ainly be
by sea, along the coast of the 7nies, taking avantage of the
!onsoons fro! 6eylon to *en, an then by the +e Sea" *leDanria,
Bassorah, an 8r!uG woul thus naturally be the chief centres of
1astern trae, while co!!unication with the Bongols or with 6hina
woul go along the two routes above !entione, which appear to have
eDiste uring all historic ti!e" 7t was by these latter routes
that the Polos an the other !eiEval travellers to 6athay reache
that far$istant country" But, as we know fro! Barco Polo's travels,
6hina coul also be reache by the sea voyageH an for all practical
purposes, in the late Bile *ges, when the Bongol e!pire broke
up, an traffic through !i *sia was not secure, co!!unication
with the 1ast was via *leDanria"
>ow it is i!portant for our present inIuiry to realise how largely
1urope after the 6rusaes was epenent on the 1ast for !ost of the
luDuries of life" >othing prouce by the loo!s of 1urope coul
eIual the silk of 6hina, the calico of 7nia, the !uslin of Bussul"
The chief ge!s which ecorate the crowns of kings an nobles,
the e!eral, the topaG, the ruby, the ia!on, all ca!e fro! the
1ast$$!ainly fro! 7nia" The whole of !eiEval !eical science was
erive fro! the *rabs, who sought !ost of their rugs fro! *rabia
or 7nia" 1ven for the incense which burne upon the innu!erable
altars of +o!an 6atholic 1urope, !erchants ha to seek the !aterials
in the %evant" <or !any of the !ore refine hanicrafts, artists ha
to seek their best !aterial fro! 1astern traers& such as shellac
for varnish, or !astic for artists' colours Mga!boge fro! 6a!boia,
ultra!arine fro! lapis laGuliNH while it was often necessary, uner
!eiEval circu!stances, to have resort to the !usk or opopanaD of
the 1ast to counteract the oours resulting fro! the ba sanitary
habits of the (est" But above all, for the coni!ents which were
al!ost necessary for health, an certainly esirable for seasoning
the salte foo of winter an the salte fish of %ent" 1uropeans
were epenent upon the spices of the *siatic islans" 7n 'akluyt's
great work on F1nglish ?oyages an >avigations,F he gives in his
secon volu!e a list, written out by an *leppo !erchant, (illia!
Barrett, in 3:9/, of the places whence the chief staples of the
1astern trae ca!e, an it will be interesting to give a selection
fro! his long account"
6loves fro! Baluco, Tarenate, *!boyna, by way of Java"
>ut!egs fro! Bana"
Baces fro! Bana, Java, an Balacca"
Pepper 6o!!on fro! Balabar"
Sinna!on fro! Seilan M6eylonN"
Spicknar fro! Qini MScineN an %ahor"
Ginger Sorattin fro! Sorat MSuratN within 6a!baia MBay of BengalN"
6orall of %evant fro! Balabar"
Sal *!!oniacke fro! Qini an 6a!baia"
6a!phora fro! Bri!eo MBorneoN near to 6hina"
Byrrha fro! *rabia <eliD"
BoraGo MBoraDN fro! 6a!baia an %ahor"
+uvia to ie withall, fro! 6halangi"
*llu!!e i +occa M+ock *lu!N fro! 6hina an 6onstantinople"
8ppopanaD fro! Persia"
%ignu! *loes fro! 6ochin, 6hina, an Balacca"
%accha MShell$lacN fro! Pegu an Balaguate"
*garicu! fro! *le!annia"
Belliu! fro! *rabia <eliD"
Ta!arina fro! Balsara MBassorahN"
Safran MSaffronN fro! Balsara an Persia"
Thus fro! Secutra MSocotraN"
>uD ?o!ica fro! Balabar"
Sanguis Draconis MDragon's BlooN fro! Secutra"
Busk fro! Tartarie by way of 6hina"
7nico M7nigoN fro! Qini an 6a!baia"
Silkes <ine fro! 6hina"
6astoriu! M6astor 8ilN fro! *l!ania"
Basticke fro! Sio"
8ppiu! fro! Pugia MPeguN an 6a!baia"
Dates fro! *rabia <eliD an *leDanria"
Sena fro! Becca"
Gu!!e *rabicke fro! Qaffo MJaffaN"
%aanu! M%auanu!N fro! 6yprus an 6ania"
%apis %aGGuis fro! Persia"
*uripig!entu! MGol PaintN fro! !any places of Turkey"
+ubarbe fro! Persia an 6hina"
These are only a few selections fro! Barrett's list, but will
sufficiently inicate what a large nu!ber of househol luDuries,
an even necessities, were erive fro! *sia in the Bile *ges"
The *rabs ha practically the !onopoly of this trae, an as 1urope
ha scarcely anything to offer in eDchange eDcept its gol an
silver coins, there was a continuous rain of the precious !etals
fro! (est to 1ast, renering the Sultans an 6aliphs continuously
richer, an cul!inating in the splenours of Solo!on the Bagnificent"
*leDanria was practically the centre of all this trae, an !ost
of the nations of 1urope foun it necessary to establish factories
in that city, to safeguar the interests of their !erchants, who
all sought for 1astern luDuries in its port Benja!in of Tuela,
a Jew, who visite it about 33,-, gives the following escription
of it&$$
FThe city is very !ercantile, an affors an eDcellent !arket to
all nations" People fro! all 6hristian kingo!s resort to *leDanria,
fro! ?alencia, Tuscany, %o!bary, *pulia, *!alfi, Sicilia, +aguvia,
6atalonia, Spain, +oussillon, Ger!any, SaDony, Den!ark, 1nglan,
<lanres, 'ainault, >or!any, <rance, Poitou, *njou, Burguny,
Beiana, Provence, Genoa, Pisa, Gascony, *rragon, an >avarre"
<ro! the (est you !eet Boha!!eans fro! *nalusia, *lgarve, *frica,
an *rabia, as well as fro! the countries towars 7nia, Savila,
*byssinia, >ubia, #e!en, Besopota!ia, an Syria, besies Greeks
an Turks" <ro! 7nia they i!port all sorts of spices, which are
bought by 6hristian !erchants" The city is full of bustle, an
every nation has its own fonteccho Mor hostelryN there"F
8f all these nations, the 7talians ha the shortest voyage to !ake
before reaching *leDanria, an the 1astern trae practically fell
into their hans before the en of the thirteenth century" *t first
*!alfi an Pisa were the chief ports, an, as we have seen, it
was at *!alfi that the !ariner's co!pass was perfecteH but soon
the two !ariti!e towns at the heas of the two seas surrouning
7taly ca!e to the front, owing to the avantages of their natural
position" Genoa an ?enice for a long ti!e co!pete with one another
for the !onopoly of this trae, but the voyage fro! ?enice was
!ore irect, an after a ti!e Genoa ha to content itself with
the trae with 6onstantinople an the northern overlan route fro!
6hina" <ro! ?enice the spices, the jewels, the perfu!es, an stuffs
of the 1ast were trans!itte north through *ugsburg an >Vrnberg
to *ntwerp an Bruges an the 'anse Towns, receiving fro! the!
the gol they ha gaine by their fisheries an teDtile goos"
1nglan sent her wool to 7taly, in orer to tickle her palate an
her nose with the coni!ents an perfu!es of the 1ast"
The wealth an i!portance of ?enice were ue al!ost entirely to
this !onopoly of the lucrative 1astern trae" By the fifteenth
century she ha eDtene her o!inions all along the lower valley
of the Po, into Dal!atia, parts of the Borea, an in 6rete, till
at last, in 3/94, she obtaine possession of 6yprus, an thus ha
stations all the way fro! *leppo or *leDanria to the north of the
*riatic" But just as she see!e to have reache the height of her
prosperity$$when the *li were the chief printers in 1urope, an
the Bellini were starting the great ?enetian school of painting$$a
for!iable rival ca!e to the front, who ha been slowly preparing
a novel !etho of co!petition in the 1astern trae for nearly the
whole of the fifteenth century" (ith that !etho begins the great
epoch of !oern geographical iscovery"
0@*uthorities&@ 'ey, @6o!!erce u %evant@, - vols", 39,9"5
6'*PT1+ ?7
T8 T'1 7>D71S 1*ST(*+D$$P+7>61 '1>+# *>D ?*S68 D* G*B*
=p to the fifteenth century the inhabitants of the 7berian Peninsula
were chiefly occupie in slowly !oving back the tie of Boha!!ean
conIuest, which ha sprea nearly throughout the country fro! ,33
onwars" The last sigh of the Boor in Spain was to be uttere in
3/4-$$an epoch$!aking year, both in history an in geography" But
Portugal, the western sie of the peninsula, ha got ri of her
Boors at a !uch earlier ate$$!ore that -.. years before$$though
she foun it ifficult to preserve her inepenence fro! the
neighbouring kingo! of 6astile" The atte!pt of )ing Juan of 6astile
to conIuer the country was repelle by JoWo, a natural son of the
preceing king of Portugal, an in 3A9: he beca!e king, an free
Portugal fro! any anger on the sie of 6astile by his victory
at *ljubarrota" 'e !arrie Philippa, aughter of John of GauntH
an his thir son, 'enry, was estine to be the !eans of
revolutionising !en's views of the inhabite globe" 'e first showe
his !ettle in the capture of 6euta, opposite Gibraltar, at the
ti!e of the battle of *gincourt, 3/3:, an by this !eans he first
plante the Portuguese banner on the Boorish coast" This contact
with the Boors !ay possibly have first suggeste to Prince 'enry
the iea of planting si!ilar factory$fortresses a!ong the Bussul!ans
of 7niaH but, whatever the cause, he began, fro! about the year
3/39, to evote all his thoughts an attention to the possibility
of reaching 7nia otherwise than through the known routes, an
for that purpose establishe hi!self on the rocky pro!ontory of
Sagres, al!ost the !ost western spot on the continent of 1urope"
'ere he establishe an observatory, an a se!inary for the training of
theoretical an practical navigators" 'e su!!one thither astrono!ers
an cartographers an skille sea!en, while he cause stouter an
larger vessels to be built for the eDpress purpose of eDploration"
'e perfecte the astrolabe Mthe clu!sy preecessor of the !oern
seDtantN by which the latitue coul be with so!e accuracy eter!ineH
an he eIuippe all his ships with the co!pass, by which their
steering was entirely eter!ine" 'e brought fro! Bajorca Mwhich,
as we have seen, was the centre of practical !ap$!aking in the
fourteenth centuryN one Bestre Jac!e, Fa !an very skilful in the
art of navigation, an in the !aking of !aps an instru!ents"F
(ith his ai, an oubtless that of others, he set hi!self to stuy
the proble! of the possibility of a sea voyage to 7nia roun the
coast of *frica"
07llustration& P+8G+1SS 8< P8+T=G=1S1 D7S68?1+#5
(e have seen that Ptole!y, with true scientific caution, ha left
unefine the eDtent of *frica to the southH but 1ratosthenes an
!any of the +o!an geographers, even after Ptole!y, were not content
with this agnosticis!, but bolly assu!e that the coast of *frica
!ae a se!icircular sweep fro! the right horn of *frica, just south
of the +e Sea, with which they were acIuainte, roun to the
north$western shore, near what we now ter! Borocco" 7f this were
the fact, the voyage by the ocean along this sweep of shore woul
be even shorter than the voyage through the Beiterranean an +e
Seas, while of course there woul be no nee for ise!barking at
the 7sth!us of SueG" The writers who thus curtaile *frica of its
true proportions assu!e another continent south of it, which,
however, was in the torri Gone, an co!pletely uninhabitable"
>ow the north$west coast of *frica was known in Prince 'enry's
ays as far as 6ape Bojaor" 7t woul appear that >or!an sailors
ha alreay avance beyon 6ape >on, or >un, which was so calle
because it was suppose that nothing eDiste beyon it" 6onseIuently
the proble!s that Prince 'enry ha to solve were whether the coast of
*frica trene sharply to the east after 6ape Bojaor, an whether
the ieas of the ancients about the uninhabitability of the torri
Gone were justifie by fact" 'e atte!pte to solve these proble!s by
sening out, year after year, eDpeitions own the north$west coast
of *frica, each of which penetrate farther than its preecessor"
*l!ost at the beginning he was reware by the iscovery, or
re$iscovery, of Baeira in 3/-., by JoWo GonsalveG Qarco, one of
the sIuires of his househol" <or so!e ti!e he was content with
occupying this an the neighbouring islan of Porto Santo, which,
however, was ruine by the rabbits let loose upon it" 8n Baeira
vines fro! Burguny were plante, an to this ay for! the chief
inustry of the islan" 7n 3/A: 6ape Bojaor was passe, an in
3//3 6ape Branco iscovere" Two years later 6ape ?ere was reache
an passe by >uno TristWo, an for the first ti!e there were signs
that the *frican coast trene eastwar" By this ti!e Prince 'enry's
!en ha beco!e fa!iliar with the natives along the shore an no less
than one thousan of the! ha been brought back an istribute
a!ong the Portuguese nobles as pages an attenants" 7n 3/:: a
?enetian, na!e *lveG 6aa!osto, unertook a voyage still farther
south for purposes of trae, the Prince supplying the capital, an
covenanting for half profits on results" They reache the !outh
of the Ga!bia, but foun the natives hostile" 'ere for the first
ti!e 1uropean navigators lost sight of the pole$star an saw the
brilliant constellation of the Southern 6ross" The last iscovery
!ae uring Prince 'enry's life was that of the 6ape ?ere 7slans,
by one of his captains, Diogo Go!eG, in 3/R.$$the very year of his
eath" *s the successive iscoveries were !ae, they were jotte
own by the Prince's cartographers on portulanos, an just before
his eath the )ing of Portugal sent to a ?enetian !onk, <ra Bauro,
etails of all iscoveries up to that ti!e, to be recore on a
@!appa !uni@, a copy of which still eDists Mp" ,,N"
The i!pulse thus given by Prince 'enry's patient investigation of
the *frican coast continue long after his eath" 7n 3/,3 <ernano
e Poo iscovere the islan which now bears his na!e, while in
the sa!e year Pero '1scobar crosse the eIuator" (herever the
Portuguese investigators lane they left !arks of their presence,
at first by erecting crosses, then by carving on trees Prince 'enry's
!otto, FTalent e bien faire,F an finally they aopte the !etho
of erecting stone pillars, sur!ounte by a cross, an inscribe
with the king's ar!s an na!e" These pillars were calle @paraos@"
7n 3/9/, Diego 6a!, a knight of the king's househol, set up one
of these pillars at the !outh of a large river, which he therefore
calle the +io o ParaoH it was calle by the natives the Qaire, an
is now known as the +iver 6ongo" Diego 6a! was, on this eDpeition,
acco!panie by Bartin Behai! of >Vrnberg, whose globe is celebrate
in geographical history as the last recor of the oler views Mp"
Beanwhile, fro! one of the envoys of the native kings who visite
the Portuguese 6ourt, infor!ation was receive that far to the east
of the countries hitherto iscovere there was a great 6hristian
king" This brought to !in the !eiEval traition of Prester John,
an accoringly the Portuguese eter!ine to !ake a ouble atte!pt,
both by sea an by lan, to reach this !onarch" By sea the king
sent two vessels uner the co!!an of Bartholo!ew DiaG, while by
lan he espatche, in the following year, two !en acIuainte with
*rabic, Pero i 6ovilha! an *ffonso e Payba" 6ovilha! reache
*en, an there took ship for 6alicut, being the first Portuguese
to sail the 7nian 8cean" 'e then returne to Sofala, an obtaine
news of the 7slan of the Boon, now known as Baagascar" (ith this
infor!ation he returne to 6airo, where he foun a!bassaors fro!
JoWo, two Jews, *braha! of Beja an Joseph of %a!ejo" These he
sent back with the infor!ation that ships that saile own the
coast of Guinea woul surely reach the en of *frica, an when
they arrive in the 1astern 8cean they shoul ask for Sofala an
the 7slan of the Boon" Beanwhile 6ovilha! returne to the +e
Sea, an !ae his way into *byssinia, where he !arrie an settle
own, trans!itting fro! ti!e to ti!e infor!ation to Portugal which
gave 1uropeans their first notions of *byssinia"
The voyage by lan in search of Prester John ha thus been co!pletely
successful, while, at the sa!e ti!e, infor!ation ha been obtaine
giving certain hopes of the voyage by sea" This ha, in its way,
been al!ost as successful, for DiaG ha roune the cape now known
as the 6ape of Goo 'ope, but to which he propose giving the title
of 6abo Tor!entoso, or FStor!y 6ape"F )ing JoWo, however, recognising
that DiaG's voyage ha put the seal upon the eDpectations with
which Prince 'enry ha, seventy years before, starte his series
of eDplorations, gave it the !ore auspicious na!e by which it is
now known"
<or so!e reason which has not been aeIuately eDplaine, no further
atte!pt was !ae for nearly ten years to carry out the final
consu!!ation of Prince 'enry's plan by sening out another eDpeition"
7n the !eanti!e, as we shall see, 6olu!bus ha left Portugal, after
a !ean atte!pt ha been !ae by the king to carry out his novel
plan of reaching 7nia without his aiH an, as a just result,
the iscovery of a western voyage to the 7nies Mas it was then
thoughtN ha been successfully acco!plishe by 6olu!bus, in the
service of the 6atholic !onarchs of Spain, in 3/4-" This woul
naturally give pause to any atte!pt at reaching 7nia by the !ore
cu!berso!e route of coasting along *frica, which ha turne out
to be a longer process than Prince 'enry ha thought" Three years
after 6olu!bus's iscovery )ing JoWo ie, an his son an successor
1!!anuel i not take up the traitional Portuguese !etho of reaching
7nia till the thir year of his reign"
By this ti!e it ha beco!e clear, fro! 6olu!bus's secon voyage,
that there were !ore ifficulties in the way of reaching the 7nies
by his !etho than ha been thoughtH an the year after his return
fro! his secon voyage in 3/4R, )ing 1!!anuel eter!ine on once
!ore taking up the oler !etho" 'e co!!issione ?asco a Ga!a,
a gentle!an of his court, to atte!pt the eastwar route to 7nia
with three vessels, carrying in all about siDty !en" *lreay by this
ti!e 6olu!bus's bol venture into the unknown seas ha encourage
si!ilar bolness in others, an instea of coasting own the whole
eDtent of the western coast of *frica, Da Ga!a steere irect for
6ape ?ere 7slans, an thence out into the ocean, till he reache
the Bay of St" 'elena, a little to the north of the 6ape of Goo
<or a ti!e he was baffle in his atte!pt to roun the 6ape by the
strong south$easterly wins, which blow there continually uring
the su!!er seasonH but at last he co!!ence coasting along the
eastern shores of *frica, an at every suitable spot he lane
so!e of his sailors to !ake inIuiries about 6ovilha! an the court
of Prester John" But in every case he foun the ports inhabite
by fanatical Boors, who, as soon as they iscovere that their
visitors were 6hristians, atte!pte to estroy the!, an refuse
to supply the! with pilots for the further voyage to 7nia" This
happene at BoGa!biIue, at Juiloa, an at Bo!basa, an it was not
till he arrive at Belina that he was enable to obtain provisions
an a pilot, Bale!o 6ana, an 7nian of GuGerat, who was Iuite fa!iliar
with the voyage to 6alicut" =ner his guiance Ga!a's fleet went
fro! Belina to 6alicut in twenty$three ays" 'ere the Qa!orin, or
sea$king, isplaye the sa!e antipathy to his 6hristian visitors"
The Boha!!ean traers of the place recognise at once the angerous
rivalry which the visit of the Portuguese i!plie, with their !onopoly
of the 1astern trae, an represente Ga!a an his followers as
!erely pirates" ?asco, however, by his fir! behaviour, !anage
to evae the !achinations of his trae rivals, an inuce the
Qa!orin to regar favourably an alliance with the Portuguese king"
6ontenting hi!self with this result, he e!barke again, an after
visiting Belina, the only frienly spot he ha foun on the east
coast of *frica, he returne to %isbon in Septe!ber 3/44, having
spent no less than two years on the voyage" )ing 1!!anuel receive
hi! with great favour, an appointe hi! *!iral of the 7nies"
The significance of ?asco a Ga!a's voyage was at once seen by
the persons whose trae !onopoly it threatene$$the ?enetians,
an the Sultan of 1gypt" Priuli, the ?enetian chronicler, reports&
F(hen this news reache ?enice the whole city felt it greatly,
an re!aine stupefie, an the wisest hel it as the worst news
that ha ever arriveF$$as inee they !ight, for it prophesie the
ownfall of the ?enetian 1!pire" The Sultan of 1gypt was eIually
!ove, for the greatest source of his riches was erive fro! the
uty of five per cent" which he levie on all !erchanise entering
his o!inions, an ten per cent" upon all goos eDporte fro! the!"
'itherto there ha been all !anner of bickerings between ?enice an
1gypt, but this co!!on anger brought the! together" The Sultan
represente to ?enice the nee of co!!on action in orer to rive
away the new co!!erceH but 1gypt was without a navy, an ha inee
no woo suitable for shipbuiling" The ?enetians took the trouble
to trans!it woo to 6airo, which was then carrie by ca!els to
SueG, where a s!all fleet was prepare to attack the Portuguese
on their neDt visit to the 7nian 8cean"
The Portuguese ha in the !eanti!e followe up ?asco a Ga!a's voyage
with another atte!pt, which was, in its way, even !ore i!portant" 7n
3:.. the king sent no less than thirteen ships uner the co!!an
of Pero *lvareG 6abral, with <ranciscans to convert, an twelve
hunre fighting !en to overawe, the Bosle!s of the 7nian 8cean"
'e eter!ine on steering even a !ore westerly course than ?asco a
Ga!a, an when he arrive in 3,U south of the line, he iscovere lan
which he took possession of in the na!e of Portugal, an na!e Santa
6ruG" The actual cross which he erecte on this occasion is still
preserve in BraGil, for 6abral ha touche upon the lan now known
by that na!e" 7t is true that one of 6olu!bus's co!panions, PinGon,
ha alreay touche upon the coast of BraGil before 6abral, but it
is evient fro! his eDperience that, even apart fro! 6olu!bus, the
Portuguese woul have iscovere the >ew (orl sooner or later" 7t
is, however, to be observe that in stating this, as all historians
o, they leave out of account the fact that, but for 6olu!bus,
sailors woul still have continue the ol course of coasting along
the shore, by which they woul never have left the 8l (orl" 6abral
lost several of his ships an !any of his !en, an, though he brought
ho!e a rich cargo, was not regare as successful, an ?asco a
Ga!a was again sent out with a large fleet in 3:.-, with which
he conIuere the Qa!orin of 6alicut an obtaine rich treasures"
7n subsiiary voyages the Portuguese navigators iscovere the
islans of St" 'elena, *scension, the Seychelles, Socotra, Tristan
a 6unha, the Balives, an Baagascar"
Beanwhile )ing 1!!anuel was aopting the ?enetian !etho of
colonisation, which consiste in sening a ?ice$Doge to each of
its colonies for a ter! of two years, uring which his uty was to
encourage trae an to collect tribute" 7n a si!ilar way, 1!!anuel
appointe a ?iceroy for his 1astern trae, an in 3:.: *l!eia
ha settle in 6eylon, with a view to !onopolising the cinna!on
trae of that place"
07llustration& P8+T=G=1S1 7>D71S5
But the greatest of the Portuguese viceroys was *ffonso e *lbuIuerIue,
who capture the i!portant post of Goa, on the !ainlan of 7nia,
which still belongs to Portugal, an the port of 8r!uG, which,
we have seen, was one of the centres of the 1astern trae" 1ven
!ore i!portant was the capture of the Boluccas, or Spice 7slans,
which were iscovere in 3:33, after the Portuguese ha seiGe
Balacca" By 3:-3 the Portuguese ha full possession of the Spice
7slans, an thus hel the trae of coni!ents entirely in their
own hans" The result was seen soon in the rise of prices in the
1uropean !arkets" (hereas at the en of the fifteenth century pepper,
for instance, was about 3,s" a poun, fro! 3:-3 an onwars its
average price grew to be -:s", an so with al!ost all the ingreients
by which foo coul be !ae !ore tasty" 8ne of the circu!stances,
however, which threw the !onopoly into the hans of the Portuguese
was the seiGure of 1gypt in 3:-3 by the Turks uner Seli! 7", which
woul naturally erange the course of trae fro! its ol route
through *leDanria" <ro! the Boluccas easy access was foun to
6hina, an ulti!ately to Japan, so that the Portuguese for a ti!e
hel in their hans the whole of the 1astern trae, on which 1urope
epene for !ost of its luDuries"
*s we shall see, the Portuguese only won by a neck$$if we !ay use
a sporting eDpression$$in the race for the possession of the Spice
7slans" 7n the very year they obtaine possession of the!, Bagellan,
on his way roun the worl, ha reache the Philippines, within a
few hunre !iles of the!, an his ship, the @?ictoria@, actually
saile through the! that year" 7n fact, 3:-3 is a critical year in
the iscovery of the worl, for both the Spanish an Portuguese
Mthe two nations who ha atte!pte to reach the 7nies eastwar an
westwarN arrive at the goal of their esires, the Spice 7slans,
in that sa!e year, while the closure of 1gypt to co!!erce occurre
opportunely to ivert the trae into the hans of the Portuguese"
<inally, the year 3:-3 was signalise by the eath of )ing 1!!anuel
of Portugal, uner whose auspices the work of Prince 'enry the
>avigator was co!plete"
7t !ust here be observe that we are again anticipating !atters" *s
soon as the iscovery of the >ew (orl was announce, the Pope was
appeale to, to eter!ine the relative shares of Spain an Portugal
in the iscoveries which woul clearly follow upon 6olu!bus's voyage"
By his Bull, ate /th Bay 3/4A, *leDaner ?7" grante all iscoveries
to the west to Spain, leaving it to be unerstoo that all to the
east belonge to Portugal" The line of e!arcation was an i!aginary
one rawn fro! pole to pole, an passing one hunre leagues west
of the *Gores an 6ape ?ere 7slans, which were suppose, in the
inaccurate geography of the ti!e, to be in the sa!e !eriian" 7n
the following year the Portuguese !onarch applie for a revision
of the @raya@, as this woul keep hi! out of all iscovere in
the >ew (orl altogetherH an the line of e!arcation was then
shifte -,. leagues westwar, or altogether 333. !iles west of
the 6ape ?eres" By a curious coincience, within siD years 6abral
ha iscovere BraGil, which fell within the angle thus cut off by
the @raya@ fro! South *!erica" 8r was it entirely a coincienceS
Bay not 6abral have been irecte to take this unusually westwar
course in orer to ascertain if any lan fell within the Portuguese
clai!sS (hen, however, the Spice 7slans were iscovere, it re!aine
to be iscusse whether the line of e!arcation, when continue
on the other sie of the globe, brought the! within the Spanish
or Portuguese Fsphere of influence,F as we shoul say nowaays"
By a curious chance they happene to be very near the line, an,
with the inaccurate !aps of the perio, a pretty subject of Iuarrel
was affore between the Portuguese an Spanish co!!issioners who
!et at Baajos to eter!ine the Iuestion" This was left unecie
by the Junta, but by a fa!ily co!pact, in 3:-4, 6harles ?" cee
to his brother$in$law, the )ing of Portugal, any rights he !ight
have to the Boluccas, for the su! of A:.,... gol ucats, while
he hi!self retaine the Philippines, which have been Spanish ever
By this !eans the 7nian 8cean beca!e, for all trae purposes, a
Portuguese lake throughout the siDteenth century, as will be seen
fro! the preceing !ap, showing the traing stations of the Portuguese
all along the shores of the ocean" But they only possesse their
!onopoly for fifty years, for in 3:9. the Spanish an Portuguese
crowns beca!e unite on the hea of Philip 77", an by the ti!e
Portugal recovere its inepenence, in 3R/., serious rivals ha
arisen to co!pete with her an Spain for the !onopoly of the 1astern
0@*uthorities@& Bajor, @Prince 'enry the >avigator@, 39R4H BeaGeley,
@Prince 'enry the >avigator@, 394:H <" 'u!!erich, @?asco a Ga!a@,
6'*PT1+ ?77
T8 T'1 7>D71S (1ST(*+D$$T'1 SP*>7S' +8=T1$$68%=BB=S *>D B*G1%%*>
(hile the Portuguese ha, with slow persistency, evote nearly a
century to carrying out Prince 'enry's iea of reaching the 7nies
by the eastwar route, a bol yet si!ple iea ha seiGe upon a
Genoese sailor, which was intene to achieve the sa!e purpose by
sailing westwar" The ancients, as we have seen, ha recognise
the rotunity of the earth, an 1ratosthenes ha even recognise
the possibility of reaching 7nia by sailing westwar" 6ertain
traitions of the Greeks an the 7rish ha place !ysterious islans
far out to the west in the *tlantic, an the great philosopher
Plato ha i!agine a country na!e *tlantis, far out in the 7nian
8cean, where !en were provie with all the gifts of nature" These
views of the ancients ca!e once !ore to the attention of the learne,
owing to the invention of printing an the revival of learning,
when the Greek !asterpieces began to be !ae accessible in %atin,
chiefly by fugitive Greeks fro! 6onstantinople, which ha been
taken by the Turks in 3/:A" Ptole!y's geography was printe at
+o!e in 3/R-, an with !aps in 3/,9" But even without the !aps
the calculation which he ha !ae of the length of the known worl
tene to shorten the istance between Portugal an <arther 7nia
by -:.. !iles" Since his ti!e the travels of Barco Polo ha ae
to the knowlege of 1urope the vast eDtent of 6athay an the istant
islans of Qipangu MJapanN, which woul again reuce the istance
by another 3:.. !iles" *s the Greek geographers ha so!ewhat
uner$esti!ate the whole circuit of the globe, it woul thus see!
that Qipangu was not !ore than /... !iles to the west of Portugal"
*s the *Gores were consiere to be !uch farther off fro! the coast
than they really were, it !ight easily see!, to an enthusiastic
!in, that <arther 7nia !ight be reache when A... !iles of the
ocean ha been traverse"
07llustration& T8S6*>1%%7'S B*P M@restore@N5
This was the notion that seiGe the !in of 6hristopher 6olu!bus,
born at Genoa in 3//R, of hu!ble parentage, his father being a
weaver" 'e see!s to have obtaine sufficient knowlege to enable
hi! to stuy the works of the learne, an of the ancients in %atin
translations" But in his early years he evote his attention to
obtaining a practical acIuaintance with sea!anship" 7n his ay, as
we have seen, Portugal was the centre of geographical knowlege,
an he an his brother Bartolo!eo, after !any voyages north an
south, settle at last in %isbon$$his brother as a !ap$!aker, an
hi!self as a practical sea!an" This was about the year 3/,A, an
shortly afterwars he !arrie <elipa BoXiG, aughter of Bartolo!eo
Perestrello, an 7talian in the service of the )ing of Portugal,
an for so!e ti!e Governor of Baeira"
>ow it chance just at this ti!e that there was a ru!our in Portugal
that a certain 7talian philosopher, na!e Toscanelli, ha put forth
views as to the possibility of a westwar voyage to 6athay, or
6hina, an the Portuguese king ha, through a !onk na!e BartineG,
applie to Toscanelli to know his views, which were given in a letter
ate -:th June 3/,/" 7t woul appear that, Iuite inepenently,
6olu!bus ha hear the ru!our, an applie to Toscanelli, for in
the latter's reply he, like a goo business !an, shortene his
answer by giving a copy of the letter he ha recently written to
BartineG" (hat was !ore i!portant an !ore useful, Toscanelli sent
a !ap showing in hours Mor egreesN the probable istance between
Spain an 6athay westwar" By aing the infor!ation given by Barco
Polo to the incorrect views of Ptole!y about the breath of the
inhabite worl, Toscanelli reuce the istance fro! the *Gores
to :-U, or A3-. !iles" 6olu!bus always eDpresse his inebteness
to Toscanelli's !ap for his guiance, an, as we shall see, epene
upon it very closely, both in steering, an in esti!ating the istance
to be traverse" =nfortunately this !ap has been lost, but fro!
a list of geographical positions, with latitue an longitue,
foune upon it, !oern geographers have been able to restore it
in so!e etail, an a si!plifie sketch of it !ay be here inserte,
as perhaps the !ost i!portant ocu!ent in 6olu!bus's career"
6ertainly, whether he ha the iea of reaching the 7nies by a
westwar voyage before or not, he aopte Toscanelli's views with
enthusias!, an evote his whole life henceforth to trying to
carry the! into operation"
'e gathere together all the infor!ation he coul get about the
fable islans of the *tlantic$$the 7slan of St" Branan, where
that 7rish saint foun happy !ortalsH an the 7slan of *ntilla,
i!agine by others, with its seven cities" 'e gathere together
all the gossip he coul hear$$of !ysterious corpses cast ashore
on the 6anaries, an rese!bling no race of !en known to 1uropeH
of huge canes, foun on the shores of the sa!e islans, eviently
carve by !an's skill" 6uriously enough, these pieces of evience
were logically rather against the eDistence of a westwar route to
the 7nies than not, since they inicate an unknown race, but,
to an enthusiastic !in like 6olu!bus's, anything helpe to confir!
hi! in his fiDe iea, an besies, he coul always reply that
these !aterial signs were fro! the unknown islan of Qipangu, which
Barco Polo ha escribe as at so!e istance fro! the shores of
'e first approache, as was natural, the )ing of Portugal, in whose
lan he was living, an whose traitional policy was irecte to
!ariti!e eDploration" But the Portuguese ha for half a century been
pursuing another !etho of reaching 7nia, an were not incline
to take up the novel iea of a stranger, which woul traverse their
long$continue policy of coasting own *frica" * hearing, however,
was given to hi!, but the report was unfavourable, an 6olu!bus ha
to turn his eyes elsewhere" There is a traition that the Portuguese
!onarch an his avisers thought rather !ore of 6olu!bus's ieas
at firstH an atte!pte secretly to put the! into eDecutionH but
the pilot to who! they entruste the propose voyage lost heart
as soon as he lost sight of lan, an returne with an averse
verict on the sche!e" 7t is not known whether 6olu!bus hear of
this !ean atte!pt to forestall hi!, but we fin hi! in 3/9, being
assiste by the Spanish 6ourt, an fro! that ti!e for the neDt
five years he was occupie in atte!pting to inuce the 6atholic
!onarchs of Spain, <erinan an 7sabella, to allow hi! to try his
novel plan of reaching the 7nies" The final operations in eDpelling
the Boors fro! Spain just then engrosse all their attention an
all their capital, an 6olu!bus was reuce to espair, an was
about to give up all hopes of succeeing in Spain, when one of
the great financiers, a converte Jew na!e %uis e Santaguel,
offere to fin !eans for the voyage, an 6olu!bus was recalle"
07llustration& B1'*7B'S G%8B1" 3/4-"5
8n the 34th *pril 3/4- articles were signe, by which 6olu!bus
receive fro! the Spanish !onarchs the titles of *!iral an ?iceroy
of all the lans he !ight iscover, as well as one$tenth of all the
tribute to be erive fro! the!H an on <riay the Ar *ugust, of
the sa!e year, he set sail in three vessels, entitle the @Santa
Baria@ Mthe flagshipN, the @Pinta@, an the @>ina@" 'e starte fro!
the port of Palos, first for the 6anary 7slans" These he left
on the Rth Septe!ber, an steere ue west" 8n the 3Ath of that
!onth, 6olu!bus observe that the neele of the co!pass pointe ue
north, an thus rew attention to the variability of the co!pass"
By the -3st Septe!ber his !en beca!e !utinous an trie to force hi!
to return" 'e inuce the! to continue, an four ays afterwars
the cry of F%anT lanTF was hear, which kept up their spirits
for several ays, till, on the 3st 8ctober, large nu!bers of birs
were seen" By that ti!e 6olu!bus ha reckone that he ha gone
so!e ,3. leagues fro! the 6anaries, an if Qipangu were in the
position that Tostanelli's !ap gave it, he ought to have been in
its neighbourhoo" 7t was reckone in those ays that a ship on
an average coul !ake four knots an hour, ea reckoning, which
woul give about 3.. !iles a ay, so that 6olu!bus !ight reckon
on passing over the A3.. !iles which he thought intervene between
the *Gores an Japan in about thirty$three ays" *ll through the
early ays of 8ctober his courage was kept up by various signs
of the nearness of lan$$birs an branches$$while on the 33th
8ctober, at sunset, they soune, an foun botto!H an at ten
o'clock, 6olu!bus, sitting in the stern of his vessel, saw a light,
the first sure sign of lan after thirty$five ays, an in near
enough approDi!ation to 6olu!bus's reckoning to confir! hi! in the
i!pression that he was approaching the !ysterious lan of Qipangu"
>eDt !orning they lane on an islan, calle by the natives Guanahain,
an by 6olu!bus San Salvaor" This has been ientifie as (atling
7slan" 'is first inIuiry was as to the origin of the little plates
of gol which he saw in the ears of the natives" They replie that
they ca!e fro! the (est$$another confir!ation of his i!pression"
Steering westwar, they arrive at 6uba, an afterwars at 'ayti
MSt" Do!ingoN" 'ere, however, the @Santa Baria@ sank, an 6olu!bus
eter!ine to return, to bring the goo news, after leaving so!e
of his !en in a fort at 'ayti" The return journey was !ae in the
@>ina@ in even shorter ti!e to the *Gores, but afterwars severe
stor!s arose, an it was not till the 3:th Barch 3/4A that he reache
Palos, after an absence of seven an a half !onths, uring which
everyboy thought that he an his ships ha isappeare"
'e was naturally receive with great enthusias! by the Spaniars,
an after a sole!n entry at Barcelona he presente to <erinan
an 7sabella the store of gol an curiosities carrie by so!e
of the natives of the islans he ha visite" They i!!eiately
set about fitting out a !uch larger fleet of seven vessels, which
starte fro! 6aiG, -:th Septe!ber 3/4A" 'e took a !ore southerly
course, but again reache the islans now known as the (est 7nies"
8n visiting 'ayti he foun the fort estroye, an no traces of
the !en he ha left there" 7t is neeless for our purposes to go
through the !iserable sIuabbles which occurre on this an his
subseIuent voyages, which resulte in 6olu!bus's return to Spain
in chains an isgrace" 7t is only necessary for us to say that
in his thir voyage, in 3/49, he touche on Trinia, an saw the
coast of South *!erica, which he suppose to be the region of the
Terrestrial Paraise" This was place by the !eiEval !aps at the
eDtre!e east of the 8l (orl" 8nly on his fourth voyage, in 3:.-,
i he actually touch the !ainlan, coasting along the shores of
6entral *!erica in the neighbourhoo of Pana!a" *fter !any
isappoint!ents, he ie, Bay 3:.R, at ?allaoli, believing,
as far as we can juge, to the ay of his eath, that what he ha
iscovere was what he set out to seek$$a westwar route to the
7nies, though his prou epitaph inicates the contrary&$$
* 6astilla y Y %eon Z To 6astille an to %eon
>uevo !ono i[ 6olon" Z * >1( (8+%D gave 6olon"035
0<ootnote 3& 6olu!bus's Spanish na!e was 6ristoval 6olon"5
To this ay his error is enshrine in the na!e we give to the (inwar
an *ntilles 7slans$$(est 7nies& in other wors, the 7nies reache
by the westwar route" 7f they ha been the 7nies at all, they
woul have been the !ost easterly of the!"
1ven if 6olu!bus ha iscovere a new route to <arther 7nia, he
coul not, as we have seen, clai! the !erit of having originate
the iea, which, even in etail, he ha taken fro! Toscanelli"
But his clai! is even a greater one" 'e it was who first are
to traverse unknown seas without coasting along the lan, an his
eDa!ple was the i!!eiate cause of all the re!arkable iscoveries
that followe his earlier voyages" *s we have seen, both ?asco a
Ga!a an 6abral i!!eiately after eparte fro! the slow coasting
route, an were by that !eans enable to carry out to the full
the ieas of Prince 'enryH but whereas, by the Portuguese !etho
of coasting, it ha taken nearly a century to reach the 6ape of
Goo 'ope, within thirty years of 6olu!bus's first venture the
whole globe ha been circu!navigate"
The first ai! of his successors was to ascertain !ore clearly what it
was that 6olu!bus ha iscovere" 7!!eiately after 6olu!bus's thir,
voyage, in 3/49, an after the news of ?asco a Ga!a's successful
passage to the 7nies ha !ae it necessary to iscover so!e strait
leaing fro! the F(est 7niesF to 7nia itself, a Spanish gentle!an,
na!e 'ojea, fitte out an eDpeition at his own eDpense, with
an 7talian pilot on boar, na!e *!erigo ?espucci, an trie once
!ore to fin a strait to 7nia near Trinia" They were, of course,
unsuccessful, but they coaste along an lane on the north coast
of South *!erica, which, fro! certain rese!blances, they ter!e
%ittle ?enice M?eneGuelaN" >eDt year, as we have seen, 6abral,
in following ?asco a Ga!a, hit upon BraGil, which turne out to
be within the Portuguese Fsphere of influence,F as eter!ine by
the line of e!arcation"
But, three !onths previous to 6abral's touching upon BraGil, one of
6olu!bus's co!panions on his first voyage, ?incenta #aneG PinGon,
ha touche on the coast of BraGil, eight egrees south of the
line, an fro! there ha worke northwar, seeking for a passage
which woul lea west to the 7nies" 'e iscovere the !outh of
the *!aGon, but, losing two of his vessels, returne to Palos,
which he reache in Septe!ber 3:.."
This iscovery of an unknown an unsuspecte continent so far south
of the line create great interest, an shortly after 6abral's
return *!erigo ?espucci was sent out in 3:.3 by the )ing of Portugal
as pilot of a fleet which shoul eDplore the new lan iscovere
by 6abral an clai! it for the 6rown of Portugal" 'is instructions
were to ascertain how !uch of it was within the line of e!arcation"
?espucci reache the BraGilian coast at 6ape St" +oIue, an then
eDplore it very thoroughly right own to the river %a Plata, which
was too far west to co!e within the Portuguese sphere" *!erigo
an his co!panions struck out south$eastwar till they reache
the islan of St" Georgia, 3-.. !iles east of 6ape 'orn, where
the col an the floating ice rove the! back, an they returne
to %isbon, after having gone farthest south up to their ti!e"
07llustration& *B1+7G8 ?1SP=667"5
This voyage of *!erigo threw a new light upon the nature of the
iscovery !ae by 6olu!bus" (hereas he ha thought he ha iscovere
a route to 7nia an ha touche upon <arther 7nia, *!erigo an
his co!panions ha shown that there was a hitherto unsuspecte lan
intervening between 6olu!bus's iscoveries an the long$esire Spice
7slans of <arther 7nia" *!erigo, in escribing his iscoveries,
venture so far as to suggest that they constitute a >ew (orlH
an a Ger!an professor, na!e Bartin (alsee!Vller, who wrote an
introuction to 6os!ography in 3:.R, which inclue an account
of *!erigo's iscoveries, suggeste that this >ew (orl shoul
be calle after hi!, *B1+76*, after the analogy of *sia, *frica,
an 1urope" <or a long ti!e the continent which we now know as
South *!erica was calle si!ply the >ew (orl, an was suppose
to be joine on to the east coast of *sia" The na!e *!erica was
so!eti!es applie to it$$not altogether inappropriately, since
it was *!erigo's voyage which efinitely settle that really new
lans ha been iscovere by the western routeH an when it was
further ascertaine that this new lan was joine, not to *sia,
but to another continent as large as itself, the two new lans
were istinguishe as >orth an South *!erica"
7t was, at any rate, clear fro! *!erigo's iscovery that the westwar
route to the Spice 7slans woul have to be through or roun this
>ew (orl iscovere by hi!, an a Portuguese noble, na!e <ernao
Bagelhaens, was estine to iscover the practicability of this
route" 'e ha serve his native country uner *l!eia an *lbuIuerIue
in the 1ast 7nies, an was present at the capture of Balacca in
3:33, an fro! that port was espatche by *lbuIuerIue with three
ships to visit the far$fa!e Spice 7slans" They visite *!boyna
an Bana, an learne enough of the abunance an cheapness of
the spices of the islans to recognise their i!portanceH but uner
the irection of *lbuIuerIue, who only sent the! out on an eDploring
eDpeition, they returne to hi!, leaving behin the!, however, one
of Bagelhaens' greatest friens, <rancisco Serrao, who settle in
Ternate an fro! ti!e to ti!e sent glowing accounts of the Boluccas
to his frien Bagelhaens" 'e in the !eanti!e returne to Portugal,
an was e!ploye on an eDpeition to Borocco" 'e was not, however,
well treate by the Portuguese !onarch, an eter!ine to leave
his service for that of 6harles ?", though he !ae it a conition
of his entering his service that he shoul !ake no iscoveries
within the bounaries of the )ing of Portugal, an o nothing
prejuicial to his interests"
07llustration& <1+D7>*>D B*G1%%*>"5
This was in the year 3:3,, an two years elapse before Bagelhaens
starte on his celebrate voyage" 'e ha represente to the 1!peror
that he was convince that a strait eDiste which woul lea into
the 7nian 8cean, past the >ew (orl of *!erigo, an that the Spice
7slans were beyon the line of e!arcation an within the Spanish
sphere of influence" There is so!e evience that Spanish !erchant
vessels, traing secretly to obtain BraGil woo, ha alreay caught
sight of the strait afterwars na!e after Bagelhaens, an certainly
such a strait is represente upon Schoner's globes ate 3:3: an
3:-.$$earlier than Bagelhaens' iscovery" The Portuguese were fully
aware of the angers threatene to their !onopoly of the spice
trae$$which by this ti!e ha been fir!ly establishe$$owing to the
presence of Serrao in Ternate, an i all in their power to issuae
6harles fro! sening out the threatene eDpeition, pointing out
that they woul consier it an unfrienly act if such an eDpeition
were per!itte to start" >otwithstaning this the 1!peror persiste
in the project, an on Tuesay, Septe!ber 3:34, a fleet of five
vessels, the @Trinia, St" *ntonio, 6oncepcion, ?ictoria@, an @St"
Jago@, !anne by a heterogeneous collection of Spaniars, Portuguese,
BasIues, Genoese, Sicilians, <rench, <le!ings, Ger!ans, Greeks,
>eapolitans, 6orfiotes, >egroes, Balays, an a single 1nglish!an
MBaster *nrew of BristolN, starte fro! Seville upon perhaps the
!ost i!portant voyage of iscovery ever !ae" So great was the
antipathy between Spanish an Portuguese that isaffection broke
out al!ost fro! the start, an after the !outh of the %a Plata
ha been carefully eDplore, to ascertain whether this was not
really the beginning of a passage through the >ew (orl, a !utiny
broke out on the -n *pril 3:-., in Port St" Julian, where it ha
been eter!ine to winterH for of course by this ti!e the sailors
ha beco!e aware that the ti!e of the seasons was reverse in the
Southern 'e!isphere" Bagelhaens showe great fir!ness an skill in
ealing with the !utinyH its chief leaers were either eDecute or
!aroone, an on the 39th 8ctober he resu!e his voyage" Beanwhile
the habits an custo!s of the natives ha been observe$$their
huge height an uncouth foot$coverings, for which Bagelhaens gave
the! the na!e of Patagonians" (ithin three ays they ha arrive
at the entrance of the passage which still bears Bagelhaens' na!e"
By this ti!e one of the ships, the @St Jago@, ha been lost, an it
was with only four of his vessels$$the @Trinia@, the @?ictoria@,
the @6oncepcion@" an the @St" *ntonio@$$that, Bagelhaens began
his passage" There are !any twists an ivisions in the strait,
an on arriving at one of the partings, Bagelhaens espatche the
@St" *ntonio@ to eDplore it, while he proceee with the other
three ships along the !ore irect route" The pilot of the @St"
*ntonio@ ha been one of the !utineers, an persuae the crew
to seiGe this opportunity to turn back altogetherH so that when
Bagelhaens arrive at the appointe place of junction, no news
coul be ascertaine of the !issing vesselH it went straight back
to Portugal" Bagelhaens eter!ine to continue his search, even,
he sai, if it ca!e to eating the leather thongs of the sails"
7t ha taken hi! thirty$eight ays to get through the Straits,
an for four !onths afterwars Bagelhaens continue his course
through the ocean, which, fro! its cal!ness, he calle PacificH
taking a north$westerly course, an thus, by a curious chance,
only hitting upon a couple of s!all uninhabite islans throughout
their whole voyage, through a sea which we now know to be otte
by innu!erable inhabite islans" 8n the Rth Barch 3:-. they ha
sighte the %arones, an obtaine !uch$neee provisions" Scurvy
ha broken out in its severest for!, an the only 1nglish!an on
the ships ie at the %arones" <ro! there they went on to the
islans now known as the Philippines, one of the kings of which
greete the! very favourably" *s a rewar Bagelhaens unertook
one of his local Iuarrels, an fell in an uneIual fight at Bactan,
-,th *pril 3:-3" The three vessels continue their course for the
Boluccas, but the @6oncepcion@ prove so unseaworthy that they ha
to beach an burn her" They reache Borneo, an here Juan Sebastian
el 6ano was appointe captain of the @?ictoria@"
*t last, on the Rth >ove!ber 3:-3, they reache the goal of their
journey, an anchore at Tior, one of the Boluccas" They trae
on very avantageous ter!s with the natives, an fille their hols
with the spices an nut!egs for which they ha journeye so farH
but when they atte!pte to resu!e their journey ho!ewar, it was
foun that the @Trinia@ was too unseaworthy to procee at once,
an it was ecie that the @?ictoria@ shoul start so as to get
the east !onsoon" This she i, an after the usual journey roun
the 6ape of Goo 'ope, arrive off the Bole of Seville on Bonay
the 9th Septe!ber 3:--$$three years all but twelve ays fro! the
ate of their eparture fro! Spain" 8f the two hunre an seventy
!en who ha starte with the fleet, only eighteen returne in the
@?ictoria@" *ccoring to the ship's reckoning they ha arrive
on Sunay the ,th, an for so!e ti!e it was a puGGle to account
for the ay thus lost"
Beanwhile the @Trinia@, which ha been left behin at the Boluccas,
ha atte!pte to sail back to Pana!a, an reache as far north as
/AU, so!ewhere about longitue 3,:U (" 'ere provisions faile the!,
an they ha to return to the Boluccas, where they were seiGe,
practically as pirates, by a fleet of Portuguese vessels sent specially
to prevent interference by the Spaniars with the Portuguese !onopoly
of the spice trae" The crew of the @Trinia@ were seiGe an !ae
prisoners, an ulti!ately only four of the! reache Spain again,
after !any aventures" Thirteen others, who ha lane at the 6ape
e ?ere 7slans fro! the @?ictoria@, !ay also be inclue a!ong
the survivors of the fleet, so that a total nu!ber of thirty$five
out of two hunre an seventy su!s up the nu!ber of the first
circu!navigators of the globe"
The i!portance of this voyage was uniIue when regare fro! the
point of view of geographical iscovery" 7t ecisively clinche
the !atter with regar to the eDistence of an entirely >ew (orl
inepenent fro! *sia" 7n particular, the backwar voyage of the
@Trinia@ Mwhich has rarely been noticeN ha shown that there
was a wie eDpanse of ocean north of the line an east of *sia,
whilst the previous voyage ha shown the enor!ous eDtent of sea
south of the line" *fter the circu!navigation of the @?ictoria@
it was clear to cos!ographers that the worl was !uch larger than
ha been i!agine by the ancientsH or rather, perhaps one !ay say
that *sia was s!aller than ha been thought by the !eiEval writers"
The ogge persistence shown by Bagelhaens in carrying out his
iea, which turne out to be a perfectly justifiable one, raises
hi! fro! this point of view to a greater height than 6olu!bus,
whose !onth's voyage brought hi! eDactly where he thought he woul
fin lan accoring to Toscanelli's !ap" *fter Bagelhaens, as will
be seen, the whole coast lines of the worl were roughly known,
eDcept for the *rctic 6ircle an for *ustralia"
07llustration& T'1 (8+%D *668+D7>G T8 PT8%1B# 8< 3:/9"5
The 1!peror was naturally elighte with the result of the voyage"
'e grante Del 6ano a pension, an a coat of ar!s co!!e!orating
his services" The ter!s of the grant are very significant& @or@,
two cinna!on sticks @saltire proper@, three nut!egs an twelve
cloves, a chief @gules@, a castle @orH crest@, a globe, bearing
the !otto, FPri!us circu!eisti !eF Mthou wert the first to go
roun !eNH @supporters@, two Balay kings crowne, holing in the
eDterior han a spice branch proper" The castle, of course, refers
to 6astile, but the rest of the blaGon inicates the i!portance
attribute to the voyage as resting !ainly upon the visit to the
Spice 7slans" *s we have alreay seen, however, the Portuguese
recovere their position in the Boluccas i!!eiately after the
eparture of the @?ictoria@, an seven years later 6harles ?" gave
up any clai!s he !ight possess through Bagelhaens' visit"
But for a long ti!e afterwars the Spaniars still cast longing
eyes upon the Spice 7slans, an the <uggers, the great bankers
of *ugsburg, who finance the Spanish !onarch, for a long ti!e
atte!pte to get possession of Peru, with the scarcely isguise
object of !aking it a Fju!ping$placeF fro! which to !ake a fresh
atte!pt at obtaining possession of the Boluccas" * !oern parallel
will oubtless occur to the reaer"
There are thus three stages to be istinguishe in the successive
iscovery an eli!itation of the >ew (orl&$$
Mi"N *t first 6olu!bus i!agine that he ha actually reache Qipangu
or Japan, an achieve the object of his voyage"
Mii"N Then *!erigo ?espucci, by coasting own South *!erica, ascertaine
that there was a huge unknown lan intervening even between 6olu!bus'
iscoveries an the long$esire Spice 7slans"
Miii"N Bagelhaens clinches this view by traversing the Southern
Pacific for thousans of !iles before reaching the Boluccas"
There is still a fourth stage by which it was graually iscovere
that the >orth$west of *!erica was not joine on to *sia, but this
stage was only graually reache an finally eter!ine by the
voyages of Behring an 6ook"
0@*uthorities&@ Justin (insor, @6hristopher 6olu!bus@, 394/H Guille!ar,
@<erinan Bagellan@, 394/"5
6'*PT1+ ?777
T8 T'1 7>D71S >8+T'(*+D$$1>G%7S', <+1>6', D=T6', *>D +=SS7*>
The iscovery of the >ew (orl ha the !ost i!portant conseIuences
on the relative i!portance of the ifferent nations of 1urope"
'itherto the chief centres for over two thousan years ha been
roun the shores of the Beiterranean, an, as we have seen, ?enice,
by her central position an eDtensive trae to the 1ast, ha beco!e
a worl$centre uring the latter Bile *ges" But after 6olu!bus,
an still !ore after Bagelhaens, the 1uropean nations on the *tlantic
were foun to be closer to the >ew (orl, an, in a !easure, closer
to the Spice 7slans, which they coul reach all the way by ship,
instea of having to pay eDpensive lan freights" The trae routes
through Ger!any beca!e at once neglecte, an it is only in the
present century that she has at all recovere fro! the blow given
to her by the iscovery of the new sea routes in which she coul
not join" But to 1nglan, <rance, an the %ow 6ountries the new
outlook pro!ise a share in the worl's trae an affairs generally,
which they ha never hitherto possesse while the Beiterranean
was the centre of co!!erce" 7f the 7nies coul be reache by sea,
they were al!ost in as fortunate a position as Portugal or Spain"
*l!ost as soon as the new routes were iscovere the >orthern nations
atte!pte to utilise the!, notwithstaning the Bull of Partition,
which the <rench king laughe at, an the Protestant 1nglish an
Dutch ha no reason to respect" (ithin three years of the return
of 6olu!bus fro! his first voyage, 'enry ?77" e!ploye John 6abot,
a ?enetian settle in Bristol, with his three sons, to atte!pt
the voyage to the 7nies by the >orth$(est Passage" 'e appears to
have re$iscovere >ewfounlan in 3/4,, an then in the following
year, failing to fin a passage there, coaste own >orth *!erica
nearly as far as <loria"
7n 3:A/ JacIues 6artier eDa!ine the river St" %awrence, an his
iscoveries were later followe up by Sa!uel e 6ha!plain, who
eDplore so!e of the great lakes near the St" %awrence, an establishe
the <rench rule in 6anaa, or *caie, as it was then calle"
Beanwhile the 1nglish ha !ae an atte!pt to reach the 7nies,
still by a northern passage, but this ti!e in an easterly irection"
Sebastian 6abot, who ha been appointe Gran Pilot of 1nglan by
1war ?7", irecte a voyage of eDploration in 3::A, uner Sir
'ugh (illoughby" 8nly one of these ships, with the pilot M+ichar
6hancellorN on boar, survive the voyage, reaching *rchangel, an
then going overlan to Boscow, where he was favourably receive
by the 6Gar of +ussia, 7van the Terrible" 'e was, however, rowne
on his return, an no further atte!pt to reach 6athay by sea was
The >orth$(est Passage see!e thus to pro!ise better than that by
the >orth$1ast, an in 3:,R Bartin <robisher starte on an eDploring
voyage, after having ha the honour of a wave of 1liGabeth's han
as he passe Greenwich" 'e reache Greenlan, an then %abraor,
an, in a subseIuent voyage neDt year, iscovere the strait na!e
after hi!" 'is project was taken up by Sir 'u!phrey Gilbert, on
who!, with his brother *rian, 1liGabeth conferre the privilege of
!aking the passage to 6hina an the Boluccas by the north$westwar,
north$eastwar, or northwar route" *t the sa!e ti!e a patent was
grante hi! for iscovering any lans unsettle by 6hristian princes"
* settle!ent was !ae in St" John's, >ewfounlan, but on the return
voyage, near the *Gores, Sir 'u!phrey's FfrigateF Ma s!all boat
of ten !enN, isappeare, after he ha been hear to call out,
F6ourage, !y lasH we are as near heaven by sea as by lanTF This
happene in 3:9A"
Two years after, another eDpeition was sent out by the !erchants
of %onon, uner John Davis, who, on this an two subseIuent voyages,
iscovere several passages trening westwar, which warrante
the hope of fining a northwest passage" Besie the strait na!e
after hi!, it is probable that on his thir voyage, in 3:9,, he
passe through the passage now na!e after 'uson" 'is iscoveries
were not followe up for so!e twenty years, when 'enry 'uson was
espatche in 3R., with a crew of ten !en an a boy" 'e reache
SpitGbergen, an reache 9.U >", an in the following year reache
the >orth MBagneticN Pole, which was then situate at ,:"--U >" Two
of his !en were also fortunate enough to see a !er!ai$$probably
an 1ski!o wo!an in her @kayak@" 7n a thir voyage, in 3R.4, he
iscovere the strait an bay which now bear his na!e, but was
!aroone by his crew, an never hear of further" 'e ha previously,
for a ti!e, passe into the service of the Dutch, an ha guie
the! to the river na!e after hi!, on which >ew #ork now stans" The
course of 1nglish iscovery in the north was for a ti!e conclue
by the voyage of (illia! Baffin in 3R3:, which resulte in the
iscovery of the lan na!e after hi!, as well as !any of the islans
to the north of *!erica"
Beanwhile the Dutch ha taken part in the work of iscovery towars
the north" They ha revolte against the espotis! of Philip 77", who
was now !onarch of both Spain an Portugal" *t first they atte!pte
to aopt a route which woul not bring the! into collision with
their ol !astersH an in three voyages, between 3:4/ an 3:4,,
(illia! BarentG atte!pte the >orth$1ast Passage, uner the auspices
of the States$General" 'e iscovere 6herry 7slan, an touche
on SpitGbergen, but faile in the !ain object of his searchH an
the attention of the Dutch was henceforth irecte to seiGing the
Portuguese route, rather than fining a new one for the!selves"
The reason they were able to o this is a curious instance of >e!esis
in history" 8wing to the careful series of inter!arriages planne
out by <erinan of *rragon, the Portuguese 6rown an all its
possessions beca!e joine to Spain in 3:9. uner Philip 77", just
a year after the northern provinces of the >etherlans ha renounce
allegiance to Spain" 6onseIuently they were free to attack not alone
Spanish vessels an colonies, but also those previously belonging
to Portugal" *s early as 3:4R 6ornelius 'out!an roune the 6ape
an visite Su!atra an Banta!, an within fifty, years the Dutch
ha replace the Portuguese in !any of their 1astern possessions"
7n 3R3/ they took Balacca, an with it the co!!an of the Spice
7slansH by 3R:9 they ha secure full possession of 6eylon" Buch
earlier, in 3R34, they ha foune Batavia in Java, which they !ae
the centre of their 1ast 7nian possessions, as it still re!ains"
The 1nglish at first atte!pte to i!itate the Dutch in their 1ast
7nian policy" The 1nglish 1ast 7nia 6o!pany was foune by 1liGabeth
in 3R.., an as early as 3R34 ha force the Dutch to allow the! to
take a thir share of the profits of the Spice 7slans" 7n orer
to o this several 1nglish planters settle at *!boyna, but within
four years trae rivalries ha reache such a pitch that the Dutch
!urere so!e of these !erchants an rove the rest fro! the islans"
*s a conseIuence the 1nglish 6o!pany evote its attention to the
!ainlan of 7nia itself, where they soon obtaine possession of
Baras an Bo!bay, an left the islans of the 7nian 8cean !ainly
in possession of the Dutch" (e shall see later the effect of this
upon the history of geography, for it was owing to their possession
of the 1ast 7nia 7slans that the Dutch were practically the
iscoverers of *ustralia" 8ne result of the Dutch 1ast 7nia policy
has left its traces even to the present ay" 7n 3R:3 they establishe
a colony at the 6ape of Goo 'ope, which only fell into 1nglish
hans uring the >apoleonic wars, when >apoleon hel 'ollan"
Beanwhile the 1nglish ha not lost sight of the possibilities of
the >orth$1ast Passage, if not for reaching the Spice 7slans,
at any rate as a !eans of tapping the overlan route to 6hina,
hitherto !onopolise by the Genoese" 7n 3::9 an 1nglish gentle!an,
na!e *nthony Jenkinson, was sent as a!bassaor to the 6Gar of
Buscovy, an travelle fro! Boscow as far as BokharaH but he was
not very fortunate in his venture, an 1nglan ha to be content
for so!e ti!e to receive her 7nian an 6hinese goos fro! the
?enetian argosies as before" But at last they saw no reason why
they shoul not atte!pt irect relations with the 1ast" * co!pany of
%evant !erchants was for!e in 3:9A to open out irect co!!unications
with *leppo, Baga, 8r!uG, an Goa" They were unsuccessful at the
two latter places owing to the jealousy of the Portuguese, but
they !ae arrange!ents for cheaper transit of 1astern goos to
1nglan, an in 3:9, the last of the ?enetian argosies, a great
vessel of eleven hunre tons, was wrecke off the 7sle of (ight"
'enceforth the 1nglish conucte their own business with the 1ast,
an ?enetian an Portuguese !onopoly was at an en"
07llustration& +=SS7*> B*P 8< *S7*, 3,A,"5
But the journeys of 6hancellor an Jenkinson to the 6ourt of Boscow
ha !ore far$reaching effectsH the +ussians the!selves were thereby
le to conte!plate utilising their proDi!ity to one of the best
known routes to the <ar 1ast" Shortly after Jenkinson's visit, the
6Gar, 7van the Terrible, began eDtening his o!inions eastwar,
sening at first a nu!ber of troops to acco!pany the +ussian !erchant
Strogonof as far as the 8bi in search of sables" *!ong the troops
were a corps of siD thousan 6ossacks co!!ane by one na!e ?assili
#er!ak, who, fining the Tartars an easy prey, eter!ine at first
to set up a new kingo! for hi!self" 7n 3:,4 he was successful in
overco!ing the Tartars an their chief town Sibir, near TobolskH
but, fining it ifficult to retain his position, eter!ine to
return to his allegiance to the 6Gar on conition of being supporte"
This was reaily grante, an fro! that ti!e onwar the +ussians
steaily pushe on through to the unknown country of the north
of *sia, since na!e after the little town conIuere by #er!ak,
of which scarcely any traces now re!ain" *s early as 3RA4 they
ha reache the Pacific uner )upilof" * force was sent out fro!
#akutG, on the %ena, in 3R/A, which reache the *!ur, an thus
+ussians ca!e for the first ti!e in contact with the 6hinese, an
a new !etho of reaching 6athay was thus obtaine, while geography
gaine the knowlege of the eDtent of >orthern *sia" <or, about
the sa!e ti!e Min 3R/9N, the *rctic 8cean was reache on the north
shores of Siberia, an a fleet uner the 6ossack Dishinef saile
fro! )oly!a an reache as far as the straits known by the na!e
of Behring" 7t was not, however, till fifty years afterwars, in
3R4R, that the +ussians reache )a!tschatka"
>otwithstaning the access of knowlege which ha been gaine by
these successive bol pushes towars north an east, it still re!aine
uncertain whether Siberia i not join on to the northern part of
the >ew (orl iscovere by 6olu!bus an *!erigo, an in 3,-9 Peter
the Great sent out an eDpeition uner ?7T=S B1'+7>G, a Dane in the
+ussian service, with the eDpress ai! of ascertaining this point"
'e reache )a!tschatka, an there built two vessels as irecte by
the 6Gar, an starte on his voyage northwar, coasting along the
lan" (hen he reache a little beyon R,U >", he foun no lan
to the north or east, an conceive he ha reache the en of the
continent" *s a !atter of fact, he was within thirty !iles of the
west coast of *!ericaH but of this he oes not see! to have been
aware, being content with solving the special proble! put before
hi! by the 6Gar" The strait thus iscovere by Behring, though not
known by hi! to be a strait, has ever since been known by his na!e"
7n 3,/3, however, Behring again set out on a voyage of iscovery to
ascertain how far to the east *!erica was, an within a fortnight
ha co!e within sight of the lofty !ountain na!e by hi! Bount
St" 1lias" Behring hi!self ie upon this voyage, on an islan
also na!e after hi!H he ha at last solve the relation between
the 8l an the >ew (orls"
These voyages of Behring, however, belong to a !uch later stage
of iscovery than those we have hitherto been treating for the
last three chapters" 'is eDplorations were unertaken !ainly for
scientific purposes, an to solve a scientific proble!, whereas
all the other researches of Spanish, Portuguese, 1nglish, an Dutch
were irecte to one en, that of reaching the Spice 7slans an
6athay" The Portuguese at first starte out on the search by the
slow !etho of creeping own the coast of *fricaH the Spanish, by
aopting 6olu!bus's bol iea, ha atte!pte it by the western
route, an uner Bagellan's still boler conception ha eIually
succeee in reaching it in that wayH the 1nglish an <rench sought
for a north$west passage to the BoluccasH while the 1nglish an
Dutch atte!pte a northeasterly route" 7n both irections the icy
barrier of the north prevente success" 7t was reserve, as we shall
see, for the present century to co!plete the >orth$(est Passage
uner Baclure, an the >orth$1ast by >orenskiol, sailing with
Iuite ifferent !otives to those which first brought the !ariners
of 1nglan, <rance, an 'ollan within the *rctic 6ircle"
The net result of all these atte!pts by the nations of 1urope to
wrest fro! the ?enetians the !onopoly of the 1astern trae was to
a to geography the knowlege of the eDistence of a >ew (orl
intervening between the western shores of 1urope an the eastern
shores of *sia" (e have yet to learn the !eans by which the >ew
(orl thus iscovere beca!e eDplore an possesse by the 1uropean
0@*uthorities&@ 6ooley an BeaGeley, @John an Sebastian 6abot@,
6'*PT1+ 7L
T'1 P*+T7T78> 8< *B1+76*
(e have hitherto been ealing with the iscoveries !ae by Spanish
an Portuguese along the coast of the >ew (orl, but early in the
siDteenth century they began to put foot on @terra fir!a@ an eDplore
the interior" *s early as 3:3A ?asco >uneG e Balboa ascene the
highest peak in the range running fro! the 7sth!us of Pana!a, an
saw for the first ti!e by 1uropean eyes the great ocean afterwars
to be na!e by Bagellan the Pacific" 'e there hear that the country
to the south eDtene without en, an was inhabite by great nations,
with an abunance of gol" *!ong his co!panions who hear of this
golen country, or 1l Dorao, was one <rancisco PiGarro, who was
estine to test the report" But a si!ilar report ha reache the ears
of Diego ?elasIueG, governor of 6uba, as to a great nation possesse
of !uch gol to the north of Darien" 'e accoringly espatche
his lieutenant 'ernano 6ortes in 3:34 to investigate, with ten
ships, siD hunre an fifty !en, an so!e eighteen horses" (hen
he lane at the port na!e by hi! ?era 6ruG, the appearance of
his !en, an !ore especially of his horses, astonishe an alar!e
the natives of BeDico, then a large an se!i$civilise state uner
the rule of BonteGu!a, the last representative of the *Gtecs, who
in the twelfth century ha succeee the Toltecs, a people that ha
settle on the BeDican tablelan as early probably as the seventh
century, introucing the use of !etals an roas an !any of the
ele!ents of civilisation" BonteGu!a is reporte to have been able
to range no less than two hunre thousan !en uner his banners,
but he showe his opinion of the Spaniars by sening the! costly
presents, gol an silver an costly stuffs" This only arouse
the cupiity of 6ortes, who eter!ine to !ake a bol stroke for
the conIuest of such a rich priGe" 'e burnt his ships an avance
into the interior of the country, conIuering on his way the tribe
of the Tlascalans, who ha been at war with the BeDicans, but,
when conIuere, were reay to assist hi! against the!" (ith their
ai he succeee in seiGing the BeDican king, who was force to
yiel a huge tribute" *fter !any struggles 6ortes foun hi!self
!aster of the capital, an of all the resources of the BeDican
1!pire M3:-3N" These he hastene to place at the feet of the 1!peror
6harles ?", who appointe hi! Governor an 6aptain$General of BeDico"
7t is characteristic throughout the history of the >ew (orl, that
none of the soliers of fortune who foun it such an easy prey ever
thought of setting up an e!pire for hi!self" This is a testi!ony
to the influence national feeling ha upon the !ins even of the
!ost lawless, an the result was that 1urope an 1uropean ieas
were brought over into *!erica, or rather the >ew (orl beca!e
tributary to 1urope"
*s soon as 6ortes ha establishe hi!self he fitte out eDpeitions
to eDplore the country, an hi!self reache 'onuras after a re!arkable
journey for over 3... !iles, in which he was only guie by a !ap on
cotton cloth, on which the 6aciIue of Tabasco ha painte all the
towns, rivers, an !ountains of the country as far as >icaragua" 'e
also espatche a s!all fleet uner *lvarro e Saavera to support
a Spanish eDpeition which ha been sent to the Boluccas uner
Sebastian el 6ano, an which arrive at Tior in 3:-,, to the
astonish!ent of Spanish an Portuguese alike when they hear he
ha starte fro! >ew 6astile" 7n 3:AR, 6ortes, who ha been in
the !eanti!e shorn of !uch of his power, conucte an eDpeition
by sea along the north$west coast of BeDico, an reache what he
consiere to be a great islan" 'e ientifie this with an i!aginary
islan in the <ar 1ast, near the terrestrial paraise to which
the na!e of 6alifornia ha been given in a conte!porary ro!ance"
Thus, owing to 6ortes, al!ost the whole of 6entral *!erica ha
beco!e known before his eath in 3:/." Si!ilarly, at a !uch earlier
perio, Ponce e %eon ha thought he ha iscovere another great
islan in <loria in 3:3-, whither he ha gone in search of Bayuca,
a fable islan of the 7nians, in which they state was a fountain
of eternal youth" *t the ti!e of 6ortes' first atte!pt on BeDico,
Pinea ha coaste roun <loria, an connecte it with the rest
of the coast of BeDico, which he traverse as far as ?era 6ruG"
The eDploits of 6ortes were all i!portant in their effects" 'e ha
prove with what ease a hanful of !en !ight overco!e an e!pire an
gain unparallele riches" <rancisco PiGarro was encourage by the
success of 6ortes to atte!pt the iscovery of the 1l Dorao he ha
hear of when on Balboa's eDpeition" (ith a co!panion na!e Diego
e *l!egro he !ae several coasting eDpeitions own the northwest
coast of South *!erica, uring which they hear of the e!pire of
the 7ncas on the plateau of Peru" They also obtaine sufficient
gol an silver to raise their hopes of the riches of the country,
an returne to Spain to report to the 1!peror" PiGarro obtaine
per!ission fro! 6harles ?" to atte!pt the conIuest of Peru, of which
he was na!e Governor an 6aptain$General, on conition of paying a
tribute of one$fifth of the treasure he !ight obtain" 'e starte
in <ebruary 3:A3 with a s!all force of 39. !en, of who! thirty$siD
were horse!en" *opting the policy of 6ortes, he pushe irectly
for the capital 6uGco, where they !anage to seiGe *tahualpa, the
7nca of the ti!e" 'e atte!pte to ranso! hi!self by agreeing to
fill the roo! in which he was confine, twenty$two feet long by
siDteen wie, with bars of gol as high as the han coul reach"
'e carrie out this proigious pro!ise, an PiGarro's co!panions
foun the!selves in possession of booty eIual to three !illions
*tahualpa was, however, not release, but cone!ne to eath on
a frivolous preteDt, while PiGarro is!isse his followers, fully
confient that the wealth they carrie off woul attract as !any
!en as he coul esire to 1l Dorao" 'e settle hi!self at %i!a,
near the coast, in 3:A/" Beanwhile *l!egro ha been espatche
south, an !ae hi!self !aster of 6hili" *nother eDpeition in
3:A4 was conucte by PiGarro's brother GonGales across the *nes,
an reache the sources of the *!aGon, which one of his co!panions,
<rancisco e 8rellana, traverse as far as the !outh" This he reache
in *ugust 3:/3, after a voyage of one thousan leagues" The river
was na!e after 8rellana, but, fro! reports he !ae of the eDistence
of a tribe of fe!ale warriors, was afterwars known as the river
of the *!aGons" The author sprea reports of another 1l Dorao to
the north, in which the roofs of the te!ples were covere with
gol" This report afterwars le to the isastrous eDpeition of
Sir (alter +aleigh to Guiana" By his voyage 8rellana connecte the
Spanish an Portuguese Fspheres of influenceF in the >ew (orl of
*!erigo" By the year 3:/. the !ain outlines of 6entral an South
*!erica an so!ething of the interior ha been !ae known by the
Spanish aventurers within half a century of 6olu!bus' first voyage"
8wing to the papal bull Portugal possesse BraGil, but all the
rest of the huge stretch of country was clai!e for Spain" The
Portuguese wisely treate BraGil as an outlet for their overflowing
population, which settle there in large nu!bers an establishe
plantations" The Spaniars, on the other han, only regare their
huge possessions as eDclusive !arkets to be !erely visite by the!"
+ich !ines of gol, silver, an !ercury were iscovere in BeDico
an Peru, especially in the far$fa!e !ines of Potosi, an these
were eDploite entirely in the interests of Spain, which acte as a
sieve by which the precious !etals were poure into 1urope, raising
prices throughout the 8l (orl" 7n return 1uropean !erchanise was
sent in the return voyages of the Spanish galleons to >ew Spain,
which coul only buy <le!ish cloth, for eDa!ple, through Spanish
inter!eiaries, who raise its price to three ti!es the original
cost" This short$sighte policy on the part of Spain naturally
encourage s!uggling, an attracte the ships of all nations towars
that pursuit"
(e have alreay seen the first atte!pts of the <rench an 1nglish
in the eDploration of the north$east coast of >orth *!ericaH but
uring the siDteenth century very little was one to settle on
such inhospitable shores, which i not offer anything like the
rich priGes that Tropical *!erica affore" >either the eDploration
of 6artier in 3:A/, or that of the 6abots !uch earlier, was followe
by any atte!pt to possess the lan" Breton fisher!en visite the
fisheries off >ewfounlan, an various eDplorers atte!pte to fin
openings which woul give the! a north$west passage, but otherwise
the !ore northerly part of the continent was left unoccupie till
the beginning of the seventeenth century" The first town foune was
that of St" *ugustine, in <loria, in 3:R:, but this was estroye
three years later by a <rench eDpeition" Sir (alter +aleigh atte!pte
to foun a colony in 3:9/ near where ?irginia now stans, but it
faile after three years, an it was not till the reign of Ja!es
7" that an organise atte!pt was !ae by 1nglan to establish
plantations, as they were then calle, on the >orth *!erican coast"
Two 6hartere 6o!panies, the one to the north na!e the Ply!outh
6o!pany, an the one to the south na!e the %onon 6o!pany Mboth
foune in 3R.RN, no!inally ivie between the! all the coast
fro! >ova Scotia to <loria" These large tracts of country were
uring the seventeenth century slowly parcelle out into s!aller
states, !ainly Puritan in the north M>ew 1nglanN, 'igh 6hurch
an 6atholic in the south M?irginia an BarylanN" But between the
two, an on the banks of the 'uson an the Delaware, two other
1uropean nations ha also for!e plantations$$the Dutch along the
'uson fro! 3R.4 for!ing the >ew >etherlans, an the Swees fro!
3RAR along the Delaware for!ing >ew Sween" The latter, however,
laste only a few years, an was absorbe by the Dutch in 3R::"
The capital of >ew >etherlans was establishe on Banhattan 7slan,
to the south of the palisae still known as (all Street, an the
city was na!e >ew *!stera!" The 'uson is such an i!portant artery
of co!!erce between the *tlantic an the great lakes, that this
wege between the two sets of 1nglish colonies woul have been a
bar to any future progress" This was recognise by 6harles 77",
who in 3RR/ espatche an eDpeition to e!an its surrener, even
though 1nglan an 'ollan were at that ti!e at peace" >ew *!stera!
was taken, an na!e >ew #ork, after the king's brother, the Duke
of #ork, afterwars Ja!es 77" >ew Sween, which at the sa!e ti!e
fell into the 1nglish hans, was sol as a proprietary plantation
to a Jersey !an, Sir George 6arteret, an to a Juaker, (illia!
Penn" By this so!ewhat high$hane proceure the whole coast$line
own to <loria was in 1nglish hans"
Both the %onon an Ply!outh 6o!panies ha starte to for! plantations
in 3R.,, an in that very year the <rench !ae their first effective
settle!ents in *!erica, at Port +oyal an at >ova Scotia, then
calle *rcaieH while, the following year, Sa!uel e 6ha!plain
!ae settle!ents at Juebec, an foune <rench 6anaa" 'e eDplore
the lake country, an establishe settle!ents own the banks of the
St" %awrence, along which <rench activity for a long ti!e confine
itself" Between the <rench an the 1nglish settle!ents rove the
warlike <ive >ations of the 7roIuois 7nians, an 6ha!plain, whose
settle!ents were in the country of the *lgonIuins, was oblige
to take their part an !ake the 7roIuois the ene!ies of <rance,
which ha i!portant effects upon the final struggle between 1nglan
an <rance in the eighteenth century" The <rench continue their
eDploration of the interior of the continent" 7n 3R,A BarIuette
iscovere the Bississippi MBissi Sepe, Fthe great waterFN, an
escene it as far as the !outh of the *rkansas, but the work of
eDploring the Bississippi valley was unertaken by +obert e la
Salle" 'e ha alreay iscovere the 8hio an 7llinois rivers, an
in three eDpeitions, between 3R9. an 3R9-, succeee in working his
way right own to the !outh of the Bississippi, giving to the huge
tract of country which he ha thus traverse the na!e of %ouisiana,
after %ouis L7?"
<rance thenceforth clai!e the whole @hinterlan@, as we shoul
now call it, of >orth *!erica, the 1nglish being confine to the
co!paratively narrow strip of country east of the *lleghanies" >ew
8rleans was foune at the !outh of the Bississippi in 3,3R, an
na!e after the Prince +egentH an <rench activity range between
Juebec an >ew 8rleans, leaving !any traces even to the present
ay, in <rench na!es like Bobile, Detroit, an the like, through
the intervening country" The situation at the co!!ence!ent of the
eighteenth century was re!arkably si!ilar to that of the Gol 6oast
in *frica at the en of the nineteenth" The <rench persistently
atte!pte to encroach upon the 1nglish sphere of influence, an it
was in atte!pting to efine the two spheres that George (ashington
learne his first lesson in iplo!acy an strategy" The <rench an
1nglish *!erican colonies were al!ost perpetually at war with one
another, the objective being the spot where Pittsburg now stans,
which was regare as the gate of the west, overlooking as it i
the valley of the 8hio" 'ere DuIuesne foune the fort na!e after
hi!self, an it was not till 3,:9 that this was finally wreste
fro! <rench hansH while, in the following year, (olfe, by his
capture of Juebec, overthrew the whole <rench power in >orth *!erica"
Throughout the long fight the 1nglish ha been !uch assiste by
the guerilla warfare of the 7roIuois against the <rench"
By the Treaty of Paris in 3,RA the whole of <rench *!erica was
cee to 1nglan, which also obtaine possession of <loria fro!
Spain, in eDchange for the Philippines, capture uring the war"
*s a co!pensation all the country west of the Bississippi beca!e
joine on to the Spanish possessions in BeDico" These of course
beca!e, no!inally <rench when >apoleon's brother Joseph was place
on the Spanish throne, but >apoleon sol the! to the =nite States
in 39.A, so that no barrier eDiste to the westwar sprea of the
States" %ong previously to this, a 6hartere 6o!pany ha been for!e
in 3R,., with Prince +upert at its hea, to trae with the 7nians
for furs in 'uson's Bay, then an for so!e ti!e afterwars calle
+upertslan" The 'uson Bay 6o!pany graually eDtene its knowlege
of the northerly parts of *!erica towars the +ocky Bountains,
but it was not till 3,/. that ?arenne e la ?aranerye iscovere
their eDtent" 7n 3,R4$,3 a fur traer na!e 'earne trace the river
6opper!ine to the sea, while it was not till 3,4A that Br" Mafter
Sir *"N BackenGie iscovere the river now na!e after hi!, an
crosse the continent of >orth *!erica fro! *tlantic to Pacific"
8ne of the reasons for this late eDploration of the north$west of
>orth *!erica was a geographical !yth starte by a Spanish voyager
na!e Juan e <uca as early as 3:4-" 6oasting as far as ?ancouver
7slan, he entere the inlet to the south of it, an not being
able to see lan to the north, brought back a report of a huge sea
spreaing over all that part of the country, which !ost geographers
assu!e to pass over into 'uson Bay or the neighbourhoo" 7t was
this report as !uch as anything which encourage hopes of fining
the north$west passage in a latitue low enough to be free fro!
*s soon as the =nite States got possession of the lan west of
the Bississippi they began to eDplore it, an between 39./ an
39., %ewis an 6larke ha eDplore the whole basin of the Bissouri,
while Pike ha investigate the country between the sources of the
Bississippi an the +e +iver" (e have alreay seen that Behring
ha carrie over +ussian investigation an o!inion into *laska,
an it was in orer to avoi her encroach!ents own towars the
6alifornian coast that Presient Bonroe put forth in 39-A the octrine
that no further colonisation of the *!ericas woul be per!itte by
the =nite States" 7n this year +ussia agree to li!it her clai!s
to the country north of :/"/.U" The States subseIuently acIuire
6alifornia an other ajoining states uring their war with BeDico
in 39/9, just before gol was iscovere in the Sacra!ento valley"
The lan between 6alifornia an *laska was hel in joint possession
between Great Britain an the States, an was known as the 8regon
Territory" %ewis an 6larke ha eDplore the 6olu!bia +iver, while
?ancouver ha !uch earlier eDa!ine the islan which now bears his
na!e, so that both countries appear to have so!e rights of iscovery
to the istrict" *t one ti!e the inhabitants of the States were
incline to clai! all the country as far as the +ussian bounary
:/"/.U, an a war$cry arose F:/"/.U or fightHF but in 39/R the
territory was ivie by the /4th parallel, an at this ate we !ay
say the partition of *!erica was co!plete, an all that re!aine
to be known of it was the ice$boun northern coast, over which so
!uch heroic enterprise has been isplaye"
The history of geographical iscovery in *!erica is thus in large
!easure a history of conIuest" Ben got to know both coast$line an
interior while eneavouring either to trae or to settle where
nature was propitious, or the country affore !ineral or vegetable
wealth that coul be easily transporte" 8f the coast early knowlege
was acIuire for geographyH but where the continent broaens out
either north or south, !aking the interior inaccessible for trae
purposes with the coasts, ignorance re!aine even own to the present
century" 1ven to the present ay the country south of the valley
of the *!aGon is perhaps as little known as any portion of the
earth's surface, while, as we have seen, it was not till the early
years of this century that any knowlege was acIuire of the huge
tract of country between the Bississippi an the +ocky Bountains"
7t was the natural eDpansion of the =nite States, renere possible
by the cession of this tract to the States by >apoleon in 39.A,
that brought it within the knowlege of all" That eDpansion was
chiefly ue to the i!prove !ethos of co!!unication which stea!
has given to !ankin only within this century" But for this the
region east of the +ocky Bountains woul possibly be as little
known to 1uropeans, even at the present ay, as the Souan or
So!alilan" 7t is owing to this natural eDpansion of the States,
an in !inor !easure of 6anaa, that few great na!es of geographical
eDplorers are connecte with our knowlege of the interior of >orth
*!erica" =nknown settlers have been the pioneers of geography,
an not as elsewhere has the reverse been the case" 7n the two
other continents whose geographical history we have still to trace,
*ustralia an *frica, eDplorers have precee settlers or conIuerors,
an we can generally follow the course of geographical iscovery
in their case without the necessity of iscussing their political
0@*uthorities&@ (insor, @<ro! 6artier to <rontenac@H Gelcich, in
@Bittheilungen@ of Geographical Society of ?ienna, 394-"5
6'*PT1+ L
*=ST+*%7* *>D T'1 S8=T' S1*S$$T*SB*> *>D 688)
7f one looks at the west coast of *ustralia one is struck by the
large nu!ber of Dutch na!es which are jotte own the coast" There
is 'oog 7slan, Die!en's Bay, 'out!an's *brolhos, De (it lan, an
the *rchipelago of >uyts, besies Dirk 'artog's 7slan an 6ape
%eeuwin" To the eDtre!e north we fin the Gulf of 6arpentaria,
an to the eDtre!e south the islan which use to be calle ?an
Die!en's %an" 7t is not altogether to be wonere at that al!ost
to the !ile of this century the lan we now call *ustralia was
tolerably well known as >ew 'ollan" 7f the Dutch ha struck the
!ore fertile eastern shores of the *ustralian continent, it !ight
have been calle with reason >ew 'ollan to the present ayH but
there is scarcely any long coast$line of the worl so inhospitable
an so little pro!ising as that of (estern *ustralia, an one can
easily unerstan how the Dutch, though they eDplore it, i not
care to take possession of it"
07llustration& T1++1S *=ST+*%1S" 'apr\s '*nville" 3,/R"5
But though the Dutch were the first to eDplore any consierable
stretch of *ustralian coast, they were by no !eans the first to
sight it" *s early as 3:/- a Spanish eDpeition uner %uis %opeG e
?illalobos, was espatche to follow up the iscoveries of Bagellan
in the Pacific 8cean within the Spanish sphere of influence" 'e
iscovere several of the islans of Polynesia, an atte!pte to
seiGe the Philippines, but his fleet ha to return to >ew Spain"
8ne of the ships coaste along an islan to which was given the
na!e of >ew Guinea, an was thought to be part of the great unknown
southern lan which Ptole!y ha i!agine to eDist in the south
of the 7nian 8cean, an to be connecte in so!e way with Tierra
el <uego" 6uriosity was thus arouse, an in 3R.R Pero e Juiros
was espatche on a voyage to the South Seas with three ships"
'e iscovere the >ew 'ebries, an believe it for!e part of
the southern continent, an he therefore na!e it *ustralia el
1spiritu Santo, an hastene ho!e to obtain the viceroyalty of
this new possession" 8ne of his ships got separate fro! hi!, an
the co!!aner, %uys ?aG e Torres, saile farther to the south$west,
an thereby learne that the >ew *ustralia was not a continent but
an islan" 'e proceee farther till he ca!e to >ew Guinea, which
he coaste along the south coast, an seeing lan to the south of
hi!, he thus passe through the straits since na!e after hi!, an
was probably the first 1uropean to see the continent of *ustralia"
7n the very sa!e year M3R.RN the Dutch yacht na!e the @Duyfken@ is
sai to have coaste along the south an west coasts of >ew Guinea
nearly a thousan !iles, till they reache 6ape )eerweer, or Fturn
again"F This was probably the north$west coast of *ustralia" 7n the
first thirty years of the seventeenth century the Dutch followe
the west coast of *ustralia with as !uch inustry as the Portuguese
ha one with the west coast of *frica, leaving up to the present
ay signs of their eDplorations in the na!es of islans, bays,
an capes" Dirk 'artog, in the @1nraaght@, iscovere that %an
which is na!e after his ship, an the cape an roastea na!e
after hi!self, in 3R3R" Jan 1els left his na!e upon the western
coast in 3R34H while, three years later, a ship na!e the @%ioness@
or @%eeuwin@ reache the !ost western point of the continent, to
which its na!e is still attache" <ive years later, in 3R-,, De
>uyts coaste roun the south coast of *ustraliaH while in the
sa!e year a Dutch co!!aner na!e 6arpenter iscovere an gave
his na!e to the i!!ense inentation still known as the Gulf of
But still !ore i!portant iscoveries were !ae in 3R/- by an eDpeition
sent out fro! Batavia uner *B1% J*>SS1> T*SB*> to investigate
the real eDtent of the southern lan" *fter the voyages of the
@%eeuwin@ an De >uyts it was seen that the southern coast of the
new lan trene to the east, instea of working roun to the west,
as woul have been the case if Ptole!y's views ha been correct"
Tas!an's proble! was to iscover whether it was connecte with the
great southern lan assu!e to lie to the south of South *!erica"
Tas!an first saile fro! Bauritius, an then irecting his course
to the south$east, going !uch !ore south than 6ape %eeuwin, at
last reache lan in latitue /A"A.U an longitue 3RA":.U" This
he calle ?an Die!en's %an, after the na!e of the Governor$General
of Batavia, an it was assu!e that this joine on to the lan
alreay iscovere by De >uyts" Sailing farther to the eastwar,
Tas!an ca!e out into the open sea again, an thus appeare to prove
that the newly iscovere lan was not connecte with the great
unknown continent roun the south pole"
But he soon ca!e across lan which !ight possibly answer to that
escription, an he calle it Staaten %an, in honour of the
States$General of the >etherlans" This was unoubtely so!e part
of >ew Qealan" Still steering eastwar, but with a !ore northerly
tren, Tas!an iscovere several islans in the Pacific, an ulti!ately
reache Batavia after touching on >ew Guinea" 'is iscoveries were
a great avance on previous knowlegeH he ha at any rate reuce
the possible i!ensions of the unknown continent of the south within
narrow li!its, an his iscoveries were justly inscribe upon the !ap
of the worl cut in stone upon the new Staathaus in *!stera!, in
which the na!e >ew 'ollan was given by orer of the States$General
to the western part of the Fterra *ustralis"F (hen 1nglan for a
ti!e beca!e joine on to 'ollan uner the rule of (illia! 777",
(illia! Da!pier was espatche to >ew 'ollan to !ake further
iscoveries" 'e retrace the eDplorations of the Dutch fro! Dirk
'artog's Bay to >ew Guinea, an appears to have been the first
1uropean to have notice the habits of the kangarooH otherwise
his voyage i not a !uch to geographical knowlege, though when
he left the coasts of >ew Guinea he steere between >ew 1nglan
an >ew 7relan"
*s a result of these Dutch voyages the eDistence of a great lan
so!ewhere to the south$east of *sia beca!e co!!on property to all
civilise !en" *s an instance of this fa!iliarity !any years before
6ook's epoch$!aking voyages, it !ay be !entione that in 3R44 6aptain
%e!uel Gulliver Min Swift's celebrate ro!anceN arrive at the kingo!
of %illiput by steering north$west fro! ?an Die!en's %an, which he
!entions by na!e" %illiput, it woul thus appear, was situate
so!ewhere in the neighbourhoo of the great Bight of *ustralia" This
curious !iDture of efinite knowlege an vague ignorance on the
part of Swift eDactly correspons to the state of geographical
knowlege about *ustralia in his ays, as is shown in the preceing
!ap of those parts of the worl, as given by the great <rench
cartographer D'*nville in 3,/: Mp" 3:,N"
These iscoveries of the Spanish an Dutch were irect results
an corollaries of the great search for the Spice 7slans, which
has for!e the !ain subject of our inIuiries" The iscoveries were
!ostly !ae by ships fitte out in the Balay archipelago, if not
fro! the Spice 7slans the!selves" But at the beginning of the
eighteenth century new !otives ca!e into play in the search for
new lansH by that ti!e al!ost the whole coast$line of the worl
was roughly known" The Portuguese ha coaste *frica, the Spanish
South *!erica, the 1nglish !ost of the east of >orth *!erica, while
6entral *!erica was known through the Spaniars" Bany of the islans
of the Pacific 8cean ha been touche upon, though not accurately
surveye, an there re!aine only the north$west coast of *!erica
an the north$east coast of *sia to be eDplore, while the great
re!aining proble! of geography was to iscover if the great southern
continent assu!e by Ptole!y eDiste, an, if so, what were its
i!ensions" 7t happene that all these proble!s of coastline geography,
if we !ay so call it, were estine to be solve by one !an, an
1nglish!an na!e J*B1S 688), who, with Prince 'enry, Bagellan, an
Tas!an, !ay be sai to have eter!ine the li!its of the habitable
'is voyages were !ae in the interests, not of trae or conIuest,
but of scientific curiosityH an they were, appropriately enough,
begun in the interests of Iuite a ifferent science than that of
geography" The 1nglish astrono!er 'alley ha left as a sort of legacy
the task of eDa!ining the transit of ?enus, which he preicte for
the year 3,R4, pointing out its para!ount i!portance for eter!ining
the istance of the sun fro! the earth" This transit coul only
be observe in the southern he!isphere, an it was in orer to
observe it that 6ook !ae his first voyage of eDploration"
There was a ouble suitability in the !otive of 6ook's first voyage"
The work of his life coul only have been carrie out owing to the
i!prove!ent in nautical instru!ents which ha been !ae uring
the early part of the eighteenth century" 'aley ha invente the
seDtant, by which the sun's elevation coul be taken with !uch
!ore ease an accuracy than with the ol cross$staff, the very
rough gno!on which the earlier navigators ha to use" Still !ore
i!portant for scientific geography was the i!prove!ent that ha
taken place in accurate chrono!etry" To fin the latitue of a
place is not so ifficult$$the length of the ay at ifferent ti!es
of the year will by itself be al!ost enough to eter!ine this, as
we have seen in the very earliest history of Greek geography$$but
to eter!ine the longitue was a !uch !ore ifficult task, which
in the earlier stages coul only be for!e by guesswork an ea
But when clocks ha been brought to such a pitch of accuracy that
they woul not lose but a few secons or !inutes uring the whole
voyage, they coul be use to eter!ine the ifference of local
ti!e between any spot on the earth's surface an that of the port
fro! which the ship saile, or fro! so!e fiDe place where the clock
coul be ti!e" The 1nglish govern!ent, seeing the i!portance of
this, propose the very large rewar of ]3.,... for the invention
of a chrono!eter which woul not lose !ore than a state nu!ber of
!inutes uring a year" This priGe was won by John 'arrison, an
fro! this ti!e onwar a sea$captain with a !ini!u! of astrono!ical
knowlege was enable to know his longitue within a few !inutes"
'aley's seDtant an 'arrison's chrono!eter were the necessary
i!ple!ents to enable Ja!es 6ook to o his work, which was thus,
both in ai! an !etho, in every way 1nglish"
Ja!es 6ook was a practical sailor, who ha shown consierable
intelligence in souning the St" %awrence on (olfe's eDpeition,
an ha afterwars been appointe !arine surveyor of >ewfounlan"
(hen the +oyal Society eter!ine to sen out an eDpeition to
observe the transit of ?enus, accoring to 'alley's preiction,
they were eterre fro! entrusting the eDpeition to a scientific
!an by the eDa!ple of 'alley hi!self, who ha faile to obtain
obeience fro! sailors on being entruste with the co!!an" Dalry!ple,
the chief hyrographer of the *!iralty, who ha chief clai!s to
the co!!an, was also so!ewhat of a faist, an 6ook was selecte
al!ost as a @ernier ressort@" The choice prove an eDcellent one"
'e selecte a coasting coaler na!e the @1neavour@, of AR. tons,
because her breath of bea! woul enable her to carry !ore stores
an to run near coasts" Just before they starte 6aptain (allis
returne fro! a voyage roun the worl upon which he ha iscovere
or re$iscovere Tahiti, an he reco!!ene this as a suitable
place for observing the transit"
6ook uly arrive there, an on the Ar of June 3,R4 the !ain object
of the eDpeition was fulfille by a successful observation" But
he then proceee farther, an arrive soon at a lan which he
saw reason to ientify with the Staaten %an of Tas!anH but on
coasting along this, 6ook foun that, so far fro! belonging to a
great southern continent, it was co!pose of two islans, between
which he saile, giving his na!e to the strait separating the!"
%eaving >ew Qealan on the A3st of Barch 3,,., on the of the
neDt !onth he ca!e across another lan to the westwar, hitherto
unknown to !ariners" 1ntering an inlet, he eDplore the neighbourhoo
with the ai of Br" Joseph Banks, the naturalist of the eDpeition"
'e foun so !any plants new to hi!, that the bay was ter!e Botany
'e then coaste northwar, an nearly lost his ship upon the great
reef running own the eastern coastH but by keeping within it he
!anage to reach the eDtre!e en of the lan in this irection,
an prove that it was istinct fro! >ew Guinea" 7n other wors,
he ha reache the southern point of the strait na!e after Torres"
To this i!!ense line of coast 6ook gave the na!e of >ew South (ales,
fro! so!e rese!blance that he saw to the coast about Swansea" By this
first voyage 6ook ha prove that neither >ew 'ollan nor Staaten
%an belonge to the great *ntarctic continent, which re!aine
the sole !yth beIueathe by the ancients which ha not yet been
efinitely re!ove fro! the !aps" 7n his secon voyage, starting
in 3,,-, he was irecte to settle finally this proble!" 'e went
at once to the 6ape of Goo 'ope, an fro! there starte out on
a GigGag journey roun the Southern Pole, poking the nose of his
vessel in all irections as far south as he coul reach, only pulling
up when he touche ice" 7n whatever irection he avance he faile
to fin any trace of eDtensive lan corresponing to the suppose
*ntarctic continent, which he thus efinitely prove to be non$eDistent"
'e spent the re!ainer of this voyage in reiscovering various
sets of archipelagos which preceing Spanish, Dutch, an 1nglish
navigators ha touche, but ha never accurately surveye" %ater
on 6ook !ae a run across the Pacific fro! >ew Qealan to 6ape
'orn without iscovering any eDtensive lan, thus clinching the
!atter after three years' careful inIuiry" 7t is worthy of re!ark
that uring that long ti!e he lost but four out of 339 !en, an
only one of the! by sickness"
8nly one great proble! to !ariti!e geography still re!aine to be
solve, that of the north$west passage, which, as we have seen,
ha so freIuently been trie by 1nglish navigators, working fro!
the east through 'uson's Bay" 7n 3,,R 6ook was epute by George
777" to atte!pt the solution of this proble! by a new !etho" 'e
was irecte to eneavour to fin an opening on the north$west
coast of *!erica which woul lea into 'uson's Bay" The ol legen
of Juan e <uca's great bay still !isle geographers as to this
coast" 6ook not alone settle this proble!, but, by avancing through
Behring Strait an eDa!ining both sies of it, eter!ine that
the two continents of *sia an *!erica approache one another as
near as thirty$siD !iles" 8n his return voyage he lane at 8whyee
M'awaiiN, where he was slain in 3,,,, an his ships returne to
1nglan without aing anything further to geographical knowlege"
6ook's voyages ha arouse the generous e!ulation of the <rench,
who, to their eternal honour, ha given irections to their fleet
to respect his vessels wherever foun, though <rance was at that
ti!e at war with 1nglan" 7n 3,9A an eDpeition was sent, uner
<ran^ois e la POrouse, to co!plete 6ook's work" 'e eDplore the
north$east coast of *sia, eDa!ine the islan of Saghalien, an
passe through the strait between it an Japan, often calle by
his na!e" 7n )a!tschatka %a POrouse lane Bonsieur %esseps, who
ha acco!panie the eDpeition as +ussian interpreter, an sent ho!e
by hi! his journals an surveys" %esseps !ae a careful eDa!ination
of )a!tschatka hi!self, an succeee in passing overlan thence
to Paris, being the first 1uropean to journey co!pletely across
the 8l (orl fro! the Pacific to the *tlantic 8cean" %a POrouse
then proceee to follow 6ook by eDa!ining the coast of >ew South
(ales, an to his surprise, when entering a fine harbour in the
!ile of the coast, foun there 1nglish ships engage in settling
the first *ustralian colony in 3,9," *fter again elivering his
surveys to be forware by the 1nglish!en, he starte to survey
the coast of >ew 'ollan, but his eDpeition was never hear of
afterwars" *s late as 39-R it was iscovere that they ha been
wrecke on ?anikoro, an islan near the <ijis"
(e have seen that 6ook's eDploration of the eastern coast of *ustralia
was soon followe up by a settle!ent" * nu!ber of convicts were
sent out uner 6aptain Philips to Botany Bay, an fro! that ti!e
onwar 1nglish eDplorers graually eter!ine with accuracy both
the coast$line an the interior of the huge stretch of lan known
to us as *ustralia" 8ne of the ships that ha acco!panie 6ook on
his secon voyage ha !ae a rough survey of ?an Die!en's %an,
an ha co!e to the conclusion that it joine on to the !ainlan"
But in 3,4,, Bass, a surgeon in the navy, coaste own fro! Port
Jackson to the south in a fine whale boat with a crew of siD !en,
an iscovere open sea running between the southern!ost point an
?an Die!en's %anH this is still known as Bass' Strait" * co!panion
of his, na!e <liners, coaste, in 3,44, along the south coast fro!
6ape %eeuwin eastwar, an on this voyage !et a <rench ship at
1ncounter Bay, so na!e fro! the @rencontre@" Proceeing farther,
he iscovere Port PhilipH an the coast$line of *ustralia was
approDi!ately settle after 6aptain P" P" )ing in four voyages,
between 393, an 39--, ha investigate the river !ouths"
07llustration& T'1 1LP%8+*T78> 8< *=ST+*%7*"5
The interior now re!aine to be investigate" 8n the east coast
this was renere ifficult by the range of the Blue Bountains,
honeyco!be throughout with huge gullies, which le investigators
ti!e after ti!e into a cul$e$sacH but in 393A Philip (entworth
!anage to cross the!, an foun a fertile plateau to the westwar"
>eDt year 1vans iscovere the %achlan an BacIuarie rivers, an
penetrate farther into the Bathurst plains" 7n 39-9$-4 6aptain
Sturt increase the knowlege of the interior by tracing the course
of the two great rivers Darling an Burray" 7n 39/9 the Ger!an
eDplorer %eichhart lost his life in an atte!pt to penetrate the
interior northwarH but in 39R. two eDplorers, na!e Burke an (ills,
!anage to pass fro! south to north along the east coastH while, in
the four years 39:9 to 39R-, John B'Dowall Stuart perfor!e the
still !ore ifficult feat of crossing the centre of the continent
fro! south to north, in orer to trace a course for the telegraphic
line which was shortly afterwars erecte" By this ti!e settle!ents
ha sprung up throughout the whole coast of 1astern *ustralia,
an there only re!aine the western esert to be eDplore" This
was effecte in two journeys of John <orrest, between 39R9 an
39,/, who penetrate fro! (estern *ustralia as far as the central
telegraphic lineH while, between 39,- an 39,R, 1rnest Giles perfor!e
the sa!e feat to the north" Juite recently, in 394,, these two
routes were joine by the journey of the 'onourable Daniel 6arnegie
fro! the 6oolgarie gol fiels in the south to those of )i!berley
in the north" These eDplorations, while aing to our knowlege
of the interior of *ustralia, have only confir!e the i!pression
that it was not worth knowing"
0@*uthorities&@ +ev" G" Gri!!, @Discovsry an 1Dploration of *ustralia@
MBelbourne, 3999NH *" <" 6alvert, @Discovery of *ustralia@, 394AH
@1Dploration of *ustralia@, 394:H @1arly ?oyages to *ustralia@,
'akluyt Society"5
6'*PT1+ L7
1LP%8+*T78> *>D P*+T7T78> 8< *<+76*& P*+)$$%7?7>GST8>1$$ST*>%1#
(e have seen how the Portuguese ha slowly coaste along the shore
of *frica uring the fifteeenth century in search of a way to the
7nies" By the en of the century !ariners @portulanos@ gave a
rue yet effective account of the littoral of *frica, both on the
west an the eastern sie" >ot alone i they eDplore the coast, but
they settle upon it" *t *!ina on the Guinea coast, at %oano near
the 6ongo, an at Benguela on the western coast, they establishe
stations whence to espatch the gol an ivory, an, above all, the
slaves, which turne out to be the chief *frican proucts of use
to 1uropeans" 8n the east coast they settle at Sofala, a port of
BoGa!biIueH an in QanGibar they possesse no less than three ports,
those first visite by ?asco a Ga!a an afterwars celebrate by
Bilton in the sonorous line containe in the gorgeous geographical
eDcursus in the 1leventh Book$$
FBo!baGa an Juiloa an Belin"F
$$@Paraise %ost@, Di" AA4"
7t is probable that, besies settling on the coast, the Portuguese
fro! ti!e to ti!e !ae eDplorations into the interior" *t any rate,
in so!e !aps of the siDteenth an seventeenth century there is
shown a re!arkable knowlege of the course of the >ile" (e get
it ter!inate in three large lakes, which can be scarcely other
than the ?ictoria an *lbert >yanGa, an Tanganyika" The Bountains
of the Boon also figure pro!inently, an it was only al!ost the
other ay that Br" Stanley re$iscovere the!" 7t is ifficult,
however, to eter!ine how far these entries on the Portuguese !aps
were ue to actual knowlege or report, or to the traitions of a
still earlier knowlege of these lakes an !ountainsH for in the
!aps acco!panying the early eitions of Ptole!y we likewise obtain
the sa!e infor!ation, which is repeate by the *rabic geographers,
obviously fro! Ptole!y, an not fro! actual observation" (hen the
two great <rench cartographers Delisle an D'*nville eter!ine
not to insert anything on their !aps for which they ha not so!e
evience, these lakes an !ountains isappeare, an thus it has
co!e about that !aps of the seventeenth century often appear to
isplay !ore knowlege of the interior of *frica than those of the
beginning of the nineteenth, at least with regar to the sources
of the >ile"
07llustration& D*PP1+'S B*P 8< *<+76*, 3R,R"5
*frican eDploration of the interior begins with the search for
the sources of the >ile, an has been !ainly conclue by the
eter!ination of the course of the three other great rivers, the
>iger, the Qa!besi, an the 6ongo" 7t is re!arkable that all four
rivers have ha their course eter!ine by persons of British
nationality" The na!es of Bruce an Grant will always be associate
with the >ile, that of Bungo Park with the >iger, Dr" %ivingstone with
the Qa!besi, an Br" Stanley with the 6ongo" 7t is not inappropriate
that, eDcept in the case of the 6ongo, 1nglan shoul control the
course of the rivers which her sons first !ae accessible to
(e have seen that there was an ancient traition reporte by 'erootus,
that the >ile trene off to the west an beca!e there the river
>igerH while still earlier there was an i!pression that part of
it at any rate wanere eastwar, an so!e way joine on to the
sa!e source as the Tigris an 1uphrates$$at least that see!s to be
the suggestion in the biblical account of Paraise" (hatever the
reason, the greatest uncertainty eDiste as to the actual course
of the river, an to iscover the source of the >ile was for !any
centuries the staning eDpression for perfor!ing the i!possible" 7n
3,R9, Ja!es Bruce, a Scottish gentle!an of position, set out with
the eter!ination of solving this !ystery$$a eter!ination which
he ha !ae in early youth, an carrie out with characteristic
pertinacity" 'e ha acIuire a certain a!ount of knowlege of *rabic
an acIuaintance with *frican custo!s as 6onsul at *lgiers" 'e went
up the >ile as far as <arsunt, an then crosse the esert to the +e
Sea, went over to Jea, fro! which he took ship for Bassowah, an
began his search for the sources of the >ile in *byssinia" 'e visite
the ruins of *Du!, the for!er capital, an in the neighbourhoo of
that place saw the incient with which his travels have always
been associate, in which a couple of ru!p$steaks were eDtracte
fro! a cow while alive, the woun sewn up, an the ani!al riven
on farther"
'ere, guie by so!e Gallas, he worke his way up the Blue >ile
to the three fountains, which he eclare to be the true sources
of the >ile, an ientifie with the three !ysterious lakes in
the ol !aps" <ro! there he worke his way own the >ile, reaching
6airo in 3,,A" 8f course what he ha iscovere was !erely the
source of the Blue >ile, an even this ha been previously visite
by a Portuguese traveller na!e PayG" But the interesting aventures
which he eDperience, an the interesting style in which he tol
the!, arouse universal attention, which was perhaps increase
by the fact that his journey was unertaken purely fro! love of
aventure an iscovery" The year 3,R9 is istinguishe by the
two journeys of Ja!es 6ook an Ja!es Bruce, both of the! eDpressly
for purposes of geographical iscovery, an thus inaugurating the
era of what !ay be calle scientific eDploration" Ten years later
an association was for!e na!e the *frican *ssociation, eDpressly
intene to eDplore the unknown parts of *frica, an the first
geographical society calle into eDistence" 7n 3,4: B=>G8 P*+) was
espatche by the *ssociation to the west coast" 'e starte fro!
the Ga!bia, an after !any aventures, in which he was capture
by the Boors, arrive at the banks of the >iger, which he trace
along its !ile course, but faile to reach as far as Ti!buctoo"
'e !ae a secon atte!pt in 39.:, hoping by sailing own the >iger
to prove its ientity with the river known at its !outh as the
6ongoH but he was force to return, an ie at Boussa, without
having eter!ine the re!aining course of the >iger"
*ttention was thus rawn to the eDistence of the !ysterious city
of Ti!buctoo, of which Bungo Park ha brought back curious ru!ours
on his return fro! his first journey" This was visite in 3933 by
a British sea!an na!e *a!s, who ha been wrecke on the Boorish
coast, an taken as a slave by the Boors across to Ti!buctoo" 'e
was ulti!ately ranso!e by the British consul at Bogaor, an his
account revive interest in (est *frican eDploration" *tte!pts were
!ae to penetrate the secret of the >iger, both fro! Senega!bia
an fro! the 6ongo, but both were failures, an a fresh !etho was
aopte, possibly owing to *a!s' eDperience in the atte!pt to
reach the >iger by the caravan routes across the Sahara" 7n 39--
Bajor Denha! an %ieutenant 6lapperton left BurGouk, the capital
of <eGGan, an !ae their way to %ake 6ha an thence to Bornu"
6lapperton, later on, again visite the >iger fro! Benin" *ltogether
these two travellers ae so!e two thousan !iles of route to
our knowlege of, (est *frica" 7n 39-R$-, Ti!buctoo was at last
visite by two 1uropeans$$Bajor %aing in the for!er year, who was
!urere thereH an a young <rench!an, +OnO 6ailliO, in the latter"
'is account arouse great interest, an Tennyson began his poetic
career by a priGe$poe! on the subject of the !ysterious *frican
7t was not till 39:. that the work of Denha! an 6lapperton was
again taken up by Barth, who for five years eDplore the whole
country to the west of %ake 6ha, visiting Ti!buctoo, an connecting
the lines of route of 6lapperton an 6ailliO" (hat he i for the
west of %ake 6ha was acco!plishe by >achtigall east of that lake
in Darfur an (aai, in a journey which likewise took five years
M39R4$,/N" 8f recent years political interests have cause nu!erous
eDpeitions, especially by the <rench to connect their possessions
in *lgeria an Tunis with those on the Gol 6oast an on the Senegal"
The neDt stage in *frican eDploration is connecte with the na!e
of the !an to who! can be trace practically the whole of recent
iscoveries" By his tact in ealing with the natives, by his cal!
pertinacity an auntless courage, D*?7D %7?7>GST8>1 succeee
in opening up the entirely unknown istricts of 6entral *frica"
Starting fro! the 6ape in 39/4, he worke his way northwar to the
Qa!besi, an then to %ake Dilolo, an after five years' wanering
reache the western coast of *frica at %oana" Then retracing his
steps to the Qa!besi again, he followe its course to its !outh
on the east coast, thus for the first ti!e crossing *frica fro!
west to east" 7n a secon journey, on which he starte in 39:9, he
co!!ence tracing the course of the river ShirO, the !ost i!portant
affluent of the Qa!besi, an in so oing arrive on the shores of
%ake >yassa in Septe!ber 39:4"
Beanwhile two eDplorers, 6aptain Mafterwars Sir +icharN Burton
an 6aptain Speke, ha starte fro! QanGibar to iscover a lake of
which ru!ours ha for a long ti!e been hear, an in the following
year succeee in reaching %ake Tanganyika" 8n their return Speke
parte fro! Burton an took a route !ore to the north, fro! which
he saw another great lake, which afterwars turne out to be the
?ictoria >yanGa" 7n 39R., with another co!panion M6aptain GrantN,
Speke returne to the ?ictoria >yanGa, an trace out its course" 8n
the north of it they foun a great river trening to the north, which
they followe as far as Gonokoro" 'ere they foun Br" Mafterwars Sir
Sa!uelN Baker, who ha travelle up the (hite >ile to investigate its
source, which they thus prove to be in the %ake ?ictoria >yanGa"
Baker continue his search, an succeee in showing that another
source of the >ile was to be foun in a s!aller lake to the west,
which he na!e *lbert >yanGa" Thus these three 1nglish!en ha co!bine
to solve the long$sought proble! of the sources of the >ile"
The iscoveries of the 1nglish!en were soon followe up by i!portant
political action by the )heive of 1gypt, 7s!ail Pasha, who clai!e
the whole course of the >ile as part of his o!inions, an establishe
stations all along it" This, of course, le to full infor!ation about
the basin of the >ile being acIuire for geographical purposes, an,
uner Sir Sa!uel Baker an 6olonel Goron, civilisation was for a
ti!e in possession of the >ile fro! its source to its !outh"
Beanwhile %ivingstone ha set hi!self to solve the proble! of the
great %ake Tanganyika, an starte on his last journey in 39R:
for that purpose" 'e iscovere %akes Boero an Bangweolo, an
the river >yangoue, also known as %ualaba" So !uch interest ha
been arouse by %ivingstone's previous eDploits of iscovery, that
when nothing ha been hear of hi! for so!e ti!e, in 39R4 Br" '"
B" Stanley was sent by the proprietors of the @>ew #ork 'eral@,
for who! he ha previously acte as war$corresponent, to fin
%ivingstone" 'e starte in 39,3 fro! QanGibar, an before the en
of the year ha co!e across a white !an in the heart of the Dark
6ontinent, an greete hi! with the historic Iuery, FDr" %ivingstone,
7 presu!eSF Two years later %ivingstone ie, a !artyr to geographical
an !issionary enthusias!" 'is work was taken up by Br" Stanley,
who in 39,R was again espatche to continue %ivingstone's work,
an succeee in crossing the Dark 6ontinent fro! QanGibar to the
!outh of the 6ongo, the whole course of which he trace, proving
that the %ualaba or >yangoue were !erely ifferent na!es or affluents
of this !ighty strea!" Stanley's re!arkable journey co!plete the
rough outline of *frican geography by efining the course of the
fourth great river of the continent"
But Stanley's journey across the Dark 6ontinent was estine to be
the starting$point of an entirely new evelop!ent of the *frican
proble!" 1ven while Stanley was on his journey a conference ha been
asse!ble at Brussels by )ing %eopol, in which an international
co!!ittee was for!e representing all the nations of 1urope, no!inally
for the eDploration of *frica, but, as it turne out, really for
its partition a!ong the 1uropean powers" (ithin fifteen years of
the asse!bly of the conference the interior of *frica ha been
parcelle out, !ainly a!ong the five powers, 1nglan, <rance, Ger!any,
Portugal, an Belgiu!" *s in the case of *!erica, geographical
iscovery was soon followe by political ivision"
07llustration& 1LP%8+*T78> *>D P*+T7T78> 8< *<+76*"5
The process began by the carving out of a state covering the whole
of the newly$iscovere 6ongo, no!inally inepenent, but really
for!ing a colony of Belgiu!, )ing %eopol supplying the funs for
that purpose" Br" Stanley was espatche in 39,4 to establish stations
along the lower course of the river, but, to his surprise, he foun
that he ha been anticipate by B" e BraGGa, a Portuguese in the
service of <rance, who ha been espatche on a secret !ission to
anticipate the )ing of the Belgians in seiGing the i!portant river
!outh" *t the sa!e ti!e Portugal put in clai!s for possession of
the 6ongo !outh, an it beca!e clear that international rivalries
woul interfere with the founation of any state on the 6ongo unless
so!e efinite international arrange!ent was arrive at" *l!ost
about the sa!e ti!e, in 399., Ger!any began to enter the fiel
as a colonising power in *frica" 7n South$(est *frica an in the
6a!eroons, an so!ewhat later in QanGibar, clai!s were set up on
behalf of Ger!any by Prince Bis!arck which conflicte with 1nglish
interests in those istricts, an uner his presiency a 6ongress
was hel at Berlin in the winter of 399/$9: to eter!ine the rules
of the clai!s by which *frica coul be partitione" The ol historic
clai!s of Portugal to the coast of *frica, on which she ha establishe
stations both on the west an eastern sie, were swept away by the
principle that only effective occupation coul furnish a clai! of
sovereignty" This great principle will rule henceforth the whole
course of *frican historyH in other wors, the goo ol Borer
FThat they shoul take who have the power"
*n they shoul keep who can"F
*l!ost i!!eiately after the sitting of the Berlin 6ongress, an
inee uring it, arrange!ents were co!e to by which the respective
clai!s of 1nglan an Ger!any in South$(est *frica were efinitely
eter!ine" *l!ost i!!eiately afterwars a si!ilar process ha to
be gone through in orer to eter!ine the li!its of the respective
Fspheres of influence,F as they began to be calle, of Ger!any an
1nglan in 1ast *frica" * 6hartere 6o!pany, calle the British 1ast
*frica *ssociation, was to a!inister the lan north of ?ictoria >yanGa
boune on the west by the 6ongo <ree State, while to the north it
eDtene till it touche the revolte provinces of 1gypt, of which
we shall soon speak" 7n South *frica a si!ilar 6hartere 6o!pany,
uner the influence of Br" 6ecil +hoes, practically controlle the
whole country fro! 6ape 6olony up to Ger!an 1ast *frica an the
6ongo <ree State"
The winter of 394.$43 was especially prouctive of agree!ents of
e!arcation" *fter a consierable a!ount of friction owing to the
encroach!ents of Bajor Serpa Pinto, the li!its of Portuguese *ngola
on the west coast were then eter!ine, being boune on the east
by the 6ongo <ree State an British 6entral *fricaH an at the
sa!e ti!e Portuguese 1ast *frica was settle in its relation both
to British 6entral *frica on the west an Ger!an 1ast *frica on
the north" Beanwhile 7taly ha put in its clai!s for a share in
the spoil, an the eastern horn of *frica, together with *byssinia,
fell to its share, though it soon ha to rop it, owing to the
uneDpecte vitality shown by the *byssinians" 7n the sa!e year
M394.N agree!ents between Ger!any an 1nglan settle the line of
e!arcation between the 6a!eroons an Togolan, with the ajoining
British territoriesH while in *ugust of the sa!e year an atte!pt
was !ae to li!it the abnor!al pretensions of the <rench along
the >iger, an as far as %ake 6ha" 'ere the British interests
were represente by another 6hartere 6o!pany, the +oyal >iger
6o!pany" =nfortunately the eli!itation was not very efinite,
not being by river courses or !eriians as in other cases, but
!erely by territories rule over by native chiefs, whose bounaries
were not then particularly istinct" This has le to consierable
friction, lasting even up to the present ayH an it is only with
reference to the e!arcation between 1nglan an <rance in *frica
that any oubt still re!ains with regar to the western an central
portions of the continent"
Towars the north$east the proble! of eli!itation ha been co!plicate
by political events, which ulti!ately le to another great eDploring
eDpeition by Br" Stanley" The eDtension of 1gypt into the 1Iuatorial
Provinces uner 7s!ail Pasha, ue in large !easure to the geographical
iscoveries of Grant, Speke, an Baker, le to an enor!ous accu!ulation
of ebt, which cause the country to beco!e bankrupt, 7s!ail Pasha
to be epose, an 1gypt to be a!inistere jointly by <rance an
1nglan on behalf of the 1uropean bonholers" This cause !uch
issatisfaction on the part of the 1gyptian officials an ar!y
officers, who were isplace by <rench an 1nglish officialsH an
a rebellion broke out uner *rabi Pasha" This le to the ar!e
intervention of 1nglan, <rance having refuse to co$operate, an
1gypt was occupie by British troops" The Souan an 1Iuatorial
Provinces ha inepenently revolte uner Boha!!ean fanaticis!,
an it was eter!ine to relinIuish those 1gyptian possessions,
which ha originally le to bankruptcy" General Goron was espatche
to relieve the various 1gyptian garrisons in the south, but being
without support, ulti!ately faile, an was kille in 399:" 8ne
of Goron's lieutenants, a Ger!an na!e SchnitGler, who appears
to have aopte Boha!!eanis!, an was known as 1!in Pasha, was
thus isolate in the !ist of *frica near the *lbert >yanGa, an
Br" Stanley was co!!issione to atte!pt his rescue in 399," 'e
starte to !arch through the 6ongo State, an succeee in traversing
a huge tract of forest country inhabite by i!inutive savages,
who probably represente the Pig!ies of the ancients" 'e succeee
in reaching 1!in Pasha, an after !uch persuasion inuce hi! to
acco!pany hi! to QanGibar, only, however, to return as a Ger!an
agent to the *lbert >yanGa" Br" Stanley's journey on this occasion
was not without its political aspects, since he !ae arrange!ents
uring the eastern part of his journey for securing British influence
for the lans afterwars hane over to the British 1ast *frica
*ll these political eli!itations were naturally acco!panie by
eDplorations, partly scientific, but !ainly political" Bajor Serpa
Pinto twice crosse *frica in an atte!pt to connect the Portuguese
settle!ents on the two coasts" Si!ilarly, %ieutenant (iss!ann also
crosse *frica twice, between 3993 an 399,, in the interests of
the 6ongo State, though he ulti!ately beca!e an official of his
native country, Ger!any" 6aptain %ugar ha investigate the region
between the three %akes >yanGa, an secure it for Great Britain"
7n South *frica British clai!s were successfully an successively
avance to Bechuana$lan, Bashona$lan, an Batabele$lan, an,
uner the leaership of Br" 6ecil +hoes, a railway an telegraph
were rapily pushe forwar towars the north" 8wing to the enterprise
of Br" Mnow Sir '" '"N Johnstone, the British possessions were in
3943 pushe up as far as >yassa$lan" By that ate, as we have
seen, various treaties with Ger!any an Portugal ha efinitely
fiDe the contour lines of the ifferent possessions of the three
countries in South *frica" By 3943 the interior of *frica, which
ha up to 399. been practically a blank, coul be !appe out al!ost
with as !uch accuracy as, at any rate, South *!erica" 1urope ha
taken possession of *frica"
8ne of the chief results of this, an for!ally one of its !ain
!otives, was the abolition of the slave trae" >orth *frica has
been Boha!!ean since the eighth century, an 7sla! has always
recognise slavery, conseIuently the *rabs of the north have continue
to !ake rais upon the negroes of 6entral *frica, to supply the
Boha!!ean countries of (est *sia an >orth *frica with slaves"
The Bahist rebellion was in part at least a reaction against the
abolition of slavery by 1gypt, an the interest of the neDt few
years will consist in the last stan of the slave !erchants in
the Souan, in Darfur, an in (aai, east of %ake 6ha, where the
only powerful inepenent Boha!!ean Sultanate still eDists" 1nglan
is closely pressing upon the revolte provinces, along the upper
course of the >ileH while <rance is atte!pting, by eDpeitions
fro! the <rench 6ongo an through *byssinia, to take possession
of the =pper >ile before 1nglan conIuers it" The race for the
=pper >ile is at present one of the sources of anger of 1uropean
(hile eDploration an conIuest have either gone han in han, or
succeee one another very closely, there has been a thir !otive
that has often le to interesting iscoveries, to be followe by
anneDation" The !ighty hunters of *frica have often brought back,
not alone ivory an skins, but also interesting infor!ation of
the interior" The gorgeous narratives of Goron 6u!!ing in the
FfiftiesF were one of the causes which le to an interest in *frican
eDploration" Bany a la has ha his i!agination fire an his career
eter!ine by the eDploits of Goron 6u!!ing, which are now, however,
al!ost forgotten" Br" <" 6" Selous has in our ti!e surpasse even
Goron 6u!!ing's eDploits, an has besies one eDcellent work
as guie for the successive eDpeitions into South *frica"
Thus, practically within our own ti!e, the interior of *frica, where
once geographers, as the poet Butler puts it, Fplace elephants instea
of towns,F has beco!e known, in its !ain outlines, by successive
series of intrepi eDplorers, who have often ha to be warriors as
well as scientific !en" (hatever the !otives that have le the
white !an into the centre of the Dark 6ontinent$$love of aventure,
scientific curiosity, big ga!e, or patriotis!$$the result has been
that the continent has beco!e known instea of !erely its coast$line"
8n the whole, 1nglish eDploration has been the !ain !eans by which
our knowlege of the interior of *frica has been obtaine, an
1nglan has been richly reware by co!ing into possession of the
!ost pro!ising parts of the continent$$the >ile valley an te!perate
South *frica" But <rance has also gaine a huge eDtent of country
covering al!ost the whole of >orth$(est *frica" (hile !uch of this
is !erely esert, there are caravan routes which tap the basin of
the >iger an conuct its proucts to *lgeria, conIuere by <rance
early in the century, an to Tunis, !ore recently appropriate" The
(est *frican provinces of <rance have, at any rate, this avantage,
that they are nearer to the !other$country than any other colony
of a 1uropean powerH an the result !ay be that *frican soliers
!ay one of these ays fight for <rance on 1uropean soil, just as
the 7nian soliers were i!porte to 6yprus by %or Beaconsfiel
in 39,R" Beanwhile, the result of all this international a!bition
has been that *frica in its entirety is now known an accessible
to 1uropean civilisation"
0@*uthorities&@ )iepert, @Beitr_ge Gur 1nteckungsgeschichte *frikas@,
39,AH Brown, @The Story of *frica@, / vols", 394/H Scott )eltie,
@The Partition of *frica@, 394R"5
6'*PT1+ L77
T'1 P8%1S$$<+*>)%7>$$+8SS$$>8+D1>S)78%D$$>*>S1>
*l!ost the whole of the eDplorations which we have hitherto escribe
or referre to ha for their !otive so!e practical purpose, whether
to reach the Spice 7slans or to hunt big ga!e" 1ven the eDcursions
of Davis, <robisher, 'uson, an Baffin in pursuit of the north$west
passage, an of BarentG an 6hancellor in search of the north$east
passage, were really in pursuit of !ercantile ens" 7t is only with
Ja!es 6ook that the era of purely scientific eDploration begins,
though it is fair to Iualify this state!ent by observing that the
+ussian eDpeition uner Behring, alreay referre to, was orere
by Peter the Great to eter!ine a strictly geographical proble!,
though oubtless it ha its bearings on +ussian a!bitions" Behring
an 6ook between the!, as we have seen, settle the proble! of the
relations eDisting between the ens of the two continents *sia
an *!erica, but what re!aine still to the north of @terra fir!a@
within the *rctic 6ircleS That was the proble! which the nineteenth
century set itself to solve, an has very nearly succeee in the
solution" <or the *rctic 6ircle we now possess !aps that only show
blanks over a few thousan sIuare !iles"
This knowlege has been gaine by slow egrees, an by the eDercise
of the !ost heroic courage an enurance" 7t is a heroic tate, in
which love of aventure an Geal for science have co!bate with
an conIuere the horrors of an *rctic winter, the siD !onths'
arkness in silence an esolation, the eDcessive col, an the
angers of starvation" 7t is i!possible here to go into any of
the etails which renere the tale of *rctic voyages one of the
!ost stirring in hu!an history" *ll we are concerne with here is
the a!ount of new knowlege brought back by successive eDpeitions
within the *rctic 6ircle"
This region of the earth's surface is istinguishe by a nu!ber
of large islans in the eastern he!isphere, !ost of which were
iscovere at an early ate" (e have seen how the >orse!en lane
an settle upon Greenlan as early as the tenth century" Burrough
sighte >ova Qe!bla in 3::RH in one of the voyages in search of the
north$east passage, though the very na!e M+ussian for >ewfounlanN
i!plies that it ha previously been sighte an na!e by +ussian
sea!en" BarentG is creite with having sighte SpitGbergen" The
nu!erous islans to the north of Siberia beca!e known through the
+ussian investigations of Discheneff, Behring, an their followersH
while the intricate network of islans to the north of the continent
of >orth *!erica ha been slowly worke out uring the search for the
north$west passage" 7t was inee in pursuit of this will$of$the$wisp
that !ost of the iscoveries in the *rctic 6ircle were !ae, an
a general i!petus given to *rctic eDploration"
7t is with a renewe atte!pt after this search that the !oern history
of *rctic eDploration begins" 7n 3939 two eDpeitions were sent uner
the influence of Sir Joseph Banks to search the north$west passage,
an to atte!pt to reach the Pole" The for!er was the objective of
John +oss in the @7sabella@ an (" 1" Parry in the @*leDaner@,
while in the Polar eDploration John <ranklin saile in the @Trent@"
Both eDpeitions were unsuccessful, though +oss an Parry confir!e
Baffin's iscoveries" >otwithstaning this, two eDpeitions were
sent two years later to atte!pt the north$west passage, one by lan
uner <ranklin, an the other by sea uner Parry" Parry !anage
to get half$way across the top of >orth *!erica, iscovere the
archipelago na!e after hi!, an reache 33/U (est longitue, thereby
gaining the priGe of ]:... given by the British Parlia!ent for
the first sea!an that saile west of the !eriian" 'e was
brought up, however, by Banks %an, while the strait which, if he
ha known it, woul have enable hi! to co!plete the north$west
passage, was at that ti!e close by ice" 7n two successive voyages,
in 39-- an 39-/, Parry increase the etaile knowlege of the
coasts he ha alreay iscovere, but faile to reach even as far
westwar as he ha one on his first voyage" This so!ewhat iscourage
Govern!ent atte!pts at eDploration, an the neDt eDpeition, in
39-4, was fitte out by Br" <eliD Booth, sheriff of %onon, who
espatche the pale stea!er @?ictory@, co!!ane by John +oss"
'e iscovere the lan known as Boothia <eliD, an his nephew,
Ja!es 6" +oss, prove that it belonge to the !ainlan of *!erica,
which he coaste along by lan to 6ape <ranklin, besies eter!ining
the eDact position of the >orth Bagnetic Pole at 6ape *elaie, on
Boothia <eliD" *fter passing five years within the *rctic 6ircle,
+oss an his co!panions, who ha been co!pelle to abanon the
@?ictory@, fell in with a whaler, which brought the! ho!e"
(e !ust now revert to <ranklin, who, as we have seen, ha been
espatche by the *!iralty to outline the north coast of *!erica,
only two points of which ha been eter!ine, the e!bouchures of
the 6opper!ine an the BackenGie, iscovere respectively by 'earne
an BackenGie" 7t was not till 39-3 that <ranklin was able to start
out fro! the !outh of the 6opper!ine eastwar in two canoes, by
which he coaste along till he ca!e to the point na!e by hi! Point
Turn$again" By that ti!e only three ays' stores of pe!!ican re!aine,
an it was only with the greatest ifficulty, an by subsisting
on lichens an scraps of roaste leather, that they !anage to
return to their base of operations at <ort 1nterprise" <our years
later, in 39-:, <ranklin set out on another eDploring eDpeition
with the sa!e object, starting this ti!e fro! the !outh of the
BackenGie river, an espatching one of his co!panions, +icharson,
to connect the coast between the BackenGie an the 6opper!ineH while
he hi!self proceee westwar to !eet the Blosso!, which, uner
6aptain Beechey, ha been espatche to Behring Strait to bring his
party back" +icharson was entirely successful in eDa!ining the
coast$line between the BackenGie an the 6opper!ineH but Beechey,
though he succeee in rouning 7cy 6ape an tracing the coast as
far as Point Barrow, i not co!e up to <ranklin, who ha only
got within 3R. !iles at +eturn +eef" These 3R. !iles, as well as
the --- !iles intervening between 6ape Turn$again, <ranklin's
eastern!ost point by lan, an 6ape <ranklin, J" 6" +oss's !ost
westerly point, were afterwars fille in by T" Si!pson in 39A,,
after a coasting voyage in boats of 3/.9 !iles, which stans as a
recor even to this ay" Beanwhile the Great <ish +iver ha been
iscovere an followe to its !outh by 6" J" Back in 39AA" During
the voyage own the river, an oar broke while the boat was shooting
a rapi, an one of the party co!!ence praying in a lou voiceH
whereupon the leaer calle out& F7s this a ti!e for prayingS Pull
your starboar oarTF
Beanwhile, interest ha been eDcite rather !ore towars the South
Pole, an the lan of which 6ook ha foun traces in his search
for the fable *ustralian continent surrouning it" 'e ha reache
as far south as ,3"3.U, when he was brought up by the great ice
barrier" 7n 39-.$-A (eell visite the South Shetlans, south of
6ape 'orn, an foun an active volcano, even a!ist the eDtre!e
col of that istrict" 'e reache as far south as ,/U, but faile
to co!e across lan in that istrict" 7n 39A4 Bellany iscovere
the islans na!e after hi!, with a volcano twelve thousan feet
high, an another still active on Buckle 7slan" 7n 39A4 a <rench
eDpeition uner Du!ont '=rville again visite an eDplore the
South ShetlansH while, in the following year, 6aptain (ilkes, of
the =nite States navy, iscovere the lan na!e after hi!" But
the !ost re!arkable iscovery !ae in *ntarctica was that of Sir
J" 6" +oss, who ha been sent by the *!iralty in 39/. to ientify
the South Bagnetic Pole, as we have seen he ha iscovere that of
the north" (ith the two ships @1rebus@ an @Terror@ he iscovere
?ictoria %an an the two active volcanoes na!e after his ships,
an pouring forth fla!ing lava, a!ist the snow" 7n January 39/-
he reache farthest south, ,RU" Since his ti!e little has been
atte!pte in the south, though in the winter of 394/$4: 6" 1"
Borchgrevink again visite ?ictoria %an"
07llustration& >8+T' P8%*+ +1G78>$$(1ST1+> '*%<"5
8n the return of the @1rebus@ an @Terror@ fro! the South Seas the
govern!ent place these two vessels at the isposal of <ranklin
Mwho ha been knighte for his previous iscoveriesN, an on the
-Rth of Bay 39/: he starte with one hunre an twenty$nine souls
on boar the two vessels, which were provisione up to July 39/9"
They were last seen by a whaler on the -Rth July of the for!er
year waiting to pass into %ancaster Soun" *fter penetrating as
far north as ,,U, through (ellington 6hannel, <ranklin was oblige
to winter upon Beechey 7slan, an in the following year MSepte!ber
39/RN his two ships were beset in ?ictoria Strait, about twelve
!iles fro! )ing (illia! %an" 6uriously enough, in the following
year M39/,N J" +ae ha been espatche by lan fro! 6ape +epulse
in 'uson's Bay, an ha coaste along the east coast of Boothia,
thus connecting +oss's an <ranklin's coast journeys with 'uson's
Bay" 8n 39th *pril 39/, +ae ha reache a point on Boothia less
than 3:. !iles fro! <ranklin on the other sie of it" %ess than
two !onths later, on the 33th June, <ranklin ie on the @1rebus@"
'is ships were only provisione to July 39/9, an re!aine still
beset throughout the whole of 39/," 6roGier, upon who! the co!!an
evolve, left the ship with one hunre an five survivors to
try an reach Back's <ish +iver" They struggle along the west
coast of )ing (illia! %an, but faile to reach their estinationH
isease, an even starvation, graually lessene their nu!bers"
*n ol 1ski!o wo!an, who ha watche the !elancholy procession,
afterwars tol B'6lintock they fell own an ie as they walke"
By this ti!e consierable anDiety ha been rouse by the absence of
any news fro! <ranklin's party" +icharson an +ae were espatche
by lan in 39/9, while two ships were sent on the atte!pt to reach
<ranklin through Behring Strait, an two others, the @7nvestigator@
an the @1nterprise@, uner J" 6" +oss, through Baffin Bay" +ae
reache the east coast of ?ictoria %an, an arrive within fifty
!iles of the spot where <ranklin's two ships ha been abanoneH
but it was not till his secon eDpeition by lan, which starte
in 39:A, that he obtaine any news" *fter wintering at %ay Pelly
Bay, on the *pril 39:/ +ae !et a young 1ski!o, who tol hi!
that four years previously forty white !en ha been seen ragging
a boat to the south on the west shore of )ing (illia! %an, an a
few !onths later the boies of thirty of these !en ha been foun
by the 1ski!o, who prouce silver with the <ranklin crest to confir!
the truth of their state!ent" <urther searches by lan were continue
up to as late as 39,4, when %ieutenant <" Schwatka, of the =nite
States ar!y, iscovere several of the graves an skeletons of
the <ranklin eDpeition"
>either of the two atte!pts by sea fro! the *tlantic or fro! the
Pacific base, in 39/9, having succeee in gaining any news, the
@1nterprise@ an the @7nvestigator@, which ha previously atte!pte
to reach <ranklin fro! the east, were espatche in 39:., uner
6aptain +" 6ollinson an 6aptain B'6lureH to atte!pt the search fro!
the west through Behring Strait" B'6lure, in the @7nvestigator@,
i not wait for 6ollinson, as he ha been irecte, but pushe on
an iscovere Banks %an, an beca!e beset in the ice in Prince of
(ales Strait" 7n the winter of 39:.$:3 he eneavoure unsuccessfully
to work his way fro! this strait into Parry Soun, but in *ugust
an Septe!ber 39:3 !anage to coast roun Banks %an to its !ost
north$westerly point, an then succeee in passing through the
strait na!e after B'6lure, an reache Barrow Strait, thus perfor!ing
for the first ti!e the north$west passage, though it was not till
39:A that the @7nvestigator@ was abanone" 6ollinson, in the
@1nterprise@, followe B'6lure closely, though never reaching hi!,
an atte!pting to roun Prince *lbert %an by the south through
Dolphin Strait, reache 6a!brige Bay at the nearest point by ship
of all the <ranklin eDpeitions" 'e ha to return westwar, an
only reache 1nglan in 39::, after an absence of five years an
four !onths"
<ro! the east no less than ten vessels ha atte!pte the <ranklin
sea search in 39:3, co!prising two *!iralty eDpeitions, one private
1nglish one, an *!erican co!bine govern!ent an private party,
together with a ship put in co!!ission by the wifely evotion of
%ay <ranklin" These all atte!pte the search of %ancaster Soun,
where <ranklin ha last been seen, an they only succeee in fining
three graves of !en who ha ie at an early stage, an ha been
burie on Beechey 7slan" *nother set of four vessels were espatche
uner Sir 1war Belcher in 39:-, who were fortunate enough to
reach B'6lure in the @7nvestigator@ in the following year, an
enable hi! to co!plete the north$west passage, for which he gaine
the rewar of ]3.,... offere by Parlia!ent in 3,RA" But Belcher was
oblige to abanon !ost of his vessels, one of which, the @+esolute@,
rifte over a thousan !iles, an having been recovere by an
*!erican whaler, was refitte by the =nite States an presente
to the Iueen an people of Great Britain"
>otwithstaning all these efforts, the <ranklin re!ains have not
yet been iscovere, though Dr" +ae, as we have seen, ha practically
ascertaine their terrible fate" %ay <ranklin, however, was not
satisfie with this vague infor!ation" She was eter!ine to fit
out still another eDpeition, though alreay over ]A:,... ha been
spent by private !eans, !ostly fro! her own personal fortuneH an
in 39:, the stea! yacht @<oD@ was espatche uner B'6lintock,
who ha alreay shown hi!self the !ost capable !aster of slege
work" 'e erecte a !onu!ent to the <ranklin eDpeition on Beechey
7slan in 39:9, an then following Peel Soun, he !ae inIuiries
of the natives throughout the winter of 39:9$:4" This le hi! to
search )ing (illia! %an, where, on the -:th Bay, he ca!e across
a bleache hu!an skeleton lying on its face, showing that the !an
ha ie as he walke" Beanwhile, 'obson, one of his co!panions,
iscovere a recor of the <ranklin eDpeition, stating briefly its
history between 39/: an 39/9H an with this efinite infor!ation
of the fate of the <ranklin eDpeition B'6lintock returne to 1nglan
in 39:4, having succeee in solving the proble! of <ranklin's fate,
while eDploring over 9.. !iles of coast$line in the neighbourhoo
of )ing (illia! %an"
The result of the various <ranklin eDpeitions ha thus been to
!ap out the intricate network of islans otte over the north of
>orth *!erica" >one of these, however, reache !uch farther north
than ,:U"
8nly S!ith Soun pro!ise to lea north of the parallel" This
ha been iscovere as early as 3R3R by Baffin, whose farthest
north was only eDceee by forty !iles, in 39:-, by 7nglefiel in
the @7sabel@, one of the ships espatche in search of <ranklin"
'e was followe up by )ane in the @*vance@, fitte out in 39:A by
the !unificence of two *!erican citiGens, Grinnell an Peaboy" )ane
worke his way right through S!ith Soun an +obeson 6hannel into
the sea na!e after hi!" <or two years he continue investigating
Grinnell %an an the ajacent shores of Greenlan" SubseIuent
investigations by 'ayes in 39R., an 'all ten years later, kept
alive the interest in S!ith Soun an its neighbourhooH an in
39,A three ships were espatche uner 6aptain Mafterwars Sir
GeorgeN >ares, who nearly co!plete the survey of Grinnell %an,
an one of his lieutenants, Pelha! *lrich, succeee in reaching
9-"/9U >" *bout the sa!e ti!e, an *ustrian eDpeition uner Payer
an (eyprecht eDplore the highest known lan, !uch to the east,
na!e by the! <ranG Josef %an, after the *ustrian 1!peror"
07llustration& >8+T' P8%*+ +1G78>$$1*ST1+> '*%<"5
Si!ultaneously interest in the northern regions was arouse by
the successful eDploit of the north$east passage by Professor
Mafterwars BaronN >orenskiol, who ha !ae seven or eight voyages
in *rctic regions between 39:9 an 39,." 'e first establishe the
possibility of passing fro! >orway to the !outh of the #enesei
in the su!!er, !aking two journeys in 39,:$,R" These have since
been followe up for co!!ercial purposes by 6aptain (iggins, who
has freIuently passe fro! 1nglan to the !outh of the #enesei in
a !erchant vessel" *s Siberia evelops there can be little oubt
that this route will beco!e of increasing co!!ercial i!portance"
Professor >orenskiol, however, encourage by his easy passage
to the #enesei, eter!ine to try to get roun into Behring Strait
fro! that point, an in 39,9 he starte in the @?ega@, acco!panie
by the @%ena@, an a collier to supply the! with coal" 8n the 34th
*ugust they passe 6ape 6helyuskin, the !ost northerly point of the
8l (orl" <ro! here the @%ena@ appropriately turne its course
to the !outh of its na!esake, while the @?ega@ proceee on her
course, reaching on the 3-th Septe!ber 6ape >orth, within 3-. !iles
of Behring StraitH this cape 6ook ha reache fro! the east in 3,,9"
=nfortunately the ice beca!e packe so closely that they coul
not procee farther, an they ha to re!ain in this tantalising
conition for no less than ten !onths" 8n the 39th July 39,4 the
ice broke up, an two ays later the @?ega@ roune 1ast 6ape with
flying colours, saluting the eastern!ost coast of *sia in honour
of the co!pletion of the north$east passage" Baron >orenskiol
has since enjoye a well$earne leisure fro! his aruous labours
in the north by stuying an publishing the history of early
cartography, on which he has issue two valuable atlases, containing
fac$si!iles of the !aps an charts of the Bile *ges"
General interest thus re$arouse in *rctic eDploration brought about
a unite effort of all the civilise nations to investigate the
conitions of the Polar regions" *n international Polar 6onference
was hel at 'a!burg in 39,4, at which it was eter!ine to surroun
the >orth Pole for the years 399-$9A by stations of scientific
observation, intene to stuy the conitions of the Polar 8cean" >o
less than fifteen eDpeitions were sent forthH so!e to the *ntarctic
regions, but !ost of the! roun the >orth Pole" Their object was
!ore to subserve the interest of physical geography than to pro!ote
the interest of geographical iscoveryH but one of the eDpeitions,
that of the =nite States uner %ieutenant *" (" Greely, again took
up the stuy of S!ith Soun an its outlets, an one of his !en,
%ieutenant %ockwoo, succeee in reaching 9A"-/U >", within /:.
!iles of the Pole, an up to that ti!e the farthest north reache
by any hu!an being" The Greely eDpeition also succeee in showing
that Greenlan was not so !uch ice$cappe as ice$surroune"
'itherto the universal !etho by which iscoveries ha been !ae
in the Polar regions was to establish a base at which sufficient
foo was cache, then to push in any reIuire irection as far as
possible, leaving successive caches to be returne to when provisions
fell short on the forwar journey" But in 3999, Dr" <rijof >ansen
eter!ine on a boler !etho of investigating the interior of
Greenlan" 'e was eposite upon the east coast, where there were
no inhabitants, an starte to cross Greenlan, his life epening
upon the success of his journey, since he left no reserves in the
rear an it woul be useless to return" 'e succeee brilliantly
in his atte!pt, an his eDploit was followe up by two successive
atte!pts of %ieutenant Peary in 394-$4:, who succeee in crossing
Greenlan at !uch higher latitue even than >ansen"
07llustration& 6%7BB7>G T'1 >8+T' P8%15
The success of his bol plan encourage Dr" >ansen to atte!pt an
even boler one" 'e ha beco!e convince, fro! the investigations
conucte by the international Polar observations of 399-$9A, that
there was a continuous rift of the ice across the *rctic 8cean fro!
the north$east shore of Siberia" 'e was confir!e in this opinion, by
the fact that ebris fro! the @Jeannette@, a ship abanone in 3993
off the Siberian coast, rifte across to the east coast of Greenlan
by 399/" 'e ha a vessel built for hi!, the now$renowne @<ra!@,
especially intene to resist the pressure of the ice" 'itherto it
ha been the chief ai! of *rctic eDplorations to avoi beset!ent,
an to try an creep roun the lan shores" Dr" >ansen was convince
that he coul best attain his ens by bolly isregaring these
canons an trusting to the rift of the ice to carry hi! near to
the Pole" 'e reckone that the rift woul take so!e three years,
an provisione the @<ra!@ for five" The results of his venturous
voyage confir!e in al!ost every particular his re!arkable plan,
though it was !uch scoute in !any Iuarters when first announce"
The rift of the ice carrie hi! across the Polar Sea within the
three years he ha fiDe upon for the probable uration of his
journeyH but fining that the rift woul not carry hi! far enough
north, he left the @<ra!@ with a co!panion, an avance straight
towars the Pole, reaching in *pril 394: farthest north, 9R"3/U,
within nearly -.. !iles of the Pole" 8n his return journey he was
lucky enough to co!e across Br" <" Jackson, who in the @(inwar@
ha establishe hi!self in 394/ in <ranG Josef %an" The rencontre
of the two intrepi eDplorers for!s an apt parallel of the celebrate
encounter of Stanley an %ivingstone, a!ist entirely opposite
conitions of cli!ate"
>ansen's voyage is for the present the final achieve!ent of *rctic
eDploration, but his Greenlan !etho of eserting his base has
been followe by *nrOe, who in the autu!n of 394, starte in a
balloon for the Pole, provisione for a long stay in the *rctic
regions" >othing has been hear of hi! for the last twelve !onths,
but after the eDa!ple of Dr" >ansen there is no reason to fear
just at present for his safety, an the present year !ay possibly
see his return after a successful carrying out of one of the great
ai!s of geographical iscovery" 7t is curious that the attention of
the worl shoul be at the present !o!ent irecte to the *rctic
regions for the two !ost opposite !otives that can be na!e, lust
for gol an the thirst for knowlege an honour"
0@*uthorities&@ Greely, @'anbook of *rctic Discoveries@, 394R"5
*>>*%S 8< D7S68?1+#
@cir"@ R.." Barseilles foune"
:,." *naDi!aner of Biletus invents !aps an the gno!on"
:.3" 'ecatEus of Biletus writes the first geography"
/:." 'i!ilco the 6arthaginian sai to have visite Britain"
//R" 'erootus escribes 1gypt an Scythia"
@cir"@ /:." 'anno the 6arthaginian sails own the west coast of
*frica as far as Sierra %eone"
@cir"@ AAA" Pytheas visits Britain an the %ow 6ountries"
AA-" *leDaner conIuers Persia an visits 7nia"
AA." >earchus sails fro! the 7nus to the *rabian Gulf"
@cir"@ A.." Begasthenes escribes the Punjab"
@cir"@ -.." 1ratosthenes founs scientific geography"
3.." Barinus of Tyre, founer of !athe!atical geography"
R.$:/" 6Esar conIuers GaulH visits Britain, SwitGerlan, an Ger!any"
-." Strabo escribes the +o!an 1!pire" <irst !ention of Thule
an 7relan"
@bef"@ 3-" *grippa co!piles a @Bappa Buni@, the founation of
all succeeing ones"
3:." Ptole!y publishes his geography"
-A." The Peutinger Table pictures the +o!an roas"
/..$3/" <a$hien travels through an escribes *fghanistan an 7nia"
/44" 'oei$Sin sai to have visite the kingo! of <u$sang, -.,...
furlongs east of 6hina Mientifie by so!e with 6aliforniaN"
:39$-3" 'oei$Sing an Sung$#un visit an escribe the Pa!irs an the
:/." 6os!as 7nicopleustes visits 7nia, an co!bats the sphericity
of the globe"
R-4$/R" 'iouen$Tshang travels through Turkestan, *fghanistan, 7nia,
an the Pa!irs"
R,3$4:" 7$tsing travels through an escribes Java, Su!atra, an 7nia"
,,R" The @Bappa Buni@ of Beatus"
9:3$43R" SulYi!Yn an *bu Qai visit 6hina"
9R3" >ao iscovers 7celan"
99/" 7bn )horabeh escribes the trae routes between 1urope an
@cir"@ 94." (ulfstan an athere sail to the Baltic an the >orth 6ape"
@cir"@ 4.." Gunbi`rn iscovers Greenlan"
43-$A." The geographer Bas'ui escribes the lans of 7sla!, fro!
Spain to <urther 7nia, in his FBeaows of Gol"F
4-3" *h!e 7bn <oGlan escribes the +ussians"
4R4" 7bn 'aukal co!poses his book on (ays"
49:" 1ric the +e colonises Greenlan"
@cir"@3..." %yef, son of 1ric the +e, iscovers >ewfounlan
M'ellulanN, >ova Scotia MBarklanN, an the !ainlan of
>orth *!erica M?inlanN"
3333" 1arliest use of the water$co!pass by 6hinese"
33:/" 1risi, geographer to )ing +oger of Sicily, prouces his
33:4$,A" +abbi Benja!in of Tuela visite the Persian GulfH reporte
on 7nia"
@cir"@339." The co!pass first !entione by *leDaner >ecka!"
3-::" (illia! +uysbroek M+ubruIuisN, a <le!ing, visits )arakoru!"
3-R.$,3" The brothers >icolo an Baffeo Polo, father an uncle of Barco
Polo, !ake their first traing venture through 6entral *sia"
3-,3$4:" They !ake their secon journey, acco!panie by Barco PoloH
an about 3-,: arrive at the 6ourt of )ublai )han in Shangfu,
whence Barco Polo was entruste with several !issions to
6ochin 6hina, )hanbalig MPekinN, an the 7nian Seas"
3-9." 'erefor !ap of +ichar of 'alingha!"
3-9/" The 1bstorf @Bappa Buni@"
@bef"@3-4." The nor!al Portulano co!pile in Barcelona"
3-4-" <riar John of Bonte 6orvino, travels in 7nia, an
afterwars beco!es *rchbishop of Pekin"
3A-:$,9" 7bn Batuta, an *rab of Tangier, after perfor!ing the Becca
pilgri!age through >" *frica, visits Syria, Juiloa M1" *fricaN,
8r!uG, S" +ussia, Bulgaria, )hiva, 6anahar, an attache
hi!self to the 6ourt of Delhi, 3AA/$/-, whence he was
espatche on an e!bassy to 6hina" *fter his return he visite
3A3R$A." 8orico i Porenone, a Binorite friar, travelle through
7nia, by way of Persia, Bo!bay, an Surat, to Balabar, the
6oro!anel coast, an thence to 6hina an Tibet"
3A-." <lavio Gioja of *!alfi invents the co!pass boD an car"
3A3-$A3" *bulfea co!poses his geography"
3A-,$,-" Sir John Baneville sai to have written his travels in 7nia"
3A-9" <riar Joranus of Severac" Bishop of Juilon"
3A-9$/4" John e Barignolli, a <ranciscan friar, !ae a !ission to
6hina, visite Juilon in 3A/,, an !ae a pilgri!age to the
shrine of St" Tho!as in 7nia in 3A/4"
3AA4" *ngelico Dulcert of Bajorca raws a Portulano"
3A:3" The Beicean Portulano co!pile"
3A,:" 6resIueG, the Jew, of Bajorca, i!proves Dulcert's Portulano
M6atalan !apN"
@cir"@3/.." Jehan Bethencourt re$iscovers the 6anaries"
3/34" Prince 'enry the >avigator establishes a geographical se!inary
at Sagres Mie 3/R.N"
3/34$/." >icolo 6onti, a noble ?enetian, travelle throughout Southern
7nia an along the Bo!bay coast"
3/-." Qarco iscovers Baeira"
3/A-" Gonsalo 6abral re$iscovers the *Gores"
3//-" >uXo TristWo reaches 6ape e ?ere"
3//-$//" *b$ur$+aGGak, uring an e!bassy to 7nia, visite 6alicut,
Bangalore, an ?ijayanagar"
3/:," <ra Bauro's !ap"
3/R-" Pero e 6intra reaches Sierra %eone"
3/R9$,/" *thanasius >ikitin, a +ussian, travelle fro! the ?olga,
through 6entral *sia an Persia, to Gujerat, 6a!bay, an 6haul,
whence he proceee inlan to Biar an Golcona"
3/,3" <ernano Poo iscovers his islan"
3/,3" Pero '1scobar crosses the line"
3/,/" Toscanelli's !ap Mfounation of Behai! globe an 6olu!bus'
3/,9" Secon printe eition of Ptole!y, with twenty$seven
!aps$$practically the first atlas"
3/9/" Diego 6a! iscovers the 6ongo"
3/9R" Bartholo!ew DiaG rouns the 6ape of Goo 'ope"
3/9," Pero e 6ovilha! visits 8r!uG, Goa, an Balabar, an
afterwars settle in *byssinia"
3/4-" Bartin Behai! !akes his globe"
3/4-" Rth Septe!ber" 6olu!bus starts fro! the 6anaries"
3/4-" 3-th 8ctober" 6olu!bus lans at San Salvaor M(atling 7slanN"
3/4A" Ar Bay" Bull of partition between Spain an Portugal issue
by Pope *leDaner ?7"
3/4A" Septe!ber" 6olu!bus on his secon voyage iscovers Ja!aica"
3/4/$44" 'ieroni!o i Santo Stefano, a Genoese, visite Balabar an
the 6oro!anel coast, 6eylon an Pegu"
3/4," ?asco a Ga!a rouns the 6ape, sees >atal M6hrist!as DayN an
BoGa!biIue, lans at QanGibar, an crosses to 6alicut"
3/4," John 6abot re$iscovers >ewfounlan"
3/49" 6olu!bus on his thir voyage iscovers Trinia an the
3/44" *!erigo ?espucci iscovers ?eneGuela"
3/44" PinGon iscovers !outh of *!aGon, an oubles 6ape St" +oIue"
3:.." Pero 6abral iscovers BraGil on his way to 6alicut"
3:.." <irst !ap of the >ew (orl, by Juan e la 6osa"
3:.." 6orte +eal lans at !outh of St" %awrence, an re$iscovers
3:.3" ?espucci coasts own S" *!erica an proves that it is a >ew
3:.3" Tristan '*cunha iscovers his islan"
3:.3" Juan i >ova iscovers the islan of *scension"
3:.-" Ber!ueG iscovers his islans"
3:.-$/" 6olu!bus on his fourth voyage eDplores 'onuras"
3:.A$9" Travels of %uovico i ?arthe!a in <urther 7nia"
3:.:" Bascarenhas iscovers the islans of Bourbon an Bauritius"
3:.," Bartin (alsee!Vller proposes to call the >ew (orl *!erica
in his @6os!ographia@"
3:.4" Balacca visite by %opes i SeIuira"
3:3-" Bolucca, or Spice 7slans, visite by <rancisco SerrWo"
3:3A" Strasburg Ptole!y contains twenty new !aps by (alsee!Vller,
for!ing the first !oern atlas"
3:3A" Ponce e %eon iscovers <loria"
3:3A" ?asco >uXeG e Balbao crosses the 7sth!us of Pana!a, an sees
the Pacific"
3:3," Sebastian 6abot sai to have iscovere 'uson's Bay"
3:3," Juan DiaG e Solis iscovers the +io e la Plata, an is
!urere on the islan of Bartin Garcia"
3:39" Grijalva iscovers BeDico"
3:34" <ernano 6orteG conIuers BeDico"
3:34" <ernano Bagellan starts on the circu!navigation of the globe"
3:34" Guray eDplores north coast of Gulf of BeDico"
3:-." Schoner's secon globe"
3:-." Bagellan sees Bonte ?ieo, iscovers Patagonia an Tierra el
<uego, an traverses the Pacific"
3:-.$-R" *lvareG eDplores the Souan"
3:-3" Bagellan iscovers the %arones MBarianasN, an is kille on
the Philippines"
3:--" Bagellan's ship @?ictoria@, uner Sebastian el 6ano,
reaches Spain, having circu!navigate the globe in three years"
3:-/" ?eraGGano, on behalf of the <rench )ing, coasts fro! 6ape <ear
to >ew 'a!pshire"
3:-," Saavera sails fro! west coast of BeDico to the Boluccas"
3:-4" %ine of e!arcation between Spanish an Portuguese fiDe at
3,U east of Boluccas"
3:A3" <rancisco PiGarro conIuers Peru"
3:A-" 6orteG visits 6alifornia"
3:A/" JacIues 6artier eDplores the gull an river of St" %awrence"
3:A:" Diego '*l!agro conIuers 6hili"
3:AR" Gonsalo PiGarro passes the *nes"
3:A,$:9" <erinan BeneG Pinto travels to *byssinia, 7nia, the Balay
*rchipelago, 6hina, an Japan"
3:A9" Gerhart Bercator begins his career as geographer" MGlobe,
3:/3H projection, 3:R4H ie 3:4/H atlas, 3:4:N"
3:A4" <rancesco e =lloa eDplores the Gulf of 6alifornia"
3:/3" 8rellana sails own the *!aGon"
3:/-" +uy %opeG e ?illalobos iscovers >ew Philippines, Garen
7slans, an Pelew 7slans, an takes possession of the
Philippines for Spain"
3:/-" 6abrillo avances as far as 6ape Benocino"
3:/-" Japan first visite by *ntonio e Bota"
3:/-" Gaetano sees the Sanwich 7slans"
3:/A" 8rteG e +etis iscovers >ew Guinea"
3://" Sebastian Bunster's @6os!ographia@"
3:/4" Bareto an 'o!era eDplore the lower Qa!besi"
3::A" Sir 'ugh (illoughby atte!pts the >orth$1ast Passage past >orth
6ape, an sights >ovaya Qe!lya"
3::/" +ichar 6hancellor, (illoughby's pilot, reaches *rchangel, an
travels overlan to Boscow"
3::R$,-" *ntonio %aperis' atlas publishe at +o!e"
3::9" *nthony Jenkinson travels fro! Boscow to Bokhara"
3:R," *lvaro BenaXa iscovers Solo!on 7slans"
3:,-" Juan <ernaneG iscovers his islan, an St" <eliD an St"
*!brose 7slans"
3:,A" *braha! 8rtelius' @Teatru! 8rbis Terraru!@"
3:,R" Bartin <robisher iscovers his bay"
3:,,$,4" <rancis Drake circu!navigates the globe, an eDplores the west
coast of >orth *!erica"
3:,4" #er!ak Ti!ovief seiGes Sibir on the 7rtish"
3:9." Dutch settle in Guiana"
3:9R" John Davis sails through his strait, an reaches lat" ,-U >"
3:4." Battel visits the lower 6ongo"
3:4-" The BolyneuD globe"
3:4-" Juan e <uca i!agines he has iscovere an i!!ense sea in the
north$west of >orth *!erica"
3:4R" (illia! BarentG iscovers SpitGbergen, an reaches lat" 9.U >"
3:4R" PayG traverses the 'orn of *frica, an visits the source of
the Blue >ile"
3:49" BenaXa iscovers BarIuesas 7slans"
3:49" 'akluyt publishes his @Principal >avigations@"
3:44" 'out!an reaches *chin, in Su!atra"
3R.A" Stephen Bennett re$iscovers 6herry 7slan, ,/"3AU >"
3R.:" %ouis ?aes e Torres iscovers his strait"
3R.R" Juiros iscovers Tahiti an north$east coast of *ustralia"
3R.9" 6ha!plain iscovers %ake 8ntario"
3R.4" 'enry 'uson iscovers his river"
3R3." 'uson passes through his strait into his bay"
3R33" Jan Bayen iscovers his islan"
3R3:" %e!aire rouns 6ape 'orn M'oornN, an sees >ew Britain"
3R3R" Dirk 'artog coasts (est *ustralia to -,U S"
3R3R" Baffin iscovers his bay"
3R39" George Tho!pson, a Barbary !erchant, sails up the Ga!bia"
3R34" 1el an 'out!an coast (estern *ustralia to A-$3a-U S"
M1el's %anN"
3R--" Dutch ship @%eeuwin@ reaches south$west cape of *ustralia"
3R-A" %obo eDplores *byssinia"
3R-," Peter >uyts iscovers his archipelago"
3RA." <irst !eriian of longitue fiDe at <erro, in the 6anary
3RA3" <oD eDplores 'uson's Bay"
3RA9" (" J" Blaeu's @*tlas@"
3RA4" )upiloff crosses Siberia to the east coast"
3R/-" *bel Jansen Tas!an iscovers ?an Die!en's %an MTas!aniaN an
Staaten %an M>ew QealanN"
3R/-" (asilei Pojarkof traces the course of the *!ur"
3R/A" 'enrik Brouwer ientifies >ew Qealan"
3R/A" Tas!an iscovers <iji"
3R/:" Bichael Stauchin reaches the )oli!a"
3R/:" >icolas Sanson's atlas"
3R/:" 7talian 6apuchin Bission eDplores the lower 6ongo"
3R/9" The 6ossack Dishinef sails between *sia an *!erica"
3R:." Stauchin reaches the *nair, an !eets Dishinef"
3R9-" %a Salle escens the Bississippi"
3R4R" +ussians reach )a!tschatka"
3R44" Da!pier iscovers his strait"
3,.." Delisle's !aps"
3,.3" Sinpopoff escribes the lan of the Tschutkis"
3,39" Jesuit !ap of 6hina an 1ast *sia publishe by the 1!peror
3,-3" 'ans 1gOO re$settles Greenlan"
3,A3" 'aley invente the seDtant"
3,A3" )rupishef sails roun )a!tschatka"
3,A3" Paulutski travels roun the north$east corner of Siberia"
3,A:$A," Baupertuis !easures an arc of the !eriian"
3,A4$//" %or George *nson circu!navigates the globe"
3,/." ?arenne e la ?Oranerye iscovers the +ocky Bountains"
3,/3" Behring iscovers his strait"
3,/-" 6helyuskin iscovers his cape"
3,/A$//" %a 6ona!ine eDplores the *!aGon"
3,/:$R3" Bourguignon '*nville prouces his !aps"
3,R3$R," 6arsten >iebuhr surveys *rabia"
3,R/" John Byron surveys the <alklan 7slans"
3,R:" 'arrison perfects the chrono!eter"
3,R," <irst appearance of the @>autical *l!anac@"
3,R9" 6arteret iscovers Pitcairn 7slan, an sails through St"
George's 6hannel, between >ew Britain an >ew 7relan"
3,R9$,3" 6ook's first voyageH iscovers >ew Qealan an east coast
of *ustraliaH passes through Torres Strait"
3,R4$,3" 'earne traces river 6opper!ine"
3,R4$,3" Ja!es Bruce re$iscovers the source of the Blue >ile in
3,,." %iakhoff iscovers the >ew Siberian 7slans"
3,,3$,-" Pallas surveys (est an South Siberia"
3,,R$,4" 6ook's thir voyageH surveys >orth$(est PassageH iscovers
8whyhee M'awaiiN, where he was kille"
3,9:$99" %a POrouse surveys north$east coast of *sia an Japan,
iscovers Saghalien, an co!pletes eli!itation of the ocean"
3,9:$4/" Billings surveys 1ast Siberia"
3,9,$99" %esseps surveys )a!tschatka an crosses the 8l (orl fro!
east to west"
3,99" The *frican *ssociation foune"
3,94$4A" BackenGie iscovers his river, an first crosses >orth *!erica"
3,4-" ?ancouver eDplores his islan"
3,4A" Browne reaches Darfur, an reports the eDistence of the (hite
3,4R" Bungo Park reaches the >iger"
3,4R" %acera eDplores BoGa!biIue"
3,4," Bass iscovers his strait"
3,44$39./" *leDaner von 'u!bolt eDplores South *!erica"
39..$/" %ewis an 6larke eDplore the basin of the Bissouri"
39.3$/" <liners coasts south coast of *ustralia"
39.:$," Pike eDplores the country between the sources of the
Bississippi an the +e +iver"
393.$-4" Balte$Brun publishes his @GOographic =niverselle@"
393/" 1vans iscovers %achlan an BacIuarie rivers"
393R" 6aptain S!ith iscovers South Shetlan 7sles"
393,$-." SpiD an Bartius eDplore BraGil"
393," <irst eition of Stieler's atlas"
393,$--" 6aptain )ing !aps the coast$line of *ustralia"
3934$--" <ranklin, Back, an +icharson atte!pt the >orth$(est Passage
by lan"
3934" Parry iscovers %ancaster Strait an reaches 33/U ("
39-.$-A" (rangel iscovers his lan"
39-3" Bellinghausen iscovers Peter 7slan, the !ost southerly lan
then known"
39--" Denha! an 6lapperton iscover %ake Tcha, an visit Sokoto"
39--$-A" Scoresby eDplores the coast of 1ast Greenlan"
39-A" (eell reaches ,/"3:U S"
39-R" Bajor %aing is !urere at Ti!buctoo"
39-," Parry reaches 9-"/:U >"
39-," +OnO 6ailliO visits Ti!buctoo"
39-9$A3" 6aptain Sturt traces the Darling an the Burray"
39-4$AA" +oss atte!pts the >orth$(est PassageH iscovers Boothia <eliD"
39A." +oyal Geographical Society foune, an neDt year unite with
the *frican *ssociation"
39A3$A:" Scho!burgk eDplores Guiana"
39A3" 6aptain Biscoe iscovers 1nerby %an"
39AA" Back iscovers Great <ish +iver"
39A:$/4" Junghuhn eDplores Java"
39A," T" Si!pson coasts along the north !ainlan of >orth *!erica
3-,, !iles"
39A9$/." (oo eDplores the sources of the 8Dus"
39A9$/." Du!ont '=rvilie iscovers %ouis$Philippe %an an *Olie %an"
39A4" Balleny iscovers his islan"
39A4" 6ount StrGelecki iscovers Gipps' %an"
39/." 6aptain Sturt travels in 6entral *ustralia"
39/.$/-" Ja!es +oss reaches ,9"3.U S"H iscovers ?ictoria %an, an
the volcanoes 1rebus an Terror"
39/3" 1yre traverses south of (estern *ustralia"
39/-$R-" 1" <" Jo!ar's @Bonu!ents e la GOographie@ publishe"
39/A$/," 6ount 6astelnau traces the source of the Paraguay"
39//" %eichhart eDplores Southern *ustralia"
39/:" 'uc eDplores Tibet"
39/:" Peter!ann's @Bittheilungen@ first publishe"
39/:$/," <ranklin's last voyage"
39/R" <irst eition of )" v" Spruner's @'istorische 'anatlas@"
39/," J" +ae connects 'uson's Bay with east coast of Boothia"
39/9" %eichhart atte!pts to traverse *ustralia, an isappears"
39/4$:R" %ivingstone traces the Qa!besi an crosses South *frica"
39:.$:/" B'6lure succees in the >orth$(est Passage"
39:.$::" Barth eDplores the Souan"
39:A" Dr" )ane eDplores S!ith's Soun"
39:/" +ae hears news of the <ranklin eDpeition fro! the 1ski!o"
39:/$R:" <aiherbe eDplores Senega!bia"
39:R$:," The brothers Schlagintweit cross the 'i!alayas, Tibet, an
)uen %un"
39:R$:4" Du 6haillu travels in 6entral *frica"
39:,$:4" B'6lintock iscovers re!ains of the <ranklin eDpeition, an
eDplores )ing (illia! %an"
39:9" Burton an Speke iscover %ake Tanganyika, an Speke sees
%ake ?ictoria >yanGa"
39:9$R/" %ivingstone traces %ake >yassa"
39:4" ?alikhanoft reaches )ashgar"
39R." Burke travels fro! ?ictoria to 6arpentaria"
39R." Grant an Speke, returning fro! %ake ?ictoria >yanGa, !eet
Baker co!ing up the >ile"
39R3$R-" B'Douall Stuart traverses *ustralia fro! south to north"
39RA" (" G" Palgrave eDplores 6entral an 1astern *rabia"
39R/" Baker iscovers %ake *lbert >yanGa"
39R9" >orenskiol reaches his highest point in Greenlan, 93"/-U"
39R9$,3" >ey 1lias traverses Bi$6hina"
39R9$,/" John <orrest penetrates fro! (estern to 6entral *ustralia"
39R4$,3" Schweinfurth eDplores the Southern Souan"
39R4$,/" >achtigall eDplores east of Tcha"
39,." <echenko iscovers Transalai, north of Pa!ir"
39,." Douglas <orsyth reaches #arkan"
39,3$99" The four eDplorations of (estern 6hina by Prjevalsky"
39,-$,A" Payer an (eiprecht iscover <ranG Josef %an"
39,-$,R" '"B"S" @6hallenger@ eDa!ines the be of the ocean"
39,-$,R" 1rnest Giles traverses >orth$(est *ustralia"
39,A" 6olonel (arburton traverses *ustralia fro! east to west"
39,A" %ivingstone iscovers %ake Boero"
39,/$,:" %ieut" 6a!eron crosses eIuatorial *frica"
39,:$4/" blisOe +eclus publishes his @GOographie =niverselle"@
39,R" *lbert Barkha! reaches 9A"-.U >" on the >ares eDpeition"
39,R$,," Stanley traces the course of the 6ongo"
39,9$9-" The Punit )rishna traces the course of the #angtse, Pekong,
an Brah!aputra"
39,9$,4" >orenskiol solves the >orth$1ast Passage along the north
coast of Siberia"
39,9$9/" Joseph Tho!son eDplores 1ast$6entral *frica"
39,9$9:" Serpa Pinto twice crosses *frica"
39,4$9-" The @Jeannette@ passes through Behring Strait to the
!outh of the %ena"
399." %eigh S!ith surveys south coast of <ranG Josef %an"
399.$9-" Bonvalot traverses the Pa!irs"
3993$9," (iss!ann twice crosses *frica, an iscovers the left affluents
of the 6ongo"
399A" %ockwoo, on the Greely Bission, reaches 9A"-AU >", north cape
of Greenlan"
399R" <rancis Garnier eDplores the course of the Bekong"
399," #ounghusban travels fro! Pekin to )ash!ir"
399,$94" Stanley conucts the 1!in Pasha +elief 1Dpeition across
*frica, an iscovers the Pig!ies, an the Bountains of the
3999" <" >ansen crosses Greenlan fro! east to west"
3999$94" 6aptain Binger traces the ben of the >iger"
3994" The brothers Grj!ailo eDplore 6hinese Turkestan"
3994$4." Bonvalot an Prince 'enri '8rlOans traverse Tibet"
394." Selous an Ja!eson eDplore Bashonalan"
394." Sir (" Bacgregor crosses >ew Guinea"
3943$4-" Bonteil crosses fro! Senegal to Tripoli"
394-" Peary proves Greenlan an islan"
394A" Br" an Brs" %ittleale travel across 6entral *sia"
394A$4," Dr" Sven 'ein eDplores 6hinese Turkestan, Tibet, an Bongolia"
394A$4," Dr" >ansen is carrie across the *rctic 8cean in the
@<ra!@, an avances farthest north M9R"3/U >"N"
394/$4:" 6" 1" Borchgrevink visits *ntarctica"
394/$4R" Jackson$'ar!sworth eDpeition in *rctic lans"
394R" 6aptain Bottego eDplores So!alilan"
394R" Donalson S!ith traces %ake +uolph"
394R" Prince 'enri D'8rleans travels fro! Tonkin to Boru"
394," 6aptain <oa traverses South *frica fro! S" to >"
394," D" 6arnegie crosses (" *ustralia fro! S" to >"
G+1*T B+7T*7>"$$B"6" /:." 'i!ilco" @6irca@ AAA" Pytheas" R.$:/"
<+*>61"$$B"6" @circa@ R.." Barseilles foune" :," 6Esar"
+=SS7*"$$*"D" 3::/" +ichar 6hancellor"
B*%T76"$$*"D" 94." (ulfstan an 8there"
761%*>D"$$*"D" 9R3" >ao"
7>D7*"$$B"6" AA-" *leDaner" AA." >earchus" @6irca@ A.." Begasthenes"
*"D" /..$3/" <a$hien" :39$-3" 'oei$Sing an Sung$#un" :/." 6os!as
7nicopleustes" R-4$/R" 'iouen$Tshang" R,3$4:" 7$tsing" 33:4$,A"
Benja!in of Tuela" 3A./$,9" 7bn Batuta" 3A-,$,-" Baneville" 3A-9"
Joranus of Severac" 3A-9$/4" John e Barignolli" 3/34$/." >icolo
6onti" 3//-$//" *b$ur$+aGGak" 3/R9$,/" *thanasius >ikitin" 3/9,"
Pero e 6ovilha!" 3/4/$44" 'ieroni!o i Santo Stefano" 3:.A$9"
%uovico i ?arthe!a"
<*+T'1+ 7>D7*"$$*"D" 3:.A" %uovico i ?arthe!a" 3:.4" %opes i
SeIuira" 399R" <rancis Garnier"
6'7>*"$$*"D" 9:3$43R" SulYi!Yn an *bu Qai" 3-4-" John of Bonte
6orvino" 3A3R$A." 8orico i Porenone" 3A-9$/4" John e Barignolli"
3:A,$:9" <erinan BeneG Pinto" 39R9$,3" >ey 1lias" 39,3$99"
Prjevalsky" 39,9$9-" Punit )rishna" 3994" Grj!ailo brothers" 394R"
Prince 'enri '8rlOans"
J*P*>"$$*"D" 3:/-" *ntonio e Bota" 3,9:$99" %a POrouse"
*+*B7*"$$*"D" 3,R3$R," 6arsten >iebuhr" 39RA" Palgrave"
P1+S7*"$$B"6" AA-" *leDaner" *"D" 3/R9$,/" *thanasius >ikitin"
B8>G8%7*"$$*"D" 3-::" +uysbroek M+ubruIuisN" 3-R.$,3" >icolo an
Baffeo Polo" 3-,3" Barco Polo" 394A$4," Dr" Sven 'ein"
T7B1T"$$*"D" 39/:" 'uc" 39:R$," Schlagintweit" 39,9" Punit )rishna"
399," #ounghusban" 3994$4." Bonvalot an Prince 'enri '8rlOans"
394A$4," Dr" Sven 'ein"
61>T+*% *S7*"$$*"D" 3::9" *nthony Jenkinson" 3R/-" (asilei Pojarkof"
39A9$/." (oo" 39:4" ?alikhanoff" 39,." Douglas <orsyth" 39,."
<echenko" 399." Bonvalot" 394A" %ittleale"
S7B1+7*"$$*"D" 3:,4" Ti!ovief" 3RA4" )upiloff" 3R//$:." Stauchin"
3R/9" Dshineif" 3,.3" Sinpopoff" 3,A3" Paulutski" 3,/-" 6helyuskin"
3,,3$,-" Pallas" 3,9:$4/" Billings"
)*BTS6'*T)*"$$*"D" 3R4R" +ussians" 3,A3" )ru pishef" 3,9,$99" %esseps"
*"D" @circa@ /:." 'anno" 3/-." Qarco" 3/R-" Pero e 6intra" 3/9/"
Diego 6a!" 3/9R" Bartholo!ew DiaG" 3/4," ?asco a Ga!a" 3:-." *lvareG"
3:/4" Bareto an 'o!era" 3:4." Battel" 3:4R" PayG" 3R39" Tho!pson"
3R-A" %obo" 3R/:" 7talian 6apuchins" 3,R4$,3" Bruce" 3,4A" Browne"
3,4R" Bungo Park" 3,4R" %acera" 39--" Denha! an 6lapperton" 39-R"
%aing" 39-," +OnO 6ailliO" 39/4$,A" %ivingstone" 39:.$::" Barth"
39:/$R:" <aiherbe" 39:R$:4" Du 6haillu" 39:9" Burton an Speke"
39R." Grant an Speke" 39R/" Baker" 39R4$,3" Schweinfurth" 39R4$,/"
>achtigall" 39,/$,:" 6a!eron" 39,R$94" Stanley" 39,9$9/" Tho!son"
39,9$9:" Serpa Pinto" 3993$9," (iss!ann" 3999$94" Binger" 394."
Selous an Ja!eson" 3943$4-" Bonteil" 394R" Bottego" 394R" Donalson
S!ith" 394," <oa"
>8+T' *B1+76*"
*"D" /44" 'oei$Sin" @6irca@ 3..." %yef" 3/4,, 3:3," John an Sebastian
6abot" 3:.." 6orte +eal" 3:3A" Ponce e %eon" 3:-/" ?eraGGano"
3:A-" 6orteG" 3:A/" 6artier" 3:A4" =lloa" 3:/-" 6abrillo" 3:3R"
<robisher" 3:9R" Davis" 3:4-" Juan e <uca" 3R.9" 6ha!plain" 3R.4,
3." 'uson" 3RA3" <oD" 3R9-" %a Salle" 3,/." ?arenne e la ?Oranerye
3,/3" Behring" 3,94$4A" BackenGie" 3,4-" ?ancouver" 39..$/" %ewis
an 6larke" 39.:$," Pike" 39A," Si!pson"
S8=T' *B1+76*"
*"D" 3/49" 6olu!bus" 3/44$3:.3" *!erigo ?espucci" 3/44" PinGon"
3:.." Pero 6abral" 3:3," Juan DiaG e Solis" 3:34$-." Bagellan"
3:A3" <rancisco PiGarro" 3:A:" D'*l!agro" 3:AR" Gonsalo PiGarro"
3:/3" 8rellana" 3:,-" Juan <ernaneG" 3:9." Dutch in Guiana" 3R3:"
%e!aire" 3,/A$//" %a 6ona!ine" 3,R/" John Byron" 3,44$39./" 'u!bolt"
393,$-." SpiD an Bartius" 39A3$A:" Scho!burgk" 39/A$/," 6astelnau"
61>T+*% *B1+76*"
*"D" 3:.-" 6olu!bus" 3:3A" ?asco >uXeG e Balbao" 3:39" Grijalva"
3:34" <ernano 6orteG" 3:34" Guray"
*"D" 3R.:" Torres" 3R.R" Juiros" 3R3R" 'artog" 3R34" 1el an 'out!an"
3R--" The @%eeuwin@" 3R-," >uyts" 3R44" Da!pier" 3,,." 6ook" 3,4,"
Bass" 39.3$/" <liners" 393/" 1vans" 393,$--" )ing" 39-9$/." Sturt"
39A4" StrGelecki" 39/3" 1yre" 39//$/9" %eichhart" 39R." Burke"
39R3$R-" BacDouall Stuart" 39R9$,/" <orrest" 39,-$,R" Giles" 39,A"
(arburton" 394," 6arnegie"
>1( Q1*%*>D"
*"D" 3R/-" Tas!an" 3R/A" Brouwer" 3,R9$,4" 6ook"
*"D" 3:3-" <rancisco SerrWo" 3:-., -3" Bagellan" 3:-," Saavera"
3:/-" Gaetano 3:/-" +uy %opeG e ?illalobos" 3:/A" 8rteG e +etis"
3:R,$49" *lvaro BenaXa" 3:44" 'out!an" 3R/A" Tas!an" 3,R9" 6arteret"
3,,R$,4" 6ook" 39A:$/4" Junghuhn" 394." Bacgregor"
>8+T' P8%1"
*"D" @circa@ 4.." Gunbi`rn" 49:" 1ric the +e" 3::A" (illoughby"
3:4R" BarentG" 3R.A" Bennett" 3R33" Jan Bayen" 3R3R" Baffin" 3,-3"
1gOO" 3,R4$,3" 'earne" 3934$--" <ranklin, Back, an +icharson"
3934$-," Parry" 39-.$-A" (rangel" 39--$-A" Scoresby" 39-4$AA" +oss"
39AA" Back" 39/:$/," <ranklin" 39/,$:/" +ae" 39:.$:/" B'6lure"
39:A" )ane" 39:,$:4" B'6lintock" 39R9$,4" >orenski`l" 39,-$,A"
Payer an (eiprecht" 39,R" Barkha!" 39,4$9-" The @Jeannette@" 399."
%eigh S!ith" 399A" %ockwoo" 3999$4," >ansen" 394-" Peary" 394/$4R"
Jackson$'ar!sworth eDpeition"
S8=T' P8%1"
*"D" 393R" 6apt" S!ith" 39-3" Bellinghausen" 39-A" (eell" 39A3"
Biscoe" 39A9$/." Du!ont '=rville" 39A4" Balleny" 39/.$/-" Ja!es
+oss" 394/$4:" Borchgrevink"
*"D" 3:--" Sebastian el 6ano" 3:,,$,4" Drake" 3,A4$//" %or George
*T%*>T76 861*>"
*"D" 3/.." Jehan Bethencourt" 3/A-" 6abral" 3//-" >uXo TristWo"
3/,3" Pero '1scobar" 3/,3" <ernano Po" 3/4-$4A" 6olu!bus" 3:.3"
Juan i >ova" 3:.3" Tristan '*cunha" 3:.-" Ber!ueG"
7>D7*> 861*>"
*"D" 3:.:" Bascarenhas"
P+8G+1SS 8< G18G+*P'76*% S671>61"
B"6" :,." *naDi!aner of Biletus" :.3" 'ecatEus of Biletus" //R"
'erootus" @6irca@ -.." 1ratosthenes" 3.." Barinus of Tyre" -."
Strabo" Before 3-" *grippa" *"D" 3:." Ptole!y" -A." Peutinger Table"
,,R" Beatus" 99/" 7bn )horabeh" 43-$A." Bas'ui" 4-3" *h!e 7bn
<oGlan" 4R4" 7bn 'aukal" 3333" (ater$co!pass" 33:/" 1risi" @6irca@
339." *leDaner >ecka!" 3-9." 'erefor !ap" 3-9/" 1bstorf !ap"
3-4." The nor!al Portulano" 3A-." <lavio Gioja" 3AA4" Dulcert"
3A:3" Beicean Portulano" 3A,:" 6resIueG" 3/34" Prince 'enry the
>avigator" 3/:," <ra Bauro" 3/,/" Toscanelli" 3/,9" -n e" Ptole!y"
3/4-" Behai!" 3:.." Juan e la 6osa" 3:.,$3A" (alsee!Vller" 3:-."
Schoner" 3:A9" Bercator" 3://" Bunster" 3::R$,-" %aperis" 3:,A"
8rtelius" 3:4-" BolyneuD globe" 3:49" 'akluyt" 3RA." <erro !eriian
fiDe" 3RA9" Blaeu" 3R/:" Sanson" 3,.." Delisle" 3,39" Jesuit !ap
of 6hina" 3,A3" 'aley" 3,A:$A," Baupertuis" 3,/:$R3" Bourguiguon
'*nville" 3,R:" 'arrison" 3,R," >autical *l!anac" 3,99" *frican
*ssociation" 393.$-4" Balte$Brun" 393," Stieler" 39A." +oyal
Geographical Society foune" 39/-" Jo!ar 39/:" Peter!ann" 39/R"
Spruner" 39,:$4/" blisOe +eclus" 39,-$,R" The @6hallenger@"
1n of the Project Gutenberg 1Book of The Story of Geographical Discovery
by Joseph Jacobs
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