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United States Patent [ 1 9 ] [ 1 1 ] Patent N u m b er : 4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6

L aw l ess et al . [ 4 5 ] Date o f Patent: N o v . 2 0 , 1 9 9 0


[ 5 4 ] SURGE CON TROL IN COMPRESSORS 4 , 4 6 4 , 7 2 0 8 / 1 9 8 4 Agar w al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 X
. 4 , 4 9 3, 6 0 8 1 / 1 9 8 5 Pau l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[ 7 5 ] Inv ento r s= B l ' l an 5 - L aw l ess, B ato n Ro u ge, L a- ; 4 , 5 9 6 , 1 33 6 / 1 9 8 6 Sm al l ing et al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3/ 2 4
J o h n E. Stic k el , Rando l p h , N J ,
. _ _ _ FOREIGN PATEN T DQCUMEN TS
[ 7 3] Ass1 gnee: Ex x o n Resear c h & Engm eer ing
Co m p any, Fl o r h am Par k , N J _ 7 0 0 6 8 7 1 2 / 1 9 7 9 U. S. S. R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 2 7
[ 2 1 ] Ap p l . N 4 3, ; 39 1 , 6 7 3 Pr im ar y Ex am iner - Edw ar d K . L o o k
, Assistant Ex am iner Ho ang N gu yen
[ 2 2 ] Fl l ed: Au g 7 1 9 8 9 Atto r ney, Agent, o r Fir m - l ew Pr o c to r ; Ch r is P. K o nk o l
Rel ated US. Ap p l ic atio n Data [ 5 7 ] AB STRACT
[ 6 3] Co ntinu atio n o f Ser . N O. 1 9 0 , 7 9 0 , May 4 , 1 9 8 8 , ab an- Meth o d and ap p ar atu s f o r o p er ating c o m p r esso r s to
do ned. av o id su r ges. Th e c o m p r esso r is c o ntr o l l ed b y dir ec t
[ 5 1 ] Int. Cl . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F0 4 D 2 7 / 0 2 m easu r em ent o f th e r ate o f v o l u m etr ic ?o w Q o f gas
[ 5 2 ] Us. o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 ; 4 1 5 / 1 1 th r o u gh th e c m Pr SSr v ia h e u se f an m u m ?w
. 4 1 5 / 1 7 ; 4 1 7 / 2 8 2 m eter , o r o th er so nic v el o c ity m easu r ing dev ic e in c o m
[ 5 8 ] Fiel d o f Sear c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 , 1 1 , 1 3, 1 s, 1 6 , h ih ?tio n w ith a Standar d ?o w m eter and th e m easu r e"
4 . 1 5 / 1 7 2 6 2 7 , 30 36 , 37 39 , 4 0 4 3, 1 1 3; m ent o f th e sp eed, N , o f th e c o m p r esso r . Th e Q/ N r atio
g 4 1 7 / 2 32 , 2 9 3, 2 9 4 ; 7 3 / 2 4 is c al c u l ated el ec tr o nic al l y and o u tp u t to a c o ntr o l l er
_ w h ic h , th r o u gh a c o ntr o l c ir c u it, o p er ates a r ec yc l e
[ 5 6 ] Ref er enc es Cl ted v al v e in a b y p ass l ine l eading f r o m th e disc h ar ge side to
US. PATEN T DOCUMEN TS th e su c tio n side o f th e c o m p r esso r . Th e Q/ N r atio m ea
3, 2 9 2 , 8 4 6 1 2 / 1 9 6 6 Har p er et al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 1 x Sh r ed b y th e c o ntr o l l er at c o m p r esso r Op er ating Co ndi
3, 8 7 6 , 32 6 4 / 1 9 7 5 Weitz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 7 tiOHS is Co m p ar ed w ith a Q/ N r atio at w h ic h su r ge w il l
3, 9 6 3, 36 7 6 / 1 9 7 6 Stal k er et a1 . 4 1 5 / 1 7 o c c u r . Wh en th e m easu r ed Q/ N r atio is l ess th an th e
in? f tal al ' - - - - ' - - - - i Q/ N r atio at su r ge, th e r ec yc l e v al v e w il l o p en and f l o w
, , gar e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - -
4 , 1 6 4 , 0 35 8 / 1 9 7 9 Gl enna et a1 . 5 / 39 X gas f r o m th e disc h air ge sl de1 to th e Z UCUOII sl de o f th e
4 , 2 0 5 , 9 4 1 6 / 1 9 8 0 Fr adin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 c o m p r esso r to 0 1 Su r ge Ow m t e c o m p r ess
4 , 2 30 , 4 37 1 0 / 1 9 8 0 B el l inger et al . 1 5 / 37 X
4 , 35 5 , 9 4 8 1 0 / 1 9 8 2 K o u ntz et a1 . . . . . . . 4 1 5 / 1 1 0 Cl aim s, 3 Dr aw ing Sh eets
2 0 3O 2 2
US. Patent N o v . 2 0 , 1 9 9 0 Sh eet 1 o f 3 4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
SETPOIN T
9 RECYCL E V AL V E
CL OSED
o dd: UEOFPEOQ
Q= ACFM AT MIN . FL GW POIN T,
AT SPEED N
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FIGURE
US. Patent N o v . 2 0 , 1 9 9 0 Sh eet 2 @ { 3 4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
FIGURE 2 .
US. Patent N o v . 2 0 , 1 9 9 0 Sh eet 3 o f 3 4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
@
FIGURE 3
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1
SURGE CON TROL IN COMPRESSORS
Th is ap p l ic atio n is a c o ntinu atio n- in- p ar t o f ap p l ic a
tio n Ser . N o . 1 9 0 , 7 9 0 , f il ed May 4 , 1 9 8 8 , no w ab an
do ned.
FIEL D OFTHE IN V EN TION
Th is inv entio n r el ates to a m eth o d, and ap p ar atu s f o r
av o iding su r ge f l o w in c o m p r esso r s. In a p r ef er r ed em
b o dim ent, it r el ates to th e u se o f an ac o u stic f l o w m eter
w h ic h c an b e u sed to dir ec tl y m easu r e th e r ate o f v o l u
m etr ic gas f l o w in a c o m p r esso r w h ic h , c o u p l ed w ith
c o m p r esso r sp eed, c an gener ate a signal u sef u l f o r c o n
tr o l l ing su r ge.
B ACK GROUN D AN D PROB L EMS
Co m p r esso r s ar e w idel y u sed w o r l dw ide in indu str ial
ap p l ic atio ns to c o m p r ess gases. Co m p r esso r su r ge is a
p h eno m eno n w h ic h o c c u r s in c o m p r esso r s at l o w v o l u
m etr ic f l o w r ates, and h enc e l im its th e m inim u m c ap ac
ity o f a giv en c o m p r esso r . In th e o p er atio n o f a c o m
p r esso r , as th e system r esistanc e is inc r eased, th e h ead
gener ated b y th e c o m p r esso r inc r eases to o v er c o m e th is
r esistanc e. As system p r essu r e inc r eases, l ess f l o w c an
p ass th r o u gh th e c o m p r esso r , and th is w il l c o ntinu e u p
to th e m ax im u m h ead c ap ac ity o f th e c o m p r esso r . In a
c h ar ac ter istic h ead ( H) v s. ?o w ( Q) c u r v e, o r h ead/
f l o w f o r a giv en c o m p r esso r , th er e c an th u s b e de?ned
a l im it in th e m inim u m ?o w r egio n k no w n as Su r ge
Fl o w o r Su r ge Po int. Th e h ead inc r eases w ith de
c r easing f l o w de?ning a b asic sl o p e. B el o w th e su r ge
l im it th e c o m p r esso r h ead/ f l o w c u r v e tak es a r ev er se
sl o p e. At th is c o nditio n, th e system b ac k p r essu r e ex
c eeds th at at w h ic h th e c o m p r esso r is c ap ab l e o f del iv
er ing, th is c au sing a m o m entar y b ac k ?o w c o nditio n. At
th is p o int in tim e h o w ev er system r esistanc e dec r eases,
th is c au sing th e b ac k p r essu r e to dr o p , enab l ing th e
c o m p r esso r to del iv er at h igh er f l o w th an w h en th e
su r ge b egan. If th e o p p o sitio n to ?o w do w nstr eam o f
th e c o m p r esso r is u nc h anged, o p er atio n again f o l l o w s
b ac k al o ng th e p eak h ead/ ?o w c u r v e u ntil p eak h ead
del iv er y is again r eadied, th is p r o du c ing th e c yc l ic ac
tio n k no w n as su r ge. Th u s, du r ing su r ge, th e p r essu r e
dev el o p ed b y th e c o m p r esso r c an dr o p m o m entar il y
and r eac h a l ev el w h er e ?o w ac tu al l y r ev er ses dir ec
tio n. Al th o u gh su r ge ener gy v ar ies b etw een o ne c o m
p r esso r and ano th er , c o nsider ab l e dam age c an b e do ne
to a c o m p r esso r if it is o p er ated in th is r egim e du e to
v ib r atio n, no ise, sh af t ax ial m o v em ent and o v er h eating
1 5
2 5
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w h ic h c an p r o du c e m ec h anic al dam age. Ideal l y h o w - '
ev er , du r ing p er io ds o f r edu c ed ?o w r ates, it is desir ab l e
to o p er ate a c o m p r esso r o n th e h ead/ f l o w c u r v e ab o v e
b u t as near l y as p o ssib l e to th e su r ge l im it to m ax im ize
c o m p r esso r ef ?c ienc y, m inim ize r ec yc l e, and th u s r e
du c e o p er ating c o sts.
In o p er atio n, to p r ev ent a c o m p r esso r f r o m o p er ating
in su r ge, so m e f o r m o f c o ntr o l o r anti- su r ge p r o tec tio n
dev ic e is r eq u ir ed. Typ ic al l y, e. g. , th e su r ge c o ntr o l
dev ic e c an b e a l o w f l o w v ent, o r a r ec yc l e l ine set to
o p en at so m e f l o w h igh er th an su r ge to r etu r n c o m
p r essed gas f r o m th e disc h ar ge side to th e su c tio n side
o f th e c o m p r esso r , th e dev ic e b eing set to p r o v ide a
saf ety m ar gin 1 0 - 2 0 % ab o v e su r ge f l o w to p r o tec t
against er r o r s in c al c u l ated f l o w r ates du e to v ar iatio ns
c au sed b y c h anging gas c o nditio ns, e. g. , gas m o l ec u l ar
w eigh t, p r essu r e, tem p er atu r e, etc . , o n th e h ead/ f l o w
c u r v e at any giv en o p er ating sp eed. Th is saf ety m ar gin
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is r eq u ir ed to p r o tec t th e c o m p r esso r f r o m su r ge f l o w ,
b u t th e h igh er th e set p o int ab o v e th e p o int o f su r ge
f l o w o n th e h ead/ f l o w c u r v e th e m o r e r ec yc l e o r v ent
ing is r eq u ir ed, th is r esu l ting in h igh er o p er ating c o sts.
V ar io u s m eans h av e b een em p l o yed to m o nito r v ar i
o u s o p er atio nal p ar am eter s o f a c o m p r esso r , and to u se
th ese m easu r em ents to c o ntr o l th e o p er atio n o f th e
c o m p r esso r to av o id su r ge. On o ne o f th e m o r e r ec ent
c o ntr o l system s, as desc r ib ed in US. Pat. N o . 4 , 1 5 6 , 5 7 8
w h ic h issu ed o n 0 5 / 2 9 / 7 9 to J o r am Agar et a1 , su r ge is
av o ided b y th e m easu r em ent ac r o ss th e inl et and dis
c h ar ge side o f a c o m p r esso r o f su c h v ar iab l es as c o m
p r esso r inl et p r essu r e P1 , c o m p r esso r o u tl et p r essu r e P2 ,
and th e dif f er ential p r essu r e p ac r o ss a th r o ttl ing m em
b er disp o sed in an inl et du c t o f th e c o m p r esso r . Th e
v al u es P1 and p ar e inp u t to a ?r st div ider to p r o du c e a
signal p r o p o r tio nal to p / P1 w h ic h is inp u t to a c o m
p u ter . Th e v al u es P1 and P2 ar e inp u t to a sec o nd div ider
to p r o du c e a signal P2 / P1 w h ic h is al so inp u t to th e
c o m p u ter . Th e c o m p u ter c o m p ar es th e v al u es o f P2 / P1
and p / P1 w ith p r ep r o gr am m ed inf o r m atio n b ased o n
p ar am eter s w h o se v al u es dep end o n th e c h ar ac ter istic s
o f th e c o m p r esso r ( 1 ) o p er ated at c o nditio ns w h ic h
av o ids su r ging and ( 2 ) o p er ated at c o nditio ns w h ic h
w il l p r o du c e su r ging. Wh en th e c o m p u ter o u tp u t signal ,
o p er ated at c o nditio ns w h ic h av o ids su r ging, is o u tp u t
to a tw o m o de c o ntr o l l er th e l atter w il l m aintain th e
v al v e o f a b y- p ass l ine f r o m th e disc h ar ge side to th e
su c tio n side o f th e c o m p r esso r c l o sed. Co nv er sel y,
w h en th e c o m p u ter o u tp u t signal to th e tw o m o de c o n
tr o l l er indic ates c o nditio ns w h ic h w il l p r o du c e su r ge
th e v al v e o f th e b y- p ass l ine is o p ened to p ass additio nal
gas to th e su c tio n side o f th e c o m p r esso r to av o id su r g
ing. .
In US. Pat. N o . 4 , 2 30 , 4 37 , w h ic h w as issu ed to Ro
b er t M. B el l inger et al o n l O/ 2 8 / 8 0 , th er e is al so de
sc r ib ed a c o m p r esso r su r ge c o ntr o l f o r a c o m p r esso r
system w h er ein gas is r ec yc l ed v ia a l ine f r o m th e dis
c h ar ge side to th e su c tio n side o f a c o m p r esso r . In th is
system , th e am o u nt o f r ec yc l ed gas is m inim ized b y
u sing a ?r st c o ntr o l l er to p r o v ide a ?o ating set p o int f o r
a sec o nd c o ntr o l l er .
Su c h antisu r ge system s, and o th er s h av e adv anc ed
th e state o f th e ar t, b u t f u r th er im p r o v em ents ar e no ne
th el ess needed.
OB J ECTS
It is, ac c o r dingl y, an o b j ec t o f th is inv entio n to p r o
v ide im p r o v em ents in su r ge c o ntr o l f o r a c o m p r esso r
w h ic h o v er c o m es m any o f th e p r inc ip al dr aw b ac k s o f
th e p r io r ar t.
It is, m o r e p ar tic u l ar l y, an o b j ec t o f th is inv entio n to
p r o v ide a no v el m eth o d, and ap p ar atu s, f o r m o nito r ing,
c o ntr o l l ing and p r ev enting su r ge in ax ial and c entr if u
gal f l o w c o m p r esso r s, o r system s em p l o ying su c h c o m
p r esso r s.
A f u r th er , and m o r e p ar tic u l ar o b j ec t is to p r o v ide a
no v el c o ntr o l m eth o d, and ap p ar atu s c o m b inatio n f o r
m o nito r ing, c o ntr o l l ing and p r ev enting su r ge u til izing a
m eter c o m p o nent w h ic h c o ntinu o u sl y, dir ec tl y and
r ap idl y m easu r es th e ac tu al v o l u m etr ic f l o w to a c o m
p r esso r , and c o nstantl y r ede?nes th e p o int o f su r ge
r egar dl ess o f c h anges in m o l ec u l ar w eigh t, sp eed, tem
p er atu r es and p r essu r es, o f th e c o m p r essed gas su c h th at
c l o ser o p er atio n to th e su r ge p o int, o r l o w er saf ety
m ar gin is r eq u ir ed th an is typ ic al , th is p r o v iding en
er gy sav ings b y m inim izing r ec yc l e du r ing l o w ?o w
o p er atio n.
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THE IN V EN TION
Th ese o b j ec ts and o th er s ar e ac h iev ed in ac c o r danc e
w ith th is inv entio n em b o dying m eth o d, and ap p ar atu s
w h ic h inc l u des in p ar t a c entr if u gal o r ax ial f l o w c o m
p r esso r , and c o m p r esso r c ir c u it w h ic h inc l u des a gas
inl et, gas o u tl et, gas b y p ass l ine c o nnec ting said gas
inl et and said gas o u tl et, and r ec yc l e v al v e w ith in said
b y p ass l ine w h ic h c an b e o p ened and c l o sed to c o ntr o l
th e ?o w o f gas f r o m said gas o u tl et to said gas inl et side
o f said c o m p r esso r . A c o m p r esso r c o ntr o l c ir c u it,
w h ic h r egu l ates th e c o m p r esso r and c o m p r esso r c ir c u it,
c o ntains a so nic v el o c ity m easu r ing dev ic e o r , p r ef er a
b l y an ac o u stic f l o w m eter , f o r deter m ining th e v o l u
m etr ic f l o w , Q, o f gas th r o u gh th e c o m p r esso r , and
c o u nter m eans f o r m o nito r ing th e sp eed, N , o f th e c o m
p r esso r w h ic h c an b e inp u t to a c o ntr o l l er to gener ate a
Q/ N o p er ating v al u e f o r th e c o m p r esso r . Th e c o m p r es
so r c o ntr o l c ir c u it f u r th er inc l u des a c o ntr o l l er o r l o gic
system m eans f o r th e inp u t o f th e v al u es o f Qand N to
said c o ntr o l l er , and an el ec tr o nic c o ntr o l c ir c u it asso c i
ated w ith said c o ntr o l l er f o r o p ening said r ec yc l e v al v e
w h en a set p o int v al u e o f Q/ N is gr eater th an th e ac tu al
Q/ N , and c l o sing o r m aintaining in c l o sed c o nditio n
said v al v e w h en th e set p o int v al u e o f Q/ N is l ess th an
th e ac tu al Q/ N v al u e.
Th e o p er atio n o f th e c o m p r esso r is c o ntr o l l ed to
p r ev ent su r ging v ia m eans w h ic h m easu r es th e r ate o f
v o l em tr ic ?o w , Q, o f gas th r o u gh th e c o m p r esso r , and
th e c o m p r esso r sp eed, N , th e v al u es o f w h ic h ar e inp u t
to a l o gic system o r c o ntr o l l er w h ic h , th r o u gh th e u se
o f an el ec tr o nic c o ntr o l c ir c u it, o p ens th e r egu l ato r
v al v e w h en a set p o int Q/ N r atio is no t ex c eeded, and
c l o ses th e r egu l ato r v al v e, o r m aintains th e r egu l ato r
v al v e in a c l o sed c o nditio n, w h en th e m easu r ed Q/ N
r atio is ab o v e th e estab l ish ed set p o int Q/ N v al u e. Th e
Q/ N r atio at su r ge f o r any giv en c o m p r esso r h as b een
f o u nd to b e su b stantial l y c o nstant. Th e v al u es o f b o th Q
and N c an b e ac c u r atel y m easu r ed, and h enc e th e Q/ N
r atio c an b e u sed w ith a h igh degr ee o f p r ec isio n as a
c o ntr o l p ar am eter to av o id su r ge. Fu r th er m o r e, b ec au se
an ac o u stic ?o w m eter o r so nic v el o c ity m easu r ing
dev ic e m easu r es so nic v el o c ity, said Q/ N set p o int m ay
b e au to m atic al l y b iased to c o r r ec t f o r so nic v el o c ity and
gas p r o p er ty c h anges; th is p r o v iding a su b stantial im
p r o v em ent o v er ex isting c o m p r esso r antisu r ge tec h no l
o gy. In c o m p ar iso n to an ac o u stic f l o w m eter , a so nic
v el o c ity m easu r ing dev ic e is typ ic al l y u sed in c o nj u nc
tio n w ith a no n- ac o u stic ?o w m eter , f o r ex am p l e a V en
tu r i m eter to o b tain Q.
An ac o u stic ?o w m eter is inh er entl y b ene?c ial in
sev er al r esp ec ts. It is ?r st an el ec tr o nic instr u m ent
w h ic h dir ec tl y m easu r es th e ab so l u te v el o c ity and so nic
v el o c ity o f a gas, and h enc e w ith k no w l edge o f th e
c r o ss sec tio nal ar ea o f th e p ip e th r o u gh w h ic h th e gas is
b eing p assed, it is b u t a sim p l e m atter to dir ec tl y m ea
su r e, o r r ead, th e ac tu al c u b ic f eet p er m inu te ( ACFM)
o f gas f l o w , o r th e r ate o f v o l u m etr ic f l o w , Q, o f th e gas
th r o u gh th e c o m p r esso r . Th e c o m p r esso r sp eed signal
N c an gener al l y b e gener ated b y an el ec tr o m ec h anic al
c o u nter o r m agnetic p ic k u p w h ic h senses p u l ses f r o m a
r o to r m o u nted gear to p r o v ide a m easu r ed Q/ N r atio
w h ic h c an b e c o m p ar ed w ith th e Q/ N r atio set p o int at
su r ge. Signi?c ant c h anges in th e r ate o f ?o w o f th e gas,
sh o u l d th ey o c c u r , c an b e p ic k ed u p q u ic k l y and c o r r ec
tio ns m ade el ec tr o nic al l y b y th e l o gic system to c o m
p ensate f o r th e c h anged v al u es o f Q/ N , b o th in ter m s o f
th e set p o int c o nditio n and th at at w h ic h su r ge w il l
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o c c u r . Mo r eo v er , th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter c an r eadil y,
and v er y r ap idl y, sense c essatio n o f gas f l o w o r gas f l o w
r ev er sal in th e c o m p r esso r , and h enc e u sed to o p en th e
r ec yc l e v al v e to av o id su r ge.
Th e c h ar ac ter istic s o f an ac o u stic f l o w m eter , o r
so nic v el o c ity m easu r ing dev ic e m easu r es th e o v er al l
su r ge c o ntr o l system , th e p r inc ip l e o f o p er atio n o f b o th ,
and th e signi?c anc e c f Q/ N as a p ar am eter f o r c o ntr o l
o f th e system , w il l b e m o r e f u l l y u nder sto o d b y r ef er
enc e to th e f o l l o w ing detail ed desc r ip tio n, and to th e
dr aw ings to w h ic h r ef er enc e is m ade in th e desc r ip tio n.
Th e v ar io u s f eatu r es and c o m p o nents in th e dr aw ings
ar e r ef er r ed to b y nu m b er s, sim il ar f eatu r es and c o m p o
nents b eing r ep r esented in th e dif f er ent v iew s b y c o r r e
sp o nding nu m b er s.
In th e Dr aw ings:
FIG. 1 dep ic ts gr ap h ic al l y a set o f c o m p r esso r p ar am
eter s, p ar tic u l ar l y th e Q/ N p ar am eter as c o ntr o l l ing
b asis f o r detec ting th e o nset o f su r ges.
FIG. 2 dep ic ts th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter c o m p o nent o f
th e o v er al l antisu r ge c o ntr o l system , and th e m anner in
w h ic h it is u sed in th e system .
FIG. 3 sc h em atic al l y dep ic ts th e w h o l e o f th e an
tisu r ge c o ntr o l system , inc l u siv e c f th e c o m p r esso r , b y
p ass su r ge c o ntr o l c ir c u it, and el ec tr o nic antisu r ge c o n
tr o l l er c ir c u it.
Ref er r ing to FIG. 1 th er e is gr ap h ic al l y dep ic ted a set
o f p ar am eter s w h ic h def ine c entr if u gal c o m p r esso r p er
f o r m anc e, u til izing sp ec i?c al l y th e Q/ N r atio as th e
c o ntr o l l ing b asis f o r th e antisu r ge system o f th is inv en
tio n; Qb eing de?ned as th e ac tu al c u b ic f eet p er m inu te
( ACFM) o f ?o w , and N as th e sp eed o f th e c o m p r esso r
in r ev o l u tio ns p er m inu te ( r p m ) . One set o f c u r v es f o r
p o l ytr o p ic h ead v s. ?o w c an b e gener ated f o r any giv en
c o m p r esso r . Fo r a giv en c o m p r esso r , th e p o l ytr o p ic
h ead c an b e p l o tted o n th e o r dinate, and Qin ter m s o f
ACFM at m inim u m f l o w p o int at sp eed N c an b e p l o t
ted o n th e ab sc issa. Th e su r ge l ine, l o c ated to th e l ef t
side o f th e ?gu r e, is sh o w n as a dash ed l ine ex tending
f r o m a l o c atio n near th e o r igin u p w ar dl y as a sl igh tl y
b ent, b u t al m o st str aigh t l ine. It is a l ine gener ated f r o m
th e l o c u s o f p o ints de?ning th e Q/ N r atio at su r ge, and
th u s is an essential l y str aigh t l ine de?ning m inim u m
f l o w c o nditio ns. Th e Sto new al l l ine, to th e ex tr em e
r igh t side o f th e f igu r e, is giv en as a dash ed l ine; th e
su r ge l ine and Sto new al l l ine de?ning th e m inim u m and
m ax im u m l im its o f ?o w r esp ec tiv el y. Th e ar ea b etw een
th e su r ge l ine and Sto new al l l ine is th at in w h ic h th e
c o m p r esso r m u st b e o p er ated. Th e ar ea to th e l ef t o f th e
su r ge l ine w il l th u s p r o du c e su r ge ?o w in th e c o m p r es
so r and is th u s to b e av o ided.
In ac c o r danc e w ith th e p r ac tic e o f th is inv entio n, a
Q/ N set p o int l ine c an b e dr aw n p ar al l el and to th e r igh t
o f th e su r ge l ine w ith in th e ar ea b etw een th e su r ge l ine
and th e Sto new al l l ine. Th e distanc e o f th e Q/ N set
p o int l ine f r o m th e su r ge l ine is dep endent o n th e u ser
desir ed saf ety f ac to r . Th u s, th e c o ntr o l l er is set to o p er
ate v ia th e so l id Q/ N set p o int l ine, th e ex ac t p o int o f
w h ic h is dep endent o n c o m p r esso r sp eed N . Th e l o c a
tio ns f o r o p er atio n at 6 0 %, 8 0 % and 1 0 0 % o f m ax im u m
c o m p r esso r sp eed in r p m ar e sh o w n o n th e gr ap h as
ar eas inter sec ting th e Q/ N l ine at inc r easing p o l ytr o p ic
h ead v al u es b etw een th e su r ge l ine and Sto new al l l ine.
Ch anges in c o m p r esso r sp eed N sh if t th e set p o int o f th e
c o ntr o l l er u p w ar dl y al o ng th e Q/ N l ine as c o m p r esso r
sp eed is inc r eased, and do w nw ar dl y al o ng th e Q/ N l ine
as c o m p r esso r sp eed is dec r eased. Co m p r esso r p ar am e
ter s w h ic h c au se sh if t o f o p er ating c o nditio ns to th e l ef t
4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
5
o f th e Q/ N set p o int l ine p r o du c t o p ening o f a c o m p r es
so r c o ntr o l l ed v al v e to r ec yc l e gas v ia a b y p ass l ine
f r o m th e disc h ar ge side to th e su c tio n side o f th e c o m
p r esso r . Co m p r esso r p ar am eter s w h ic h c au se sh if t o f
o p er ating c o nditio ns to th e r igh t o f th e Q/ N l ine c l o ses
th e c o m p r esso r c o ntr o l l ed v al v e to c u t o f f ?o w v ia th e
b y p ass l ine.
Th e distanc e o f th e Q/ N set p o int l ine to th e su r ge
l ine is deter m ined b y th e saf ety f ac to r deter m ined b y th e
u ser . With ex isting anti su r ge c o ntr o l s, th is saf ety m ar
gin is typ ic al l y 1 0 - 2 0 %. Ho w ev er w ith th is inv entio n, it
is ex p ec ted th at a saf ety f ac to r o f o nl y 5 % w o u l d b e
r eq u ir ed f o r m o st o p er atio ns, du e p r im ar il y to th e ac c u
r ac y, p r ec isio n and r el iab il ity o f th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter
in dir ec tl y m easu r ing th e v o l u m etr ic ?o w to th e c o m
p r esso r and th e h igh p r ec isio n attained w ith a sp eed
inp u t f r o m th e c o m p r esso r . In additio n, b ec au se th e
ac o u stic f l o w m eter o r so nic v el o c ity m easu r ing dev ic e
m easu r es so nic v el o c ity, th is p ar am eter c an b e u sed to
c o ntinu al l y r ede?ne th e p o int o f su r ge r egar dl ess o f
c h anges in m o l ec u l ar w eigh t, tem p er atu r e and p r essu r e
o f th e gas, th is b eing a c o nsider ab l e im p r o v em ent o v er
ex isting anti su r ge c o ntr o l s w h ic h do no t sel f c o m p en
sate f o r su c h p ar am eter . Co nsider ab l e ener gy sav ings
c an b e r eal ized b y m inim izing gas r ec yc l e du r ing l o w
?o w o p er atio n.
Th e ac o u stic ?o w m eter and its m o de o f o p er atio n
ar e b est desc r ib ed b y r ef er enc e to FIGS. 2 and 3, ?r st
gener al l y to th e l atter ?gu r e. Th e c o m p r esso r c ir c u it
gener al l y desc r ib ed b y r ef er enc e to FIG. 3 inc l u des an
inl et l ine 1 1 to th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 , c o u nter 30 f o r m ea
su r ing th e sp eed o f th e c o m p r esso r , o u tl et l ine 1 2 f r o m
th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 , and r ec yc l e l ine 1 4 inc l u siv e o f a
r egu l ato r v al v e 1 3 and c o o l er 1 5 . Th e c o m p r esso r c o n
tr o l c ir c u it inc l u des gener al l y an ac o u stic f l o w m eter 1 0
m o u nted ac r o ss l ine 1 1 , and c o ntr o l l er 4 0 w h ic h
th r o u gh an el ec tr o nic c ir c u it c o ntr o l s th e r egu l ato r
v al v e 1 3.
Th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter 1 0 is em p l o yed to m easu r e
th e gas v el o c ity and so nic v el o c ity o f th e gas ?o w ing
th r o u gh th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 , w h ic h is o u tp u t to th e c o n
tr o l l er 4 0 . Wh er eas th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter 1 0 c an b e
m o u nted at th e inl et side o r o u tl et side o f th e c o m p r es
so r , it is p r ef er ab l y m o u nted at th e c o m p r esso r inl et
r ep r esented b y l ine 1 1 , o f w h ic h th e c r o ss sec tio n o r
inside diam eter is k no w n; th e gas v el o c ity and p ip e
c r o ss sec tio n b eing u sed to c al c u l ate ACFM, o r Q.
Wh en m o u nted at th e inl et side o f th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 ,
th e v al u e deter m ined b y th e ac o u stic ?o w m eter 1 0
need no t b e c o r r ec ted to indic ate inl et c o nditio ns v ia
m ass f l o w o u tp u t f r o m th e f l o w m eter , and th e inl et
p r essu r e and tem p er atu r e o f th e gas to th e c o m p r esso r .
Th e sp eed o f th e c o m p r esso r , N , is deter m ined b y th e
c o u nter , o r m eter 30 , w h ic h r eads th e r p m o f th e sh af t
2 1 dr iv en b y c o m p r esso r dr iv er 2 2 and inp u ts th e v al u e
o f N to th e c o ntr o l l er 4 0 . Th e data o u tp u t f r o m th e
ac o u stic ?o w m eter 1 0 to c o ntr o l l er 4 0 , w h ic h inc l u des
th e v al u e Q, c o u p l ed w ith th e c o m p r esso r sp eed, N , is
u sed b y th e c o ntr o l l er 4 0 , to gener ate a Q/ N r atio ( f l o w
in c f m / c o m p r esso r sp eed) w h ic h h as p r o v en an ex
tr em el y r el iab l e c o ntr o l p ar am eter f o r u se in av o iding
c o m p r esso r su r ge. Th e Q/ N r atio is c o m p ar ed b y th e
system l o gic dev ic e, o r c o ntr o l l er 4 0 , against th e Q/ N
desir ed m inim u m r atio to r egu l ate and c o ntr o l th e o p en
ing and c l o sing o f th e v al v e 1 3 o f th e b y p ass o r r ec yc l e
l ine 1 4 w h ic h ex tends f r o m l ine 1 2 at th e disc h ar ge side
o f th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 to l ine 1 1 at th e su c tio n side o f th e
c o m p r esso r 2 0 . Th e Q/ N desir ed m inim u m r atio is al so
2 0
2 5
30
35
4 5
6 5
6
c o r r ec ted as a f u nc tio n o f th e so nic v el o c ity m eans u sed
b y th e ac o u stic f l o w m eter 1 0 .
Ref er r ing dir ec tl y to FIG. 2 , th e p r inc ip l e o f o p er a
tio n o f th e ac o u stic ?o w m eter 1 0 is il l u str ated. Tw o
p iezo el ec tr ic tr ansdu c er s, o r senso r s 9 1 , 9 2 ar e al ter
natel y m o u nted, o ne dir ec tl y o p p o se o f th e o th er o n
tw o sides o f th e p ip e, o r l ine 1 1 l o c ated at th e su c tio n o r
inl et side o f th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 . Th e p iezo el ec tr ic tr ans
du c er s 9 ar e eac h c o nv enientl y h o u sed in a titaniu m
b o dy, o r p r o b e, and sec u r ed v ia stainl ess steel ?ttings to
typ e 31 6 SS h eav y w al l ed tu b ing. Th e tr ansdu c er ends
ar e c o nnec ted to a B N C c o nnec to r at th e end o f th e
stainl ess steel tu b ing. In o p er atio n, a b u r st o f ac o u stic
p u l ses is sent al ter natel y e. g. , at 1 0 0 c yc l es/ sec o n
d b etw een th e tw o senso r s 9 1 , 9 2 . Measu r em ents ar e
m ade in ter m s o f th e do p p l er ef f ec t p r inc ip l e. Th e dif
f er enc e b etw een th e tw o tr ansit tim es, u p str eam and
do w nstr eam ac r o ss th e l ine 1 1 , is p r o p o r tio nal to th e gas
?o w v el o c ity, r egar dl ess o f th e gas p r o p er ties. Fu r th er ,
sinc e so u nd sp eed dep ends o n gas m o l ec u l ar w eigh t, th e
av er age tr ansit tim e im p l ies th e m o l ec u l ar w eigh t o f th e
gas ( assu m ing gas sp ec i?c h eat r atio Cp / Cv , and gas
c o m p r essib il ity z is k no w n; o r c o r r el atio ns c an al so b e
dev el o p ed b y gas anal ysis o f m o l ec u l ar w eigh t and
sp eed o f so u nd dir ec tl y to el im inate any need o f k no w
ing Cp / Cv and z) . Th e tw o m easu r em ents, dif f er ential
tr ansit tim e and av er age tr ansit tim e, to geth er w ith p ip e
diam eter and ?o w c h ar ac ter istic s c an b e u sed to indi
c ate th e f l o w v el o c ity and th e m ass f l o w r ate o f th e gas.
Th e dir ec t indic atio n o f ?o w v el o c ity m u l tip l ied b y th e
c r o ss sec tio nal ar ea o f th e p ip e o r inl et l ine 1 1 th r o u gh
w h ic h th e gas is p assed, is r eadil y tr ansl ated into
ACFM, o r Q. Th e v al u e o f Qdiv ided b y c o m p r esso r
sp eed giv es th e v al u e Q/ N . Sinc e in a giv en c o m p r esso r
th e su r ge p o int is so m ew h at c o nstant f o r a c er tain v al u e
o f th e p ar am eter Q/ N , th e u se o f a signal b ased o n th is
c o nstr aint inp u tted into th e c o ntr o l l er 2 0 o f f er s signi?
c ant adv antages o v er th e r el ativ el y c o m p l ex c o ntr o l
sc h em es c u r r entl y in u se. In additio n, th e m easu r ed
so nic v el o c ity c an al so b e u sed to b ias th e Q/ N set p o int
at su r ge to m ak e th e dev ic e ev en m o r e p r ec ise in c o r
r ec ting f o r c h anges in gas p r o p er ties.
An ac o u stic ?o w m eter u sef u l in th e p r ac tic e o f th is
inv entio n is m anu f ac tu r ed and m ar k eted b y Panam et
r ic s, o f 2 2 l Cr esc ent Str eet, Wal th am , MA 0 2 2 5 4 , v iz.
th e Panam etr ic s Mo del 7 1 0 0 Ul tr aso nic Gas Fl o w Me
ter . A su itab l e gas f l o w m eter o f th is typ e is disc l o sed in
ap p l ic atio n Ser . N o . 5 1 8 , 4 4 4 , f il ed J u l y 2 9 , 1 9 8 3, b y J ac k
W. Sm al l ing, L eo nar d D. B r asw el l , and L aw r enc e C.
L ynnw o r th titl ed Ap p ar atu s And Meth o ds Fo r Measu r
ing Gas Fl o w Par am eter s, sp ec i?c r ef er enc e b eing m ade
to Page 1 5 , b eginning at l ine 9 , and c o ntinu ing th r o u gh
Page 4 3, and to FIGS. 2 th r o u gh 1 8 , h er ew ith inc o r p o
r ated b y r ef er enc e. [ Ref er to US. Pat. N o . 4 , 5 9 6 , 1 33,
w h ic h issu ed o n J u ne 2 4 , 1 9 8 6 to Sm al l ing et al . , sp ec i?c
r ef er enc e b eing m ade to th e desc r ip tiv e m ater ial at
Co l u m ns 7 to 2 1 , and to th e dr aw ings ( FIGS. 1 to 1 8 )
h er ew ith inc o r p o r ated and m ade p ar t o f th e p r esent
ap p l ic atio n] Th e Panam etr ic Mo del 7 1 0 0 is no r m al l y
h o u sed in a N EMA 4 enc l o su r e ( l 2 "> < 1 5 "> < 6 ") and
r eq u ir es 1 0 0 to 2 4 0 V AC; 5 0 / 6 0 Hz. Ou tp u ts inc l u de
l o c al digital disp l ay o f u ser desir ed u nits, and u p to th r ee
r ec o r der o u tp u ts ( 4 - 2 0 m A) f o r f l o w v el o c ity, so u nd
sp eed and m o l ec u l ar w eigh t ( assu m ing Cp / Cv , z ar e
k no w n) . Al ar m s ar e av ail ab l e f o r instr u m ent f ail u r e,
f l o w dir ec tio n and f l o w r ate.
Th e ac o u stic p r o b es ar e attac h ed to g inc h diam eter ,
th ic k w al l , stainl ess steel tu b es w h ic h ar e inser ted in a l
4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
7
inc h stainl ess steel p ip e su p p o r t b ar r el and th r o u gh a
p ac k ing gl and into th e p ip el ine. V ar io u s p r o b e c o n?gu
r atio ns ar e av ail ab l e to ac c o m m o date sp ac e l im itatio ns,
b u t th e p r ef er r ed c o n?gu r atio n is a 4 5 diago nal at m id
r adiu s. Mo r e th an o ne so u r c e c an b e c o nnec ted to a
singl e instr u m ent if desir ed, h o w ev er c o ax ial w ir e
l ength s sh o u l d b e l im ited to 1 0 0 f eet and eac h instal l a
tio n sh o u l d h av e ap p r o x im atel y th e sam e ac o u stic p ath .
Ax ial f l o w l ength c an v ar y.
Again, sp ec i?c r ef er enc e is m ade to FIG. 3 w h ic h
dep ic ts a typ ic al instal l atio n o f an ac o u stic ?o w m eter
1 0 em p l o yed to r egu l ate a c entr if u gal c o m p r esso r 2 0 f o r
antisu r ge p r o tec tio n, as em p l o yed in th is inv entio n. In
o p er atio n, p r o c ess gas is p r o v ided to th e c o m p r esso r 2 0
v ia th e l ine 1 1 . Gas is disc h ar ged f r o m th e c o m p r esso r
2 0 v ia th e l ine 1 2 . Gas c an b e r ec yc l ed, if needed, f r o m
th e disc h ar ge side to th e inp u t side o f th e c o m p r esso r 2 0
v ia th e v al v ed l ine 1 4 , th e tw o ter m inal ends o f w h ic h
ar e adj o ined to l ines 1 1 , 1 2 , r esp ec tiv el y. Th is is ac c o m
p l ish ed b y o p ening th e r egu l ato r v al v e 1 3 to p er m it
f l o w o f gas f r o m th e disc h ar ge side o f th e c o m p r esso r
2 0 to th e su c tio n side o f th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 . Th e ac o u s
tic f l o w m eter 1 0 , instal l ed in l ine 1 1 at th e inl et side o f
th e c o m p r esso r 2 0 , p r ef er ab l y in a str aigh t sec tio n o f th e
l ine at l east ab o u t 1 0 p ip e diam eter s u p str eam o f th e
c o m p r esso r 2 0 , dir ec tl y m easu r es th e ACFM and inp u ts
th is v al u e to th e c o ntr o l l er 4 0 . Th is v al u e is c o u p l ed
w ith th e v al u e N , th e sp eed o f th e c o m p r esso r , to der iv e
th e Q/ N r atio . As dep ic ted b y r ef er enc e to FIG. 1 ,
w h en th e Q/ N v al u e ap p r o ac h es th e Q/ N v al u e at
su r ge, i. e. , th e ACFM at m inim u m ?o w p o int at sp eed
N , b y m o v em ent to th e l ef t o f th e Q/ N set p o int th e
c o ntr o l l er 4 0 , th r o u gh el ec tr o nic c ir c u itr y, o p ens th e
r egu l ato r v al v e 1 3 to p er m it ?o w o f gas th r o u gh r ec y
c l e l ine 1 4 f r o m th e o u tp u t side to th e inl et side o f th e
c o m p r esso r . Wh en th e c o m p r esso r c ir c u it h as b een
r estab il ized, and th e Q/ N v al u e m o v ed b ac k to th e
desir ed set p o int th e r ec yc l e l ine 1 4 is c l o sed b y ac tio n
o f th e c o ntr o l l er 4 0 . In additio n, if desir ed, inter nal
b iasing o f th e set p o int c an al so b e m ade b y th e c o ntr o l
l er 4 0 to c o r r ec t f o r th o se sm al l c h anges in Q/ N at su r ge
asso c iated w ith l ar ge c h anges in gas c o m p o sitio n, th is
b eing v ia th e m easu r ed so nic v el o c ity, a p ar am eter
gener ated c h ar ac ter istic o f th e ac o u stic ?o w m eter .
It is ap p ar ent th at v ar io u s m o di?c atio ns and c h anges
c an b e m ade w ith o u t dep ar ting th e sp ir it and sc o p e o f
th is inv entio n.
Hav ing desc r ib ed th e inv entio n, w h at is c l aim ed is:
1 . In a m eth o d f o r c o ntr o l l ing a c o m p r esso r in w h ic h
a c o ntr o l v al v e is em p l o yed in an el ec tr o nic c ir c u it to
c o ntr o l th e r ec yc l e o f gas f r o m th e disc h ar ge o u tl et to
th e su c tio n inl et to th e c o m p r esso r , th e step s o f :
m easu r ing th e so nic v el o c ity, th at is th e sp eed o f
so u nd in th e gas, and th e r ate o f v o l u m etr ic f l o w ,
Q, o f gas th r o u gh said o p er ating c o m p r esso r ,
m easu r ing th e r ate o f sp eed, N , o f said o p er ating
c o m p r esso r ,
estab l ish ing a Q/ N r atio f r o m th e v al u es Qand N
gener ated b y th e o p er ating c o m p r esso r ,
estab l ish ing a set p o int Q/ N r atio b ased o n a r ate o f
gas f l o w ab o v e w h ic h c o m p r esso r su r ge c an o c c u r ,
and
c o m p ar ing th e Q/ N r atio o f th e o p er ating c o m p r es
so r w ith th e Q/ N set p o int r atio su c h th at a m ea
su r ed Q/ N r atio in th e dir ec tio n o f a l o w er gas f l o w
w il l o p en th e c o ntr o l v al v e and p er m it th e f l o w o f
r ec yc l e gas f r o m th e disc h ar ge o u tl et o f th e c o m
p r esso r to th e su c tio n inl et o f th e c o m p r esso r , and
0
1 5
2 5
4 5
6 5
8
r etu r n o f th e Q/ N r atio o f th e o p er ating c o m p r es
so r to th e set p o int Q/ N r atio w il l c l o se th e c o ntr o l
v al v e to c u t o f f th e f l o w o f r ec yc l e gas, w h er ein th e
Q/ N set p o int r atio is c o nstantl y r ede?ned b ased o n
m easu r ed gas so nic v el o c ity du r ing o p er atio n o f
th e c o m p r esso r .
2 . Th e m eth o d o f c l aim 1 w h er ein th e r ate o f v o l u
m etr ic ?o w Qo f gas th r o u gh th e o p er ating c o m p r esso r
is estab l ish ed b y dir ec t m easu r em ent o f th e ab so l u te
v el o c ity o f th e gas.
3. Th e m eth o d o f c l aim 2 w h er ein th e v al u e m easu r ed
f o r th e so nic v el o c ity o f th e gas is dir ec tl y u sed f o r
c o ntr o l o f th e c o ntr o l v al v e.
4 . Th e m eth o d o f c l aim 1 , w h er ein th e so nic v el o c ity
is m easu r ed w ith an ac o u stic f l o w m eter .
5 . Th e m eth o d o f c l aim 1 , w h er ein th e so nic m easu r
ing dev ic e is u sed in c o nj u nc tio n w ith a no n- ac o u stic
f l o w m eter .
6 . In ap p ar atu s f o r o p er ating a c o m p r esso r to av o id
su r ges w h er ein is inc l u ded,
a c o m p r esso r th r o u gh w h ic h a gas is ?o w ed w h ic h
h as a su c tio n inl et f o r th e intr o du c tio n o f a gas into
said c o m p r esso r , f o r c o m p r essio n, and a disc h ar ge
o u tl et f o r th e r em o v al o f c o m p r essed gas f r o m said
c o m p r esso r ,
a ?r st l ine f o r su p p l ying a gas to th e su c tio n inl et o f
said c o m p r esso r ,
a sec o nd l ine f o r c o m p r essed gas f r o m th e disc h ar ge
o u tl et o f said c o m p r esso r ,
a b yp ass l ine c o nnec ting said ?r st l ine and said sec o nd
l ine th r o u gh w h ic h gas ?o w th r o u gh said c o m p r es
so r to said c o m p r esso r disc h ar ge o u tl et c an b e
r ec yc l ed to said c o m p r esso r su c tio n inl et,
a c o ntr o l v al v e l o c ated in said b yp ass l ine w h ic h c an
b e o p ened to r ec yc l e gas f r o m said c o m p r esso r
disc h ar ge o u tl et to said c o m p r esso r su c tio n inl et,
and c l o sed to r ec yc l e gas f r o m said c o m p r esso r
disc h ar ge o u tl et to said c o m p r esso r su c tio n inl et,
an el ec tr o nic c ir c u it o p er ativ el y asso c iated w ith said
c o ntr o l v al v e o f said b yp ass l ine f o r o p ening and
c l o sing said c o ntr o l v al v e in r esp o nse to an el ec
tr o nic signal ,
a c o ntr o l l er o p er ativ el y asso c iated w ith said el ec
tr o nic c ir c u it f o r r egu l ating and c o ntr o l v al v e b y
o p ening and c l o sing sam e, r esp o nsiv e to m eans f o r
p r o du c ing a signal r ep r esentativ e o f th e ?o w r ate
o f gas th r o u gh said c o m p r esso r o n c o m p ar iso n
w ith a set p o int r ep r esentativ e o f a gas r ate m ini
m u m l im it b el o w w h ic h su r ge c an o c c u r ,
th e im p r o v ed c o m b inatio n w h ic h f u r th er inc l u des,
a f l o w m eter l o c ated in a c o ndu it o f said c o m p r esso r
th r o u gh w h ic h gas is p assed to dir ec tl y m easu r e th e
ab so l u te and so nic v el o c ity, th at is th e sp eed o f
so u nd in th e gas, and r ate o f f l o w , Q, o f gas th r o u gh
said c o m p r esso r , and inp u t said v al u e o f Qto th e
c o ntr o l l er ,
a m eans asso c iated w ith said c o m p r esso r f o r m easu r
ing th e r ate o f sp eed, N , o f th e c o m p r esso r and
inp u tting said v al u e to th e c o ntr o l l er ,
w h er eb y th e c o ntr o l l er c o m p u tes th e Q/ N r atio o f
th e o p er ating c o m p r esso r and c o m p ar es th is v al u e
w ith a set p o int Q/ N r atio r ep r esentativ e o f a gas
?o w r ate m inim u m b el o w w h ic h su r ge c an o c c u r
to o p en th e v al v e o f th e b yp ass l ine w h en th e Q/ N
r atio o f th e o p er ating c o m p r esso r m o v es b el o w th e
set p o int Q/ N r atio in th e dir ec tio n o f su r ge, and
c l o se th e v al v e o f th e b yp ass l ine w h en th e Q/ N
r atio o f th e o p er ating c o m p r esso r r etu r ns ab o v e th e
4 , 9 7 1 , 5 1 6
9 1 0
5 et_ P_ im Q/ N r atio and w h er eb y th e Q/ N Set Po int m eter is l o c ated in th e o u tl et l ine w h ic h tr ansp o r ts c o m
r atio 1 s c o nstantl y r ede?ned b ased o n th e m easu r ed p r essed gas f r o m th e disah ar g6 o f th e c o m p r esso r _
so m e V el o c ity o f th e gas du nng Op er atl o n o f th e 9 . Th e ap p ar atu s o f c l aim 8 w h er ein th e c o m p r esso r is
c o m p r esso r . . a1 H
7 . Th e ap p ar atu s o f c l aim 6 , w h er ein said f l o w m eter 5 an an o w c o m p r esso r
is an ac o u stic ?o w ?o w m eter l o c ated in th e inl et l ine _ 1 0 ' Th ? ap p ar atu s o f Cl aim 8 w h er ein th e c o m p r esso r
w h ic h su p p l ies gas to th e su c tio n o f th e c o m p r esso r . 1 5 a c entl ' l f u gal ?o w Co m p r esso r
8 . Th e ap p ar atu s o f c l aim 6 w h er ein th e ac o u stic ?o w * * * * *
1 5
2 5
35
4 5
5 5
6 5

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