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ANCHORING PRACTICE

By: Capt. Jerzy T. Idzikowski BSc !aster !ari"er


Copyri#$t % Capt. Jerzy T. Idzikowski &''(
At)a"tic Ocea" Para"a Ri*er J+"e , A+#+st &''(
!-. /Ri0ta O)de"dor112
P3ANNING
Before arrival to the harbour limits and its roads the master should consult all
available to him on board publications in order to get "ecessary e"*iro"4e"ta)
i"1or4atio".
The most important are:
a) Location of an anchorage designed for our vessel.
b) Depth at this anchorage (for many ships, especially large vessels absolute
maximum is the depth less than ! metres"),
c) Type of the sea bed (the roc# and coral are not suitable),
d) Direction and strength of current during planned time of approach to an
anchorage, and during next fe$ days, if stay at anchor $ill be longer,
e) %eather forecast for particular area ($ind direction and strength, visibility,
state of the sea, etc.),
f) &vailability of ade'uate sea room, particularly to sea$ard,
g) &de'uate safety distance to the nearest fair$ay,
h) The best, safety route to this anchorage.
i) Distance from the chosen anchoring place to the nearest grounding line
(should be not less, than ( )m"),
*) +s there enough sea room to turn the vessel of (,- . /0,-1
Decision about $hich anchor $ill be used, the necessary scope of anchor cable finally
paid off, and method of anchoring depends mainly on all available data.
The excellent indication of the direction in $hich is setting current . or average force
of the current and $ind at an anchorage is heading of anchored vessels, but such
information is available to us only shortly before arrival.
%e have to remember, that:
( #not of current 2 0- B (mean !3 #nots of $ind), if acting on loaded general
cargo vessel. +f fully loaded large tan#er or bul# carrier is ta#en under
consideration the ratio is even higher. %e should #eep in mind that a /, #nots
$ind exerts the same force on an e'ual area as a (4#not current.
The heading of the anchored vessels in ballast may be 'uite different from the
heading of fully loaded ships.
T$e 4i"i4a) sa1ety s$ip5s +"der kee) c)eara"ce w$e" a"c$or is +sed.
+n order to avoid damage to the under$ater hull shell plates it is recommended (of
course if practicable) to have +"der kee) c)eara"ce o1 a4o+"t at )east &'6 o1
4a0i4+4 *esse)5s dra1t i" )oaded co"ditio".
B+t t$is is app)yi"# to t$e ca)4 weat$er co"ditio" a"d s4oot$ seas o")y.
I" t$e case o1 ro+#$ seas a"d *esse)5s ro))i"# additio"a) a))owa"ce s$o+)d i"c)+de
pro*isio" 1or 1o))owi"#:
a) 5alf of the expected height of the maximum expected $ave,
b) +ncrease of draft due to list or heel
6ormula:
I"crease i" 7ra1t 8 7ra1t 0 cos Hee) 9 :Bea4 0 si" Hee);-& , 7ra1t
simplified formula:
!
I"crease o1 7ra1t 8 Ha)1 Bea4 0 si" A"#)e o1 Hee)
&s very useful, and easy to remember:
<or e*ery ( de#ree o1 ro)) i"crease o1 dra1t i" ce"ti4etres is e=+a) to
*esse)5s >ea4 i" 4etres.
7.g. for 89anamax: vessel $ith beam of /! m, can expect to increase her draft
by about /, cm (,./ m) for every (- of roll.
?$ic$ a"c$or to +se@
+n the old seamanship textboo#s $as $ritten that portside a"c$or is t$e
a"c$or o1 "ort$er" $e4isp$ere, a"d star>oard side o"e is so+t$er"
$e4isp$ere. This is correct in temperate ;ones . latitudes, due to facts that
lo$s are passing mostly north of vessel position in northern hemisphere, and
vice versa, regarding southern hemisphere ($e can say: bet$een vessel and the
9oles).
Let analyse the figure )o (. )orthern hemisphere.
<essel is anchored at port side anchor southeast of the centre of forthcoming
depression. &s $inds blo$ anticloc#$ise around the centre of lo$ pressure the
most common $ind se'uence experienced is south$esterly ahead of $arm
front, veering $esterly in the $arm4sector and finally veering north$esterly at
the cold front. +f this is necessary to drop the second anchor, in this case from
the starboard side the cables are not fouled because vessel=s s$ing is
cloc#$ise.
Figure 1. Port side anchor Northern hemisphere anchor
/
6rom this old rule $e are learnt, that if dropping the second anchor is planned
ship=s relative position to the expected depression should be ta#en under
consideration in order do not foul the anchor cables during changes of $ind
direction.
>ome masters prefer to drop this anchor, $hich cable is stronger and in better
condition, it means situation depends on the particular vessel.
&ny$ay this is good seamanship practice to have ready to let go both anchors
and observe vessels anchored close to planned anchor position. +f anchor is
dropped from same side, as it $as seen on ships anchored around, there is
higher probability of s$inging the vessel in same direction as others. This is
very important during $ind . tide direction changes at such congested
anchorages as >ingapore or >ue; ?oads, $here ships are anchored in distance
of three cables only. +f direction of s$ing and rate of turn are different on
vessels close anchored their sterns may come close each other. +n such
situation it $as observed decrease of distance bet$een ships= sterns up to one
cable, or even less, $hat is dangerous, and absolutely not acceptable practice.
?$at s$ip5s speed o*er t$e #ro+"d w$e" t$e a"c$or is )et #o or
w$i)st t$e ca>)e is paid o+t is a))owed@
The speed over the ground of the vessel dropping the anchor, or $hen the cable is
paid out, needs to be minimi;ed. This re'uirement is more critical for large vessels,
$orsening $ith $eather conditions and decreasing the $ater depth.
<or a .3CC t$e per4issi>)e speed is depe"ds o" t$e so+rces 1ro4 '&A to 'A
k"ots o")y.
6or smaller vessel speed should be not higher then ! #nots (under normal
circumstances).
To determinate such lo$ speed over the ground $ith necessary accuracy is very
difficult, if even impossible.
+t $as observed, that $hen speed dropped to about ,.@ #not, A9> sho$s movement of
the antenna, therefore aboard ships $ith superstructure aft, the stern of the vessel.
This is completely useless for anchoring purposes.
&board large vessels this is suggested by experienced ship handlers to start $al# out
the anchor $hen speed is of t$o #nots. %hen the ship is stopped anchor should *ust
touch the seabed. %hen the cable starts to lead in the desired direction is letting go, or
$al#ed bac# to the re'uired amount of shac#les.
This method $ill be described in details later.
How 4a"y s$ack)es o1 a"c$or ca>)e to +se@
The amount of anchor cable used $ill depend upon:
The depth of $ater at anchorage,
>hip=s draft,
7nvironmental conditions such $ind direction and force, current setting, rate,
type of bottom, state of sea,
Time that the vessel is expected at the anchor,
Distance to the nearest ships already anchored.
3
The most popular rules regarding the amount of anchor cable are as follo$s:
(. &s very rough guide $e can say B.A to C ti4es t$e dept$. <i*e ti4es
i1 possi>)e.
&. &nother rule says that the length of mild steel cable to use in metres
may be ta#en as approximately !@ times the s'uare root of the depth
of $ater given in metres too.
Length in metres: L 2 !@ x B depth
Length in shac#les 2 L.!C.@
B. Be)ow &' 4 D to E s$ack)es
&' to C' 4 C to D s$ack)es
O*er C' 4 )ess t$a" C s$ack)es
F"der "or4a) circ+4sta"ces :dept$ +p to B' 4etres; I do "ot +se )ess t$a" A
s$ack)es and this comply $ith above4mentioned rules.
Dain exception are congested anchorages as for example >ingapore ?oads, $here for
handy si;e vessel / shac#les in the $ater, and for 89anamax: E 3 shac#les in the $ater
only must be accepted.
To drop t$e a"c$or o" )et #o or wa)k >ack :o+t;@ C)ass )i4itatio"s.
Sa1ety preca+tio"s.
This decision depends basically on the depth of the $ater available, and #ind of
bottom.
+n the shallo$ $aters, +p to t$e dept$ o1 B' 4etres, $ith the soft bottom
(mud), customary practice is letting go the anchor from the ha$se pipe.
&ccording to my sea experience + prefer to let go the anchor *ust from the
ha$se pipe only $hen depth of $ater does not exceed about !, metres.
Therefore if depth is >etwee" &' a"d B' 4etres, the anchor is at first $al#ed
out (bac#) until the shan# is fully submerged and cro$n shac#le seen only. The
bra#e is applied and $indlass gear disengaged. )o$ the anchor is allo$ed
freely let go. >ubmerge of anchor apparently lessening the $eight of anchor
(buoyancy force is acting"). The distance to the bottom is decreased, $hat is of
significance, especially $hen ship is in ballast condition, and ha$se pipes are
far a$ay from the $ater level. +n this method anchor $ill not gain too much
momentum ma#ing it difficult to chec# $ith bra#e.
+f the depth is 4ore t$a" B' >+t )ess t$a" D' 4etres, the anchor cable
should be $al#ed out until the anchor is $ithin the depth, *ust touches the
ground, or let say fe$ metres above the bottom (but not more than ten). This is
recommended as the means of restricting the velocities and loads in the
anchoring system.
+n depths o*er D' 4etres the $indlass should be #ept in the gear and cable
$al#ed out to the length re'uired. &ttention must be given to restricting the
$al#out speed so damage to the $indlass gear and motor are avoided. I1
"ecessary t$e >rake a"d ca>)e stopper s$o+)d >e app)ied i44ediate)y
>eca+se as per c)ass r+)es wi"d)ass >rake is (& ti4es 4ore power1+) t$a"
t$e 4otor a"d ca>)e stopper so,ca))ed paw) or /#+i))oti"e stopper2 $as
@
twice t$e $o)di"# power o1 t$e >rake a"d is t$e stro"#est )i"k i" a))
a"c$ori"# syste4.
I1 t$e dept$ is 4ore t$a" E& 4etres :B s$ack)es o")yG; t$is is t$e c)ass )i4it
and absolute maximum very important for large ships, e'uipped $ith anchors
of $eight bet$een (( tons (89anamax:) up to /@ tons (<LLF tan#ers). Fhec#
$hat is the class limit for your vessel. &lmost all vessels are designed to the
!4metre rule. This rule says, that $indlass motor should be capable to lift
three shac#les of (@ fathoms (!C.@ m) length of cable plus the anchor, but up
and down! There is an allo$ance of @,G over this for safety purposes on test,
but not for in4service use.
A"c$or $o)di"# power
&nchors of merchant ships can roughly be classified in t$o categories:
&) )ormal stoc#less anchors and
B) 5igh holding4po$er (559) anchors.
The anchorHs holding po$er depends on:
%eight,
Type,
Bottom characteristics (holding ground)I
There is an additional effect of chain length used on the anchor holding po$er.
This additional effect is ta#ing into account
%eight of chain,
%ater depth,
5eight of ha$se pipe
Bottom characteristics.
&s an indication of the holding po$er of an anchor, the follo$ing multiplication
factors may be used for the above4mentioned class 8&: anchors:
Sa"d a"d $ard c)ay C , D 0 a"c$or wei#$t
!+d a"d 4edi+4 c)ay B , A 0 a"c$or wei#$t
So1t 4+d a"d so1t c)ay & , B 0 a"c$or wei#$t
6or class 8B: anchors these multiplication factors may be doubled.
&s mentioned above, the part of the chain lying on the seabed is added to the anchorHs
holding po$er. Jn the other hand, $hen the anchor chain length is such that the force
direction on the anchor is oriented under an angle $ith the seabed, in other $ords
$hen the anchor shaft ma#es an angle $ith the seabed, the holding po$er of the
anchor is reduced. ?$e" t$e s$a1t is )i1ted o1 AH t$e )oss o1 $o)di"# power is &A6
a"d at (A6 t$e )oss o1 power is a>o+t A'6.
0
PREPARATION
AS RE!IN7ER ON3I:
This is really good practice to stop the vessel enough early before arrival anchorage.
Testing the main engine astern and emergency steering gear are fruitful. +n case of any
problems, vessel may drift safely in open $aters $hen cre$ is carry out necessary
repairs.
Accordi"# to I"ter"atio"a) a"d F.S. Coast#+ard re=+ire4e"ts a"d #ood sea
practice as we)) "ot 4ore t$e" (& $o+rs >e1ore e"teri"# o" t$e "a*i#a>)e waters
t$e 1o))owi"# e=+ip4e"t $as to >e tested:
(. Pri4ary a"d seco"dary steeri"# #ear. I" t$e test proced+re 4+st >e
i"c)+ded: a *is+a) i"spectio" o1 t$e steeri"# #ear a"d its co""ecti"#
)i"ka#e a"d t$e operatio" o1 t$e 1o))owi"#:
a; eac$ re4ote steeri"# #ear co"tro) syste4
>; eac$ steeri"# positio" )ocated o" t$e "a*i#ati"# >rid#e
c; t$e 4ai" steeri"# #ear 1ro4 t$e a)ter"ati*e power s+pp)y
d; eac$ r+dder a"#)e i"dicator i" re)atio" to t$e act+a) positio" o1 t$e
r+dder
e; eac$ re4ote steeri"# #ear co"tro) syste4 power 1ai)+re a)ar4
1; eac$ re4ote steeri"# #ear power +"it 1ai)+re a)ar4
#; t$e 1+)) 4o*e4e"t o1 t$e r+dder to t$e re=+ired capa>i)ities o1 t$e
steeri"# #ear
&. A)) i"ter"a) *esse) co"tro) co44+"icatio"s a"d *esse) co"tro) a)ar4s.
B. Sta"d>y or e4er#e"cy #e"erator :1or as )o"# as "ecessary to s$ow proper
1+"ctio"i"# i"c)+di"# steady state te4perat+re a"d press+re readi"#s;.
C. Stora#e >atteries 1or e4er#e"cy )i#$ti"# a"d power syste4s i" *esse)
co"tro) a"d prop+)sio" 4ac$i"ery spaces.
A. !ai" prop+)sio" 4ac$i"ery a$ead a"d aster".
J
Foming to an anchorage from the open sea the Jfficer Jn %atch (JJ%) has to
inform the 7ngineer Jn %atch (7J%), and the Fhief 7ngineer as $ell, enough early
about time of arrival.
&s normal established practice is to inform the engineers minimum one hour before,
and aboard vessels $ith engines operated during manoeuvres on diesel or gas oil,
even little a bit more, let say ( hour (@ minutes before planned arrival the outer limit
of anchorage.
Jne hour is needed for engineers to reduce main engine revolutions to manoeuvring
?9D and . or change fuel from +6J to DDJ.
The additional (@ minutes is the necessary minimum for the Daster to reduce the
speed and ma#e slo$ head$ay over the ground $hen approaching an anchorage.
Dentioned time depends on the Daster, but seems useless, and not professional to
come in an anchorage at dead slo$ ahead fe$ hours.
The both anchors should be prepared for immediate use not later, than about one hour
before approaching the anchorage.
C
The proper preparation of anchors consists:
a) Ta#ing off the tarpaulin .steel . concrete (if any) covers into the chains loc#ers,
b) Ta#ing off the additional lashing $ires . chains,
c) 9utting the $indlass in the gear,
d) Disengage of the pa$l (8guillotine:) stoppers by ta#ing them off,
e) ?elease the $indlass bra#e,
f) Lo$ering ($al#ing out) by the gear both anchors clear of the ha$se pipes for
about /, E @, cm in order to be sure anchors are not stac#ed up . bloc#ed in
the ha$se pipes and can be letting go $ithout unnecessary delay. This is very
important especially for deep loaded vessels having encountered heavy
$eather conditions under$ay from the last port of call.
g) Then the bra#es are scre$ed $ell up and the $indlass ta#en out of the gear,
both anchors ready for letting go.
h) The anchor ball and lights prepared . chec#ed in order to display them as soon
as the anchor is dropped. The good sea practice sho$s, that even during
daytime in good visibility the anchor=s light should be s$itched on (al$ays
#eep in mind, that the visibility at sea may be deteriorated in short period of
time).
Because much depends on good communications bet$een the bridge and for$ard
station all available means should be chec#ed. The batteries of hand held
radiotelephones (8%al#ie4Tal#ies:) must be fully charged $ell before arrival.
?adio chec# has to be carried out to full satisfaction of all parties.
Fig. 2. Both anchors ready to use

RE7FCTION O< SPEE7 , !ETHO7S


The second stage of this manoeuvre is efficient reduction of speed to such amount,
that $e have full control on vessel=s behaviour.
Dain available methods of controlled reduction ship=s speed are:
(. By t$e !odi1ied /I"ertia Stop2.
&. By t$e Pro#ressi*e Red+ctio" o1 Speed >y Prope))er at Steady Co+rse.
B. By T+r"i"# t$e .esse) o1 BD'H.
C. By carry o+t t$e /F,T+r"2 :t+r"i"# t$e *esse) o1 a>o+t (E'H;.
A. By carry o+t t$e !odi1ied /F,T+r"2
0. /R+dder Cyc)i"#2, or /<is$ Tai)i"#2.
By t$e !odi1ied /I"ertia Stop2. The pure 8+nertia >top: means main engine.s
is.are stopped, vessel is moving ahead, and the $ay is ta#en off $ithout putting the
main engine.s astern, by $ater resistance only. This method ta#es plenty of time and
stopping distance is e'ual to up to (@ lengths of vessel, depends on the type and si;e
of the ship. %ith the slo$ speed in the last part of this manoeuvre vessel is sluggish
and difficult to #eep at the desired course. +n the modified 8+nertia >top: the main
engine $or#ing astern $hen speed is about 3 #nots stops vessel. 5o$ever stopping
distance is less than before, but ta#es plenty of time too, and therefore is not
advisable, apart of fact, that fe$ hours $ould stretch anyone=s patience, even the
angel"
By Pro#ressi*e Red+ctio" o1 Speed >y Prope))er at Steady Co+rse.
?9D of main engine are reduced step by step from 6ull &head, through 5alf &head,
>lo$ &head, Dead >lo$ &head, >top and appropriate astern revolutions up to even
completely stopping the vessel over the ground if necessary. >o4called 8>lo$ >peed
Fontrol: should be applied in the last phase of this manoeuvre in order to #eep the
vessel=s heading as re'uired. +f the ship=s speed is too slo$, and she does not ans$er
the helm, the control should be achieved again by applying rudder !,- or even hard
over, and 8#ic# ahead: (a short but substantial burst of main engine po$er).
&lso this method ta#es time, and re'uires long distance. By the $ay this is note$orthy
that on a vessel moving at full speed, a propeller $or#ing at !,G of its capacity meets
more resistance of the $ater than does a stopped propeller. Jther $ords ordering
Dead >lo$ on the engine, after the vessel made full speed ahead, gives better bra#ing
effect, than immediately stopping the propeller.
By T+r"i"# t$e .esse) o1 BD'H. This method is most desperate, but also most
effective. Let us #no$ about advantages, disadvantages and limitations of this
method.
&t first all vessels around are confused, particularly these under $ay, if not
appropriate advised about our intensions.
This is $ell #no$n, that ship=s speed during normal turn, $ith rudder put hard over is
reduced, depends on the type of vessel 4 from /, to @,G of the initial.
The explanation is simple: she is sliding side$ays and ahead and the exposed side
area giving additional increase in $ater resistance, $hich in turn acts as a bra#e.
K
The fully bodied vessels, such as bul# carriers and tan#ers have experienced larger
reduction of speed than ships of more fine under$ater body, $ith higher ratio L.B
(length bet$een perpendiculars to beam).
The long bulbous bo$ fully submerged, even #eel, or trim by head is giving the pivot
point farther for$ard, and conse'uently smaller turning circle and a larger lost of
initial speed.
To use of this method it is necessary to provide sufficient sea room.
+n deep $ater the diameter of turning circle for underpo$ered vessels, as are bul#
carriers and tan#ers vary bet$een /.! and /. times ship=s length. 6or example !@,
LD%T tan#er of LB9 /!K.! m has turning circle diameter /.3 x L 2 about ((!, m.
+t gives us ,.0,3 )m, other $ords 0 cables only. %e can say $e are able to turn
around such large vessels, and slo$ her speed up to 3.@40 #nots at distance of about
one )autical Dile, including the safety margin. This is really impressive achievement"
But $e have to #eep in mind that in most port approaches should be expected shallo$
$ater effect, and it means the turning circle of our vessel may be even t$ice larger
than in the deep $ater, and behaviour of ship surprisingly different, especially if
approaching speed is excessive.
Co"c)+sio": if this method of speed reduction is planned, should be carried out in
right distance (including the safety margin) from the nearest vessels . shallo$ $aters.
+n the example mentioned above simple calculations sho$ us, that at distance of t$o
nautical miles $e are able to s$ing the vessel and drop do$n the speed to reasonable
safety, fully controlled amount, therefore if such manoeuvre is carried out at distance
let say @ )m from the anchorage E this is safety, and under control.
Jf course for smaller vessels re'uired safety distance is ade'uate smaller.
By carryi"# o+t o1 t$e /F,T+r"2 :t+r"i"# t$e *esse) o1 a>o+t (E'H;.
This is very effective method and used directly before dropping the anchor.
+t consists elements of both methods: The 9rogressive ?eduction of >peed by
9ropeller at >teady Fourse and The Turning <essel of /0,-.
%e have to approach at (,- to the final heading at anchor, and therefore there is most
convenient situation $hen the $ind and current are follo$ing us (setting onshore).
The approach speed should be suitable for the searoom and ships= traffic. &t first stage
ship=s speed reduction is progressive by propeller only, up to let say 340 #nots, and
depends mostly on type and si;e of the vessel, her draft and trim, manoeuvring
characteristic, available searoom, $ind, and current strength.
The typical 8M4turn: starts the s$inging *ust $hen ship=s bo$ is abeam of the planned
bo$ final position. The rudder is put hard over to$ards the side $here is desired
anchoring position, main engine at Dead >lo$ &head. Jnce the turn is started, engine
is stopped. There is used anchor on the inside of the turn. %hen the vessel is canted of
about (/@- she should be at very slo$ speed, and easily stopped by >lo$ &stern
applied only. +n order to come exactly at planned anchoring position very good
#no$ledge and experience of particular ship=s behaviour in different conditions is
re'uired, other$ise real position may vary from chosen previously.
By carryi"# o+t t$e !odi1ied /F,T+r"2.
The main differences to the classic 8M4Turn: are:
The commencement of turning the vessel is little a bit delayed.
The main engine is #ept at Dead >lo$ &head longer, up to reaching heading
different of about (/@- from initial.
(,
&dditional distance achieved by delayed s$ing is used to ma#e necessary
corrections in course and speed of approach, in order to drop the anchor
exactly in the planned position.
Leeping Dead >lo$ &head longer allo$s ship faster ans$ering the helm and
master better 8feeling the vessel:.
/R+dder Cyc)i"#2, or /<is$ Tai)i"#2.
This method is based on observation, that vessel $ith rudder put hard over is loosing
her initial speed before the turn has $ell set in, that is, bet$een (, and K, degrees of
turn. +n a later stage of the full turn speed is constant.
((
Figure 3. Rudder Cycling or Fish ailing
This method is similar to ;ig;ag made by s#ier going do$nhill, in both cases larger
changes from the original heading slo$ing do$n the speed.
+f everything is going $ell in the distance of about 3 )m to the anchorage limit (or to
the first anchored vessel) 7J% or F.7 should inform us, that D.7 is ready to
manoeuvres (at manoeuvring ?9D).
+n the distance reduced to 3 E / )m the rudder is put hard over, let say 5ard to 9ort,
and main engine revolutions reduced to 5alf &head.
%hen the heading is altered of about minus 3,- from the initial next order for
helmsman is 8?udder Didships":
85ard to >tarboard: is ordered having the rudder amidship. Dost probably that time
heading of our vessel $ill differ of about minus @,- from the initial.
>ame time the engine telegraph should be put at >lo$ &head.
&s the ship=s head $ill reach the initial course $ith rudder still 5ard to 9ort main
engine ?9D are reduced to Dead >lo$ &head.
+f heading is changed plus 3,- from the initial the rudder is put amidships, and as soon
reaches 8;ero: position 85ard to 9ort": is ordered again. That time difference in
courses is most probably plus @,-.
&s soon as ship=s heading is plus !,- from initial the rudder is put amidships.
Due to momentum of rotation the vessel is coming to initial course. 7ven $ith
revolutions of D.7 #ept at Dead >lo$ &head continuously the speed should be
reduced up to @, E0,G of speed before this manoeuvre. Jf course it depends on the
vessel.
+n ma*or cases speed should be about 3.@ 4 0 #nots, $hat is fully controlled, and
acceptable.
+f $e are still not satisfied $ith speed this manoeuvre may be once or t$ice repeated.
Deantime our distance to the anchorage limit, or nearest anchored vessel should be
reduced not more than to one and half of nautical mile.
+n the emergency $e are able to s$ing the vessel around, or to stop at distance less,
than one mile, even $ith the main engine put at >lo$ &stern only.
There are many variation of 8?udder Fycling: manoeuvre.
>ome captains prefer smaller amount of heading alternation, but more often.
&ny$ay every prudent master should carry out this manoeuvre at first far a$ay from
the shallo$ $ater and ship=s traffic.
>hip=s behaviour should be $ell #no$n to the ship handler before arrival any
anchorage, or congested $aters.
Ge"era) re4arks re#ardi"# red+ctio" o1 speed:
The choice of method depends mostly on the ship handler, his #no$ledge and
practical experience in ship handling, 8feeling: behaviour of particular vessel,
and familiari;ation $ith the anchorage and local $aters.
8M4Turn: and 8Dodified M4Turn: are used directly before dropping the
anchor, therefore if anchorage is congested main reduction of speed, let say up
to 5alf or >lo$ &head should be carried out by other methods.
There is freedom in application of methods, separate or combined.
(!
8The ?udder Fycling: at the beginning, together $ith 8Dodified M4Turn: in
the second stage of this manoeuvre is in my opinion the best, fully acceptable,
safety, enough fast and effective.
APPROACHING AN ANCHORAGE
&ssume, approach speed has been reduced earlier to amount fully controlled, and
vessel is arriving an anchorage $ith bare, re'uired by circumstances steerage $ay.
%henever it is possible and applicable one dec# officer should be $ith master on the
bridge to plot the ship=s position.
<essel=s position should be determined by independent means, as terrestrial bearings,
radar distances and A9>, and plotted at sufficiently fre'uent intervals (even fe$
minutes close to planned anchor position). 9arallel index techni'ues can be very
useful $hen monitoring the ship=s progress.
There are such practical anchoring cases:
(. Jpen anchorage, and anchored vessels are heading to$ards the open sea.
!. Jpen anchorage, anchored vessel are heading to$ards the shore.
/. Jpen anchorage, anchored vessels are heading parallel to the coastline.
3. Jpen anchorage, no anchored vessels in sight.
@. 7nclosed congested anchorage, $ithin harbour limits, confined to a specific
location.
(. Ope" a"c$ora#e a"d a"c$ored *esse)s are $eadi"# towards t$e
ope" sea.
By means of radar and binocular most suitable position bet$een the anchored vessels
is searched. The minimal distance to other ships $hen the anchor is already brought
up should be not less than @ cables.
Distance to the nearest shoreline, shallo$ $ater or isolated danger should be, if
possible higher than ( nautical mile.
This is absolutely necessary to #eep cre$ (anchor party) ready at fo=c=sle enough
earlier before coming bet$een the anchored vessels. The best helmsman should be
chosen.
This approach is illustrated in fig. 3
Due to higher rate of drift, setting by current, slo$ speed, $ider drift angle in turn
THIS IS 7ANGEROFS AN7 <ORBI7EN to pass close ahead of anchored vessels.
>uch situation in fig. 3 is mar#ed 8)7<7?":
+nstead of such ris#y manoeuvre, approaching vessel should pass behind the stern of
ship 8B:. +t gives her more room to ad*ust final approach heading and speed.
This is the ideal situation to use 8Dodified M4Turn: method.
+n order to place vessel exactly in middle bet$een the ships anchored for$ard and aft
of planned anchoring position the allo$ance o1 ( +p to & ca>)es for the cable length
and possible dragging, until she $ill be brought up is advised, it means that ship=s
(/
position in moment of dropping the anchor should be closer to $ind$ard vessel of
mentioned earlier allo$ance.
This is self4explanatory in figure 3.
Dead slo$ ahead should be #ept until reaching position 3.
+n many cases 8#ic#s ahead: are needed to initiate re'uired change of heading.
(3
Figure !. "a#ety approach to planned anchor dropping position
&. Ope" a"c$ora#e a"c$ored *esse)s are $eadi"# towards t$e s$ore.
This is much easier than previous approach.
<essel is approaching an anchorage slo$ly, angling to the $eather , 4 !,-.
&ll mentioned previously precautions have to be ta#en under consideration.
+f $ater depth and bottom characteristic permit and exactly anchor position has not
been indicated by port control office, or <T> most safety method is dropping the
anchor in place situated bet$een the anchored vessels and outer limit of the roads.
+n case anchor is not holding ground, problems $ith main engine etc., the vessel is in
safety situation, she is drifting to the open sea, and time is not so important factor.
B. Ope" a"c$ora#e a"c$ored *esse)s are $eadi"# para))e) to t$e
coast)i"e.
&lso, not difficult approach, ho$ever all safety precautions should be observed, as
al$ays.
?emar#s are very similar to mentioned under point !.
>hip is approaching anchorage slo$ly, angling to the $eather !, 4 K,-.
The anchor is commenced to $al# bac# at speed at t$o #nots to avoid banging on the
hull.
The anchor on $eather side, not lee side should be used.
This method is #no$n as the 8Tentative:.
+n case planned anchoring position is close to the outer limit of the roads, for the sa#e
of safety, + suggest to pass by bo$ the eye of the $ind and drop the anchor from side
bet$een the shoreline and open sea.
+n case of any unexpected problems, ship is drifted outside of the anchorage.
C. Ope" a"c$ora#e "o a"c$ored *esse)s i" si#$t.
Due to absence of another vessel, or even buoy the main acting environmental forces
are not easy to recogni;e.
+f there are not tidal $aters situation is much more simple, direction and force of $ind
are main factors to be ta#en under consideration, and all basic procedures are as
described in previous points.
>ituation is more complicated in the $aters affected by strong currents.
Fonventional $ay of anchoring could lead to damage of the bra#e, or even parting of
the cable.
+n order to avoid such unpleasant situation safety procedures should be $or#ed out.
T$e 1irst r+)e:
The vessel has to arrive anchorage $ith bare steerage$ay only, #eeping al$ays
enough4large safety margin to the shallo$ $aters, danger areas and shoreline.
(@
T$e seco"d r+)e:
+n not $ell4#no$n tidal $aters use of one, or maximum one and half shac#le in the
$ater is the basic guidance to tide current direction, vessel=s speed and her $ay.
T$e t$ird r+)e:
The amount of cable paid out at time (at once) should be of fe$ metres only, and
chec#ed.
&ssuming, $e have not information about direction and rate of current, depth is
#no$n, and is let say !@ metres.
%hen close to desired anchor position use a short burst of stern movement.
%hen the 8'uic# $ater: ($ash) *ust caught the stern, anchor is let go. %ith one
shac#le in the $ater the bra#e is made fast. &t this stage this is rather impossible to
burn the bra#e lining or part the cable.
7epe"d o" t$e )eadi"# t$e ca>)e a"d *esse) >e$a*io+r t$e 1o))owi"# possi>i)ities
4ay $a*e occ+rre"ce:
T$e a"c$or ca>)e is +p a"d dow" a"d re4ai"s i" t$is positio" :1i#. A;
+t seems vessel is not moving over the ground. Dost probably this is slac# $ater, or
near to. 9ut the cable into the gear, pay out slo$ly up to re'uired length, or give the
short #ic# astern on the main engine, and 8pay out and chec#: as the $eight on the
cable comes.
Figure $.
T$e ca>)e is )eadi"# aster" a"d dra##i"#. .esse) is swi"#i"# aro+"d
:1i#+re D;.
The tide is almost from the stern, the vessel has head$ay and tendency to turn around,
therefore let the ship come around. To do this safely, at first #ic# astern on the main
engine is re'uired in order to ta#e off the strain from the cable. That time the cable is
leading most probably bet$een 3 and o=cloc#. %hen starts dragging $hile leading
bet$een (, and ! o=cloc# assist the s$ing using the main engine ahead together $ith
appropriate amount of rudder until the anchor stops the dragging.
+f stopped dragging, vessel has no speed over the ground, therefore stop the main
engine and start 8paying and chec#ing: the cable as long re'uired amount is achieved.
Depending on the strain on the cable, 8#ic#s ahead: may be necessary.
(0
Figure %.
T$e ca>)e is )eadi"# aster" a"d dra##i"# *esse) is t+r"i"# >+t swi"#s are
dece)erated :1i#+re K;.
The vessel has still head$ay and steaming the tide (proceeding against the current
direction). 9ut the main engine astern until the anchor stops dragging. +f stopped
dragging the ship has no $ay upon her. )o$ $ait, until she starts drift do$n the
stream and the cable goes leading little a bit for$ard. >tart 8paying and chec#ing: the
cable $ith 8#ic#s ahead: on main engine if necessary.
Figure &.
T$e ca>)e is )eadi"# a$ead a"d a"c$or is dra##i"# co"ti"+o+s)y :1i#+re E;.
The current is against usI vessel is steaming the tide and has gained stern$ay. >tart the
main engine and go ahead till the anchor stops dragging. )ext steps are as it is advised
above (8paying and chec#ing: the cable).
Figure '.
T$e ca>)e is )eadi"# a$ead a"d dra##i"# t$e s$ip5s ster" is t+r"i"#
acce)erated)y :1i#+re L;.
The tide is follo$ing us (tide from the stern), and the vessel has the stern$ay.
+t happened, because the main engine $as $or#ing astern too long.
(C
Ao ahead on the main engine until the cable stops dragging. The next steps to anchor
the vessel are as in figure 0.
Figure (.
A. E"c)osed co"#ested a"c$ora#e wit$i" $ar>o+r )i4its co"1i"ed to a
speci1ic )ocatio".
>uch anchorages are of limited space depending on type of vessel, her si;e and draft.
The necessity to anchor maximum number of ships at relatively small area available
re'uires dropping the anchor exactly in place indicated by local port authority.
6or safety reason employment of pilot $ith local #no$ledge is in most cases
compulsory. +t concerns especially larger vessels. The pilot is embar#ed shortly before
arrival roadsI in KKG he is very busy due to high traffic, next vessels are $aiting for
pilot, therefore he insist on carry out manoeuvre as fast as possible, but of course
safely. Dost of these pilots are in real terms the experts in this particular *ob, as is
pilotage.
&s good examples of enclosed, congested anchorages are >ingapore and Fristobal
+nner ?oads.
I" order to keep co"tro) o1 t$e *esse) speed is re=+ired a"d it is 1o+"d t$e >est
practice to drop t$e a"c$or w$e" s$ip is 4o*i"# sti)) a$ead.
Due to restricted space it is not al$ays possible (rather almost never) to choose the
best approach direction, most important is precision of anchoring.
This is very useful to chec# main engine movement astern before arrival designated
place.
+n order to anchor the vessel $ith re'uired precision, the anchor party on the
forecastle must let go the anchor the moment is given the order from the bridge, and it
must not be allo$ed to close the bra#e too soon. The officer in charge of operation on
fo=c=sle plays an important role. %hen t$o, or three shac#les have run out it should be
possible to apply the bra#e, and then 8pay out and chec#: as the ship loses her $ay
ahead.
(
BASIC ANCHORING !ETHO7S
STEP BI STEP
There are t$o recognised basic methods of anchoring the vessel.
(. The first, most popular is $hen the ship is already stopped, and has
slight stern$ay, or moving easily side$ays $hen the anchor is dropped
.$al#ed out.
!. The second method is used particularly $ithin harbours limits in
restricted to a specific anchorage location. &s it $as $ritten above in
order to #eep control of the vessel, speed is re'uired and it is found the
best practice to drop the anchor $hen ship is moving still ahead $ith
slo$ fully controlled speed.
: ( ;
S$ip stopped a"d $as s)i#$t ster"way or 4o*i"# sideways
w$e" t$e a"c$or is dropped - wa)ked >ack :o+t;.
This method, depending on si;e of the vessel, direction of approaching the anchorage
may be divided to:
a) The classic method (vessels up to let say @,,,,, D%T),
b) The 8Tentative: method (large vessels of D%T N @,,,,,),
c) The 8M: turn method (large vessels of D%T N @,,,,,),
d) The modified 8M: turn method (generally $ith necessary modifications may
be applied to all vessels).
T$e /C)assic22 4et$od , s4a))er *esse)s +p to A'''' 7?T.
a; ?ater dept$ is +p to &' 4etres :1i#+re (';.
The anchorage is approached slo$ly, steaming the $ind and tide (up to $ind,
and . or tide, angle of approach near ;ero degree). Last fe$ cables to the planned
anchor dropping position vessel is passing $ith main engine already stopped.
(K
+f the vessel is e'uipped $ith solid right hand propeller, shortly before arrival
re'uired position ship=s turn to port should be initiated by rudder put hard to port
and applying 8#ic# ahead:, if necessary.
+mmediately after turn to port is commenced, put rudder amidships and the main
engine at slo$ astern.
)o$ the turn to port is eliminated by the propeller transverse trust, $hich under
normal conditions should push the stern to port (it means also, that for$ard part of
the ship, ahead of pivot point goes to starboard").
%hen the $ater $ash (8'uic# $ater:) reaches midship anchor is dropped, and
main engine put at stop. Deantime ship shall be $ith head up to the $ind or
steaming the current. 5aving one and half up to ! shac#les are in the $ater the
bra#e must be made fast, in order do not pile up cable on top and foul the anchor.
%hen slight stern$ay is gained and maintained the cable is allo$ed run out until
sufficient amount of shac#les is paid out. Jnce the re'uired amount of cable is
paid out, still $ithout strain, (almost up and do$n") the bo$ stopper should be put
on, and secured.
The speed of the vessel over the ground $hen the anchor is let go, and $hilst the
cable is paid out, needs to be minimised. &s it $as stressed before this
re'uirement is more critical for large ships. To achieve this use of main engine
ahead may be necessary.
!,
Fig. 1). he Classic method * smaller +essels, up to $),))) -..
.ater depth is up to 2) metres.
>; 7ept$ is >etwee" &' a"d B' 4etres.
The anchor is at first $al#ed out (bac#) until the shan# is fully submerged and
cro$n shac#le seen only. The bra#e is applied and $indlass gear disengaged. )o$
the anchor is ready to let go. The next steps as above.
c; T$e dept$ is 4ore t$a" B' >+t )ess t$a" D' 4etres.
!(
The anchor cable should be $al#ed out until the anchor is $ithin the depth, *ust
touches the ground, or let say fe$ metres above the bottom (but not more than
ten). This is recommended as the means of restricting the velocities and loads in
the anchoring system. 5aving the anchor touching the ground the bra#e is applied
and $indlass gear disengaged and the anchor is ready to let go. The next steps are
same as under point (a).
d) T$e dept$ is o*er D' 4etres.
&s it $as $ritten before, and repeated here the $indlass should be #ept in the gear
and cable $al#ed out to the length re'uired. &ttention must be given to restricting
the $al#out speed so damage to the $indlass gear and motor are avoided. +f
necessary the bra#e and cable stopper should be applied immediately, because as
per class rules $indlass bra#e is (! times more po$erful than the motor, and cable
stopper, so4called pa$l, or 8guillotine stopper: has t$ice the holding po$er of the
bra#e and is the strongest lin# in all anchoring
T$e /Te"tati*e2 4et$od :)ar#e *esse)s o1 7?T M A'''';.
Ge"era) re4ark:
The ships such as the 9anamax, Fape and <LFF classes $hen ma#ing $ay through
the $ater are developing the tremendous, massive #inetic energy.
+t leads to problems $ith respect to:
a) >lo$ing and stopping,
!!
b) +nade'uate anchoring e'uipment.
Therefore a better and more effective approach to the anchoring of the large vessels is
advised (8& )e$ &pproach to &nchoring Large <essels:, by Fapt. F.& DcDo$all).
&s Fapt. F.&. DcDo$all suggests it a better and more effective approach is to #eep
the anchor cable leading at right angles (K, degrees) to the bo$ and control the
change in axial inertia rather than controlling the ship momentum.
7escriptio" a"d 4y "ecessary additio"a) e0p)a"atio" o1 t$e 1irst s+##ested
4a"oe+*re 1or t$e )ar#e *esse)s N t$e /Te"tati*e2 4et$od :1i#+re (&;:
The anchorage is approached slo$ly $ith the angle to the $eather bet$een !, and K,
degrees if planned turn is to starboard, or bet$een (, and K, degrees if to port.
The effect of the transverse thrust of right hand fixed propeller $hen main engine is
$or#ing astern on ship=s heading is sho$ed in figure ((, and it is self4explanatory
$hy smaller final approach heading is needed $hen turning to port, than to starboard.
Fig. 11. he e##ect o# the propeller trans+erse thrust /ith the main engine /or0ing
astern on the #inal ship1s heading.
&ssuming the vessel has fixed right hand propeller, and slo$ astern $ill be used only.
T$e weat$er "ot t$e )ee side a"c$or s$o+)d >e +sed.
The final heading, $hen approach is from port side depends mostly on:
(. Loading . ballast condition,
!. Trim,
/. &mount of used po$er astern to stop the vessel,
!/
3. %eather condition.
@. The shape . construction of ship=s stern and rudder.
The difference of about (, degrees is as the example only, and this is the minimal
necessary allo$ance for the propeller transverse trust, $hich under normal conditions
should push the stern to port (as it $as explained $ith the 8Flassic: method). +f more
po$er astern is applied, stronger propeller transverse trust is expected, and therefore
larger angle of paying4off the bo$ should be seen.
The large angle of bo$ drift is also normal for the ships in ballast, $ith big trim by
stern in s'ually, strong $ind $eather condition.
O"ow)ed#e o1 s$ip5s >e$a*io+r i" di11ere"t )oadi"# - weat$er co"ditio"s is
esse"tia).
+n order to avoid the anchor banging on the hull, $al#ing out the anchor is
commenced $hen speed over the ground is ! #nots only.
%hen the vessel is stopped, anchor is $al#ed bac# (out) to *ust touching the seabed.
Jn the fo=c=sle the officer in charge of anchoring operations has to observe the lead of
the cable, and inform the master $hen leading is out on the beam, and clear of the
ship=s hull.
%hen the anchor cable starts leading in the desired direction, the bra#e should be
opened, or cable $al#ed out by the $inch. The cable must be veered in one go to the
re'uired scope $ithout any stoppage of the side$ays movement of the bo$.
The cable amount paid out, under normal circumstances should be three and half to
four times the depth, even five times if it is possible.
+n ideal condition, during veering the cable is on the beam, K, degrees to the ship=s
fore and aft line, almost up and do$n. %hen the cable is on the beam the forces on the
$indlass are !, times less (approximately /,@ times for inertia and 0 times for added
cable scope), than in classic method, $here this is allo$ed the cable to dra$ ahead.
The pa$l, 8guillotine stopper: must be put on $ith the cable still almost up and do$n
(on 8short stay:, $ithout the strain on the chain), *ust indicating the direction of
leading only.
+n order to achieve and control such slight side$ays movement of the ship=s bo$
ad*ustment the angle to $eather by 8#ic#s ahead . astern: and appropriate position of
rudder may be necessary. &s it $as mentioned and stressed earlier the experience in
ship handling, good training, and #no$ledge of the particular ship behaviour are
necessary, and fruitful"
There has been some evidence suggesting the $ea#ness of the anchoring system of
ships over @,.,,, D%T. This $orth to remember, that the strongest part in this system
is al$ays the cable stopper, $hich has t$ice the holding po$er of the bra#e, and the
bra#e is (! times stronger than $indlass motor.
&ccording to the above the ship=s master has to instruct the officer in charge of
anchoring operations on forecastle to do "ot 4ake a"y atte4pt to >ri"# t$e *esse)
+p o" t$e >rake or t$e wi"d)ass 4otor >eca+se t$is is a#ai"st t$e 4aker5s a"d
c)ass )i4its.
Jnce again is stressed to bring up the vessel, $ith the cable abeam before allo$ing
the cable to dra$ ahead. This is for the inertia of large vessel and scope of her
anchoring system reason.
!3
Fig. 12. he entati+e method 2large +essels o# -. 3 $),)))4.
T$e /F2 t+r" 4et$od :)ar#e *esse)s o1 7?T M A'''';.
This is the second anchoring manoeuvre of large vessels advised by Fapt. F.&.
DcDo$ell (figure (/). This method utilises the rotational inertia of the vessel to #eep
the control of the tension in the anchor cable.
To #eep the cable leading at right angles to the fore and aft direction the bo$ should
be positioned of about !, degrees to the $eather and moving side$ays $hen the
anchor is dropped.
To achieve this !,- angle to the prevailing $eather all remar#s regarding final
heading, described in the 8Tentative: method have to be ta#en under consideration. +t
depends on from $hich side the ship is approaching the anchorage (see figure (().
+f the ship=s turn is planned to starboard the bo$ is positioned !,- off the $eather at
the end of tightly executed turn of about (/@-.
Before the commencement of this manoeuvre the vessel should approach the
anchorage do$n the $eather at slo$ speed.
The 8M: Turn is commenced $hen the bo$ is positioned abeam of the planned
position $here anchor to be dropped. Deantime the main engine is ordered to run on
dead slo$ ahead. The rudder is put hard over to$ards the anchoring position.
Deantime the main engine is ordered to run on dead slo$ ahead.
&s soon the turn is initiated the main engine should be stopped.
!@
Fig. 13. he 5 turn method 2large +essels o# -. 3 $),)))4.
%hen the speed is of about ! #nots the anchoring party on the fo=c=sle start to $al#
the anchor bac# (out) *ust to above seabed. The anchor on the inside of the turn has to
be used.
%hen the ship=s heading is altered of about (/@- from the initial (it means the course
$hat $as #ept before starts the turn) the ship should be virtually stopped.
The angle to the $eather has to be ad*usted as necessary in order to suit the strength of
the $ind and . or tide. To ma#e such ad*ustment full rudder and 8#ic#s: on the main
engine are applicable . necessary.
%ith the bo$ moving slo$ly side$ays, let go, or $al# bac# $ith the bra#e the anchor
to /,@ to four times the depth, five if possible.
The stopper should be put on and secured by pin $ith the anchor cable almost still up
and do$n $ithout the strain on the chain, *ust to indicate the direction of leading only.
(figures (3 and (@).
&ny attempts to bring the vessel up on the bra#e, or $indlass motor are strictly
forbidden, because are against the ma#ers= and class limits.
The ship has to be brought up $ith the cable leading abeam, or almost abeam before
allo$ing the cable to dra$ ahead.
>ee also the remar#s connected $ith the 8Tentative: method.
!0
Fig. 1!. he pa/l, guillotine stopper #orm the integral part o# the anchor ca6le
restraining e7uipment and is designed to ta0e the anchoring load.
6ig. (@. 8nce the re7uired amount o# ca6le has 6een paid out, the +essel should 6e
allo/ed to 6ring*up on the 6o/ stopper.
9n any manoeu+ring on the anchor the stopper should normally 6e engaged.
!C
T$e 4odi1ied /F2 t+r" 4et$od :#e"era))y wit$ "ecessary 4odi1icatio"s 4ay
>e app)ied to a)) *esse)s;.
This method may be applied to all si;e vessels.
The main modifications are:
Delayed commencement of turning the vessel.
The main engine is not stopped once the turn is started, but #ept at dead slo$
ahead longer, up to reaching heading different of about (/@- from initial.
The advantages are as follo$s:
&dditional distance achieved by delaying the turn is used to ma#e necessary
ad*ustments in course and speed of approach, and therefore $ith some effort,
experience and good $ill on the ship handler side the anchor should be
dropped exactly in the planned position.
Because dead slo$ ahead on the main engine is #ept longer it allo$s ship
faster ans$ering the helm and master better control of the ship=s behaviour.
The slight side$ays movement of the bo$ (large vessels), as $ell heading up
to $ind and tide (classic method) are fully possible to reali;e in the final stage
of this manoeuvre.
This method may be easy ad*usted to suit accordingly particular re'uirements.

Fig. 1%. he :odi#ied 5*turn method.
!
: II ;
S$ip is 4o*i"# sti)) a$ead wit$ s)ow 1+))y co"tro))ed speed.
This method is used mostly at the congested anchorages of limited space (figure (C).
The necessity to anchor maximum number of ships at relatively small area available
re'uires dropping the anchor exactly in place designed earlier by local port
authorities.
The main difference of this method to these previously described is dropping the
anchor $hen the ship is still ma#ing the head$ay.
Because precision of dropping the anchor is most important factor the slight speed
ahead is necessary to #eep the control of ship=s movement all the time. The speed
should be of such amount, that all $ay could easily be ta#en off after the anchor is
dropped.
The best approach direction is almost never possible to choose due to restricted space
available.
Fig. 1&. -ropping the anchor /ith head/ay.
+n order to anchor the vessel $ith re'uired precision, the anchor party on the
forecastle must let go the anchor almost exactly $hen the order from the bridge is
given. But if there is a delay in dropping the anchor, or anchor $as let go too early it
!K
$ill be necessary to ma#e one more approach, $hat not al$ays is easy, convenient
and safety at the small and cro$ded anchorage.
Jf course pilot or master should al$ays #eep in mind the necessary allo$ance of fe$
seconds needed for releasing the bra#e.
The bra#e must not be closed too soon. Lot depends on the officer in charge of
operation on fo=c=sle.
This is not so important $hich $ay the vessel is heading at time of let go the anchor,
but if necessary this is suggested to alter the course accordingly to run the cable clear
of the hull.
%hen t$o, or three shac#les have run out it should be possible to apply the bra#e, and
then 8pay out and chec#: as the ship loses her $ay ahead.
The officer in charge of anchoring operation on fo=c=sle should report to the bridge
each shac#le of cable run out, but he must remember 7O NOT STOP the cable to
chec# the numbers of shac#les already paid off. +f the depth is !@ E/, metres $ith
one, or one and half shac#le in the $ater the anchor $ill be dragged along the seabed
and precision of dropping the anchor is lost, the $hole manoeuvre $ill have to be
repeated.
%ith all the re'uired shac#les already run out, the bra#e is closed and meantime ship=s
speed ahead should be completely ta#en off.
+n order to loose the rest of head$ay the bra#e should not be applied too strong.
The method of 8paying and chec#ing: is recommended, especially $hen vessel is
large and deep laden.
Because the anchor cable is not designed to support a sudden *er#, it is al$ays better
to slac# out more cable until final stopping of the vessel.
5eaving up to re'uired amount of shac#les is carried out later $ith vessel already
stopped and brought up.
/,
HEA.ING FP THE ANCHOR
+n normal $eather condition there is no problem to $eigh the single anchor. The
officer in charge in for$ard station should inform the bridge ho$ the cable is leading
and about the strain on the anchor chain. +f there is leading astern, $indlass must be
stopped due to heavy tension in the anchoring system.
7ach shac#le appears should be announced by appropriate amount of the bell rings.
%hen the anchor is a$eigh the bell is rung rapidly and anchor ball lo$ered.
+n the case of stormy $ind and rough sea, or strong current, there is the significant
strain in the anchoring system. %or#ing on main engine ahead, and steaming to$ards
the leading cable . eye of the $ind . current is the must to ease the system, particularly
the $indlass.
The pa$l (guillotine bo$er stopper) al$ays must be put on in heavy $eather
conditions for the very simple reasonI $hen the bo$er stopper is put on there is
possibility to heave up anchor only, any uncontrolled paying bac# is automatically
halted.
The officer on fo=c=sle shall immediately inform master $hen strain on the cable is
decreased in order to stop the main engine.
There should be t$o men on the controls, particularly the bra#e.
+n heavy $eather conditions safety harnesses must protect all cre$members employed
at fo=c=sle.
>ometimes the anchor is dropped by mista#e or negligence in such deep $ater, that
the $indlass is not able to lift the anchor and full amount of the cable paid out (almost
all ships are designed to the ! metre rule).
&t first it is necessary to heave up maximum amount of chain, as possible, and then
proceed to$ards the shallo$er $ater in $hich the $indlass motor has enough po$er
to recover remaining scope of cable and the anchor.
>uch unpleasant situation ta#es place sometimes aboard ships $ith $indlasses in poor
condition.
/(
THE SECON7 ANCHOR
:I;
GENERA3 RE!AROS
The main purposes of use the second anchor are as follo$s:
(. ?estriction of ya$ing and therefore avoidance of dragging during stormy
$eather condition, or strong current.
!. ?eduction the chance of crac#ing the chain during rough $eather, or strong
tide current, by lessening the strain in the individual cable.
/. Dinimi;ing of the s$inging area,
3. >ecuring the vessel stern on to the berth $ith both anchors leading ahead to
hold the bo$ in position (Dediterranean Door).
@. Berthing large tan#er to the >ea Berth (Fonventional Buoy Dooring).
:II;
FN7ER<OOT
Iawi"#
Because on board almost all merchant ships the bo$ ha$se pipes are t$o, and
therefore not situated at centre of the bo$, the vessel=s natural position $hen lying at
one anchor becomes canted *ust opposite to the anchor.
%ith the increase of the strength of $ind or tide, the vessel anchored at one4anchor
starts ya$s about.
The vessel starts falling off the $ind or tide exposing the one side of bo$ more, than
the other and drifting side$ays until she is stopped by the cable tension.
The path traced out by a starboard4anchored vessel (exactly her starboard ha$se) is
sho$n in figure (. This path has configuration of 8:. The asymmetry of the halves
is caused by off4centre positioning of the used ha$se pipe. This asymmetry becomes
larger $ith the ha$se pipes situated more aft, closer to the extreme ship=s beam.
+n figure ( it is seen, that bet$een positions 8&: and 8D:, and 8B: and 8F: the sheer
is increased.
The trac#s bet$een 8F: and 8&:, and 8D: to 8B: sho$ the surge ahead, caused by the
extreme anchor cable stretch and reduction in hull pressure.
The angle of s$inging (ya$ing) depends on the $ind force, tide rate, vessel=s trim and
draft.
/!
Fig. 1'. he path traced out 6y a star6oard*anchored ship1s ha/se.
The anchor starts dragging or in the $orst condition the cable is parted in positions
$here the sheer, and therefore forces are maximum.
Fig. 1(
>uch extremely situation is sho$ed in figure (K.
//
/F"der1oot2 a"c$or
Lessening the ya$ing $ill decrease the forces in the anchoring system.
The common practice to arrest $ild ya$s used aboard high $indage ships, as are car
carriers is to drop the second anchor 8underfoot 8, $ith amount of cable e'ual to (,@
(one and half) distance from the ha$se pipe to the bottom (figure !,). +t $or#s nicely
$ith the $ater depth of about /, E/@ metres only.
+f the depth is less, than !@ metres + prefer to put *ust at the seabed the second anchor,
$ith one, maximum one and half shac#les in the $ater.
Fig. 2).
The second anchor tas# is to arrest ya$ing, not to hold ground. The protection against
fouling the cables is fact, that underfoot anchor is dragging all the time, and both
anchors cables are 8gro$ing: under different angles to the bottom.
%hen the $ind or current is changing direction, but the force is still same, or even
stronger, there is not chance to foul the cables.
Fig. 21.he second anchor dropped under#oot
/3
%ith deeper depth the second anchor should be dropped $ith three shac#les on dec#
theoretically in position mar#ed 8F: (fig. (), because this is extreme distance
bet$een the anchors. &s per my o$n observation and experience dropping the second
anchor in position 8F: $ill decrease the ya$ing, but also increase the strain in the
riding anchor, because the angle bet$een the anchor chains is almost (,-.
>eems, that more convenient position is situated in the middle bet$een 8F: and 8&:.
The angle bet$een the cables is sharper, but the distance remains still satisfactory.
>ee figure !!.
Fig. 22. C*; position is 6etter #or dropping the under#oot anchor.
S+##estio" re#ardi"# $ea*i"# +p t$e a"c$ors
+n this case $hen it is necessary to change, or leave the anchorage this is suggested to
heave up at first the shortest cable up to one and half shac#les in the $ater, and put
out from the gear.
)ext step is to start to heave up the riding anchor. 5eaving up should be assisted by
main engine and appropriate amount of rudder.
%ith three shac#les of the riding anchor in the $ater 4 there is change over and
continuations of heaving up the cable of underfoot anchor completely.
%ith the second anchor a$eigh and clear, the riding anchor is put in the gear and
heaving up directly.
Practica) o>ser*atio"s:
+t $as noted, that the 8underfoot: anchor $ith three and half shac#les on the $inch is
holding the ground, $ithout signs of dragging. That time depth $as little more, than
3, metres, muddy seabed, open sea (about K, )m to ?ecalada 9ilot, La 9lata ?iver,
&rgentina), rough sea $ith the $aves of / up to @ metres high, and %>% $ind force C
Beaufort (/, #nots).
/@
The vessel $as bul# carrier of !,,, D%T, in ballast, $ith draft for$ard 3.3,m, and
aft 0., m.
The starboard side anchor $ith eight shac#les on the $inch $as dropped first as the
riding anchor. The $eight of each anchor is 0@,, #ilograms.
The angle bet$een maximum positions of ya$ing after dropping the second anchor
$as restricted to /,-, $ith period of about 3 minutes (measured bet$een s$ings:
maximum to port side and maximum to starboard side).
T$e 4ost i4porta"t was e*ide"t decreasi"# t$e Perks o" t$e ca>)es.
The anchor cable periodically lo$ered or heaved up at the distance of fe$ metres in
order to minimi;e 8tear and $ear: of the lin#s passing the lo$er edge of ha$se pipes.
Deantime $or#ing lin#s have been greased.
Fig. 23. he slac0 /ater, calm sea and the under#oot anchor #lu0es caught the
longer ca6le o# the riding anchor.
&s it $as observed, the possibility of catching the longer cable by the flu#es of
underfoot anchor even $ith one, one and half shac#le in the $ater exists, but only in
the case $hen force of $ind, or tide is lessened and meantime the ship has been
s$ung around (fig. !/). +t may happen particularly during period of slac# $ater and
/0
almost calm sea $hen in the first phase of turning the ship has the surge ahead due to
the $eight of riding anchor cable.
To avoid such unpleasant situation the second anchor should be heaved up shortly
after passing the stormy $eather, or strong tide.
&ny$ay 8ma#ing free: the underfoot anchor flu#es is not so difficult to compare $ith
the situation $hen both cables are fouled.
+t $as another interesting observation made during calm $eather and slight tide
current, that the 8underfoot: anchor held the vessel in position $ith its cable tight.
The other cable $as that time up and do$n. Jbviously the $eight of cable of the
riding anchor too# its part in holding ground too.
: III ;
ANCHORING !ANOEF.RES ?ITH T?O ANCHORS
TO RI7E OFT A CIC3ONE :HFRRICANE TIPHOON;
&t page (,3 of )9 (,, 8The Dariner=s 5andboo#:, Fhapter @, paragraph @./0 is
$ritten:
8?iding out a tropical storm, the centre of $hich passes $ithin , miles or so, in a
harbour or anchorage is unpleasant and ha;ardous experience especially if there are
other ships in company.:
Mnfortunately it may happenI therefore the basic information and methods are given
belo$.
%hen vessel is lying at one anchor $ith the increase of the strength of $ind she start
starts ya$s about.
Because of heavy veering (ya$ing) dragging is undoubted.
To reduce the dragging to a minimum it is advisable to use both anchors. >ome
methods to ride out hurricane on t$o anchors applied in past $ith success.
These methods are mentioned hereunder.
Ridi"# to two a"c$ors
+f both cables are leading almost ahead, and both of them are ta#ing the strain it is
said that vessel is ridding to t$o anchors.
6rom the physical point of vie$ (the triangle of forces) this is the best security from
t$o anchors. +f the holding po$er of one class 8&: anchor under the best condition
achieves 3 E 0 times the anchor $eight, $ith t$o anchors dra$ing almost ahead
together holding po$er is almost doubled.
&s it $as told before, the part of the chain lying on the seabed is also added to the
anchorHs holding po$er.
/C
This is $orth to remind, that the cable load is calculated for forces $ith the chain
straight or nearly straight ahead, and therefore this method seems the best.
Fig. 2!. Riding to t/o anchors.
Mnfortunately this manoeuvre can be applied only in case $e are sure of the side to
$hich the hurricane passes. Jther$ise both cables most probably $ill be fouled.
Jne of the remedies against fouling the anchor chains is paying out different amount
of shac#les in both cables, as it is seen in figure !3.
&ny$ay this is unli#ely to be riding to t$o anchors for long period.
>hortly after passing the $orst, strongest $inds the anchor $ith shorter cable (so
called 8sleeping cable:) should be heaved up, and dropped again after shifting of
$ind.
6or example the best time to heave up this anchor is short relatively calm period,
$hen in the eye of hurricane.
The main engine has to be used to steam ahead in order to easy the strain on the
anchor cables.
The revolutions of main engine used in this case depend on the po$er of main engine,
type of vessel, her draft, loading condition, etc.
&ccording to some practical experiences mentioned in 8The 7vasion of Tropical
Fyclones: the main engine $as used $ith revolutions for / to @ #nots.
During my apprenticeship in (KC/4C3 aboard 9olish Jcean Lines ship 89e#in:
(general cargo motor vessel, of about (,,,,D%T) her master Fapt. T. Lalic#i told us,
this vessel one voyage earlier had $eathered a very severe cyclone in &ustralian
$aters riding to t$o anchors, $ith almost parallel cables but of different scope of
shac#les on each (C shac#les on port side anchor chain and (, shac#les on starboard
side one, $ith depth of (! fathoms). +n order to #eep her in position $ithout dragging
slo$ ahead on the main engine $as used, and half ahead rung occasionally only.
&ccording to the reports of masters $ho have experienced riding out typhoons at
anchors the vessels, $hich did not use their engines dragged even for to (, miles.
/
%hen it become obvious that the $ind $ill increase to typhoon force the man should
be posted on the forecastle to inform the bridge regularly about the direction in $hich
both cables are leading. This is very important particularly $hen $or#ing ahead on
po$erful engine (reefer, container vessels). The man sends for$ard should be $ell
clothed in $aterproof, good 8oils#in: and e'uipped $ith goggles (for example such as
used $hile chipping the rust), safety harness, and of course $aterproof hand held
<56. 5e should ta#e the position lying on dec# in the 8panama fairlead:.
This is common practice in the Oapanese $aters to send all vessels being in port to the
roads $hen typhoon is coming. The anchorage becomes congestedI t$ere1ore
keepi"# at )east o"e 4i)e to t$e "earest *esse)s is ad*isa>)e i" order to a*oid
tro+>)es s$ort)y a1ter t$e a"c$ors start dra##i"#.
T$is is reco44e"ded to keep 4i"i4+4 A :i1 possi>)e; o11 t$e )ee s$ore.
The distance of (, E (( miles is much better due to experiences learned before that
some vessels dragged for more than / miles in one to six hours. The average drift $as
of about (,0 #nots.
The $ind force in typhoon is tremendousI therefore vessel=s drift has considerable
rate, and this is al$ays better to anchor the vessels in safety distance from the other
anchored ships.
+n >eptember(KK(, in )agoya Bay the heavy lift vessel 8Fony: under my command
$as not able to bring her bo$ against the $ind $hen the change of the anchor
position becomes necessary because ship=s high holding4po$er (559) anchors
commenced dragging. &fter heaving up anchors, even $ith her t$o rudders put hard
over and both engines $or#ing full ahead (lee side engine $as overloaded for
significant period of time) the drift angle $as bet$een K,- and (!,-. 6rom our lee side
on the distance of about one mile $as anchored *ust fe$ hours before small tan#er.
This distance and determination in use full po$er on the main engines have preserved
us from the serious collision. + have not decided to use one anchor dredged, nor the
bo$ thruster due to necessity of decrease the po$er of main engines. I s+ppose t$e
e11ect o1 worki"# >ow t$r+sters i" s+c$ e0tre4e)y weat$er co"ditio"s is s)i#$t or
e*e" "i).
/.2 1or4 wit$ t$e seco"d a"c$or o" t$e >otto4
This manoeuvre is one of the variations of 8underfoot: anchor.
The proper se'uence of dropping the anchors is vital, and depends on the position of
vessel to the trac# of the typhoon.
Let say the ship is anchored south of the typhoon. The eye trac# is predicted as 7)74
lyI therefore veering the $inds after the centre has passed is expected. >ee figure !@.
6or the sa#e of good understanding, let us remind, that veering of the $ind means that
the direction of $ind is changing cloc#$ise (for example: >% E % E )% E ), etc).
&t first the vessel has to be anchored at port side anchor $ith ! up to 3 shac#les more
paid out, than in normal condition ($e can say C to K totally).
%hen the vessel starts veering, the second, starboard side anchor is dropped $ith the
amount of cable e'ual of the depth plus (, metres to half shac#le more. That time the
port side anchor chain should lead more, less / to 3 points (/@ 4 3@-) to the fore and
aft ship=s line.
T$e a"c$or wit$ t$e s$orter ca>)e 4+st a)ways >e o" t$e side to w$ere s$i1ti"# o1
wi"d is e0pected.
/K
To pre*e"t >ot$ a"c$ors $o)di"# t$e *esse) i" o"e directio" t$e a"c$or wit$ s$ort
ca>)e s$o+)d dra# a"d t$is is o+r i"te"tio".
Fig.2$. < #orm /ith the second anchor on the 6ottom.
/Q2 1or4 wit$ t$e seco"d a"c$or o" t$e >otto4 so,ca))ed
/Ha44er)ock !oor2
This is another variation of 8underfoot: anchor.
>ome captains have good experience $ith this type of manoeuvre, ho$ever having
crossed anchors cables in the typhoon seems strange and dangerous.
Faptain O. 9rice from M.>. )avy named this manoeuvre 85ammerloc# Door:.
3,
This beginning of this manoeuvre is almost same as 8<: form. The shorter cable is
not on lee, but on the $eather side, and both anchor chains are crossed. >ee figure !0.
+n order to simplify explanation, let say the typhoon is passing anchored vessel as it is
mentioned in the previous part. The first is dropped the starboard anchor $ith C to K
shac#les in the $ater. The second anchor is the port side one, and is dropped at the
end of the veer $ith paid out (, metres up to half shac#le more, than the present $ater
depth. Mnder normal condition it should be one and half shac#les in the $ater.
The main engine al$ays can be used, as long $e are able to hold the bo$ fast in
position $ith a 85ammerloc# Door:.
Fig. 2%. = #orm /ith the second anchor on the 6ottom,
so*called >ammerloc0 :oor.
+n order to #eep proper main engine revolutions and do not override the anchors one
man must be on forecastle and inform the master about the lead of the anchor4chains.
>ee also the remar#s on this sub*ect under 8?iding to t$o anchors:.
This man reports are necessary in order to #eep the cables gro$ing for$ard at an
angle of 3@- to 0,-.
3(
&s it $as stressed before $ith 8<4 form: moor the anchor $ith short cable should start
to drag $hen the $ind shifts around.
+f not dragging, but still holding the ground there is an increase in angle bet$een the
cables. To avoid this, the main engine ?9D must be reduced, or if this has no effect,
the shorter cable should be shortened up.
&s Dutch captains observed it, there is a chance to get fouled anchors (turns in the
chains) if the vessel is anchored during the cyclone in the place $here a strong current
runs against the $ind direction.
Because fouled anchors are dangerous under tropical revolving storm circumstances it
is recommended in the $aters $ith strong current running against the $ind to heave
up the anchor $ith short cable *ust before the ship starts s$inging and to drop again
after the end of the s$ing.
This is very interesting observations made by Fapt. 9rice and given in the Dutch
seamanship boo# 85andboe# voor Peemanschap: regarding comparison of the
methods.
Type o1 A"c$or !a"oe+*re ?i"d <orce .eer
:k"ots; !a0. !i". A*era#e
O"e a"c$or /@ 4 3@ C!- /@- @@-
& a"c$ors :ope" $awse pipe; /@ 4 3@ 3/- !!- /@-
& a"c$ors
:/Ha44er)ock !oor2;
/@ E@,
(0@ gusts)
((- (- @-
+t $as observed no extra $eight on the cables during change veer direction from one
to another side.
&s it $as many times stressed before the bo$er stoppers must be put at the place and
$ell secured, because these are the strongest parts of the anchoring system.
T$e RP! o" t$e prope))er +sed d+ri"# 4e"tio"ed a>o*e 4a"oe+*res
?i"d <orce :HB; C K (, (( (!
?i"d <orce :k"ots; /, /C 3@ @! 0, 0@ C@ K, (,,
RP! 4ade 1or a speed o1 ( ! / /,@ 3 @ 0 C
3!
/R+""i"# !oor2 wit$ t$e wi"d kept two poi"ts o" t$e >ow
This manoeuvre is recommended in Oapanese $aters. >ee figure !C.
&ssume the typhoon approaching from the south$est, and its trac# direction is
northerly. The $ind is expected to veer from the east, by south, south$est, $est to
north$est.
The vessel is anchored at both anchors dropped almost in one line, as it is seen in
figure !C4&. Dore shac#les are paid out on the port side anchor chain, than on the
starboard side one. The $ind direction is #ept ! points (!!,@-) on the starboard bo$.
%hen the $ind veers from east to south and $ind force is reaching typhoon strength,
the amount of cable at starboard anchor is added until both anchor chains are same
length (6ig. !C4B). That time the angle bet$een the cables should be of about 3@-40,-.
Fig. 2&. Running :oor /ith 2 points on the star6oard 6o/.
%ith the $ind veering the role of ridding anchor is passed on from the port side to the
starboard anchor, and meantime the cable on the sleeping anchor is shortened up, as it
is seen in figure !C F, and !C D.
?eassuming:
+n this method both anchors are holding ground, al$ays the $ind$ard is the riding
anchor, apart the period of the strongest $ind force, $hen they are $or#ing together
as in open moor. Jn the riding anchor are al$ays more shac#les paid out, then on the
sleeping one.
3/
/Ha44er)ock !oor2 Q D'
This is another manoeuvre recommended by Oapanese seamen (The To#yo nautical
Follege) and given in figure !.
Fig. 2'. >ammerloc0 :oor = %).
The situation same as before, the typhoon approaching from the south$est, and its
trac# direction is northerly, and therefore the $ind is expected to veer.
+n figure ! &, $ith easterly $ind the ship is anchored at the starboard side anchor.
The port side anchor is dropped *ust to the bottom $ith the chain crossed, i.e. a so4
called 85ammerloc# Door:.
%hen the $ind starts shifting, the anchor $ith the short cable (port side anchor in our
example) $ill drag until the $ind force is increased (figure ! B).
&t the moment that the $ind force reaches typhoon strength the cable of this anchor
has to be paid out until the lengths of both anchor chains are same, and the angle
bet$een the cables is of about 0,- (figure ! D).
Re4arks re#ardi"# 4et$ods reco44e"ded i" Japa".
(. This is not al$ays possible to operate the $indlass $hile a typhoon is passing.
!. The typhoon surge or tidal $ave can bring a strong current.
/. Departure from the harbour being situated on the trac# of the typhoon should
be carried out K hours before the time the $eather forecast indicates the
33
passing time. To evacuate a harbour full $ith the vessels is ta#ing minimum 0
hours.
3. The anchoring position should be chosen in such place that vessel is $ell
protected against the $inds and $aves. The side of the ship the centre of
typhoon shall pass must be ta#en under consideration $hen choosing the
anchoring position.
@. The deepest part of the Bays should be avoided, due to the fact, that in those
places the strength of the current caused by the tidal $ave $ill be strongest.
0. The distance of @ to (( miles to the lee shore is advised in order o have enough
room of the anchors starts dragging $hen the $ind shifts around again.
C. Ta#e under consideration the t$o recommended by Oapanese >ea &uthorities
$ays of anchoring the vessel in typhoon (i.e. 8?unning Door: $ith ! points
on the starboard bo$, or 85ammerloc# Door: Q 0,).
. +t has been experienced, that vessels $ith a deep draft $ere dragging anchors
rarelyI to compare $ith ships in ballast, therefore all possible means to
increase vessel=s draft has to be used.
K. The decreasing of ship=s stability due to free surface effect, and the list
obtained $hen abeam to the typhoon $ind must be ta#en under consideration.
(,. The tests ta#en in Oapan $ith ships= models in $ind tunnels ($ind force C,
#nots) proved that an empty vessel veered of 30-, and the force on the cable
$as K/ tons. +n same $eather condition fully laden vessel veered (-only, $ith
the !3 tons force on the anchor chain (C@G less, than in ballast").
((. %ith a trim of / feet (,.K metre) by head fully laden, as $ell in ballast
condition vessel has experienced a ya$ing of @- only. That time forces in the
cable have been reduced practically to ;ero.
&part the 'uestion ho$ to trim by head the modern bul# carrier being in ballast
condition, and additionally #eep all her ballast tan#s full, personally + prefer do not
#eep the vessel $ith such trim, particularly in the most severe $eather conditions, as
is hurricane.
J.L. the angle of *a$ing, and the forces on the anchor chain are much, much
decreased, but in the case the cables are parted the vessel $ith trim by head is
practically not under command"
+t also must be ta#en under consideration, that all bul# carriers and tan#ers have the
superstructure aft, $hich is acting as big sail (mi;;en). Msually they are not po$erful
vessels. The high freeboard $hen in ballast ma#es them difficult to manage in strong
$ind conditions.
3@
: I. ;
!INI!IRING O< THE S?INGING AREA
Ge"era) Re4ark
+f vessel is anchored at one anchor only, she re'uires room for s$inging around.
6or the practical purposes, $e can say that the diameter of turning area is the sum of
the length of the vessel, length of the anchor chain that is being used, and safety
reserve needed for dragging the anchor during turning around. >ee figure !K.
The safety reserve for dragging depends mostly on the bottom characteristics (holding
ground), the $eather conditions, and type of anchor.
Fig. 2(. "/inging room re7uired at single anchor.
7xactly diameter of s$inging room $e can calculate from the formula:
RRRRRRRRRRR
D 2 ! x L SB (TFL)
!
E h
!
S >?
%here:
D 4 diameter of s$inging room,
L E length of the vessel from the ha$se pipe to the stern
TFL E total cable length paid out,
5 E distance from the ha$se pipe to the seabed,
>? E safety reserve ($hich depends mostly on: speed of the vessel $hen dragging the
anchor, fre'uency of chec#ing anchor position, and the Dain 7ngine notice).
30
+n the case the s$inging area is limited, the use of t$o anchors becomes necessary,
see figure /,.
Fig. 3). "/inging room re7uired /ith t/o anchors dropped.
T$e Sta"di"# !oor :7roppi"# !oor Ordi"ary !oor;
This manoeuvre is used mostly in the rivers $here is the influence of the tides, and
during the tide change vessel must be s$ung of about(,-, but there is not enough
space to do so at one anchor. >ee figure /(.
The >tanding Door is generally used in case the tide current is strong.
+n a $ea# stream it is probably necessary to use the main engine astern after letting go
the first (upstream anchor). +t $ill s$ing the vessel out of the direction of the tide due
to propeller transverse thrust effect.
The >tanding Door is carried out as follo$s:
(. The vessel is steaming slo$ly against the tide and both anchors are ready to
immediate use.
!. +n the distance of about one ship=s length upstream to the planned anchor
position, the main engine is stopped.
/. %hen ship is stopped, and starts slight stern$ay $ith the tide the first anchor
is dropped.
3. The cable is veered until the amount of shac#les paid out is e'ual to the double
distance to the desired (planned) anchoring position.
@. The first anchor $indlass is put in the gear, and the cable is commenced to
heave up.
3C
0. %hen the vessel begins move ahead against the tide, the second anchor
(do$nstream one) is dropped and its chain is paid out simultaneously $ith
heaving up the first anchor cable.
C. The ship is finally anchored in the middle bet$een the anchors $ith e'ual
cable length on each anchor.
. +f it is #no$n that $ind, or tide current $ill be stronger from one direction
than from the other, little a bit more cable is laid out from this direction. Mnder
the normal conditions more the anchor chain is paid out upstream the river,
because the river current is strengthened by the tide periodically, and therefore
the ebb tide is stronger than the flood.
K. +n the case there is $ind blo$ing across the line of tide current, the first
anchor dropped must be from the lee ship=s side, other$ise the cables $ill be
crossed $hen the vessel is brought up.
Fig. 31. he "tanding :oor "e7uences.
There are some disadvantages connected $ith this type of anchoring:
(. Jn each anchor can be used only about half of the total length of anchor chain
fitted. +f the vessel has for example (( shac#les of cable on each anchor, about
@ shots on the $inch may be paid out safely, not more.
!. There is severe strain in the anchor cables $hen strong $ind is blo$ing across
the line of the chains. >uch tremendous forces are unavoidable, and therefore
it is very easy to drag anchors, and put the vessel in the danger, due to lac# of
safety berth for any manoeuvre.
/. The cables may be fouled if the ship s$ings $rong $ay during the tide
change. +n order to avoid crossing the cables the main engine, and the steering
gear should be ready to use before turn of the tide. By putting the rudder hard
3
over to$ards the sleeping (not $or#ing, do$nstream) cable and use the engine
appropriately *ust before slac# $ater the correct sheer is given to the vessel.
3. The clearing of the fouled anchors could be possible by disconnecting the
sleeping anchor chain.
@. The next step is to pass outboard end of disconnected anchor chain around the
riding cable and then bring it bac# through the ha$se pipe.
0. This is not simple operation, particularly $ith not trained cre$.
C. +n the $orst condition $hen the anchor cables are crossed fe$ times around
the assistance from the hired tug is necessary.
7eparti"# 1ro4 t$e /Sta"di"# !oor2.
%hen leaving the anchorage one cable must be slac#ed a$ay $hile the second one is
heaved up. 5aving the first anchor a$eigh, $e can start to heave up the second one.
The last anchor heaved up should be that one $hich is leading to$ards the direction of
departure. +deally if this anchor is the ridding anchor. >ometimes is better to $ait a
couple of hours for change of tide and leave the anchorage directly $ithout stresses
and possible problems $hen turning the vessel of (,- at relatively small area.
3K
T$e R+""i"# !oor
This is an alternative manoeuvre to the >tanding Door, and the final effect is exactly
same. >ee figure /!.
The ?unning Door is more often used than the >tanding Door, particularly $hen the
tide current is $ea#. The better control of the ship=s behaviour and less time used to
carry out is the main advantages of this manoeuvre.
+n my sea carrier this type of anchoring at ! anchors $as used for example in (K3
(D.v 8Oo;ef %ybic#i:, 9JL) in %hampoa (presently 5uang;hou 9ort), Phu Oiang
?iver, Fhina.
Fig. 32. he Running :oor "e7uences.
The ?unning Door is carried out as follo$s:
(. The vessel is steaming slo$ly against the tide and both anchors are ready to
immediate use.
!. +n the distance of about one ship=s length do$n stream to the planned anchor
position, the first anchor is dropped (fig. /!, position (). %ith the cross $ind
this is the $ind$ard anchor.
/. The vessel is moving ahead against the tide continuously, and the first anchor
cable is veered until the amount of shac#les paid out is e'ual to the amount
re'uired bet$een the anchors (the double distance to the desired anchoring
position).
3. +n the appropriate distance to the position ! (maximal up stream) the main
engine is stopped.
@,
@. %hen the vessel is stopped, and starts slight stern$ay $ith the tide the second
anchor is dropped (in position !). %ith the cross $ind this is the lee anchor.
0. The first (do$n stream) anchor $indlass is put in the gear, and the cable is
commenced to heave up.
C. >ame time the chain of the second anchor (up stream one) is paid out
simultaneously $ith heaving up the first anchor cable.
. The ship is finally anchored almost in the middle bet$een the anchors $ith
e'ual cable length on each anchor (position /).
K. &s it $as mentioned before under the normal conditions more cable is paid out
of upstream anchor, because the river current is strengthened by the tide
periodically, and therefore the ebb tide is stronger than the flood.
(,. +n the case there is $ind blo$ing across the line of tide current, the first
anchor dropped must be from the $ind$ard ship=s side, other$ise the cables
$ill be crossed $hen the vessel is brought up (note this is *ust opposite than in
the >tanding Door").
@(
T$e Ope" !oor
The idea of the Jpen Door is sho$n in figure //. The both anchors are sharing the
strain, and an angle bet$een the anchor cables vary bet$een 3@T and K,T.
>uch angle assures appropriate restriction of ya$ing, minimi;ing of the s$inging
area, and lessening the strain in the individual cable. The best angle is of about 0,T.
Fig. 33. he 8pen :oor.
There are fe$ $ays to carry out this manoeuvre, but al$ays the first anchor is
dropped $hile the vessel is still moving ahead.
The first most popular method is as follo$s.
+f the vessel is approaching to 8The Jpen Door: from the starboard side (see 6ig. /3)
the starboard anchor is dropped first. The vessel is approaching the anchorage $ith
the $ind and . or current on starboard 'uarter (position ().
The $eather, in this case starboard anchor is dropped in the moment the ship is
passing the position mar#ed 8!:, and is gradually s$inging to starboard. This anchor
bra#e is #ept open.
Due to the $eight of the anchor cable, slo$ speed and the $ind (and . or current)
influence the counteraction of lee drift . current setting is necessary.
To do so the $ind and current are #ept on the starboard bo$ (position /).
9lease note that due to the $eight of starboard side anchor cable the vessel may s$ing
rapidly to starboard, therefore the rudder must be used accordingly.
&pproaching to the position 3 all head$ay is ta#en off by putting the main engine
astern.
Deantime the first anchor cable is most probably leading more, less at C o=cloc# and
medium tight, and no$ its bra#e is made fast.
%hen the vessel has commenced coming astern the port side anchor is dropped.
Foming astern assures the anchor $ill dig in, and the anchor cable does not foul the
flu#es. %hile going astern the second anchor cable (in our case port side) is paid out.
@!
Fig. 3!. ;pproaching to he 8pen :oor #rom the star6oard side.
Mnder the tension of starboard side anchor cable, $ind . current force and transverse
right hand propeller thrust the vessel is s$inging to starboard rapidly.
6inally she is stopped in position @, $hich one is the apex of the triangle formed by
her t$o anchor cables.
Fig. 3$. ;pproaching to he 8pen :oor #rom the port side.
@/
&pproaching to 8The Jpen Door: from the port side is almost mirror repetition of the
manoeuvre described above (see fig. /@).
The first is dropped portside anchor, as the $eather anchor.
The main difference is behaviour of the vessel $hen going astern. %ith solid (fixed)
right hand propeller the transverse thrust is turning the ship=s stern to port, and it is
slo$ing the s$ing into the $ind or current stream, therefore moderate revolutions on
the main engine $or#ing astern should be applied.
The effect of $ind or current, and tension on both anchor cables $ill bring the vessel
to the final position (@).
9lease note that $hen the approach must be made from the opposite direction to the
prevailing $ind and current, and there is restricted room available it is desirable to
drop the starboard anchor first (approaching from the starboard side), because the
main engine $or#ing astern is used to assist $ith turning the vessel.
The second method of carrying out 8The Jpen Door Danoeuvre: is described belo$.
The vessel is approaching the anchorage #eeping the $ind or current on one bo$ and
counteracting the drift and current set. %ith the head$ay still #ept the $eather anchor
is dropped (figure /0, position ().
Fig. 3%. he second method o# carrying out he 8pen :oor manoeu+re.
@3
The vessel is moving ahead until she reaches the position !, $hich is situated
approximately in distance of one4third of the final length of the anchor cable.
Then the first anchor $indlass bra#e is made fast, and shortly after the second anchor
is dropped.
&s the $eather anchor cable becomes taut the ship=s bo$ is s$inging to$ards the eye
of the $ind, or up to current (position !).
%ith the main engine $or#ing still ahead, and the rudder put to$ards the $ind . tide
direction (to the $eather side) the ship is rapidly turning into the stream or $ind.
By #eeping a little a bit ahead of her anchors $ith both cables leading slight aft
(position /) the manoeuvre is accelerated.
%ith the vessel heading to$ards the $ind or current, the main engine is stopped, and
the rudder put midship, then slo$ astern revolutions on the main engine are applied
for the $hile. %hen the ship has commenced movement astern both anchor chain
cables are paid out until the ship is reaching the final position (3).
Ge"era) re4arks.
The vessel moored in this $ay is not intended to turn around as she $ould at a single
anchor or at a 8?unning . >tanding Door:. +n the $aters affected by strong tidal
currents the vessel should heave up one of the anchor shortly before the slac# $ater,
and drop it again after change of tide current direction, other$ise both anchors $ill be
fouled.
+t must al$ays be #ept in mind that the anchors and cables laid too far apart are
$ea#er than a single anchor. %ith very strong $ind the experience has proven that
after the lapse of time both anchor cables start drag and are pointed almost straight
ahead, because have been pulled to$ards each other. >ituation becomes similar to
8?iding to T$o &nchors:, and the vessel has the best possible security from t$o
anchors.
T$e Para"a Ri*er A"c$ori"#
Danoeuvring in the ?io 9arana has its o$n peculiarities. Typical peculiarity is lac# of
tugs and therefore common use of anchor during berthing even large vessels as for
example 89anamax: type.
&nother distinctive feature is $ay of anchoring the vessels at t$o anchors. The
anchorages are narro$, very close to the riverban#. There is lac# of s$inging room,
but due to incessant do$n4river flo$ of about / E 3 #nots the vessel $ill al$ays
remain current ridden.
&s it $as observed vessels are anchored in distance of about ! cables to the vessel
ahead, and / cables to the vessel being astern. To the nearest riverban# is the distance
of about (.@ cables only.
This anchoring is something bet$een the 8?unning Door: and the 8Jpen Door:.
The particular steps of approach and dropping the anchors are sho$ed in figure /C, as
have been observed and noted at >an Darin U >an Loren;o >outh and )orth ?oads in
Oune !,,(.
@@
Fig. 3&. ;nchoring the +essel in Parana Ri+er #or shorter period o# time.
@0
9osition (.
The vessel is steaming up the river against the current. %hen she has speed of about
/.@ #nots the main engine is stopped. That time she has on her beam a vessel $hich
$ill be astern after dropping the anchors. To the vessel ahead are about @ E 0 cables.
+f the speed is reduced to about (.C #nots (because of current), or the vessel doesn=t
ans$er the helm properly 8#ic# ahead: techni'ue is applied.
9osition !.
%hen the distance from the bridge (exactly the radar antenna) to the vessel ahead is
reduced to about ,.!@ 4 ,./ cables the rudder is put hard over to$ards the nearest
riverban#, and the main engine stopped, if $or#ed before.
9osition /.
%hen the vessel has commenced s$ing and the distance to the vessel ahead is
reduced to about ! cables the anchor from the opposite side to the ship=s s$ing (in our
example port side anchor) is dropped, / shac#les in the $ater. The bra#e should be
open.
9osition 3.
+f necessary 8#ic#s ahead: together $ith the rudder hard over are used.
9osition @.
%ith five shac#les on the first anchor cable already paid out the $indlass bra#e is
made fast.
%hen the cable is leading at C o=cloc#, medium tight and the bo$ becomes s$ing
to$ards the first anchor, the second anchor is dropped.
&t same time the first anchor $indlass is put in the gear (engaged) and the anchor
cable hove in to 3 shac#les in the $ater.
6inally the vessel is anchored $ith 3 shac#les of cable in the $ater on the first anchor,
and / shac#les in the $ater on the second anchor.

@C
Fig. 3'. ;nchoring the +essel in Parana Ri+er and /aiting #or #ree 6erth.
The main difference bet$een dropping the anchors for shorter and longer period is the
amount of anchor cable shac#les used. The four on one and three shac#les on the
second anchor are used in case the vessel is scheduled to berth shortly after boarding
of the officials and getting the 8free prati'ue:.
+f the vessel has to $ait for free berth longer one shac#le more is added to each anchor
cable as it seen in figure /.
The leading of both anchor cables in good $eather condition is $ell seen in the
figures /K and 3,.
&s it $as mentioned before this $ay of anchoring is something bet$een the 8?unning
Door and the 8Jpen Door:. +n this particular case the advantage of such dropping the
anchors is appreciated $hen strong $inds are blo$ing from the ship=s 'uarters.
%ith such $inds the vessel is moving ahead, but still remains current ridden.
Both anchors are leading asternI $ind$ard cable is taut, and lee$ard one up and
do$n, partly under the vessel=s hull (see figure 3().
@
Fig. 3(. Panama? type +essel anchored in Parana Ri+er "an Nicholas.
Fig. !). Panama? type +essel anchored in Parana Ri+er "an :artin y "an
@orenAo North Roads.
@K
Fig. !1. Positioning o# the +essel in the Parana Ri+er /hen strong /inds are 6lo/ing
#rom the ship1s 7uarters.
0,
T$e !editerra"ea" !oor
This is the variation of the Jpen Door, but used in the port to ma#e fast the vessel=s
stern on to the berth $hile her both anchors are leading ahead, and holding the bo$ in
position perpendicular to the 'uay (6ig. 3!).
Fig. !2. :editerranean :oor.
This method of berthing $as used commonly in the last decades in the Dediterranean
>ea area, particularly for small vessels, in ports $here the berth space is limited.
9resently is used generally to berth the ferries and ?o4?o vessels.
+f the vessel is e'uipped $ith right hand fixed propeller the approach is preferred $ith
the berth #ept on the port side due to the transverse thrust moving the stern to$ards
the 'uay $hen the main engine is put astern.
Leeping the vessel almost parallel to the berth $ith small head$ay still maintained
ma#es the approach. +n the distance of about t$o ship=s lengths off the berth, $hile
passing the position indicated 8&:, the starboard (offshore) anchor is dropped.
%ith the rudder put to starboard, and applied 8#ic#: ahead on the main engine the
ship starts the turn to starboard (from the berth). The offshore (in our case starboard)
anchor chain is paid out almost until reaching the position mar#ed 8B:, and then made
fast. The main engine is put astern, and as soon as the vessel has gained the stern$ay
the port (shore side) anchor is let go.
The transverse trust of the right hand propeller, and reasonable holding onto the
starboard anchor (the first dropped) $ill cause the vessel to move astern to$ards the
berth. Deantime the anchor cable of the second anchor is #ept comparatively slac#.
The stern lines are sent onto the berth as soon as possible by the mooring boat, or the
heaving lines.
Msually the first stern lines being sent ashore are ma#ing the letter 8Q: (see fig. 3!).
&nchor chains and the stern lines ad*ust the final vessel position accordingly.
0(
T$e Co"*e"tio"a) B+oy !oori"# :CB!; N >ert$i"#
-+">ert$i"# )ar#e ta"ker to a"d 1ro4 t$e Sea Bert$
This is another variation of the Jpen Door, used in the open sea to ma#e fast the large
tan#er=s stern on to several mooring buoys $ith her both anchors spread leading ahead
to hold the bo$ in re'uired position in order to connect the loading hoses to the ship=s
manifold. >ee figure 3/.
Fig. !3. :ooring layout #or the tan0er +essel in CB:, Bl "egundo, 5";.
T$e !oori"# !aster:s;:
The pilot $ho is the master=s adviser in berthing . unberthing operations, and in fact
he is in charge of these manoeuvres is called the Dooring Daster.
T$o Dooring Dasters are very often provided. They are boarding the tan#er ( to !
miles off the sea berth. Jne is in charge of piloting and the second, $ith less seniority,
is on dec# advising the officers and cre$ performing the mooring operations.
To the Dooring Daster responsibilities and duties belong:
7valuating the vessel=s e'uipment (anchors, mooring lines, cargo booms, dec#
$inches, fairleads, bits, etc.).
0!
7nsuring that all necessary preparations for mooring have been made (both
anchors clear and ready to drop, mooring lines properly placed, po$er on dec#
mooring $inches, $renches, snatch bloc#s, stoppers, etc. laid out and ready).
Describing $ith s#etches the planned course of action to moor the vessel, to
the Daster and Dec# Jfficers $ho $ill be involved.
Danoeuvring the vessel into the mooring area.
Directing the dropping of the anchors and running the lines to the mooring
buoys.
Fontrolling the actions of the tugs (if any), and the mooring launches during
mooring operations.
Directing the ad*ustment of the anchors cables and mooring lines, so that the
vessel is properly positioned in the berth.
Directing the ta#ing in the mooring lines, and heaving up of anchors.
Fontrolling the actions of the tugs (if any), and the mooring launches $hile
unmooring.
9iloting the vessel safely clear of the moorings.
T$e typica) 4oori"# se=+e"ces
(. !aki"# t$e approac$ to t$e CB!
The vessel approaches the mooring, steering on the 8approaching range line:, leading
to the mooring buoys.
+n order to mar#s the position $here the first anchor should be dropped another range
line, crossing $ith the above line is set (for example in +taly, at Vuiliano Terminal).
>ometimes a small mar#er buoy has been established to assist the Dooring Daster in
placing the first anchor in the correct position (Mnited &rab 7mirates, Oebel Dhanna E
>ea Berths Terminal).
& spar buoy that is provided to mar# the position of the subsea manifold, in some
terminals together $ith the drop target is used to indicate the second leading line.
The intersection of the 8drop target E spar buoy: line and the approaching leading line
determines position of dropping the first anchor (see figure 3@).
These t$o leading line mar#s, or the approaching range line and the mar#er buoy are
set out for a vessel of specific tonnage or length.
The larger vessel then specified must drop her anchors farther out in order to pay bac#
same amount of anchor chains as it is re'uired, and therefore ma#ing the approach to
the FBD must #eep the leading mar#s open.
&s the opposite to the above the smaller vessel, or ship being short of anchor cables
must steer inside of the leading lines, and #eep the mar#s open to the other side.
>ee also figure 33.
Due to influence of $ind and current the vessel=s heading differs from the leading
line.
%e have to #eep in mindI the $indage area of the <LFF being in light condition is of
fe$ thousand s'uare metres, therefore the appropriate correction for drift must be
applied in order to drop the anchors in the right position.
To understand ho$ does such huge area affect the behaviour of vessel, let ma#e
simple calculation.
The $ind of speed of /, #nots is acting $ith force of about (! tonnes on vessel $ith
(,,, s'uare metres $indage area.
0/
Jn the <LFF of let say 0,,, s'uare metres area same $ind gives the Total %ind
6orce of about C! tonnes, $hat $ould re'uire large angle correction in course for
drift, or a combination of tugs that offer a total bollard pull of at least C! tonnes.
Fig. !!. he leading lines seen #rom the di##erent siAe +essels in the position o#
dropping #irst anchor.
The bridge on the modern <LFF is situated fe$ hundred metres aft from the ha$se
pipes, and the Dooring Daster seldom see the leading mar#s in line.
&s it is seen in figure 3@ the bo$ (exactly the ha$se pipe of the outer anchor) should
follo$s the leading line, therefore proper advice given from the forecastle is
invaluable.
+f the $ind is onto the mooring buoys the Dooring Daster at the bridge see the
leading mar#s, as he $ould be on board of smaller vessel then specified.
But if the $ind is blo$ing from the mooring buoys side the situation is *ust opposite.
Both cases are sho$n in figure 3@, and are self4explanatory.
+f the vessel=s trac# over the ground is chosen correctly, both leading mar#s should be
seen from the fo=c=sle (*ust close to the ha$se pipe of first dropped anchor) in one
line.
The ship=s pivot point should follo$ the parallel line to the leading line, and must be
#ept in mind in order do not to overshoot the mar#s.
This is important especially $hen rudder is used for speed reduction (86ish Tailing:
or 8?udder Fycling: method).
6or the vessel $ith right hand fixed propeller easier is approach from the starboard
side due to the effect of transverse thrust, $hich helps to s$ing the stern to$ards the
mooring buoys.
But for the sa#e of clear, approach to the FBD depends on the terminal, local sea bed
configuration, $eather condition, sea state, vessel=s si;e, her draft, loading . ballast
03
condition, limitations of the ship=s mooring gear, availability of the tugs, and of course
the techni'ues used by the Dooring Dasters.
Fig. !$. he leading mar0s seen #rom the 6ridge o# +essels o# the same siAe /hen the
appropriate correction #or /ind dri#t, or current setting is applied.
&. 7roppi"# t$e a"c$ors
Depends on the approach direction port, or starboard anchor is dropped first at the
point indicated as 8&:, and usually to K shac#les of chain is paid out on the run,
chain is then held.
This is very important that the first dropped anchor must let go freely $ith the bra#e
#ept $ell open, until at least four shac#les of anchor chain are out, and good
hori;ontal pull on this anchor is achieved.
%ith smaller amount of anchor cable paid out the anchor $ill drag.
%hen the first anchor chain is fetches up leading aft, the second anchor is dropped at
point mar#ed 8B:
0@
B. ?orki"# i"to t$e >ert$.
>hip=s stern is $or#ed into berth as first cable is held and the second chain is paid out
approximately shac#les, and the lines are run to the mooring buoys.
Then both chains are ad*usted as necessary to position the vessel properly in the berth.
The angle bet$een the anchor chains depends on the terminal, and varies bet$een 0,T
and K,T (it means /,T to 3@T bet$een each cable and fore and aft ship=s line).
%ind and current $ill largely govern $hich mooring lines are sent first, and under
normal circumstances this is the Dooring Daster decision $hich mooring lines are
run out first.
The detailed procedures are modified to fit conditions of the particular berth, $ind,
current, sea state, vessel=s si;e . loading, limitations of the ship=s mooring gear, and
the techni'ues used by the Dooring Dasters.
Fig. !%. ;pproaching to the CB: #rom the port side and typical mooring se7uence in
Bl "egundo erminal, Berth No. 3 and No. ! 25.".;4.
The typical mooring se'uences $ith approach made from port and starboard side are
sho$n in figures 30 and 3C.
00
Fig. !&. ;pproaching to the CB: #rom the star6oard side and typical mooring
se7uence 2#or comparison /ith #ig. !%4.
CB!: pri"cip)es o1 1actors a"d 1orces acti"# d+ri"# >ert$i"# - +">ert$i"#
I"trod+ctio"
+n some terminals $here the tugs are still not available (for example >idon, Lebanon)
berthing and unberthing of large tan#ers is the classic form of the ship handling art.
But if tugs cannot be used there are some restrictions.
&t >idon Pahrani Jil +nstallation and >idaco Terminal berthing and unberthing are
carried out during daylight hours only, and vessels must not arrive $ith more than
@,,,,, tons cargo on board.
Tan#ers up to ,,,,, D%T or approximate @@ feet ((0.C0 m) draft are considered
maximum si;e, $hich should be handled during $inter months at >idon.
+n summertime maximum vessels si;e is (,,,,,, D%T.
0C
The good #no$ledge and experience in use a strain on the anchor chain to advance
$hen bac#ing the ship, turning the vessel on the anchor $ith rudder put hard over and
good :#ic#: ahead applied are ma#ing the necessary base to carry out manoeuvres
successfully (see fig. 3).
Mnderstanding of external forces acting on the vessel, prediction and ta#ing into
account the actual pivot point position is vital.
& good spread of the anchors and sufficient chains amount on the bottom are essential
for ade'uate holding po$er.
The effect of $ind during berthing and unberthing especially $ithout tugs create a
ma*or difficulty. Lac# of understanding ship=s behaviour in the $ind $ill bring very
'uic#ly situation out of control.
6rom other hand many ob*ects floating around can foul the propeller, and movement
of the propeller can ma#e disaster even if one hose buoy is hit.
&ll it must be al$ays #ept in mind $hen planning these manoeuvres.
Fig. !'. Berthing to the CB:C
a4 5sing a strain on the chain to ad+antage /hen 6ac0ing the +essel,
64 urning on the anchor /ith rudder hard o+er and main engine /or0ing ahead.
T$e a"c$ors a"d Positio" o1 Pi*ot Poi"t
&s it $as pointed before the strain on the first dropped anchor is used to advantage
$hen bac#ing the vessel.
+f the anchor cable is leading more abeam better s$inging moment has been
developed. 6rom the other hand strain on the anchor chain leading almost straight
ahead gives practically no turning effect, ho$ever holding on this cable $ill reverse
the vessel=s movement.
To bac# the vessel to$ards the mooring buoys, the remar#s $ritten above must be
follo$ed, therefore the chain on the first dropped anchor must be #ept under the
strain, and cable of the second anchor is slac#.
0
%ith the main engine $or#ing astern the ship=s pivot point is moving abaft of the
midship, and turning moment being on the first dropped anchor is increased.
To turn the vessel in same direction but on the second anchor the ship=s head$ay and
strain on this anchor cable are needed.
+f these are achieved the po$erful 8#ic#: ahead on the main engine $ith rudder hard
over $ill give an excellent turning moment (see figure 3).
T$e Tra"s*erse Prope))er T$r+st E11ect a"d Positio" o1 Pi*ot Poi"t
&s long as vessel has stern$ay and the pivot point is close ship=s stern there is small
turning moment for the transverse thrust of the propeller, and it should be ta#en under
consideration $hen approach $as made from the starboard side ($ith right hand fixed
propeller).
But as soon the vessel $ill commence movement ahead, the pivot point is transferred
$ell for$ard (about one third of the length from for$ard) and the effect of the
propeller transverse thrust becomes significant.
T$e /Oick2 A$ead a"d Positio" o1 Pi*ot Poi"t
This situation is very similar to described under the previous point.
%ith stern$ay and the pivot point still positioned abaft of the midship even good
8#ic#: ahead $ith rudder hard over is giving small turning effect because is acting on
the short lever.
The head$ay $ill shift the pivot point ahead ma#ing the arm longer and it increase
the effect of burst ahead immediately.
T$e E11ect o1 ?i"d
&ssuming observed vessel is fully loaded on even #eel modern <LFF $ith
superstructure aft, and $ind is on her beam.
>topped vessel:
%ith ship stopped, the centre of effort of the $ind is situated little a bit abaft of the
pivot point, and therefore turning lever caused by $ind is negligible.
Da#ing head$ay:
But if she is ma#ing head$ay, the centre of effort of the $ind remains in same
position, but the pivot point is moving for$ard creating ne$ turning lever.
Depending on the $ind force ship=s bo$ $ill s$ing faster or slo$er to$ards the eye
of the $ind.
Da#ing stern$ay:
>ituation is not so simple as before. The centre of effort of the $ind remains almost in
same place, but pivot point moves aft to a position more, less one 'uarter of the ship=s
length from the stern. The shift of the pivot point aft has created the opposite turning
lever. This ne$ lever should cause falling off the bo$.
But due to propeller transverse thrust associated $ith single scre$ vessels, and
superstructure situated aft ($hich is acting as tremendous aft sail) the effect of $ind is
less predictable. %ith our vessel loaded on even #eel the stern partially see#s the
$ind. The final position of the ship $ill be most probably almost across the $ind.
To bring the stern to$ards the $ind minimum half astern speed $ill be necessary.
0K
Trim and 5ead$ay:
The vessel in light ballast condition $ith large trim by stern has increased freeboard
for$ard and the centre of effort of the $ind has been moved for$ard to$ards the
pivot point. %ith slo$ speed ahead the bo$ has tendency to fall off, and ship is
difficult to #eep up the $ind. 6or this reason minimum draft for$ard and aft is
recommended, even re'uested especially $ith regards the FBD berthing.
+n order to have roughly idea about such recommendations, some of them are
mentioned belo$:
4 To #eep minimum draft of !G for$ard and /G of LJ& aft (9arana ?iver).
4 &ustralia, 6remantle:
<essels of /,.,,, E @,.,,, D%T have to #eep draft for$ard / E @ m, and aft
0.@ m.
<essels of D%T @,.,,, E (,,.,,, D%T have to #eep draft for$ard @ E C m,
and aft 0.@ E C.@ m.
<essels of (,,.,,, E (@,.,,, D%T have to #eep draft for$ard C E m, and
aft C.@ E .@ m.
Trim and >tern$ay:
This vessel $ith same large trim by stern $hen bac#ing has the rapid tendency to #eep
the stern up to $ind because the pivot point is going aft, but the centre of effort of
$ind remains almost in same position. Due to large turning lever the bo$ is
immediately falling off and the stern 'uic#ly see#s the $ind. %ith the strong beam
$ind this is very difficult to handle such ship $hen going astern.
%ind 6orce:
During adverse $eather conditions the Dooring Daster and vessel=s Daster shall
determine if it is safe to move the vessel.
& large petroleum tan#ers movement (let say tan#ers of LJ& greater than !(, m)
depends on the particular terminal re'uirements.
+n the restrictions are often detailed: ship=s condition (loaded . in ballast), $ind
direction (sector), maximum $ind speed (given rather in #nots).
&s examples only:
(. 6remantle, &ustralia.
3ar#e Ta"kers
:3OA M &(' 4;
?i"d 7irectio" !a0i4+4 ?i"d Speed
i" O"ots
Loaded 6rom !(, to /,, degrees Areater than /@
+n Ballast (through %est) Areater than /,
!. Vuiliano Terminal, +taly.
!a0i4+4 Sa1e Operati"# ?i"d Speed
Sector - .esse)5s Size A' N (A' kdwt (A' N &E' kdwt
( (on the bo$, ((,T 4 !,,T) @, #m.hr !C #nots 3@ #m.hr !3 #nots
! (on the stbd beam, !,,T4 !K,T) /@ #m.hr (K #nots /@ #m.hr (K #nots
/ (on the stern, !K,T 4 ,!,T) 0, #m.hr /! #nots @@ #m.hr /, #nots
3 (on the port beam, ,!,T 4 ((,T) /@ #m.hr (K #nots /@ #m.hr (K #nots
C,
T$e T+#s
Type of tugs:
9resently the best are the a;imuth stern drive, or the tractor type tugs.
The a;imuth stern drive (&>D), or 8P: drive tugs are more universal, and are popular
throughout the many pilotage districts in the $ord, bur particularly in Oapan, and 6ar
7ast.
Tugs Total Bollard 9ull and %ind 6orce:
+n order to carry out the manoeuvres safely and successfully the Dooring Daster, as
$ell ship=s Faptain should have the clear idea regarding $ind force acting upon the
ship, and compares it to the total bollard pull being available from the local tugs.
>hip=s movement and balancing the tugs:
>hip=s movement is radically changing the efficiency of the tugs. &s it $as discussed
before $hen the vessel is ma#ing head$ay her pivot point is moved for$ard, and on
the contrary ship begins to ma#e stern$ay has the pivot point transferred aft.
+n both cases the levers, and moments are changed.
Depends on the planned ship=s movement the tugs must be positioned accordingly.
+n figure 3K & and 3K B is given step by step the example of using the anchors and
tugs $hen berthing to the FBD.
Jn approaching the berth a ship=s line is passed to one tugboat from the centre
fairlead aft. This ha$ser should be of good strength and made $ell fast on tan#er=s
board. %hen in position off the berth, the starboard anchor is dropped and slac#ed
a$ay easily to about K or (, shac#les on dec#. The port anchor is then let go and paid
out freely as the tan#er turns into the berth using the tugs and main engine as re'uired.
&t the same time, the starboard anchor is hove in to about 0 or C shac#les on dec# and
then ready to slac# a$ay again.
The first tug has good to$ing position, but to be reasonable effective should be
positioned as far aft as possible.
The second tug is used to assist in the lateral positioning of the tan#er.
Both tugs are also used to #eep the tan#er a$ay from the manifold mar#er and the
mooring buoys
+n the step mar#ed 8!: the ship is ma#ing stern$ay, and her pivot point is shifted
to$ards the stern.
+n this case the second tug is $or#ing at an excellent lever $hen s$inging tan#er=s
bo$ to starboard.
>tep 8/::
&s the tan#er bac#s do$n the berth the anchors are slac#ed a$ay as necessary, and the
lines are sent to the for$ard ()o. 3) buoy. )o$ the second tug is shifted to$ards the
ship=s port 'uarter in order to assist in the lateral positioning of the tan#er=s stern.
%hen the stern passes close to the starboard 'uarter ()o. () buoy three stern lines are
sent a$ay to this buoy by the mooring boat.
>tep 83::
The <LFF is almost stopped, and the anchors arrest her bo$. Due to position of the
pivot point shifted no$ more for$ard, the second tug is $or#ing at good turning lever.
C(
Fig. !(;. Berthing to CB: using the anchors and tugs.
Fig. !(B. Berthing to CB: using the anchors and tugs.
3ea*i"# t$e CB! , t$e typica) se=+e"ces
C!
Ge"era) idea
%hen loading is completed, hoses are disconnected and lo$ered to the seabed, under
the supervision of the Dooring Daster.
The conventional procedures for leaving the berth are included in the follo$ing steps:
The tug, or tugs (if any) are on station.
Lines to buoys are slac#ened bac# by the vessel=s cre$ then released at the
buoy by the mooring launch cre$. The se'uence of letting go the mooring
lines depends on the prevailing $eather conditions.
&nchors are either heaved in simultaneously, or one by one. >ee remar#s
belo$.
The tugs, if are available are used to #eep the tan#er a$ay from the manifold
mar#er and the mooring buoys.
The Dooring Daster leaves the vessel after it is under$ay and clears of the
moorings.
T$e Se=+e"ce o1 casti"# o11 t$e 4oori"# )i"es
The se'uence of letting go the mooring lines depends on the direction and force of
$ind blo$ing during unberthing from the FBD.
Leaving the FBD $ith strong $ind on the bo$ $ith the spar and hose buoys on the
lee side is sho$n in figure @,.
Fig. $). @ea+ing the CB: /ith strong /ind on the 6o/ /ith the spar and hose 6uoys
on the lee side.
+n order to clear these buoys the last mooring line to be cast off is the line from the
main dec# $eather side. Oust before letting go this line the rudder is put hard over to
C/
the lee side (in our example 4 hard to port), and po$erful 8#ic#: ahead on the main
engine is ordered.
Dost probably the <LFF is in loaded condition, and deep in the $ater, therefore
inertia and momentum start playing an important role.
+n such case it ta#es time to overcome the rotational momentum by the $ind force,
and meantime heaving on the lee anchor (port side in fig. @,) should bring the vessel
for$ard clear off the buoys.
7ven $or#ing ahead on the main engine temporary $ill shift the pivot point ahead.
%ith slight head$ay the vessel=s stern is falling do$n the $ind. Leeping the strain on
the $eather chain $hile heaving up on the lee anchor $ill bring the vessel up to $ind.
Fig. $1. @ea+ing the CB: /ith strong /ind on the 7uarter /ith the spar and hose
6uoys on the /eather side.
%ith strong $ind on the ship=s 'uarter from the side $here is the spare buoy and the
hose buoys the last mooring line to be cast off is the line from the $eather side on
main dec# (see figure @().
%hile commenced heaving up on the $eather anchor cable the vessel gets the force
exerted by the $indlass. >he starts moving ahead follo$ing the lead of the anchor
cable. The pivot point $ill shift for$ard, and stern is blo$n do$n the $ind faster than
the bo$. The ship comes beam to the $ind (fig. @(, positions ( E !).
%hen the $eather anchor is a$eigh, the main engine is ordered astern for a $hile.
>tern$ay $ill move the pivot point again aft, and no$ the bo$ should be blo$n do$n
faster than the stern (fig. @(, positions ! E /).
Due to bodily drift of the <LFF to$ards the place $here lee anchor is on the bottom
the cable is all time slac# and easy to heave up (fig. @(, position 3).
Hea*i"# +p o" t$e a"c$ors
C3
%ith light $ind $hen all mooring lines are cast off, the vessel starts movement ahead
caused by strain on the anchor cables.
The direction the cable is leading is not al$ays strait to$ards the anchor due to fact
that large vessels have very heavy anchor chains and this is not possible to pull the
cables into perfectly straight lines $hen bac#ing the vessel to its final berthing
position.
During heaving up the anchors the vessel $ill follo$ the leading of the chains, and
therefore the main engine and rudder assisting in heaving up anchor must be used
temporarily and reasonable
%hen the chain comes tight heaving up should be ceased in order do not damage the
$indlass.
+f it $as decided to heave up the anchors one by one, the strain develops on the
second anchor chain $hen there are about 3 shac#les remain on the first.
&t this moment both anchor chains become tight.
To protect the $indlass against a brea#do$n, especially aboard older vessels the
proper slac# must be given on the second (not hove in) anchor chain.
&t least should be slac#ed a$ay same amount of cable as it $as original distance
bet$een both anchors.
+f both anchors are heaving up simultaneously situation is similar, as described above.
Mnder normal circumstance slac# is given on the $eather anchor chain, then lee
anchor is hove in, and $hen is a$eigh, heaving up of the $eather anchor is resumed.
7RE7GING ANCHORS
C@
Ge"era) Re4arks
P$raseo)o#y:
There is difference bet$een dredging and dragging. +n both cases anchor is not
holding ground, and flu#es are not dig deeply into the sea4bottom.
&nchor is dragging $hen the holding po$er of the anchor plus the $eight of chain is
not enough to #eep the vessel in position. +t could be caused by force of $ind, tide,
engine or combination of forces. >imply this is an unfortunate event, does not depends
on the ship handler $ill. %hen dragging the ship has stern$ay, or is moving side$ays.
Dredging of the anchor is planned and carried out by #eeping a minimal speed over
the ground $ith constant strain on the chain. The vessel can dredge the anchor $ith
head$ay or do$n, $ith stern$ay.
%eather, lee, or both anchors can be used $hen dredging $ith head$ay.
Ge"era):
Dredging of anchor can be used either as part of berthing plan or in case of
emergencies, as emergency measure
Dredged anchor steadies the ship=s heading, slo$s her speed, and the bo$ may me
brought very close to and $ithout ris# of collision $ith berth.
>uccessful use of anchor $hen berthing depends on such factors as local #no$ledge,
ade'uate under #eel clearance, si;e of the vessel, limitation of ship=s $indlass and
anchor e'uipment, s#ills of ship handler and ship=s cre$, etc.
Mnder the term local #no$ledge is understood type of sea bottom ($hich should be
free of such obstructions as under$ater cables, pipes and roc#s), range of tides, local
port restrictions and regulations.
The officer for$ard must be sure the man on the $indlass does not apply the bra#e to
early, or too late $hen dropping the anchor either in case of emergency, or as part of
planned manoeuvre. &s it $as pointed out under the section 8Basic &nchoring
Dethods: $ith one and half up to ! shac#les maximum in the $ater the bra#e must be
made fast. +f approaching speed is very slo$ (large vessels) too many shac#les paid
out $ill pile up cable on top and foul the anchor. %ith high speed and bra#e applied
too late, or too fast the bra#e linings may be burn out or the chain be parted. 6rom
other hand if the bra#e is applied too soon it $ill be not enough amount of cable in the
$ater and the anchor $ill not reduce the vessel=s speed.
?egarding the limitation of the $indlass especially of large vessels see remar#s
$ritten earlier (Basic &nchoring Dethods >tep By >tep).
7red#i"# weat$er a"c$or wit$ $eadway
C0
The most difficult to handle in confined, tidal and $indy $aters of the )orthern
7urope is a ship of about K, up to ((, metres length overall $ithout special rudder
and bo$ thruster installed.
Dredging $eather anchor $ith head$ay becomes the common practice $hen berthing
such older type of coaster, and therefore three basic ship4handling rules #no$n since
time immemorial are as follo$s:
(. Leep up $ind.
!. Leep up tide.
/. &nchor is your best friend.

Fig. $2. -redging /eather anchor /ith head/ay.
Bac0 "pring B##ect and urning @e+er.
>uccessful dredging depends mainly on #eeping the minimal speed over the ground
and a constant strain on the anchor cable.
&ssume the vessel has only one ha$se pipe situated exactly in the stem.
%hen dredging this anchor the pivot point is situated *ust for$ard in the stem, but
$hen one of t$o bo$er anchors is used, particularly on large beamed vessel, $ith
ha$se pipes more aft, the pivot point is moved from the fore and aft line to the lo$er
part of the ha$se pipe (to$ards the ship=s side).
This is creating the turning moment acting on the lever 95 (see fig. @!).
Because this moment is $or#ing in same manner as a bac# spring, its effect is called
8Bac# >pring 7ffect:.
This effect is felt since the moment of dropping the anchor particularly $hen ship is
small and in light condition. The helmsman must be instructed accordingly by the
pilot or Daster, and counter the turning tendency by the helm in order does not turn
the vessel too early and #eep straight line of approach in the first phase of the
manoeuvre.
The anchor should be $al#ed out or dropped as early as possible in order to give
sufficient time to ad*ust the length of the anchor chain and main engine revolutions.
CC
This is prudent ship handling manner, $hich gives proper feeling of the ship=s
behaviour enough early before the berth is reached.
Fig. $3. -redging /eather anchor /ith head/ay.
&s customary on smaller vessels the anchor is dropped for dredging, but on the larger
ships, especially $ith multinational cre$ and un#no$n anchor e'uipment seems
better to $al# out the anchor in the gear, then let it go directly.
&s it $as stressed before the $eight on the anchor must be #ept continuously, but
$ithout the speed building up, or stopping the ship too early. The movement of the
stern to$ards the berth must be controlled carefully, particularly $ith strong onshore
$ind and close to the berth. +f $ind is strong and blo$ing onto the 'uay the angle of
approach should be larger, and the for$ard spring and headline sent ashore
simultaneously as soon as possible. +n order do not hit the berth by the ship=s stern in
the last phase of this manoeuvre, the rudder is put hard over to$ards the 'uay and
enough strong 8#ic#: ahead applied.
Dain turning moment needed to s$ing the vessel almost in place, or #eep easy the
desired heading is achieved because of long lever arisen bet$een ne$ position of
pivot point 85: and Fentre of 7ffort of Transverse ?udder 6orce 8?: (see fig. @!).
This lever is also #no$n as The >teering Lever.
The additional to the main turning moment is mentioned earlier 8Bac# >pring 7ffect.:
Both of them are very useful in the case a large s$ing in confined $aters is necessary
prior to berthing, or strong $ind is blo$ing from the berth direction.
Jnce $ith ship in position alongside the berth, and for$ard 4 aft springs and lines
made fast (single up), the slac# on the chain must be given. +t should be #ept in mind
the tension in the cable is 'uite sufficient to pull the vessel bac#.
Depends on the situation the anchor is left at the bottom, $ith the slac# given on the
cable (up and do$n), or heaved in.
+f decision is to heave up the anchor it is often necessary to ta#e the bo$ little a bit off
the berth, and therefore the stern must be $ell secured by the appropriate fenders.
C
7red#i"# )ee a"c$or wit$ $eadway
Dredging lee anchor is not popular and rare used method, but seems very useful in
case of emergency, or if ship in light condition is drifting fast to$ards the lee berth.
Lee anchor holds ground faster, because the cable leads more hori;ontal. The anchor
#eeps vessel bodily against the $ind.
The friction bet$een the cable and ship=s side eases the strain on the $indlass.
%ith the main engine $or#ing ahead and lee rudder applied better leverage is
achieved.
But there are some limitations and possible disadvantages in use of lee anchor. They
are connected $ith re'uired minimal ship under #eel clearance, $hich should be at
least !,G of the maximum loaded draft of this vessel.
&lmost al$ays fully loaded vessel is approaching the berth $ith minimal under #eel
clearance, $hat automatically cancelling use of lee anchor.
7ven if vessel has arrived berth in ballast condition the anchor must be heaved in
before commencement of loading, because most probably the draft is limited on
sailing. This needs to ta#e the vessel off the berth due to possible difficulties in
heaving up anchor (additional strain caused by friction bet$een the anchor chain and
ship=s hull).
&ny$ay better loose the time planned for loading, and pay overtimes to stevedores,
than have the heavy contact $ith the berth.
Fig. $!. -redging lee anchor /ith head/ay.
CK
Fig. $$. Comparison o# dredging /eather and lee anchor.
7red#i"# two a"c$ors wit$ $eadway
6rom the theoretical point of vie$ $hen approaching the berth directly, $ithout any
planned turn dredging t$o anchors is much better than dredging one, because
achieved effect is doubled.
%ith t$o dredged anchors the 8bac# spring effect8 (see fig.@0) is cancelled and
positioning the ship=s bo$ is much more easier. The ship=s bo$ is driven on the
anchors to the planned position, and remains there.
Jn po$erful diesel main engine of high revolutions on dead slo$ ahead, and classic
fixed propeller less 8#ic#s: ahead, and therefore starts are needed in order to #eep
re'uired small head$ay.
Dropping of t$o anchors needs to #eep al$ays safety under #eel clearance in order
does not damage the ship=s bottom.
Both dredged anchors do not foul each other $hile the vessel is turning because one
anchor cannot reach the cable of the other (if the small ratio of anchors chains length
to the depth $as chosen, as it is advised).
5o$ever dredging t$o anchors $ith head$ay is not advised if a large s$ing in
confined $aters is necessary prior to berthing.
Jn large beamed vessels one more s#ilful man is needed for$ard to operate the
second $indlass. This is not al$ays easy $ith present $orld$ide tendency to employ
smaller cre$.
,
Fig. $%. -redging t/o anchors /ith head/ay.
+n emergency $hen vessel approaches berth too fast or going aground (because of
8blac#out:, main engine, steering gear problems etc.) both anchors are usually
dropped almost simultaneously in order to slo$ do$n the speed as soon as possible.
This is old not $ritten, but time4honoured custom never go aground $ith anchors in
the ha$se pipe.
7red#i"# wit$ ster"way
Dredging the anchor $ith stern$ay is rather rare used method. %ith short amount of
anchor cable in the $ater, *ust to #eep the ship=s head against the $ind or current, but
not stop the dragging, a vessel=s movement can be controlled to a certain extent by use
of anchor and rudder.
&ssume at anchorage there is no current and the $ind is acting only (6ig. @C).
6or some reason vessel has to change her position to ne$ one situated do$n the $ind.
&t first the anchor cable is shortened to the point at $hich the anchor starts to drag.
Dredged anchor #eeps the ship=s head against the $ind but vessel is moving astern.
%ith ship=s stern$ay the flo$ of the $ater is acting at the rudder from the opposite
direction than $ith head$ay, and therefore vessel=s stern is follo$ing the rudder
position e.g. if ruder is put to starboard the stern is s$inging to starboard too.
%e may expect the ship $ill move diagonally across the $ind to$ards the direction,
$hich the rudder is turned.
Due to fact the ha$se pipe is not situated in the fore and aft line (at centre of the
bo$), the vessel=s natural position $hen dredging the anchor becomes canted *ust
opposite to the anchor.
This phenomenon $as used by the author to steer (to some extent) disabled vessel
8Oohn ):, and pass safely bet$een anchored vessels at the Leelung ?oads in Oanuary
(KK,. &lternately both anchors have been $al#ed bac# and heaved up in order to
move a$ay the ship=s stern from the nearest anchored vessel.
(
Fig. $&. -redging /ith stern/ay /ind acting only.
Fig. $'. -redging /ith stern/ay current acting only.
!
+n case dredging do$n the anchor $ith the current (6ig. @) the vessel has head$ay
$ith reference to the $ater, because the ship is moving slo$er then the $ater flo$.
+f difference bet$een rate of the current and the ship=s stern$ay is enough large the
rudder can be used to steer the vessel. +f necessary short bursts ahead on the main
engine $ill give the vessel a sheer.
Aenerally the ship steering is exactly same, as $ith movement ahead. +f the rudder is
put to starboard the stern is going to port and vice versa.
The techni'ue of dredging the anchor $ith stern$ay can be used also to great
advantage $hen berthing $ithout the assistance of tugs in strong current.
Swi"#i"# o" a" A"c$or
+n narro$, restricted $aters an anchor can be used to carry out a tight turn through
about (, degrees (6ig. @K).
The success of this manoeuvre depends on such factors as are mentioned belo$:
(. The sea, river or canal bed (must be clear of obstructions).
!. Type of the bottom (allo$ing use of the anchor E the local #no$ledge
once again is vital).
/. The depth of the $ater (should be suitable).
3. &ppropriate under$ater clearance (as $e remember re'uired minimal
ship under #eel clearance should be at least !,G of the maximum
loaded draft of this vessel).
@. >i;e of the vessel.
0. Type of engine po$er available.
C. Transverse propeller turn $hen going astern.
. &mount of room available for s$inging.
K. >trength of $ind and .or current.
(,. >hip=s speed over the ground in the moment of letting go the anchor.
((. 7xperience and s#ill of the ship handler.
+f that is practicable the s$ing should be planned in a direction that transverse
propeller thrust $hen going astern $ould assist the turn. 6or example $ith fixed right
hand propeller better is turn the vessel to starboard, because $hen going astern the
propeller transverse thrust is pushing the stern to port, and therefore assists the s$ing.
%hen approaching the turning place the speed should be minimum, *ust for
steerage$ay only, but still ahead in order to #eep the pivot point $ell for$ard.
The stern$ay should be avoided due to shifting of pivot point aft, and therefore
reduced the turning lever.
>hortly before dropping the anchor ship should be canted into the proper side in order
to #eep the current or $ind on the correct 'uarter and assist the s$ing.
The ship handler must be ensured that there is enough space and deep $ater for the
stern to turn around.
To easy the $eight on the $indlass the main engine should be put astern before the
bra#e is applied.
+n a narro$ river the main stream is much stronger in the centre of the channel then at
the sides, therefore before carry out the turn the bo$ should be manoeuvred into the
relatively slac# $ater closer the river ban#. The stern remains in the stronger flo$ $ill
be pushed do$nstream.
%ith anchor dropped and on the bra#e, even not holding ground the pivot point is
transferred for$ard. )o$ the $ind, tide flo$ or river current are $or#ing on a good
/
turning lever and the vessel starts s$ing around. To accelerate the rate of turn the
main engine can be used $ith the rudder hard over and po$erful bursts ahead applied.
+t should be stressed that the $indlass must be protected against ta#ing the full $eight
of the vessel on the strong tide, and it is almost al$ays necessary to come ahead on
the main engine $ith assistance of the appropriate positioned the rudder to ease the
$eight on the $indlass.
Jnce up the $ind or tide the vessel is easier to control. That time the $indlass is put
in the gear, anchor heaved up and the ship can proceed, as it is re'uired.
The amount of anchor cable used to carry out described manoeuvre depends mostly
on depth, type of bottom, si;e of the vessel and $eather condition ($ind, current).
Mnder the normal circumstances $ith one and half up to t$o shac#les maximum in
the $ater the bra#e must be made fast.
Fig. $(. "/inging to a ide on 8ne ;nchor.
3
ANCHOR TO ASSIST BERTHING
A3ONGSI7E
9roperly used anchor is very useful ship handler=s tool $hen berthing, or unberthing
$ithout tugs.
7ven $hen the tugs are available at some berths it is desirable to drop the anchor as
the supplementary mooring in order to prevent damage to the vessel and berth caused
by movement of the ship $hile lying alongside. &nchor dropped in the approach to
the berth is often used to heave the ship=s bo$ off on departure.
Jne of the districts $here almost all, 89anamax: si;e, and even larger vessels are
berthing $ithout tugs is the 9arana ?iver, &rgentina.
+n figure 0, are sho$n 8step4by4step: the approach and berthing to the grain silos
(Berth )o. 0) at >an Loren;o in 9arana ?iver.
Fig. %). Berthing to the "ilos, Berth No. % at "an @orenAo, Parana Ri+er.
Positio" :A;:
The vessel is steaming up the river against the current of about / E 3 #nots. %hen the
speed over the ground is of about /.@ #nots the main engine is stopped, but if is
reduced to let say ( #not (because of current), or the vessel doesn=t ans$er the helm
properly 8#ic# ahead: techni'ue is applied.
%ith the vessel almost stopped and positioned parallel to the berth in distance of
about (!, metres the starboard anchor is dropped (/ shac#les into the $ater).
Deantime the for$ard spring is sent ashore through the mooring boat.
@
Positio" :B;:
The river current and 8#ic#s: ahead are used to bring the vessel to$ards the berth.
7ven $ith the main engine stopped, but the rudder put to port the bo$ is coming close
the berth. T$o head lines together are sent to the mooring dolphin by the boat,
for$ard spring is heaved in and the anchor cable paid out as necessary. &s soon as
possible the stern spring should be sent ashore by the heaving line.
%ith springs from the both ends, and minimum one headline on the $inches the ship
is pulled to$ards the berth.
The officer for$ard must $atch carefully the anchor cable and position of the vessel.
Too much strain on the chain $ill #eep the bo$ off the berth and the stern may hit the
$harf. >ometimes is necessary to put the anchor in the gear and pay out the cable.
6rom the other hand if the anchor cable is up and do$n there is no chance to stop the
movement of the bo$ to port and the shore loading e'uipment is in the danger.
The ship must be #ept almost parallel to the loading berth $hen heaving on the
mooring lines.
&ppropriate positioning of the rudder and 8#ic#s: ahead is very useful to assist
#eeping the vessel as re'uired.
Positio" :C;:
6inally the vessel is made fast $ith port side alongside to the silos berth.
The bo$ is secured by four long headlines to the mooring dolphin, and one spring to
the berth.
6rom the stern are sent also four, long stern lines to the dolphin situated behind the
vessel. Due to strong river current t$o aft springs on the berth are re'uired.
%hen all lines are made fast, the starboard anchor is put in the gear and the chain
slac#ed up to 04 shac#les in the $ater. %ith such amount of shac#les in the $ater the
cable is gro$ing up and do$n.
0
STERN ANCHOR
The stern anchor, #no$n also as a stream anchor is of about one third the re'uired
$eight of the bo$er. This anchor is still re'uired in some pilotage districts. 6or
example in 8>ea$ay 5andboo#: at page C is $ritten: 87very ship of more than ((, m
in overall length, the #eel of $hich is laid after Oanuary (, (KC@, shall be e'uipped
$ith a stern anchor:. &s far as + #no$ all coasters sailing to the ports in ?hine ?iver
must be e'uipped $ith the stern anchor.
+n the past the stern anchor $as found very useful for anchoring in a strong current
from the aft in combination $ith the bo$ anchor in tidal narro$ $aters, as for
instance in the Dississippi, or the ?angoon ?iver.
+f the tidal current is expected from either aft or fore direction all is $or#ing $ell, but
the current acting on the ship=s beam has a disastrous effect.
+n the last three decades use of the stern anchor aboard the merchant vessels has
declined almost completely, and therefore there are not so many pilots and masters
$ith experience in using the stern anchor.
The main danger in use of stern anchor is the ris# of fouling the propeller and . or
rudder by the anchor cable. To be on safe side the vessel should #eep some head$ay
on, $hen the stern anchor is dropped.
7ven much more dangerous is heaving up the stern anchor. The vessel is coming
astern $hile the anchor is heaved up, and the cable can easy foul the propeller and
rudder. To avoid such situation this is recommended to #eep the bo$ anchor *ust on
the sea bead. This anchor does not allo$ gathering the stern$ay. %hen the stern
anchor $as used only, the bo$er anchor should be lo$ered on the bottom before
commencing to heave up the stern anchor.
Fig. %1. he sa#e /ay o# dropping and hea+ing up a stern anchor.
C
TI7A3 <ORCE AT ANCHOR
Deeply loaded large vessel anchored in tidal $aters is restricting flo$ of the $ater.
The problem becoming more critical $ith a ship at anchor on falling tide and under
#eel clearance progressively reduced.
7ven $ea# current flo$ing under and around the hull of an anchored vessel is forced
to accelerate its velocity. Because the $ater is fe$ hundred times denser than air
restriction of free flo$ is generating an enormous forces.
The ratio of the $ater depth to the vessel=s draft is the most important factor in
calculations of tidal forces acting on the ship=s hull.
%ith a depth to ship=s draft ratio of (.,@ the tidal force is three times stronger than
$ith a depth to draft ratio of /.,.
Jther $ords $e can say t$e s$ip5s +"der kee) c)eara"ce is the main factor in
measuring of the tidal force acting upon the vessel anchored in the tidal $aters.
This force is proportional to the s'uare of the tide velocity.
The shape of the vessel=s bo$ has a significant effect upon tidal force too.
&s it is #no$n $ell from the practice the modern bulbous bo$ of the fully loaded
vessel is pushing the ship=s for$ard part deeper into the $ater, therefore restriction in
the tidal flo$ is increased to compare $ith sister vessel, but of traditional bo$.
The #no$ledge of the factors having important role on the tidal force acting on the
vessel anchored is an extremely important, because a strong falling tide and
progressively reduced under #eel clearance could exceed the holding po$er of the
anchor and the vessel $ill drag.
+n the figure 0! are sho$n longitudinal force acting on the bo$ of the 89anamax: si;e
bul# carrier $ith @ #nots falling tide and the ratio of the $ater depth to the ship= draft
varies bet$een / and (.(.
Fig. %2. @ongitudinal tidal #orces acting on the 6o/ o# the Panama? siAe +essel
/ith $ 0nots tide and di##erent ratio o# the /ater depth to the ship1s dra#t.

Longitudinal Forces acting on the tanker's bow with a


5 knots tide in a sheltered anchorage
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000
Ship's D.W.T.
F
o
r
c
e
s

i
n

t
o
n
n
e
s
Depth to
draft ratio
= 3
Depth to
draft ratio
= 2
Depth to
draft ratio
= 1.4
Depth to
draft ratio
= 1.2
Depth to
draft ratio
= 1.1
Fig. %3. @ongitudinal tidal #orces acting on the 6o/ o# di##erent siAe +essels /ith a #i+e
0nots tide and +aria6le ratio o# the /ater depth to the ship1s dra#t.
K
Current Load on a beam of a stationar !essel
"area of #$$ s%. m.&
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Current Speed "kn&
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

L
o
a
d

"
t
o
n
n
e
s
&
Ratio:
Water Depth
to Draft = 3

Current Load ' #$.() * f * + * ,
-

where.

+ ' /ull underwater area in s%uare metres
, ' Current speed in knots
f ' factor.
$.$$#5 for depth of water ' 0 1 draft
$.$$#2 for depth of water ' - 1 draft
$.$$0) for depth of water ' #.# 1 draft
Ratio:
Water Depth
to Draf t = 2
Ratio:
Water Depth
to Draf t = 1.1
Fig. %!. Current load on a 6eam o# stationary +essel 2area o 1)) s7. m4.
K,
Wind Force
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Wind Speed "m3s&
Wind Speed in knots ' - 1 Wind Speed "m3s&
W
i
n
d

4
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

"
T
o
n
s
&
Fig. %$. .ind Force.
K(
&
r
e
a

@
,
,
,

m
!
&
r
e
a

C
,
,
,

m
!
&rea (,,, m
!
&rea !,,, m
!
&rea /,,, m
!
&rea 3,,, m
!
&
r
e
a

0
,
,
,

m
!
&
r
e
a

,
,
,

m
!
&
r
e
a

K
,
,
,

m
!
A?< 8 'A& S ('
,C
S A S ?
&
%here:
&%6 2 &th$art %ind 6orce
& 2 &th$art %ind &rea (m
!
)
% 2 %ind >peed in m.s
+nchor /olding 4ower
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
25000 75000 125000 175000 225000 275000 325000
Tanker !essel deadweight in tonnes
+
n
c
h
o
r

h
o
l
d
i
n
g

p
o
w
e
r

i
n

t
o
n
n
e
s
Anchor holdin po!er in tonne"
Fig. %%. ;nchor holding po/er o# di##erent siAe tan0er +essels.
K!
+5C/67859 +5D +5C/67 W+TC/ C/:C; L8STS
+n anchoring plan should be prepared taking into account as follows.
#</our 5otice. #a$e the %a"ter& D't( )nineer and the
*hief )nineer +een infor,ed of the ti,e of -.tand/+(0 for
,anoe'$rin1
(Customary 1-hour notice is needed for change from IFO to MDO
and from full sea to manoeuvring RPM before the commencement
of lessening the seed!"
6.6.W
+nchors and Windlass. #a" the 2o"'n 'n"ec'red and
,ade +oth anchor" read( to '"e 3!al4ed +ac451 #a" the
!indla"" +een te"ted1
6.6.W
The +nchor 4art 3 /elmsman 3 Flags 3 /and held ,/F.
#a$e the Anchor 6art( +een infor,ed of the ti,e of -.tand/
+(0 for anchorin1 7" the hel,",an on -.tand/+(01 #a$e the
nece""ar( 8 re9'ired fla" +een hoi"ted1 #a$e the hand/held
:#;" +een chared1
6.6.W
The Speed 7eduction. 7" the %a"ter on the +ride1 #a" one
of the "peed red'ction ,ethod" +een cho"en and
co,,enced in appropriate ti,e1
=aster
Direction 3 strength of wind and current. Are there an(
other $e""el" at anchor to indicate tide 8 !ind1 7f the
anchorae i" e,pt( !ith a "tron c'rrent& do (o' 4no! the
direction and the rate of the c'rrent1
=aster
Weather. 7" the !eather 8 tide on"hore1
7" the !ind le"" than 28 4not" and c'rrent le"" than 3 4not"1
(#here are Classification $ociety limits5.
=aster
The Low Speed =anoeu!ring. 7" the tidal "trea, and force
of the !ind !hen ,anoe'$rin at lo! "peed ta4en 'nder
con"ideration1
7" there a clear& "afe pa""ae and clear of the fair!a( and
daner"1
=aster
5eed for ade%uate sea room particularl to seaward.
7" there eno'h roo, to t'rn the $e""el of 180 deree" 8 360
deree"1
=aster
Dangers. 7" the neare"t ro'ndin line or the daner placed
,ore than one ,ile a!a( fro, the planned anchor droppin
po"ition1
=aster
K/
Depth of water> tpe of seabed and scope of anchor cable
re%uired. 7" the depth le"" than 82 ,etre" a+"ol'te
,ini,',1
(#his is the class limit!" 7f depth i" ,ore than 30 ,etre"& than
!al4 +ac4 the anchor. 7" the +ed "'ita+le1 <ot roc4 or coral1
=aster
The +nchor Lights 3 Shapes 3 Sound Signalling
+pparatus. Are the anchor liht" 8 "hape" and "o'nd
"inallin apparat'" read( for '"e1
6.6.W.
7eporting. #a" the anchor po"ition of the $e""el +een
reported to the port a'thorit( after droppin an anchor1 6.6.W.
4lace.
Date.
6fficer on Watch =aster
K3
While at anchor> the 66W should.
,essel?s 4osition. Deter,ine and plot the $e""el=" po"ition on the
appropriate chart a" practica+le
4osition Check. When circ',"tance" per,it& chec4 at "'fficientl(
fre9'ent inter$al" !hether the $e""el i" re,ainin "ec'rel( at anchor
+( ta4in +earin" of fi>ed na$iation ,ar4" or readil( identifia+le
"hore o+?ect"
Look<out. )n"'re that proper loo4/o't i" ,aintained
8nspection 7ounds. )n"'re that in"pection ro'nd" of the $e""el are
,ade periodicall(
Weather 3 State of the Sea. @+"er$e ,eteoroloical and tidal
condition" and the "tate of the "ea
Dragging the +nchor. <otif( the %a"ter and 'nderta4e all nece""ar(
,ea"'re" if the $e""el dra" anchor
7eadiness of the =ain :ngines. )n"'re that the "tate of readine""
of the ,ain enine" and other ,achiner( i" in accordance !ith the
%a"ter=" in"tr'ction"
,isibilit. 7f $i"i+ilit( deteriorate"& notif( the %a"ter
Lights 3 Shapes 3 Sound Signals. )n"'re that the $e""el e>hi+it"
the appropriate liht" and "hape" and the appropriate "o'nd "inal"
are ,ade in accordance !ith all applica+le re'lation"
:n!ironment. Aa4e ,ea"'re" to protect the en$iron,ent fro,
poll'tion +( the $e""el and co,pl( !ith applica+le poll'tion
re'lation"
6ther Checks.
6fficer on Watch 4lace.
Date.
K@
K0
FSE O< ANCHORS IN AN E!ERGENCI
W
A33 SHIPS
W
>T&)DBU &)F5J?>. 7)>M?7 &)F5J? 9&?TU 5&<7
FL7&? +)>T?MFT+J)> B76J?7 L7TT+)A AJ &)F5J?>
W
+6 )&TM?7 J6 7D7?A7)FU 97?D+T> J? +6
T+D7, ?7DMF7 >977D TJ D+)+DMD
W
+> T57?7 >M66+F+7)T M)D7? L77L
FL7&?&)F71 +7 !,G <7>>7L=> D&Q+DMD
LJ&D7D D?&6T
X +6 )J X
DJ )JT M>7
&)F5J?>
W
+> T57 >7& B7D FL7&? J6 JB>T?MFT+J)>
X +6 )J X
DJ )JT M>7
&)F5J?>
7QF79T TJ
&<J+D DJ?7
>7?+JM>
D&D&A7
W
+> T57 )&TM?7 J6 >7& B7D L+L7LU TJ
>)&A J? 5&)A M9 &)F5J?>1
W W
+6 U7> +6 )J
W
SHIPS
FN7ER B'''' 7?T
SHIPS
B''''-D'''' 7?T
SHIPS
O.ER D'''' 7?T
L7T AJ BJT5 &)F5J?>
J) T57 TM?),
F57FL+)A Y <77?+)A
M)T+L <7>>7L >TJ9
J)LU M>7 &)F5J?> +6
>977D B7LJ% 3 L)JT>
J)LU M>7 &)F5J?> +6
>977D B7LJ% ! L)JT>
T?U D?&AA+)A %+T5
BJT5 &)F5J?> ! Q
D79T5
T?U D?&AA+)A BJT5
&)F5J?> ! Q D79T5
+6 M)&BL7 TJ 5JLD
<77? Y F57FL F&BL7
+6 9J>>+BL7
+6 M)&BL7 TJ 5JLD
<77? F&BL7
>JD7 ?+>L J6 LJ>+)A
&)F5J?>
9?JB&BL7 LJ>> J6
BJT5 &)F5J?>
J)LU M>7 TJ 9?7<7)T
>7?+JM> D&D&A7
D&)A7? TJ &)F5J?
9&?TU, M>7 TJ B7
&<J+D7D
SHIPS
FN7ER B'''' 7?T
SHIPS
B''''-D'''' 7?T
SHIPS
O.ER D'''' 7?T
D&Q >977D L)JT> D&Q >977D 0 L)JT> D&Q >977D / L)JT>
L7T AJ BJT5 &)F5J?>, F57FL &T ! Q D79T5, D?&A M)T+L >TJ997D
J)LU 9MT JMTDJ?7 F5&+) +6 M)&BL7 TJ 9?7<7)T A?JM)D+)A
KC
!AQ. PER!ISSIB3E SPEE7 O< 3ARGE .ESSE3S
7FRING ANCHORING
Conditions: 1 anchor dropped, speed when the anchor reaches the bottom, the
anchor does not drag and the chain is not parted
7?T CL''' DA''' L'''' (L''''
3oadi"#
Co"ditio"
Fully
Loade
d
In
Ballast
Fully
Loade
d
In
Ballast
Fully
Loade
d
In
Ballast
Fully
Loade
d
In
Ballast
Main Engine
stopped
Completely new
chain with !ull
brea"ing strength
'.L (.( '.L (.B '.E (.& '.K (.(
Main Engine
stopped
Chain with #$%
brea"ing strength
o! new chain
brea"ing strength
only
'.E (.( '.E (.& '.K (.& '.D (.'
Full power gi&en
astern on the
Main Engine
be!ore the anchor
is dropped
Completely new
chain with !ull
brea"ing
strength
B.L D.( B.L A.C B.D A.( &.L C.(
Re1ere"ces:
K
(. Behaviour and 5andling of >hips, by 5enry 5. 5ooyer, Fornell Daritime
9ress, (K/.
!. Bridge 9rocedures Auide, Third 7dition (K, +nternational Fhamber of
>hipping. %hiterby 9ublishers, (KK.
/. 6remantle 9ilots Jperations 6ile, (KK.
3. Auide to 9ort 7ntry (KKK E !,,, originally devised by: Folin 9ielo$, >hipping
Auides Ltd, )autical &dvisers and 9ublishers, (KKK.
@. +n;ynieria ?uchu Dors#iego,(in polish) by Fapt. >tanisla$ Aucma,
J#reto$nict$o i Pegluga, !,,(
0. )icholls=s >eamanship and )autical Lno$ledge, !C
th
7dition (KKC, Bro$n,
>on Y 6erguson, Ltd., Alasgo$.
C. 9arana ?iver 9orts Auide, !,,(, ?osario 9ilots, &rgentina.
. 9ractical >hip 5andling, by Dalcom F. &rmstrong, >econd 7dition (KK3.
Bro$n, >on Y 6erguson, Ltd., Alasgo$.
K. >ea$ay 5andboo#, !,,( 7dition, The >t. La$rence >ea$ay Danagement
Forporation.
(,. >hiphndling for the Dariner, by Daniel 5. Dac7lrevey, Fornell Daritime
9ress, Third 7dition (KK@.
((. The 7vasion of The Tropical Fyclones, by Fapt. 6.9.&. Oamin, (K0. The
)ederland=s 6ederation of Daster Dariners and The ?oyal Follege
Peemanshoop.
(!. The )autical +nstitute on Fommand, & 9ractical Auide, The )autical +nstitute,
>econd 7dition, !,,,.
(/. The )autical +nstitute on 9ilotage and >hiphndling,
The )autical +nstitute (KK,
(3. The >hiphandler=s Auide, The )autical +nstitute, >econd 7dition, !,,,.
(@. %ied;a o mane$ro$aniu stat#ami mors#imi,(in polish) by Fapt. &le#sander
)o$ic#i, !nd 7dition, Trademar Adynia, (KKK.
KK