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Training and Developing Employees
Employee orientation Employee orientation introduces new employees to the organization and provides the basic background information they need to perform their jobs satisfactorily. Induction Induction or indoctrination is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into his surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organization. Purpose of orienting employees: To create a favourable impression of the work & the organization To reduce anxiety and hazing To develop realistic job expectations To reduce start up costs To save time and effort To improve new worker productivity To reduce turnover & conflict To strengthen organization culture HRD people, immediate supervisors, operating managers are responsible for orientation. Content: Organizational issues Employee benefits Introductions Job duties Process: General orientation (by the staff of HR Dept.) Specific orientation (by the job supervisor) Follow up orientation (HR Dept. Or supervisor) The new employee should: feel welcome understand the organization in a broad sense be clear about what the firm expects in terms of work and behavior begin the process of socialization Selection vs. Placement Selection is the decision to accept or reject each applicant based on his performance by using selection methods. Placement is a decision to place a selected individual in one job than another. In selection the task is to match people with the positions. In placement the task is to match positions with people so that each person is assigned the right position Socialization is a broad term whereas orientation is a narrow term Socialization - ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization and its departments.
It is a planned programme designed to improve performance and to bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitude and social behavior of employees for doing a particular job. It is a learning experience in that it seeks permanent change in employee that will improve his ability to perform on the job. It is an effort by the employer to provide opportunities for the employee to acquire job related skills knowledge and behavior. Employee Training, development & education Employee training is job related learning that is provided by employers for their employees. Education is a broad process covering preschool to college education which usually occurs outside the organization. Education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of the total environment. Training has more immediate utilitarian purpose than education. An organization can make use of employee education to support training efforts. Training focuses on present jobs development focuses on future jobs and on their personal growth. Need for training and development To orient new hires to the organization To improve the current performance of the employee To prepare employees for future positions To prepare them for organizational change & restructuring To increase productivity & improve quality. To ensure competitiveness in the market place To improve interpersonal skills and organizational climate Benefits of employee training and development To Organization Leads to improved productivity Improves job knowledge and skills at all levels Improves employee morale Helps create a better corporate image Improves labour management relations Aids in improving communication Aids in organizational development Promotes effective decision making Helps employee in adjusting to change To Employee Helps him for better decision making Fosters a sense of recognition, achievement and growth Aids in encouraging and achieving self development& self confidence Helps him in handling stress, conflict etc. Increases job satisfaction Satisfies the need of trainer and trainee Develops a sense of growth in learning The training process The training process model has three phases: The assessment phase : the purpose is to determine if there is a performance deficiency that can be rectified by training The training phase: the actual training techniques are chosen and the training takes place Evaluation phase: trainee s post and pre training phases are compared and effectiveness is evaluated
The Assessment Phase The purpose is to determine if there is a performance deficiency that can be rectified by training The ultimate aim is to establish what needs exist, whether they are important, how the needs become apparent, how they were identified, how they may best be addressed, what the priorities are etc. The need for training is determined by employee s performance deficiency. It is computed as: Training. Need = Standard or desired performance- actual performance Training Needs Analysis Organizational analysis: Proposed training Within the context of the rest of the organization Task analysis - detailed study of the job to determine what specific skills are required Individual analysis - verifying that there is a significant performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training Identifying Training Needs Performance reviews Job-related performance data Attitude surveys Employee daily diaries Assessment centers Observation by supervisors Interviews with the employee Tests Role plays and case studies Identifying Training Objectives The final step in the assessment phase is to translate the needs identified by need analysis into measurable individual objectives that can guide the training process. The training objectives should state The desired behavior, the conditions under which it is to occur, the acceptable performance criteria The training phase The training program is to be developed after determining the training needs to achieve the stated objectives. Appropriate training methods have to be selected and suitable material has to be developed to convey the required knowledge and skills identified in the objectives. The learning Curve Learning always does not progress at the same rate during a training program. It is usually very fast in the beginning but then plateaus as opportunities for improvement are reduced. Learning curve is a curve that expresses the learning rate of an individual. Usually it begins with a sharp rise, and then increases at a decreasing rate until a plateau is reached. Training Methods On the job training (OJT): It is conducted at the work sites and in the context of the actual work. Most widely used method. it is basically learning by doing while working. Employee is placed into the real work situations and shown the job & method of work by experienced employee or supervisor
OJT Methods: Job instruction training (JIT) - training through step by step learning it consists of preparation, presentation, performance try out, follow up Apprenticeship training Supervisory assistance OJT- Merits Transfer of training to the job is maximized Highly economical as full time trainer & training. Facilities can be avoided Trainee motivation remains high Employee is assimilated more quickly into the organization Trainee receives immediate feedback about performance OJT- Demerits It is not appropriate when large number of trainees are to be trained Learners are subjected to external disturbance low productivity while employee develops his skills Trainers may not have experience in training, time, and the lack of motivation Off the job method Training offered at locations away from the job is called off the job training. It can be near the work place, away from work place, at a class room, at a training center, in a resort. It minimizes the workplace distractions and allows the trainee to devote his full attention to the training offered. It is appropriate when complex skills are to be mastered or to focus on specific skills. It may be expensive and transfer of training to actual job may be low as compared to OJT. Criteria for Selection of Training Methods Cost effectiveness No of trainees Trainee preferences & capabilities Trainer preferences The incorporation of learning principles Kind of behavior skills to be acquired Appropriateness of the facilities Apprenticeship Training Individuals become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training Simulated Training Learn on the actual or simulated equipment they will use on the job but receive their training off the job Necessary when it is too costly or dangerous to train employees on the job Flight simulators Audiovisual and Distance Learning Techniques Tele-training - trainer in a central location can train groups of employees at remote locations via television hook-ups Videoconference Distance Learning - a means of joining two or more distant groups using a combination of audio and visual equipment
The Evaluation Phase The purpose is to determine the extent to which the training activities have met the stated objectives. Thus to verify training program s success the training activities should be evaluated systematically. Evaluation Levels Donald Kirkpatrick has developed most widely used four levels of evaluation of training program. Level 1: Reaction: Participants feeling about the program This level evaluates the trainee s reaction about the program Level 2: Learning: Measures the degree the trainees have mastered the concepts, information, skills that the training intended to impart. Level 3: Behavior: on the job behavior of the trainee s behavior rating can be collected from supervisors, peers, subordinates, clients of the trained employee. Level 4: Results: The impact of training program on work group or organization as a whole is assessed objectively. Sample measures of results include cost saving, profit, productivity, quality, turnover etc. Evaluation of design Apart from the Kirkpatrick s four levels of evaluating training, the three most popular methods of evaluating training are : Post training performance method: Participant s performance is measured after attending a training program to determine if behavioural changes have been made. Pre post training performance method: Each participant is evaluated prior to training and rated on actual job performance. After training is completed the employee is reevaluated. The increase in performance is attributed to the training program. This method deals directly with job behavior.
Executive Development Program (EDP)
Executive Development Program
It is a systematic process of training and growth by which managerial personnel gain and apply skill, knowledge, attitudes and insights into managing the work in their organization effectively and efficiently. It is aimed at providing leadership skills they need to do their jobs. The aim is to enhance future performance of the organization itself. An activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers and to provide for a planned growth of managers to meet future organizational requirements. It is the process by which manager s require not only the skills and competency in their present jobs but also the capabilities for future managerial task of increasing difficulty and scope. Assumptions It is a continuous and long term process. It is not like training as a one-shot programme but an on going continuous programme throughout the career of an executive or manager.
There always exists a gap between what an executive performs and what he/she can. Objectives To provide adequate leaders. To develop managers to perform better on their present assignment and prepare them for higher assignment. To prevent obsolescence of managers. To replace elderly executives by highly competent and academically qualified professionals. To provide steady source of competent persons at all levels to meet future organizational needs. To create conditions and a climate which contribute to the growth process. Need Due to change in technology the executive must have the working knowledge of the use of new technology. He should have up to date knowledge of the socio- cultural environment to understand the behaviour of people in right perspective. To understand an meet the needs of the consumers properly To satisfy and motivate the workers to contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives. To impart knowledge to the managerial personnel in the latest management concepts, principles, techniques and practices.
Executive development process
Organizational planning &Analysis of organizational needs Appraisal of present management talent Management of HR inventory Planning individual development programmes Establishing training and development programmes Evaluating the effectiveness of training and development
I. On-the-job methods 1. Coaching 2. Understudy assignment 3. Mentoring 4. Job rotation 5. Multiple management 6. Committee Assignment II. Off-the-job methods 1. Seminars & lectures 2. Conference training 3. Incident method 4. Role playing 5. Sensitivity Training 6. Simulation: Case Study, In-basket, Management games
I. On-the-job methods
1. Coaching Coaching is a method which is used in developing managerial thinking process as well as operative skills The superior plays the role of the guide and instructor The coach sets upon some mutually agreed upon goals and tells the trainee what he wants to be done, suggests how it might be done, follows up suggestions , and corrects errors He helps the trainee live up to those goals through periodic reviews of the trainee s progress and by suggesting modifications in his behaviour where needed It can be information coaching or formal coaching. Merits It requires the least centralized staff co-ordination, for every executive can coach his men even if no management development programmes exists Periodic feedback and evaluation are also part of coaching, which yields immediate benefit to the organisation, to the coach and to the subordinate Demerits The coaching technique is authoritarian for, an executive tends to familiarise his subordinates with his own work habits and beliefs It heavily relies on the coach s ability to be a good teacher, which he may not necessarily be The training atmosphere, free from the worries of the daily duties, is not available It is learning by doing
2. Job rotation It represents an excellent method for broadening the manager or potential manager ,for turning specialists into generalists It refers to the transfer or movement of executives from one job to another and from one plan to another on some planned basis for educational learning purposes It is often designed for beginning level managers while planned progression is more likely to occur at higher managerial levels The rotation may continue for a period ranging from 6 months to 24 months. It can be horizontal or vertical. Merits It breaks departmental provincialism for everyone is moved from one to another, it rather develops interdepartmental co-operation Boredom, monotony are reduced Through this system, a man does not end up in just one place. He gets a chance to step into a higher position It makes it possible for the management to compare one man with the other, and gives everyone an equal chance of advancement Each manager s abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs, so the enterprise can secure his best utilisation in the ultimate assignment Demerits It upsets family and home life, because many a times transfers are effected to different geographical areas It becomes difficult for subordinate to adjust himself to new bosses Job rotation can demotivate intelligent and aggressive trainees who seek specific responsibility in their chosen specialty The system may easily become over- centralised, inflexible and closed 3. Committee Assignment
It is a technique whereby juniors are assigned to board or committees, by the chief executive They are asked to participate in deliberations of these boards and committees In these sessions, real life actual problems are discussed, different views are debated and decisions are taken The juniors get an opportunity to share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching others and to delve into specific organisational problems Merits It gives board members an opportunity to gain knowledge on various issues It helps identify those who have executive talent The members gain practical experience of group decision-making and of team work It is relatively inexpensive method of development It permits a considerable number of managers to participate in certain activities with a reasonable period of time Demerits It is only suitable for middle and senior level managers It does not permit any specific attention to training needs of the manager The debates in these committees often tend to lacking purposiveness or authority. The deliberations often degenerate into academic discussions without the participants feeling committed to the conclusions 4. Understudy An understudy is a person who acts as an assistant to someone else. He works with the with a mentor i.e manager on daily basis to learn how the job is done. During manager s absence he will perform non critical activities. It is also known as assistance to positions method or attachment method . Disadvantage: Managers may feel threatened by understudies and may not do a conscientious job of developing them. 5. Multiple management It is a method of also called junior board of management is a method of providing middle management trainees with experience in analyzing company problems by inviting them to sit on a junior board of directors and make recommendations on overall company problems. The idea is to give trainees top level analysis by having them sit on junior board of directors.
2. Off-the-job methods
1. The case study It is an excellent medium for developing analytical skill A case is an objective of a real life business situation in which the executives are required to take actions and are responsible for results It is rather an effective method for improving decision making abilities within the constraints of limited information This method represents a dynamic and powerful Merits It distributes knowledge and facts It improves participants skills in problem analysis approach to learning 2. Incident method
In this method, group members address questions to the discussion leader The general trend of questioning is to find out about what, when, where and how of the situation in which an incident developed, and who was present there at that time After the collection of data, it is necessary to isolate the most important items for decision-making 3. Role Playing Role playing is the concept of creating a more realistic situation, usually one of human problems and conflicts, and then acting out various parts The role assuming closely approximate a real situation and affords the participants the experiences that enhance their sensitivity, growth and development 4. In-Basket Method In this method, each team of the trainees is given a file of correspondence bearing on a functional area of management Each individual studies the file and makes his own recommendations on the situation Later, the observations of each individual member are compared and conclusions on different functional areas are reached These are put in the form of a report Merits Decisions are rapid, feedback is objective, and further decisions are based on the feedback of earlier decisions Because of emotional environment without any strain, the participants play for hours with sustained interest Decision making is by a group which consists of managers and specialists from different departments. Each member, therefore gets an opportunity to participate The method is inexpensive and can be organised easily Demerits It sometimes discourages originality for teams that have to adopt themselves to rigid situations The logical solutions suggested by the team to be abstracted from the compulsions against which it had to be tackled in actual situation 5. Business or Management Game Business games are classroom simulations exercises in which teams of individuals compete against one another or against an environment in order to achieve a given objective These games are designed to be representative of real life conditions An atmosphere is created in which the participants play a dynamic role, and enrich their skills through involvement and simulated experience Usually, management games consist of several teams which represent competing companies. Each team consists of 2 to 6 members Business games are intended to teach each trainees how to take management decisions in an integrated manner These participants learn by analysing problems and by making trial-and-errordecisions Merits There is usually a great sense of excitement and enjoyment in playing the game It helps to analyse and select the significant and relevant data from a mass of information It helps in changing attitudes
The participant becomes more tolerant Demerits A major problem with games is that they can be very expensive to develop and implement particularly when the game itself is computerised Management games usually force decision maker to choose his alternatives from a closed list Though games may accurate simulations, they are never totally realistic 6. Sensitivity Training Sensitivity training is a group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behaviour, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behaviour and develop awareness of self and others . In this method small groups of managers who are generally strangers to each others are grouped together and assisted by trainer. They discuss themselves, their feelings and group process. It causes psychological stress and the skill transfer is minimal. Simulation It is a training technique which indicates the duplication of the organisational situations in a learning environment It is a mock up of a real thing This technique has been used for developing technical Procedure Essential characteristics of a real life organisation or activity is abstracted and presented as a case Trainees are asked to assume the various roles in circumstance and to solve the problem facing them Trainees are required to make decision that has real effect in simulation and about which they receive rapid feedback The simulation is followed by a critique of what went on during the exercise and interpersonal skills Reasons for the failure of the EDPs Non-alignment of EDPs with the challenges, problems and strategies of the organisation Non-suitability of programmes designed to create awareness and understanding among the executives or/and managers Participation of the executives/managers in the programme by chance not by choice Non-conducive relations between the superiors and subordinates becomes a stumbling block in smooth administration of the programme How to make the EDP successful? The top management should accept responsibility for getting the development programme duly executed The EDP should be properly aligned with the needs of the people and organisation Every manager should willingly accept the responsibility to develop executives under his control and direction. The objectives, coverage and type of EDP should be clearly spelled out before the commencement of the programme The EDP should follow a realistic time schedule to develop executives to meet the present and future needs of the organisation The EDP should be found interesting by the participants Lastly, feedback should be made available to the learner/executive so that he/she knows his/her progress and can take required steps to improve him/her.
Resistance to training Employees may experience difficulty in learning new skills and knowledge. They may feel that management may entrust more work and new kinds of work which would require additional skills and knowledge. The sessions may disturb the employees from their routine duties. They are expected to learn more difficult activities and unlearn already practiced skills. Their state of mind and other psychological factors hinder them in their learning process.
Knowledge Knowledge is the power or capacity for effective action. The organized data is information. The processed data in actionable form is referred to as knowledge. It becomes wisdom when it is used for a good cause of large number of people. But it is difficult to make distinction among data, information and knowledge as one person s data is other person s information and another person s knowledge. Knowledge can be defined as the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association. It refers to ideas or understanding which an individual possesses and those that are utilized effectively for goal realization. It is very specific to individual who creates it and interacts with it. It can also be described as a set of models that describe various properties and behaviour within a domain or stored in organizational processes, products, facilities, systems and documents. Knowledge asset as applied to a business firm means knowledge regarding the market, products, technologies, and organization that a business owns or needs to own and which enable its business process to generate profits, value etc. Sources of knowledge There are two types of knowledge in any organization. Formal or explicit knowledge and informal or implicit knowledge. Formal knowledge is that which is available in notes, manuals, reports, memos etc. Informal knowledge is that which is gathered and maintained through informal means which is more crucial as it is in this context that the formal knowledge exists. Major sources of informal knowledge: The expert: human expert as he already has the knowledge that is being sought by virtue of his position he occupies. The end user: Interviews with the end user enables us to gain an overall view of the problem domain. The end user sees things from a higher level and is able to consider many issues. Multiple experts: Another potential source whereby existing information may be cross validated is always useful. Literature: important information may be sourced from documents such as reports, books, regulations, and guidelines. Importance of knowledge management Fosters innovation Improve customer service Boost revenue by getting products and services to the market faster Enhance employee retention by recognizing the value of employee s knowledge and rewarding them
Streamlining operations and reducing cost by eliminating redundant or unnecessary processes. Improved efficiency High productivity Increased revenues Challenges for KM Burden of past experience: Employees are not able to process & receive new knowledge as they have past experience in their mind. Organizational defensive routines like written & unwritten norms, policies, rules etc. Tunnel point of view: people tend to look at the problem from their point of view than system s point of view Bounded rationality: Both organizations and individuals are bound by their ability to understand and process complete information available to them. The behaviour act as a roadblock to generate knowledge in organizations. KM Process Beckmans has proposed a 8 stage process for knowledge management. 1. Identify 2. Collect 3. Select 4. Store 5. Share 6. Apply 7. Create 8. Sell Benefits of KM Increased productivity Improved quality of production Reduced cost Better coordination in the working of an organization Improved work environment of organization Promotes innovations, opens the way for creative thinking
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