Unit 2

The concept of Best Fit Employee Human Resource Forecasting

Human Resource Forecasting It is the process by which an organization estimates its future HR needs. It consists of forecasting HR demands and HR supplies. HR Forecasting = Forecasting HR demands + Forecasting HR Supplies Three ranges of HR Forecasting HR forecasting may be categorized into three, based on the time frame as: Short range forecasting (0-2 Years) Intermediate range forecasting (2-5 years) Long range forecasting (beyond 5 years) HR Forecasting Techniques HR forecasts are attempts to predict an organization s future demand for employees. The models for forecasting HR range from a manager s best guess to a complex computer simulation. Simple models may be accurate in certain instances but complex models may be necessary in others. Forecasting HR Requirements (Forecasting HR Demands) An organization s future demand for people is central to HR planning. A variety of forecasting methods can determine an organization s demand for HR. The type of forecast used depends on the time frame, and the type of organization its size and dispersion, and the accuracy and certainty of available information. Causes of demand External challenges: Economical, social political- legal, &Technological challenges & competitors. Organizational decisions: Strategic plans, Budgets, Sales and production forecasts, new ventures, Organization and job design. Work force factors: Retirements, resignations, terminations, death, Leave of absence. Types of demand forecasting techniques Demand forecasting can be divided into two categories: I. Judgmental Forecasts Bottom up or unit forecasting, Top down forecasting, Delphi technique, Nominal group technique.
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Statistical techniques: Regression analysis, Productivity ratio, Personnel ratio, Time series analysis, Stochastic analysis

I. Judgmental Forecasts 1. Bottom up or unit forecasting Simplest judgmental technique Each unit/dept. or Branch estimates its own future need for employees. Managers receive some guidance or information which they combine with their own perspectives to reach the estimates. The sum of estimated unit needs is the demand forecast for the whole organization. The estimates are approved by the next level of management and then forwarded to HR planning groups which integrates them into an organization wide forecast.

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2. Top down Forecasting: Estimates are made by top management and executives. These people meet to discuss how trends, business plans, the economy and other factors affect he need for HR at various levels. Besides predicting the most likely future demand these experts may also make separate forecasts based on best and worst scenarios. The success of these estimates depends on the quality of the information provided to the experts. 3. Delphi Technique: One of the highly structured judgmental method of expert forecasting used to achieve group consensus on a forecast. In this technique experts do not meet face to face. An anonymous questionnaire is developed that asks the experts for an opinion and why they hold that opinion. The results are compiled and returned to the experts along with a second anonymous questionnaire. In this way the experts can learn from each other and modify their positions in the second questionnaire. The process continues till they come to a judgment. Merits: The Delphi technique improves the quality of decision making by minimizing disrupting personality conflicts and preventing the loudest group member from dominating the decision making process. Limitations: This method is not appropriate if results are needed quickly. Many practical difficulties in integrating expert s opinion. 4. Nominal Group technique: Several people sit together and independently list their ideas on a sheet of paper. The ideas presented are recorded on a larger sheet of paper so that every one can see all the ideas. The group s ideas are then discussed and ranked by having each member of the group vote for three to five most important ones. Though both Delphi technique and NGT are simpler in process, Delphi is more frequently used to generate predictions and NGT is used to identify current organizational problems and solutions to those problems .Both are commonly used in practice. II. Statistical Techniques: The most commonly employed statistical procedures are: Regression analysis 1. Simple linear regression analysis 2. Multiple linear regression analysis Productivity ratio Personnel ratios Time series analysis Stochastic analysis Forecasting Human Resource Supplies Though forecasted supply can be derived from both internal and external sources of information the internal source is most crucial and the most available.

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Types of forecasting techniques: I. Judgmental Forecasts: Replacement analysis, Succession analysis II. Statistical Techniques: Markov Analysis, Goal Programming. 1. Replacement Analysis: Uses replacement charts. They are visual representation of who will replace whom in the event of a job opening. They are developed to show the names of the current occupants of the positions and the names of likely replacements. It will provide the organization with a good estimate of what jobs are likely to become vacant and indicate if anyone is ready to fill the vacancy. 2. Succession Analysis: It is similar to replacement except that it is for a longer term and more developmental and tends to offer greater flexibility. 3. Markov Analysis: Simple way of predicting the internal supply of labour at a future time. It includes Transition Matrix .It shows the probability of employees staying in his present jobs , moving from one position to another, or leaving the organization for the forecast time period. When this matrix is multiplied by the number of people beginning the year in each job the results show how many people are expected to be in each job by the end of the year. It can identify the Attrition rate, but it can not suggest any solution. 4. Goal Programming: It is an extension of Markov analysis. The objective is to optimize goals, i.e. a desired staffing pattern given a set of constraints like the percentage of new recruits, total salary budget etc.

Job Analysis, Job and Position Job analysis: Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization Job: Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position: Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Questions Job Analysis Should Answer What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish? When does the job have to be completed? Where is the job to be accomplished? How does the worker do the job? Why is the job done? What qualifications are needed to perform the job? When Job Analysis Is Performed When the organization is founded When new jobs are created When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems Job Descriptions/Specifications Job description: A document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job Job specification: Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess in order to perform a particular job

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Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis Staffing Training and Development Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labour Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams Historically, companies established permanent jobs and filled these jobs with people who best fit the job description In some firms today, people are being hired and paid on a project basis Today whenever someone asks "What is your job description?" the reply might well be "Whatever." Types of Job Analysis Information Work activities Worker-oriented activities Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles Work performance Job content Personal requirements for the job Job Analysis Methods Questionnaires Observation Interviews Employee recording Combination of methods Conducting Job Analysis Interested in gathering data regarding what is involved in performing a particular job People who participate in job analysis People who participate in job analysis should include (at a minimum) Employee Employee s immediate supervisor Job analyst Consultants Items Typically Included in Job Descriptions Major duties performed Percentage of time devoted to each duty Performance standards to be achieved Working conditions and possible hazards Number of employees performing the job and who they report to The machines and equipment used on the job Job Description Job Identification Date of the Job Analysis Job Summary Duties Performed Job Specification

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Job Specification Minimum Acceptable Qualifications: Educational Requirements Experience Personality Traits Physical Abilities The Expanded Job Description Jobs are changing Jobs are getting bigger Jobs are getting more complex Changes the way virtually every HR function is performed Timeliness of Job Analysis Need for accurate job analysis is important Must be kept relevant Strategic Planning The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved Human Resource Planning The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees, with the required skills are available in the right places and the right time that are capable of efficiently and effectively performing assigned tasks. Human Resource Planning It is the process used by organizations to: Analyze anticipated events in their internal and external environments and assess their HR implications. Formulate action plans that will if properly implemented contribute to future organizational success through improved HRM. Importance of Human Resource Planning It integrates the organization s overall planning with the personnel function. It is important to ensure that organizations fulfil their business plans. Changes in the dynamic environment require HRP as they make it more difficult for the organization to effectively manage human resources. Purpose of Human Resource Planning Improve the utilization of HR Match HR related activities and future organization objectives efficiently. Achieve economies in hiring new workers. It reduces personnel costs. Provide a better basis for employee development Expand HR activities Coordinate HRM programs Make major demands on local labour markets Promote greater awareness of the importance of sound HRM at all levels of organization

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Process of Human Resource Planning Collect information from external and internal environment. Forecast demand for HR Forecast supply for HR Identify HR gap Action plans Roadblocks to Human Resource Planning Lack of top management support Lack of involvement from line managers Inefficient and inaccurate information system Resistance from employees and trade unions Uncertainties in external, organizational and workforce factors Considering HRP as time consuming and expensive process Difficulty in obtaining integration with other personnel activities Surplus of Employees Restricted hiring Reduced hours Early retirement Layoffs Shortage of Workers Forecasted Creative recruiting Compensation incentives Training programs Different selection standards

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Succession Planning and Development Succession planning: Process of ensuring that the qualified person is available to assume a managerial position once a position is vacant. Succession development: Process of determining a comprehensive job profile of key positions and then ensuring that key prospects are properly developed to match these qualifications. Job Design Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization Job enrichment: Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker Job enlargement: Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker Total Quality Management A commitment to excellence by everyone in an organization that emphasizes excellence achieved by teamwork and a process of continuous improvement. Re-engineering The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.

Selection and Socialization
Selection The process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and an organization. Goal of the selection process is to properly match people with jobs and the organization. Individuals overqualified, under qualified, or do not fit either the job or the organization s culture, will probably leave the firm. Purpose & importance of Selection To evaluate, hire and place job applicants in the best interests of both the organization and the individual in the fair manner. To contribute to the organizations bottom-line through efficient and effective production. To ensure organization s financial investments through employee payoff. To enable organizations to fulfill their strategies. Inputs to Selection Job Analysis Human Resource Plans Recruits These three inputs largely determine the effectiveness of the selection process. Orientation, training, development, career planning, performance evaluation, compensation, are the outputs

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Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process Nature of the organization Nature of the labor market Union requirement Government requirement Composition of labor force Location of the organization Selection Ratio: The number of people hired for a particular job compared to the individuals in the applicant pool A selection ratio of 1.00 indicates that there is only one qualified applicant for each position A selection ratio of 0.10 indicates that there are ten qualified applicants for each position The Selection Process Reception of applicants Initial screening Application blanks Selection tests Employment interviews Reference and background checks Physical examination Selection decision

Reception of applicants The selection process is a two way street. The organization selects employers and the organization selects employees. The applicant pool built up through recruitment process I the base for selection process. The objective of recruitment is to attract more applicants so that there are more options available at the selection stage. Initial Screening The actual selection process starts with the preliminary screening. The main purpose is pre-selection and the elimination of applicants who are not qualified for the job. The procedure has two steps. 1. Screening enquiries: Some applicants can be eliminated based on job description and job specification. Reasons for elimination can be inadequate/inappropriate experience, gaps in job history, inappropriate education. 2. Screening interviews Application Blanks The next step is to request the applicants who were successful in the initial screening to complete an application blank/form. It is form that is completed by the applicant providing complete information about him. It is highly structured in which questions are standardized and determined in advance. This information gives an indication of an applicant s suitability for a job. Employment tests It is an instrument which attempts to measure certain characteristic of individual. These characteristic ranges from manual dexterity to intelligence to personality. It is frequently used to help identify the candidates with the greatest potential for success

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on the job. The purpose is mainly to predict job success among number of applicants. It is another screening tool used to gain additional information about candidates. They assess the match between applicants and job requirements. It is also used for selecting employees for promotion.

Advantages of Selection Tests Reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates Identify attitudes and job-related skills Deficiencies in other techniques Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests Standardization - Uniformity of the procedures and conditions Objectivity - Everyone scoring a test obtains the same results Norms - Frame of reference for comparing an applicant's performance with that of others Reliability - Provides consistent results Validity - Measures what it is supposed to measure

Types of Validation Studies Criterion-related validity: Comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance Concurrent validity: Test scores and the criterion data are obtained at essentially the same time Predictive validity: Administering a test and later obtaining the criterion information Content validity: Test validation method whereby a person performs certain tasks that are actually required by the job or completes a paper and pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge Construct validity: Test validation method that determines whether a test measures certain traits or qualities that are important in performing the job Types of employment / selection tests Psychological Tests: Intelligence tests, Aptitude test, personality tests, Interest tests, situational tests. Performance simulation tests: Work sampling, assessment centers. Types of Employment Tests Aptitude- cognitive, mechanical Job Knowledge Work-sample (simulation) Occupational interests Personality Assessment Centers Situational tests

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Aptitude Tests Aptitude tests measure whether an individual has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if he is given adequate training. The use of test is advisable when the applicant has had little or no experience along the lines of the job opening. Aptitude test includes - General reasoning ability - Memory - Vocabulary - Verbal fluency - Numerical ability - Mechanical aptitude tests, psychomotor or skill tests, clerical aptitude test Job Knowledge Tests Measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the position for which he or she is applying Are commercially available Work-Sample (Simulation) Tests that require an applicant to perform a task or set of tasks representative of the job Such tests by their nature are job related Advantages: Produces a high predictive validity, reduces adverse impact, and is more acceptable to applicants, minimizes discrimination. Disadvantages: very difficult to develop good work samples, it is not applicable to all levels of the organization; it is not suitable for managerial jobs. Occupational Interests Indicate the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to be satisfied with They are designed to find out the interest of an applicant in the job he has applied for Primary use has been in counseling and vocational guidance Personality Tests They refer to the unique blend of characteristics that define an individual and determine his pattern of interaction with the environment. They measure the basic aspects of personality such as motivation, introversion-extroversion, self confidence, sociability etc. Two types of personality tests are objective tests and projective tests. Situational Tests It evaluates individuals in a real life situation by asking them to cope with or solve critical elements of a real job. They are real combination tests representing elements of achievement of intelligence, aptitude and personality. E.g. group discussion, in basket test- simulates key aspects of a job. Assessment centers They are designed to measure candidates managerial potential by observing his or her performance in experimental exercise that simulates managerial work. It is a 2 or 3 day experience in which candidates perform realistic management tasks under expert guidance. Their potential is thereby assessed.

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Advantages: useful for predicting success in management positions, minimizes the bias with other selection tools, it measures key variables like leadership initiative and supervisory skills which can not be measured with other tests, used effectively I many organizations. Disadvantages: Very expensive ways of hiring people, some managers use it as a way to avoid difficult decisions. The Employment Interview Most universally used selection tool Goal-oriented conversation in which interviewer and applicant exchange information Interview planning Content of the interview Interview Planning Compare application and resume with job requirements Develop questions related to qualities sought Step-by-step plan to present position, company, division, and department Determine how to ask for examples of past applicant behavior, not what future behavior might be Content of the Interview Occupational experience Academic achievement Interpersonal skills Personal qualities Organizational fit Candidate s objectives

Types of Interviews Unstructured (nondirective) Structured (directive or patterned) Problem solving Stress Mixed Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview Asks probing, open-ended questions Encourages applicant to do much of the talking Often time-consuming Different information from different candidates Structured (Directive or Patterned) Interview Situational questions Job knowledge questions Job-sample simulation questions Worker requirements questions Behavior Description Interview Find knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors important for job success Determine which behavioral questions to ask about particular job to elicit desired behaviors Develop structured format tailored for each job Set benchmark responses - examples of good, average and bad answers Train interviewers

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Problem solving interview It focuses on a problem or series of problems that an applicant is expected to solve. Often these are hypothetical situations and the applicant is asked what should b done. Both the answer and the approach is used by the applicant is evaluated. This technique has a narrow scope. Stress interview It is a special type of interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on the applicant to see how the person responds. The interview consists of a series of harsh questions asked in rapid succession and in an un friendly manner. Since stress full situations are usually only part of the job this technique should be used in connection with other interview formats. Methods of Interviewing One-on-one interview - Applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewer Group interview - Several applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representatives Board interview - Several of the firm s representatives interview one candidate Potential Interviewing Problems Inappropriate questions Premature/snap judgments Interviewer domination Inconsistent questions Central tendency Halo error Contrast effect Interviewer bias Lack of training Nonverbal communication Stereotypes Personal Reference Checks Provides additional insight into applicant information Verification of accuracy Applicant often required to provide names of several references More emphasis on previous employment investigations Professional References and Background Investigations Previous employment Education verification Personal reference check Criminal history Driving record Civil litigation Workers compensation history Credit history Medical Examination Physical ability tests are designed to measure physical agility, hand to eye coordination, as well as general or specific physical ability. Due to high costs the medical examination is often one of the final steps in the selection process. Many organizations give common physical exams to all job applicants whereas special exams are given to only a subset of all applicants.

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Guidelines for assessing physical abilities have been developed that detail the sensory, perceptual, cognitive physical requirements of most jobs. 9 Police, firefighting etc) .When applied carefully these requirements are extremely useful in predicting job performance, worker s compensation claims, and absenteeism. The commonly used tests are: Strength and fitness testing, drug tests, genetic screening, medical screening, lie detector test, honesty test etc. Negligent Hiring and Retention Negligent Hiring - Liability employer incurs when no reasonable investigation of applicant s background is made and potentially dangerous person is assigned to position where he or she can inflict harm Negligent Retention - Keeping persons on payroll whose records indicate strong potential for wrongdoing Employer responsible for actions outside scope of employees duties The Selection Decision Most critical step of all Person whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open position should be selected Notification to Candidates Results should be made known to candidates as soon as possible Delay may result in firm losing prime candidate

Socialization Socialization may be defined as a process of adaptation to a new culture of the organization. It is a process of indoctrinating the new employees with the organization culture. The organization takes steps to get them adapt to its existing culture. It socializes the new employees and moulds them to accept its standards and norms. Unsuccessful candidates should also be promptly notified Through this process employees are able to understand the basic values, norms and customs for becoming accepted members of the organization and assuming organizational roles. People who do not learn to adjust with the culture of the organization are labeled as rebels and non conformists and may be turned out of the organization. It performs two functions: 1. It creates uniform behavior in members increases understanding reduces conflicts etc. 2. It reduces ambiguity of the employees as they will come to know what is expected of them. Maannen & Schein have conceptualized three stages in the process of socialization: Prearrival: It denotes the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new worker joins the organization. The new worker has a set of values, beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Such factors must be taken care at the selection stage itself. Only those people should be selected who might be able to fit in the organizations culture. The candidates should be told about the organization culture during selection process in order to avoid wrong selection.

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Encounter: The new employee enters this stage when he joins the organization. He comes to know what the organization is like and may find divergence between his expectations and those of the organization. In such case he must undergo socialization that will detach him from his previous notions and assumptions about the organization and make him learn another set the organization deems desirable. If he is not able to change his expectations and adapt himself to the organization he might have to leave the organization Metamorphosis: The real transformation in the new employee takes adapts to his workgroup s values and norms and becomes comfortable with the organization and his job. His internalization of organization s culture wins him acceptability among his colleagues and creates confidence as a result he feels committed to the organization.

Recruitment:
Recruitment: The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization. Purpose of Recruitment: To determine the organization s present and future recruitment needs in conjunction with HR planning & job analysis. To increase the pool of qualified job applicants at minimum cost. To help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of overqualified and under qualified applicants. To help reduce the probability that applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization after a short time. To increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short and long run. To evaluate the effectiveness of various recruitment techniques. Importance of Recruitment: Determining the organizations long and short range needs by job title and levels in the organization. Staying informed of job market conditions. Developing effective recruitment material. Obtaining a pool of qualified applicants. Developing a systematic program of recruitment in conjunction with other HR activities Recording the number and quality of job applicants produced by various sources and methods of recruiting. Following up on applicants those hired and not hired in order to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment effort. Accomplishing all of these activities within a legal context. Factors influencing recruitment Effort External Factors Labour market Govt. Policy

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Trade Unions Composition of labour force Location of organization Alternatives to Recruitment Outsourcing Transfers responsibility to an external provider Provides greater efficiency and effectiveness Contingent/Temporary Workers Part-timers, temporaries, and independent contractors Staffing companies or independent contractors Fast growing Provides greater flexibility and lower labour costs Human equivalent of just-in-time inventory Employee Leasing Off-site human resources department Puts business owner s employees on their payroll Leases employees back to company Charge from 1-4% Small- and medium-sized firms Opportunities for job mobility Loss of employee loyalty Overtime Most commonly used method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work volume Employer avoids recruitment, selection, and training costs Employees gain from increased income Potential problems De Recruitment: It is the process of reducing the labour supply within an organization. The various de recruitment options available are: Firing, Layoffs, Transfers, Reduced work weeks, Early retirements, Job sharing. The Recruitment Process: Determining the need Obtain Approval Determine the KRA S of the job Consult the recruitment policy and procedure. Choose the recruitment source Decide on the recruitment method Implement the decision Allow sufficient time for response Screen responses Draw up a shortlist of candidates Provide feedback to applicants Proceed to selection Evaluate recruitment effort Realistic Job Preview (RJP) It is the description provided by the organization to applicants and new employees that gives both the positive and negative aspects of the job.

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It improves the recruitment process by giving pertinent and realistic information about the job to applicants so that he can choose and select jobs for which he or she is better suited. It helps to achieve job satisfaction and improve performance in the long run. Methods Used in Internal Recruiting Skill Inventories It is a computerized system designed to keep track of employees experience education and abilities. The organization can search the files for potential qualified candidates for position vacancies. Identified candidates are asked whether or not they wish to apply. It should be used in conjugation with job posting to ensure that openings are known to all applicants. Job Posting & Job Bidding The employees nominate themselves if they are interested in being considered for an opening. They can be notified of all job vacancies by posting notices or some way of inviting employees to apply for job. The job postings describe the job, locations, Pay, qualifications and encourage employees to apply. Inside Moon Lighting In case of a short term need or a small job which does nor require a great deal of additional work the organization could offer to pay bonuses of various types to people not on time payment. This type of internal recruitment is called Inside Moonlighting. External Sources of Recruitment Advertisements - Want Ads Blind Ads Special Event recruiting Tele-recruiting Posters Door hangers Bill boards Hotlines Information seminars Colleges and Universities Professional, technical, and management employees Placement directors, faculty, and administrators Competitors and Other Firms Five percent of working population is either actively seeking or receptive to change Smaller firms look for employees trained by larger organizations Older Individuals Valuable source of employees Perform some jobs extremely well Good work habits Lower absenteeism rates Higher levels of commitment External Recruitment Methods Advertising Communicates firm s employment needs

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Should indicate how to respond Previous experience with various media suggest the approach taken Certain media attract more homogeneous audiences Professional groups publish journals Employment Agencies - Private and Public Help firms recruit employees and aid individuals to locate jobs Best known for recruiting white-collar employees One-time fee may discourage candidate Some private agencies deal primarily with firms that pay fee Each state operates public employment agencies Receive overall policy direction from the U.S. Employment Service Public employment agencies best known for recruiting and placing individuals in operative jobs Recruiters Used with technical, vocational, community colleges, colleges and universities On-campus recruiting is number one method for snaring students Director of Student Placement is key campus contact Company recruiter plays vital role Videoconferencing system used Special Events A single employer or group of employers attempt to attract a large number of applicants for interviews Meet a large number of candidates in a short time Job fairs offer lower cost per hire than traditional approaches Internships Places student in a temporary job Used as a recruiting technique No obligation to hire student permanently or for student to accept a permanent position Typically a temporary job for summer or a part-time job during school year Students bridge gap from theory to practice Executive Search Firms Locate experienced professionals and executives Need specific types of individuals Sophisticated profession serving greatly expanded role Assist in determining HR needs, establishing compensation packages, and revising organizational structures Client pays expenses, as well as fee Professional Associations Recruitment and placement services for members Society for Human Resource Management operates job referral service Employee Referrals Important role in recruitment process Referrals better qualified and stay on job longer Recruit new hires through employee referral incentive programs

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Unsolicited Walk-In/Write In Applicants Reputation of being a good place to work attracts qualified prospects without extensive recruitment Well-qualified workers seek specific company Open Houses Pair potential hires and managers in warm, casual environment that encourages on-the-spot job offers Cheaper and faster than agencies May attract more unqualified candidates Event recruiting Opportunity to create image of company Attend events where recruits are likely to be

Virtual Job Fairs Students are interviewed face-to-face by recruiters using computers that use cameras to send head and-shoulder images Recruiters visit schools without leaving office Head Hunters Tailored to need each firm s needs Recruitment sources and methods vary according to position being filled Rehires / Recalls Analysis of recruitment procedures Utilization of minorities, women, and individuals with disabilities Advertising Employment agencies Other suggested approaches

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