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Unit 2 The concept of Best Fit Employee

Human Resource Forecasting


Human Resource Forecasting
It is the process by which an organization estimates its future HR needs.
It consists of forecasting HR demands and HR supplies.
HR Forecasting = Forecasting HR demands + Forecasting HR Supplies

Three ranges of HR Forecasting


HR forecasting may be categorized into three, based on the time frame as:
Short range forecasting (0-2 Years)
Intermediate range forecasting (2-5 years)
Long range forecasting (beyond 5 years)

HR Forecasting Techniques
HR forecasts are attempts to predict an organization s future demand for employees.
The models for forecasting HR range from a manager s best guess to a complex
computer simulation. Simple models may be accurate in certain instances but
complex models may be necessary in others.

Forecasting HR Requirements (Forecasting HR Demands)


An organization s future demand for people is central to HR planning. A variety of
forecasting methods can determine an organization s demand for HR.

The type of forecast used depends on the time frame, and the type of organization its
size and dispersion, and the accuracy and certainty of available information.

Causes of demand
External challenges: Economical, social political- legal, &Technological challenges &
competitors.
Organizational decisions: Strategic plans, Budgets, Sales and production forecasts,
new ventures, Organization and job design.
Work force factors: Retirements, resignations, terminations, death, Leave of
absence.

Types of demand forecasting techniques


Demand forecasting can be divided into two categories:
I. Judgmental Forecasts Bottom up or unit forecasting, Top down forecasting, Delphi
technique, Nominal group technique.

II. Statistical techniques: Regression analysis, Productivity ratio, Personnel ratio, Time
series analysis, Stochastic analysis

I. Judgmental Forecasts
1. Bottom up or unit forecasting
Simplest judgmental technique
Each unit/dept. or Branch estimates its own future need for employees. Managers
receive some guidance or information which they combine with their own
perspectives to reach the estimates.
The sum of estimated unit needs is the demand forecast for the whole organization.
The estimates are approved by the next level of management and then forwarded to
HR planning groups which integrates them into an organization wide forecast.

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2. Top down Forecasting:
Estimates are made by top management and executives.
These people meet to discuss how trends, business plans, the economy and other
factors affect he need for HR at various levels.
Besides predicting the most likely future demand these experts may also make
separate forecasts based on best and worst scenarios.
The success of these estimates depends on the quality of the information provided to
the experts.

3. Delphi Technique:
One of the highly structured judgmental method of expert forecasting used to achieve
group consensus on a forecast.
In this technique experts do not meet face to face.
An anonymous questionnaire is developed that asks the experts for an opinion and
why they hold that opinion. The results are compiled and returned to the experts
along with a second anonymous questionnaire. In this way the experts can learn from
each other and modify their positions in the second questionnaire. The process
continues till they come to a judgment.

Merits:
The Delphi technique improves the quality of decision making by minimizing
disrupting personality conflicts and preventing the loudest group member from
dominating the decision making process.

Limitations:
This method is not appropriate if results are needed quickly.
Many practical difficulties in integrating expert s opinion.

4. Nominal Group technique:


Several people sit together and independently list their ideas on a sheet of paper.
The ideas presented are recorded on a larger sheet of paper so that every one can
see all the ideas. The group s ideas are then discussed and ranked by having each
member of the group vote for three to five most important ones.

Though both Delphi technique and NGT are simpler in process, Delphi is more
frequently used to generate predictions and NGT is used to identify current
organizational problems and solutions to those problems .Both are commonly used in
practice.

II. Statistical Techniques:


The most commonly employed statistical procedures are:
Regression analysis
1. Simple linear regression analysis
2. Multiple linear regression analysis
Productivity ratio
Personnel ratios
Time series analysis
Stochastic analysis

Forecasting Human Resource Supplies


Though forecasted supply can be derived from both internal and external sources of
information the internal source is most crucial and the most available.

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Types of forecasting techniques:
I. Judgmental Forecasts: Replacement analysis, Succession analysis
II. Statistical Techniques: Markov Analysis, Goal Programming.

1. Replacement Analysis:
Uses replacement charts. They are visual representation of who will replace whom in
the event of a job opening. They are developed to show the names of the current
occupants of the positions and the names of likely replacements. It will provide the
organization with a good estimate of what jobs are likely to become vacant and
indicate if anyone is ready to fill the vacancy.

2. Succession Analysis:
It is similar to replacement except that it is for a longer term and more developmental
and tends to offer greater flexibility.

3. Markov Analysis:
Simple way of predicting the internal supply of labour at a future time. It includes
Transition Matrix .It shows the probability of employees staying in his present jobs ,
moving from one position to another, or leaving the organization for the forecast time
period. When this matrix is multiplied by the number of people beginning the year in
each job the results show how many people are expected to be in each job by the
end of the year. It can identify the Attrition rate, but it can not suggest any solution.

4. Goal Programming:
It is an extension of Markov analysis. The objective is to optimize goals, i.e. a desired
staffing pattern given a set of constraints like the percentage of new recruits, total
salary budget etc.

Job Analysis, Job and Position


Job analysis: Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge
required for performing jobs in an organization
Job: Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to
achieve its goals
Position: Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person

Questions Job Analysis Should Answer


What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?
When does the job have to be completed?
Where is the job to be accomplished?
How does the worker do the job?
Why is the job done?
What qualifications are needed to perform the job?

When Job Analysis Is Performed


When the organization is founded
When new jobs are created
When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods,
procedures, or systems

Job Descriptions/Specifications
Job description: A document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties,
and responsibilities of the job
Job specification: Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess
in order to perform a particular job

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Reasons for Conducting Job Analysis
Staffing
Training and Development
Compensation and Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labour Relations
Legal Considerations

Job Analysis for Teams


Historically, companies established permanent jobs and filled these jobs with people
who best fit the job description
In some firms today, people are being hired and paid on a project basis
Today whenever someone asks "What is your job description?" the reply might well
be "Whatever."

Types of Job Analysis Information


Work activities
Worker-oriented activities
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
Job-related tangibles and intangibles
Work performance
Job content
Personal requirements for the job

Job Analysis Methods


Questionnaires
Observation
Interviews
Employee recording
Combination of methods

Conducting Job Analysis


Interested in gathering data regarding what is involved in performing a particular job
People who participate in job analysis

People who participate in job analysis should include (at a minimum)


Employee
Employee s immediate supervisor
Job analyst
Consultants

Items Typically Included in Job Descriptions


Major duties performed
Percentage of time devoted to each duty
Performance standards to be achieved
Working conditions and possible hazards
Number of employees performing the job and who they report to
The machines and equipment used on the job

Job Description
Job Identification
Date of the Job Analysis
Job Summary
Duties Performed
Job Specification

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Job Specification
Minimum Acceptable Qualifications:
Educational Requirements
Experience
Personality Traits
Physical Abilities

The Expanded Job Description


Jobs are changing
Jobs are getting bigger
Jobs are getting more complex
Changes the way virtually every HR function is performed

Timeliness of Job Analysis


Need for accurate job analysis is important
Must be kept relevant

Strategic Planning
The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes
and objectives and how they are to be achieved

Human Resource Planning


The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required
numbers of employees, with the required skills are available in the right places and
the right time that are capable of efficiently and effectively performing assigned tasks.

Human Resource Planning


It is the process used by organizations to:
Analyze anticipated events in their internal and external environments and assess
their HR implications.
Formulate action plans that will if properly implemented contribute to future
organizational success through improved HRM.

Importance of Human Resource Planning


It integrates the organization s overall planning with the personnel function.
It is important to ensure that organizations fulfil their business plans.
Changes in the dynamic environment require HRP as they make it more difficult for
the organization to effectively manage human resources.

Purpose of Human Resource Planning


Improve the utilization of HR
Match HR related activities and future organization objectives efficiently.
Achieve economies in hiring new workers. It reduces personnel costs.
Provide a better basis for employee development
Expand HR activities
Coordinate HRM programs
Make major demands on local labour markets
Promote greater awareness of the importance of sound HRM at all levels of
organization

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Process of Human Resource Planning
Collect information from external and internal environment.
Forecast demand for HR
Forecast supply for HR
Identify HR gap
Action plans

Roadblocks to Human Resource Planning


Lack of top management support
Lack of involvement from line managers
Inefficient and inaccurate information system
Resistance from employees and trade unions
Uncertainties in external, organizational and workforce factors
Considering HRP as time consuming and expensive process
Difficulty in obtaining integration with other personnel activities

Surplus of Employees
Restricted hiring
Reduced hours
Early retirement
Layoffs

Shortage of Workers Forecasted


Creative recruiting
Compensation incentives
Training programs
Different selection standards

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Succession Planning and Development
Succession planning: Process of ensuring that the qualified person is available to assume
a managerial position once a position is vacant.

Succession development: Process of determining a comprehensive job profile of key


positions and then ensuring that key prospects are properly developed to match these
qualifications.

Job Design
Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in
performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization
Job enrichment: Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so
as to provide greater challenge to the worker
Job enlargement: Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the
worker

Total Quality Management


A commitment to excellence by everyone in an organization that emphasizes
excellence achieved by teamwork and a process of continuous improvement.

Re-engineering
The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve
dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as
cost, quality, service, and speed.

Selection and Socialization


Selection
The process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a
particular position and an organization.
Goal of the selection process is to properly match people with jobs and the
organization.
Individuals overqualified, under qualified, or do not fit either the job or the
organization s culture, will probably leave the firm.

Purpose & importance of Selection


To evaluate, hire and place job applicants in the best interests of both the
organization and the individual in the fair manner.
To contribute to the organizations bottom-line through efficient and effective
production.
To ensure organization s financial investments through employee payoff.
To enable organizations to fulfill their strategies.

Inputs to Selection
Job Analysis
Human Resource Plans
Recruits
These three inputs largely determine the effectiveness of the selection process.
Orientation, training, development, career planning, performance evaluation,
compensation, are the outputs

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Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process
Nature of the organization
Nature of the labor market
Union requirement
Government requirement
Composition of labor force
Location of the organization

Selection Ratio: The number of people hired for a particular job compared to the individuals
in the applicant pool
A selection ratio of 1.00 indicates that there is only one qualified applicant for each
position
A selection ratio of 0.10 indicates that there are ten qualified applicants for each
position

The Selection Process


Reception of applicants
Initial screening
Application blanks
Selection tests
Employment interviews
Reference and background checks
Physical examination
Selection decision

Reception of applicants
The selection process is a two way street. The organization selects employers and
the organization selects employees.
The applicant pool built up through recruitment process I the base for selection
process.
The objective of recruitment is to attract more applicants so that there are more
options available at the selection stage.

Initial Screening
The actual selection process starts with the preliminary screening.
The main purpose is pre-selection and the elimination of applicants who are not
qualified for the job. The procedure has two steps.
1. Screening enquiries: Some applicants can be eliminated based on job
description and job specification. Reasons for elimination can be
inadequate/inappropriate experience, gaps in job history, inappropriate
education.
2. Screening interviews

Application Blanks
The next step is to request the applicants who were successful in the initial screening
to complete an application blank/form. It is form that is completed by the applicant
providing complete information about him. It is highly structured in which questions
are standardized and determined in advance. This information gives an indication of
an applicant s suitability for a job.

Employment tests
It is an instrument which attempts to measure certain characteristic of individual.
These characteristic ranges from manual dexterity to intelligence to personality. It is
frequently used to help identify the candidates with the greatest potential for success

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on the job. The purpose is mainly to predict job success among number of
applicants. It is another screening tool used to gain additional information about
candidates. They assess the match between applicants and job requirements. It is
also used for selecting employees for promotion.

Advantages of Selection Tests


Reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates
Identify attitudes and job-related skills
Deficiencies in other techniques

Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests


Standardization - Uniformity of the procedures and conditions
Objectivity - Everyone scoring a test obtains the same results
Norms - Frame of reference for comparing an applicant's performance with that of
others
Reliability - Provides consistent results
Validity - Measures what it is supposed to measure

Types of Validation Studies


Criterion-related validity:
Comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance
Concurrent validity: Test scores and the criterion data are obtained at
essentially the same time
Predictive validity: Administering a test and later obtaining the criterion
information
Content validity: Test validation method whereby a person performs certain
tasks that are actually required by the job or completes a paper and pencil test
that measures relevant job knowledge
Construct validity: Test validation method that determines whether a test
measures certain traits or qualities that are important in performing the job

Types of employment / selection tests


Psychological Tests:
Intelligence tests, Aptitude test, personality tests,
Interest tests, situational tests.
Performance simulation tests:
Work sampling, assessment centers.

Types of Employment Tests


Aptitude- cognitive, mechanical
Job Knowledge
Work-sample (simulation)
Occupational interests
Personality
Assessment Centers
Situational tests

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Aptitude Tests
Aptitude tests measure whether an individual has the capacity or latent ability to learn
a given job if he is given adequate training. The use of test is advisable when the
applicant has had little or no experience along the lines of the job opening.
Aptitude test includes
- General reasoning ability
- Memory
- Vocabulary
- Verbal fluency
- Numerical ability
- Mechanical aptitude tests, psychomotor or skill tests, clerical aptitude test

Job Knowledge Tests


Measure a candidate's knowledge of the duties of the position for which he or she is
applying
Are commercially available

Work-Sample (Simulation)
Tests that require an applicant to perform a task or set of tasks representative of the
job

Such tests by their nature are job related

Advantages: Produces a high predictive validity, reduces adverse impact, and is


more acceptable to applicants, minimizes discrimination.
Disadvantages: very difficult to develop good work samples, it is not applicable to all
levels of the organization; it is not suitable for managerial jobs.

Occupational Interests
Indicate the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to be
satisfied with
They are designed to find out the interest of an applicant in the job he has applied for
Primary use has been in counseling and vocational guidance

Personality Tests
They refer to the unique blend of characteristics that define an individual and
determine his pattern of interaction with the environment. They measure the basic
aspects of personality such as motivation, introversion-extroversion, self confidence,
sociability etc. Two types of personality tests are objective tests and projective tests.

Situational Tests
It evaluates individuals in a real life situation by asking them to cope with or solve
critical elements of a real job. They are real combination tests representing elements
of achievement of intelligence, aptitude and personality. E.g. group discussion, in
basket test- simulates key aspects of a job.

Assessment centers
They are designed to measure candidates managerial potential by observing his or
her performance in experimental exercise that simulates managerial work. It is a 2 or
3 day experience in which candidates perform realistic management tasks under
expert guidance. Their potential is thereby assessed.

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Advantages: useful for predicting success in management positions, minimizes the
bias with other selection tools, it measures key variables like leadership initiative and
supervisory skills which can not be measured with other tests, used effectively I
many organizations.
Disadvantages: Very expensive ways of hiring people, some managers use it as a
way to avoid difficult decisions.

The Employment Interview


Most universally used selection tool
Goal-oriented conversation in which interviewer and applicant exchange information
Interview planning
Content of the interview

Interview Planning
Compare application and resume with job requirements
Develop questions related to qualities sought
Step-by-step plan to present position, company, division, and department
Determine how to ask for examples of past applicant behavior, not what future
behavior might be

Content of the Interview


Occupational experience
Academic achievement
Interpersonal skills
Personal qualities
Organizational fit
Candidate s objectives

Types of Interviews
Unstructured (nondirective)
Structured (directive or patterned)
Problem solving
Stress
Mixed

Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview


Asks probing, open-ended questions
Encourages applicant to do much of the talking
Often time-consuming
Different information from different candidates

Structured (Directive or Patterned) Interview


Situational questions
Job knowledge questions
Job-sample simulation questions
Worker requirements questions

Behavior Description Interview


Find knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviors important for job success
Determine which behavioral questions to ask about particular job to elicit desired
behaviors
Develop structured format tailored for each job
Set benchmark responses - examples of good, average and bad answers
Train interviewers

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Problem solving interview
It focuses on a problem or series of problems that an applicant is expected to solve.
Often these are hypothetical situations and the applicant is asked what should b
done. Both the answer and the approach is used by the applicant is evaluated. This
technique has a narrow scope.

Stress interview
It is a special type of interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on the
applicant to see how the person responds. The interview consists of a series of harsh
questions asked in rapid succession and in an un friendly manner. Since stress full
situations are usually only part of the job this technique should be used in connection
with other interview formats.

Methods of Interviewing
One-on-one interview - Applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewer
Group interview - Several applicants interact in the presence of one or more
company representatives
Board interview - Several of the firm s representatives interview one candidate

Potential Interviewing Problems


Inappropriate questions
Premature/snap judgments
Interviewer domination
Inconsistent questions
Central tendency
Halo error
Contrast effect
Interviewer bias
Lack of training
Nonverbal communication
Stereotypes

Personal Reference Checks


Provides additional insight into applicant information
Verification of accuracy
Applicant often required to provide names of several references
More emphasis on previous employment investigations

Professional References and Background Investigations


Previous employment
Education verification
Personal reference check
Criminal history
Driving record
Civil litigation
Workers compensation history
Credit history

Medical Examination
Physical ability tests are designed to measure physical agility, hand to eye
coordination, as well as general or specific physical ability. Due to high costs the
medical examination is often one of the final steps in the selection process. Many
organizations give common physical exams to all job applicants whereas special
exams are given to only a subset of all applicants.

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Guidelines for assessing physical abilities have been developed that detail the
sensory, perceptual, cognitive physical requirements of most jobs. 9 Police,
firefighting etc) .When applied carefully these requirements are extremely useful in
predicting job performance, worker s compensation claims, and absenteeism. The
commonly used tests are: Strength and fitness testing, drug tests, genetic screening,
medical screening, lie detector test, honesty test etc.

Negligent Hiring and Retention


Negligent Hiring - Liability employer incurs when no reasonable investigation of
applicant s background is made and potentially dangerous person is assigned to
position where he or she can inflict harm
Negligent Retention - Keeping persons on payroll whose records indicate strong
potential for wrongdoing
Employer responsible for actions outside scope of employees duties

The Selection Decision


Most critical step of all
Person whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open
position should be selected

Notification to Candidates
Results should be made known to candidates as soon as possible
Delay may result in firm losing prime candidate

Socialization
Socialization may be defined as a process of adaptation to a new culture of the
organization.
It is a process of indoctrinating the new employees with the organization culture. The
organization takes steps to get them adapt to its existing culture. It socializes the new
employees and moulds them to accept its standards and norms.
Unsuccessful candidates should also be promptly notified
Through this process employees are able to understand the basic values, norms and
customs for becoming accepted members of the organization and assuming
organizational roles. People who do not learn to adjust with the culture of the
organization are labeled as rebels and non conformists and may be turned out of
the organization.
It performs two functions:
1. It creates uniform behavior in members increases understanding reduces
conflicts etc.
2. It reduces ambiguity of the employees as they will come to know what is
expected of them.

Maannen & Schein have conceptualized three stages in the process of socialization:
Prearrival:
It denotes the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new
worker joins the organization. The new worker has a set of values, beliefs, attitudes
and expectations. Such factors must be taken care at the selection stage itself. Only
those people should be selected who might be able to fit in the organizations culture.
The candidates should be told about the organization culture during selection
process in order to avoid wrong selection.

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Encounter:
The new employee enters this stage when he joins the organization. He comes to
know what the organization is like and may find divergence between his expectations
and those of the organization. In such case he must undergo socialization that will
detach him from his previous notions and assumptions about the organization and
make him learn another set the organization deems desirable. If he is not able to
change his expectations and adapt himself to the organization he might have to leave
the organization

Metamorphosis:
The real transformation in the new employee takes adapts to his workgroup s values
and norms and becomes comfortable with the organization and his job. His
internalization of organization s culture wins him acceptability among his colleagues
and creates confidence as a result he feels committed to the organization.

Recruitment:
Recruitment:
The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers, and with
appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.

Purpose of Recruitment:
To determine the organization s present and future recruitment needs in conjunction
with HR planning & job analysis.
To increase the pool of qualified job applicants at minimum cost.
To help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of
overqualified and under qualified applicants.
To help reduce the probability that applicants once recruited and selected will leave
the organization after a short time.
To increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short and long run.
To evaluate the effectiveness of various recruitment techniques.

Importance of Recruitment:
Determining the organizations long and short range needs by job title and levels in
the organization.
Staying informed of job market conditions.
Developing effective recruitment material.
Obtaining a pool of qualified applicants.
Developing a systematic program of recruitment in conjunction with other
HR activities
Recording the number and quality of job applicants produced by various sources and
methods of recruiting.
Following up on applicants those hired and not hired in order to evaluate the
effectiveness of recruitment effort.
Accomplishing all of these activities within a legal context.

Factors influencing recruitment Effort


External Factors
Labour market
Govt. Policy

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Trade Unions
Composition of labour force
Location of organization

Alternatives to Recruitment
Outsourcing
Transfers responsibility to an external provider
Provides greater efficiency and effectiveness

Contingent/Temporary Workers
Part-timers, temporaries, and independent contractors
Staffing companies or independent contractors
Fast growing
Provides greater flexibility and lower labour costs
Human equivalent of just-in-time inventory

Employee Leasing
Off-site human resources department
Puts business owner s employees on their payroll
Leases employees back to company
Charge from 1-4%
Small- and medium-sized firms
Opportunities for job mobility
Loss of employee loyalty

Overtime
Most commonly used method of meeting short-term fluctuations in work
volume
Employer avoids recruitment, selection, and training costs
Employees gain from increased income
Potential problems

De Recruitment:
It is the process of reducing the labour supply within an organization.
The various de recruitment options available are: Firing, Layoffs, Transfers,
Reduced work weeks, Early retirements, Job sharing.

The Recruitment Process:


Determining the need
Obtain Approval
Determine the KRA S of the job
Consult the recruitment policy and procedure.
Choose the recruitment source
Decide on the recruitment method
Implement the decision
Allow sufficient time for response
Screen responses
Draw up a shortlist of candidates
Provide feedback to applicants
Proceed to selection
Evaluate recruitment effort

Realistic Job Preview (RJP)


It is the description provided by the organization to applicants and new
employees that gives both the positive and negative aspects of the job.

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It improves the recruitment process by giving pertinent and realistic
information about the job to applicants so that he can choose and select jobs
for which he or she is better suited. It helps to achieve job satisfaction and
improve performance in the long run.

Methods Used in Internal Recruiting


Skill Inventories
It is a computerized system designed to keep track of employees experience
education and abilities.
The organization can search the files for potential qualified candidates for
position vacancies.
Identified candidates are asked whether or not they wish to apply.
It should be used in conjugation with job posting to ensure that openings are
known to all applicants.

Job Posting & Job Bidding


The employees nominate themselves if they are interested in being
considered for an opening. They can be notified of all job vacancies by
posting notices or some way of inviting employees to apply for job.
The job postings describe the job, locations, Pay, qualifications and
encourage employees to apply.

Inside Moon Lighting


In case of a short term need or a small job which does nor require a great deal of
additional work the organization could offer to pay bonuses of various types to people
not on time payment. This type of internal recruitment is called Inside Moonlighting.

External Sources of Recruitment


Advertisements - Want Ads Blind Ads
Special Event recruiting
Tele-recruiting
Posters
Door hangers
Bill boards
Hotlines
Information seminars

Colleges and Universities


Professional, technical, and management employees
Placement directors, faculty, and administrators

Competitors and Other Firms


Five percent of working population is either actively seeking or receptive to change
Smaller firms look for employees trained by larger organizations

Older Individuals
Valuable source of employees
Perform some jobs extremely well
Good work habits
Lower absenteeism rates
Higher levels of commitment

External Recruitment Methods


Advertising
Communicates firm s employment needs

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Should indicate how to respond
Previous experience with various media suggest the approach taken
Certain media attract more homogeneous audiences
Professional groups publish journals

Employment Agencies - Private and Public


Help firms recruit employees and aid individuals to locate jobs
Best known for recruiting white-collar employees
One-time fee may discourage candidate
Some private agencies deal primarily with firms that pay fee
Each state operates public employment agencies
Receive overall policy direction from the U.S. Employment Service
Public employment agencies best known for recruiting and placing individuals
in operative jobs

Recruiters
Used with technical, vocational, community colleges, colleges and universities
On-campus recruiting is number one method for snaring students
Director of Student Placement is key campus contact
Company recruiter plays vital role
Videoconferencing system used

Special Events
A single employer or group of employers attempt to attract a large number of
applicants for interviews
Meet a large number of candidates in a short time
Job fairs offer lower cost per hire than traditional approaches

Internships
Places student in a temporary job
Used as a recruiting technique
No obligation to hire student permanently or for student to accept a
permanent position
Typically a temporary job for summer or a part-time job during school year
Students bridge gap from theory to practice

Executive Search Firms


Locate experienced professionals and executives
Need specific types of individuals
Sophisticated profession serving greatly expanded role
Assist in determining HR needs, establishing compensation packages, and
revising organizational structures
Client pays expenses, as well as fee

Professional Associations
Recruitment and placement services for members
Society for Human Resource Management operates job referral service

Employee Referrals
Important role in recruitment process
Referrals better qualified and stay on job longer
Recruit new hires through employee referral incentive programs

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Unsolicited Walk-In/Write In Applicants
Reputation of being a good place to work attracts qualified prospects without
extensive recruitment
Well-qualified workers seek specific company

Open Houses
Pair potential hires and managers in warm, casual environment that
encourages on-the-spot job offers
Cheaper and faster than agencies
May attract more unqualified candidates

Event recruiting
Opportunity to create image of company
Attend events where recruits are likely to be

Virtual Job Fairs


Students are interviewed face-to-face by recruiters using computers that use
cameras to send head and-shoulder images
Recruiters visit schools without leaving office

Head Hunters
Tailored to need each firm s needs
Recruitment sources and methods vary according to position being filled

Rehires / Recalls
Analysis of recruitment procedures
Utilization of minorities, women, and individuals with disabilities
Advertising
Employment agencies
Other suggested approaches

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