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“It is a joining process of two similar or dissimilar metals with or without the help of filler metal and with or without the application of pressure”. Welding is one of the fabrication steps. Procedure:This is often done by melting the workpieces. By the help of a heat source, heat is produced which changes the metal to plastic or fused state. Then a filler metal is added to form a pool of molten metal (the weld puddle) that cools to become a strong joint. The use of filler metal depends on the size of gap or groove in the workpiece. If gap size is ignorable then just two metal pieces are joined by using a heat source. Types:Depending on different heat sources, welding is classified into following types: Arc welding Gas welding Chemical welding Resistance welding Special welding processes
1- Arc welding:Arc welding refers to a group of welding processes that use a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. When the distance between the electrode and the workpiece is just few millimeters then the electrons from the electrode jump to the workpiece or vice versa. The air between the electrode and the work piece get ionized and due to this excitation and de-excitation of atoms an arc is produced. The temperature of this arc will be 30000C to 40000C Metal also melts from plastic state at the localized area due to this high temperature. The process of arc welding is widely used because of its low capital and running costs. Types:-
Different arc welding processes are:(i)-Consumable electrode methods: SMAW: Shielded Metal Arc Welding:In this process, flux coated electrode is used. When the electrode is brought near the workpiece then the flux from it starts depositing on metal piece. Flux acts as a shielding medium to prevent environmental oxidation of metal. It also lowers the melting point of metal, absorbs the impurities and comes out as a slag/gang. Thus metal pieces are joined easily without any oxidation at high temperature.
GMAW: Gas Metal Arc Welding:-
Gas welding using argon or helium is the only satisfactory method for aluminium alloys welding. The electrode used is consumable. (ii)-Non-consumable electrode methods: GTAW: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding:In this process, the arc is struck using a non-consumable tungsten electrode and an atmosphere of argon or helium.
SAW: Submerged Arc Welding:-
It is an automatic form of metallic arc welding which can be used in straight line joining of metals. Since the electrode is nonconsumable so the flux is just sprinkled over the workpiece.
2- Gas welding:When the source of heat is gas then the most common gas used for welding is oxyacetylene also known as oxyfuel welding. It employs the combustion of acetylene in oxygen to produce a welding flame temperature of about 3100°C. The flame, since it is less concentrated than an electric arc, causes slower weld cooling, which can lead to greater residual stresses and weld distortion, though it eases the welding of high alloy steels. Flame types: Oxidizing flame: oxygen is twice than acetylene. Carbonizing flame: acetylene is twice than oxygen. Neutral flame: both are of equal amount. Oxidizing flame is usually used for cutting metals. Other gas welding methods, such as air acetylene welding, oxygen hydrogen welding, and pressure gas welding are quite similar, generally differing only in the type of gases used.
It is widely used for welding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work.
3- Chemical welding:If the source of heat is a chemical reaction then method of welding is called thermite welding. It is the process of igniting a mix of high energy materials, also called thermite, that produce a metallic slag that is poured between the working pieces of metal to form a join. This process commonly utilizes the composition of 5 parts iron oxide red (rust) powder and 3 parts aluminium powder ignited at high temperatures. A violent reaction occurs that produces through reduction and oxidation a white hot iron slag and vaporous aluminium oxide. It is widely used to weld railway rails.
4- Resistance welding:Resistance welding involves the generation of heat by passing current through the resistance caused by the contact between two or more metal surfaces. Small pools of molten metal are formed at the weld area as high current is passed through the metal. In general, resistance welding methods are efficient and cause little pollution, but their applications are somewhat limited and the equipment cost can be high. Types:Most commonly used methods are of two types: Spot welding Seam welding Spot welding:In this process, thin metallic sheets are joined by spot welding machine. This machine consists of two Cu-electrodes. Due to the application of pressure and flow of electricity, temperature of workpiece increases and it welds. This welding is important in automobile industry. Seam welding:Seam welding machine consists of two rolls, one is movable and the other is stationary, through which metallic pieces are passed. Resistance offered by the workpieces, heats them up. Thus metals melt and are joined at the welding point.
Other resistance welding methods include flash welding, projection welding, and upset welding.
5- Special welding processes:Special welding processes include: Ultrasonic welding Friction welding Co-extrusion welding Cold welding Diffusion welding High frequency welding Hot pressure welding Induction welding Roll welding Here two of them are discussed as follows: Ultrasonic welding:It is a cold joining process in which a bond is produced between the workpieces by ultrasonic vibratory energy i.e. sound waves. Friction welding:In this welding process heat is produced by mechanical friction. This type of welding is used to weld rods or bars. One bar is held in the rotating chuck and the other is held in a stationary but pressure loaded chuck. Due to the friction, the workpieces melts and welding occurs. These types of weldings are used to build assemblies that are too small, too complex, or too delicate for more common welding techniques.