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Subject : Fluid Mechanics

Professor : Ingol Blanco, Eusebio Mercedes

Names : Flores Mezza, Leandro Jair

Guilln Garca, Diego Jos

Lima Per


Holes and nozzles

Experimental determination of the discharge coefficient Cd, Cv speed and flow resistance, water
leaving a nozzle trunk - conical convergent under conditions prevent the entrance of air to the
height of the contraction of the liquid jet the nozzle inlet.

The nozzles consist of small tubes of length no greater than its diameter so that are cylindrical,
conical or conoidal that preface an opening in the walls of a deposit, which is allowed to drain the
liquid stream.
Long nozzle is referred to that of a cylindrical shape whose length is long enough for the liquid jet
reaches its walls and drain adhering to fill in the output section. The same behavior is observed in
hydraulic holes thick wall as shown in the following figure.

Long Nozzle Heavy Wall Hole
Outer fillets jet exiting the nozzle upstream drained by the contours of the vessel walls. The
trajectories of the threads pass quickly from the tangential direction to the wall to a direction
substantially normal thereto; thus have strong curvature, but not infinite and finite radius of
curvature, as the forces acting on the molecules of these fillets can not produce a discontinuity in
its direction and speed. This produces a contraction in the jet at the nozzle inlet.
After contraction occurs one a gradual expansion of the jet due to pressure drop and pressure
recovery. Experience reveals that the length of the nozzle must be at least 3 times the diameter so
that it fills the hole.
To evaluate the discharge speed and proceed as follows:

Load over the hole H is measured from the center of the nozzle to the free surface. Assuming that
the load remains constant by the dimensions of the pond to be considerably higher than the
nozzle, the application of Bernoulli's equation between point 1 at the free surface and the point3
to the nozzle outlet, where as no losses, get:

That taking gauge pressures, and replacing values, is:


But this is only the theoretical speed, and that losses between the two points have been
The relationship between the actual speed Vr, and the theoretical speed Vt is called velocity
coefficient Cv, which naturally has a value less than unity.


When the diameter D of the nozzle is much smaller than H load can be considered that the speed
is uniform at the outlet section of the nozzle. In such case the flow of the nozzle is equal to the
product of the actual speed of the shaft through the area of the jet to the exit.
When the flow area, A, is less than the area of the nozzle or orifice, Ao, expresses its relationship
with the latter by means of a contraction coefficient, Co = A/Ao.
As in this case the flow area at the outlet is equal to the nozzle section, is Co= 1. More over as is
customary gather speed ratio sand one called contraction coefficient or discharge flow,
Cd=COCV(in this case), then the flow rate can be expressed by:

As there is no sure way to calculate the losses, it is noteworthy that the coefficients of velocity,
contraction and discharge are determined by experimental methods.

Pressure drop in the long nozzle

Applying Bernoulli's equation considering charging losses between points 1 and 3 can be
expressed by:

Where K is the coefficient of local losses.
And clearing V

Where can find a relationship between the local loss coefficient and the coefficient of speed when
comparing equations (5) and (8), which is:

In the long nozzle and into the holes in the thick wall pressure loss is also due to shrinkage friction.
For each of these purposes can be broken down into two factors K, K = K
+ K
If one accepts that there is a complete contraction similar to what happens to the output of a thin-
walled hole, is to say a contraction coefficient Co in section 2 equals to:

, when applying the Bernoulli equation, and in this case K

= 0.445.
The frictional pressure losses can try to estimate considering the development of the boundary
layer, but simplicity can be done using the Darcy-We is bach, accepting a global valuef=0.024,

, that with L =3D is finally k
= 0.072

Then the coefficients of discharge speed and yields:

Which is confirmed by experience, although other authors give the value of 0,82. Remember that
it is valid for the accepted conditions: H >>D, high Reynolds numbers, and without any side hole
nozzle. For other conditions this value varies and is preferably obtained by experimental means.


The installation consists of a rectangular tank, in which water enters through a tube by a pump.
The tube just inside the tank with side slits, designed to reassure the water entering the tank. In
the anterior wall of the reservoir there is a round hole which can fit various accessories consisting
of various types of nozzles and orifices, which are secured by means of a bolted flange type
butterfly set. In the tank there is a lower threshold swing plate to the walls is sustained and
controlled by two cables, adjustable from an axis.

On the threshold of the gate swinging poured pumped excess water that exits the orifice or nozzle.
Swing gate allows both regulate the water level in the reservoir to different positions, while
obtaining a permanent state. The excess water passes from one compartment to the side where a
drain drift.


The water level in the reservoir is measured in a vessel equipped with a dual tip gage. This
container is connected with the reservoir through a hose to make a communicating vessel. The
dual tip gage is calibrated to measure the level in the reservoir from the axis of the hole or nozzle.
Measuring a channel discharge collecting water discharged through the nozzle or orifice which
ends in a thin wall dump triangular section.

To measure the discharge is sufficient to measure the load on the landfill into a reversed edge
gage placed on the side of approach channel, and refer to an attached table calibrated load vs
Flow over the weir. Another instrument is a Vernier to measure the dimensions of the nozzle.


a. Familiar in theory and practice as a trial installation

b. Measuring the dimensions of the nozzle internal diameter and length using Vernier.

c. Fill the tank with water.

d. Establish a constant H charge level in the tank by manipulating the swing gate.

e. Perform the following simultaneous measurements.
e.1. The load H in the dual tip gage

e.2. Qr flow using the triangular weir

e.3. Tracing the pathof the water jet.

f. Repeat steps 4 and 5 at least 6 different loads H.


a. Explain to be the formation of a jet contraction.

Contraction of a water jet is because for the passage of the nozzles, the path of the fillets
before exiting water is tangential to the wall direction rapidly passing a direction
substantially normal at this. Which will produce a finite radius of curvature and thus
produces a contraction in the jet nozzle inlet.

b. Derive the general equation for large holes and weak.

Of the picture we have, the load over the hole H is measured from the center of the nozzle
to the free surface. Now that the load is constant no longer be the dimensions are not so
great pond are not significantly greater than that of the nozzle, the application of the
Bernoulli equation between point 1 at the free surface and the exit point 3 of the nozzle,
not allowing for the losses, obtained:

Taking reference axis 3 are:
Taking gauge pressures P1 and P3 are zeros is therefore:

For continuity are:

c. Define and classify broadly about incomplete contraction holes.

According to the type of contraction are:
- Shrinkage incomplete: are matched one or more sides of the hole with the side walls
disappear and the contraction in this or these sides.
- Contraction complete fillets liquid occupying the periphery of the hole come from areas
closest to the interior walls.
- Holes without contraction: The fillets adopt the curvature of the hole, such as holes in
which no edges.
- Contraction imperfect: The port is near, but does not match the wall.

d. Define and classify broadly about underwater discharge holes.

According to hydraulic operation are:

*Submerged orifices: drain under static or quasi-static level of a second deposit.

*Drain holes free: outdoor drain.

*Channel partially submerged orifices: the drain is not totally free to be followed
by deposits.

e. Define and classify broadly about thick wall holes.

Wall thickness: As long nozzle in a thick-wall hole is the same behavior observed hydraulic,
is to say there is a contraction of the water jet at the exit of the hole.

Thin wall: Thick wall less than 4 or 5 inches.

f. Calculating the discharge coefficient Cd and flow resistance K using the formulas (6)
and (9) submitted.

Data table in the laboratory:

# H Dc h1 Q1 h2 Q2 hx Qx
1 66.19 2.502 113 1.45 114 1.48 113.5 1.465
2 57.09 2.505 111 1.39 112 1.42 111.2 1.396
3 43.15 2.5065 109 1.33 110 1.36 109.3 1.339
4 31.9 2.507 102 1.12 103 1.15 102.3 1.129
5 27.5 2.52 101 1.1 102 1.12 101.3 1.106
Cd = Cv x Cs ^

, then:

N H(cm) Cd K
1 66.19 0.794 0.465
2 57.09 0.815 0.397
3 43.15 0.897 0.156
4 31.9 0.878 0.213
5 27.5 0.926 0.096

g. Plot the values obtained for Cd and K versus H/D, grouping them into two curves.

h. Plot the data load flow Qx versus H.

26.455 22.790 17.215 12.724 10.913
Cd Vs H/D ^ k Vs H/D
Cd vs H/D
k vs H/D
66.1900 57.0900 43.1500 31.9000 27.5000
Qx vs H
Qr vs H

i. Plot the path of the jet and check on the same graph with the theoretical path.

Ensayo 1 Ensayo 2 Ensayo 3 Ensayo 4 Ensayo 5
H = 66.19 cm H = 57.09 cm H = 43.15 cm H = 31.9 cm H = 27.5 cm
x y x y x y x y x y
5 -0.5 5 -1.2 5 -0.7 5 -0.7 5 -1
10 -1 10 -2 10 -2 10 -2 10 -2
15 -2 15 -3.1 15 -2.5 15 -2.6 15 -3.5
20 -3 20 -4 20 -3.4 20 -3.4 20 -4.6
25 -3.5 25 -5 25 -6 25 -6 25 -7
30 -6 30 -6 30 -6.5 30 -8 30 -9
35 -7 35 -8 35 -8.5 35 -10 35 -12
40 -9 40 -9 40 -10.5 40 -12.5 40 -15.55

0 2 4 6 8 10
Flow path for H = 66.19 cm
Flow path for H =
66.19 cm
Poly. (Flow path for H
= 66.19 cm)

0 2 4 6 8 10
Flow path for H = 57.09 cm
Flow path for H =
57.09 cm
Poly. (Flow path for H
= 57.09 cm)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Flow path for H = 43.15 cm
Flow path for H =
43.15 cm
Poly. (Flow path for H
= 43.15 cm)

0 2 4 6 8 10
Flow path for H = 31.9 cm
Flow path for H = 31.9
Poly. (Flow path for H
= 31.9 cm)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Flow path for H = 27.5 cm
Flow path for H = 27.5
Poly. (Flow path for H
= 27.5 cm)

j. Discuss and make conclusions based on the graphs presented, stating among other
things the reasons for agreement or disagreement with the values predicted by the

The conclusions based on the graphs presented:
First the points of the graph Q vs H are widely dispersed in the selected range to
cause the double pointed gage used to measure H, took to stabilize what caused
approximate measurements.
Also check that the path followed by the water jet fit well to a parabolic curve
which corroborates the theory of parabolic motion.
Conclude seeing that in the graphs of Cd Vs H/D and k Vs H/D points are widely
dispersed. Vs in the case Cd Vs H/D is a decrease of the values when the H/D
increases, and in the case of K Vs H/D is increased k with increasing H/D.

k. Presenting a ratio of discharge coefficients, velocity, contraction, theoretical pressure
drop for different types of holes, nozzles and short tubes.

N H(cm) Q(cm
/s) Cs Cv Cd K
1 66.19 1.465 0.962 0.826 0.794 0.465
2 57.09 1.396 0.963 0.846 0.815 0.397
3 43.15 1.339 0.965 0.93 0.897 0.156
4 31.9 1.129 0.967 0.908 0.878 0.213
5 27.5 1.106 0.97 0.955 0.926 0.096

l. Mention the practical application of such ratios, for example for the design of what
kind of work is used.

These coefficients can be applied to design types, such as:
It is used for the design of weirs, also for the transport network design study water
elements such as holes or changes in the geometry of the pipes are important and
for the design of water tanks used to supply this.

In this laboratory we have seen how and what type is the flow path of a fluid
according to the change in height will make or load through a pipe from a pump
system, which was producing noticing different flows change in the output as
through holes ie constant flow which came out of the nozzle of the tank. Finally,
with the application of the Bernoulli equation could carry out the development of
the laboratory in order to calculate theoretical and experimental data and plot was
linearly as changing this disturbed flow.