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“It is a joining process of two similar or dissimilar metals with or without the
help of filler metal and with or without the application of pressure”.
Welding is one of the fabrication steps.

This is often done by melting the workpieces. By the help of a heat source,
heat is produced which changes the metal to plastic or fused state. Then a
filler metal is added to form a pool of molten metal (the weld puddle) that
cools to become a strong joint.
The use of filler metal depends on the size of gap or groove in
the workpiece. If gap size is ignorable then just two metal pieces are joined
by using a heat source.

Depending on different heat sources, welding is classified into following
 Arc welding
 Gas welding
 Chemical welding
 Resistance welding
 Special welding processes

1- Arc welding:-
Arc welding refers to a group of welding processes that use a
welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and
the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use
either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-
consumable electrodes.
When the distance between the electrode and the workpiece is
just few millimeters then the electrons from the electrode jump to the
workpiece or vice versa. The air between the electrode and the work piece
get ionized and due to this excitation and de-excitation of atoms an arc is
produced. The temperature of this arc will be 30000C to 40000C
Metal also melts from plastic state at the localized area due to this
high temperature.
The process of arc welding is widely used because of its low
capital and running costs.

Different arc welding processes are:-
(i)-Consumable electrode methods:
 SMAW: Shielded Metal Arc Welding:-
In this process, flux coated electrode is used. When the
electrode is brought near the workpiece then the flux from it starts
depositing on metal piece. Flux acts as a shielding medium to prevent
environmental oxidation of metal. It also lowers the melting point of metal,
absorbs the impurities and comes out as a slag/gang. Thus metal pieces
are joined easily without any oxidation at high temperature.

 GMAW: Gas Metal Arc Welding:-

Gas welding using argon or helium is the only satisfactory
method for aluminium alloys welding. The electrode used is consumable.

(ii)-Non-consumable electrode methods:

 GTAW: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding:-
In this process, the arc is struck using a non-consumable
tungsten electrode and an atmosphere of argon or helium.

 SAW: Submerged Arc Welding:-

It is an automatic form of metallic arc welding which can be
used in straight line joining of metals. Since the electrode is non-
consumable so the flux is just sprinkled over the workpiece.

2- Gas welding:-
When the source of heat is gas then the most common gas used
for welding is oxyacetylene also known as oxyfuel welding.
It employs the combustion of acetylene in oxygen to produce a
welding flame temperature of about 3100°C. The flame, since it is less
concentrated than an electric arc, causes slower weld cooling, which can
lead to greater residual stresses and weld distortion, though it eases the
welding of high alloy steels.

Flame types:-
 Oxidizing flame: oxygen is twice than acetylene.
 Carbonizing flame: acetylene is twice than oxygen.
 Neutral flame: both are of equal amount.
Oxidizing flame is usually used for cutting metals.
Other gas welding methods, such as air acetylene welding,
oxygen hydrogen welding, and pressure gas welding are quite similar,
generally differing only in the type of gases used.
It is widely used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair

3- Chemical welding:-
If the source of heat is a chemical reaction then method of welding is
called thermite welding.
It is the process of igniting a mix of high energy materials, also
called thermite, that produce a metallic slag that is poured between the
working pieces of metal to form a join.
This process commonly utilizes the composition of 5 parts iron
oxide red (rust) powder and 3 parts aluminium powder ignited at high
temperatures. A violent reaction occurs that produces through reduction
and oxidation a white hot iron slag and vaporous aluminium oxide.
It is widely used to weld railway rails.

4- Resistance welding:-
Resistance welding involves the generation of heat by passing
current through the resistance caused by the contact between two or more
metal surfaces. Small pools of molten metal are formed at the weld area as
high current is passed through the metal.
In general, resistance welding methods are efficient and cause
little pollution, but their applications are somewhat limited and the
equipment cost can be high.

Most commonly used methods are of two types:
 Spot welding
 Seam welding

Spot welding:-
In this process, thin metallic sheets are joined by spot welding
machine. This machine consists of two Cu-electrodes. Due to the
application of pressure and flow of electricity, temperature of workpiece
increases and it welds.
This welding is important in automobile industry.

Seam welding:-
Seam welding machine consists of two rolls, one is movable and
the other is stationary, through which metallic pieces are passed.
Resistance offered by the workpieces, heats them up. Thus metals melt
and are joined at the welding point.
Other resistance welding methods include flash welding,
projection welding, and upset welding.

5- Special welding processes:-

Special welding processes include:
 Ultrasonic welding
 Friction welding
 Co-extrusion welding
 Cold welding
 Diffusion welding
 High frequency welding
 Hot pressure welding
 Induction welding
 Roll welding

Here two of them are discussed as follows:

Ultrasonic welding:-
It is a cold joining process in which a bond is produced between
the workpieces by ultrasonic vibratory energy i.e. sound waves.

Friction welding:-
In this welding process heat is produced by mechanical friction.
This type of welding is used to weld rods or bars. One bar is held in the
rotating chuck and the other is held in a stationary but pressure loaded
chuck. Due to the friction, the workpieces melts and welding occurs.

These types of weldings are used to build assemblies that are too
small, too complex, or too delicate for more common welding techniques.