A|lrllsirg rclevant liteEturc I have tried to establish links benveenbasic notions of the theory of .liles rrxl ltrenl theoreticd rd empiricil resexrch on the stnrctural chrnges of socidist societies (YuSoslavia, fbmer Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland)one the social structures Arlrlvsrrrlr concrete to oriSin ffrd rclalions cunentindicatoNrclaied its structure, ol r)r \ \e the | |)t1rcl1t eliteir orderto isolate .rh rs r /ieJ 1ez which can show the difilrences which exist betweenauthoritmian ancidemocratic I U\e lrFlnelrrs 01 politicxl systems ir comties undergoing transition. The term porhc./ slyle is used :rs ar .t.Llittontil tt,)ttot the designatror of differcnces betweenthe expectedrcles of elites on the political scene. what I shal call srnr. llr. i.lc.rlogical b:tsisof politicalslylesil-heritedlrcm prcvioustimes has changed, style of autltolitluian sfrclore The latter is tlt ntid'txlk: f-|le has come lo emkxly lre plitial T'd with parochial and utilitarirn ethicalapprcaches of .lrrrfreuscd b)' r convergence tinalistic steerin€!, l.n,.li'iingrlislrthreebasicstylesofelitepoliticnlaction:(a),.sry1eolxPparentnon-interlerence,tnd laFreachirg promises tbllowed by an li/\1xl" thhnft. (6) a /a]:e (phoney) stle (coffpicuor$ by s1rcnE! ,ll(lrillr cnrotional slnrcllre:), an(l(c) a tndiional Political slyle with new fomdas ol elite acti'itf. non-violenttimslbnnation oftbrcd the own sfyles:in Poland,the []iics irN,olledin suc.esshrl of rllr. rrtl\c lrolilicll elite evolvedhom a 7rolx/ to a.pngDlxtic s4e. The refolmatorysegment the old txnsitional Political sryle. Sertia, where life-styles clirc in Hungary and Slovera brdll t\,lricrl ^ has irrLltiplicrrti(,n s bcenblockedtry sanctions, beencharaclerized like Romaniaand Bulga.ria by a l political s4'le). Analysing the social stmchtre of the r,. tlizxtrr) .f the old pltiLttJ stJjle ktchic (, irffrporfl! Yuloslirv amd I the Easl Europeinsocieties havetested conc€ptof elite as usedin diflerent \rL!lie\ Ih. c tedor fbr seleclion h:rs beetl that the wo*s in question have contributedto the of Lrrr(lrNiirndirre complex processes social translbnnationar1dactivity of elites Conside rrg rhe ol of of model. Lr\.lU|r.s!()1thcshalilicationmodel,I poiDtotf the indispensability cefxin aspects the class CURRENT ELITE PRACTICES md Sloveniaand lhc 1989 events rnassdemocraticnovements in Poliurd.Czechoslovakia fi€edom of the prcss, lr\lir molementsiI othef Edtem count|ies,dem:u ing mr tiparty systems, 0,t,1 lrrr(l(r1 ()l sp.cch :n itssocixlior.lite t|a!el, ifioduction of the m ket, "mixed econom!", md rcvolution.They involvednot only .( (fxrnicrl dd" lrom the west - could be cilled the iurtibureaucrirtic ot but rh. (lismNnrlin! authorlaJiilrism, xlso the toundingof a new polidcal,socialand economicilorcler. (G.ntonAsh. nr: Pusi4 199:: 7) ire rNing the term relblutblr to denotea sucaesstul s,,rn. nreoreticiaDs (,rlrbil tr()r (rt rclo|m ar)d revohrtionin this pe od of changingF)wer elites, typ€s of govemment, tsy ,)llfrrrsrrioll power uld political slles of elitesin Russix.Polin , HungaJyand Czechoslovikia. ils b) rirrrh(r(l f()cess hasbeenretormistic, its mdicalism revolutlonaq'. lhis \rro 8 statesir laDsition every single one wis chamcteizedby a complex of interlaced ,l.ri nrifints $l)ich conclitioned cme€enceo{ dillerert pallenNof findjng x way out of the crisisor, on the themselves complexconsequences to of rhr (nlrcrhr d. the "iDxllenion inio deeperhyers and exposing a rl)rrrl\is.sLlclrrNsl).)://e{ressio1.2blxk eoteconor c lil[ tu1d patho]ogyofindividual hfe. Ihr difiererres lretNeen the processof political truNfbmation in Poland, Hunga4'and ( ,,..1x)!lo\dri:r.on the one h rd. on lbr Yugoslavia, the other,m.nifbstede differentialpreparedness jur lt _Ilredesir$le rd possiblenlodels of tr.ursfonnatioll the mentionedE rcpeai countdes of r|lr ..1 reallbrcesthal co ld biidge the gap liom civic actionto a new democrrtic Sglsrlhcrt e\isled co'lcrete. .,,,rifn \ ilh r ditlerentsetof stxteinstitldonsthat would ensure leastthe basicstabilityof the tr:msition. at Locke'scategory of'tacit consent"-the rssumptionthat llLnnewll\ qniie right $hen he ddiculed r'ho doesnot initiateovel1prlitical rcsistance. by who the .!r\ h(nl) \\ lx) .krs not rebel.rgairlsl socialorcier. towcrdsit (Hc.[er. 1986: trcitly assents this socixlodef - trkes on obligations to \ 1u. ol hi\ rbstention 1)l) I}IiIS l()68 brcadsocialmovemenls emerged throughout EastemEurcpe with diverceorentation,

tr lr clr \rrlt nrpprcssed \\,ith tbrce,althlnrgh tlrey did not asp;re directlyto take over statepou'er(F(rnk, in: lfritic. (x)r' l:19).A cunory look at a sedesof mostly anned rcbelions before,drring ?\1(ianer'68 (tler|n. l()51: I'ozn.Uland Warsaw. 1956;tsudapest, 1956; Novocherkas, 1963; Czechoslovalia, 1968; (nlrrsk, lqlor Wallsaw.1975: Zilvalej, Run ia. l9??; cdansk, agdn 1980) suggestthere ro be tul rb!.hrle lilnit to the possibilities rationilisation the rcgimes",which rakepride iD rhe masrery the ol of of lLlrlr.{,!el lhe pnst (djctatoEhipover ne.erb, Feher. 1986:371).It was exactlyrhe supprcssion olrhese rc\, )lr: ihrt \ho\vedthesesocieties werenot yet readyto rcfbnntfiemselves. wasthenrharthe creation It of th. t)Ppt)silx)n bes r. which lealised wis possible chnnge it to society post-socialist to mo.tets_ Ihn)ugh I look at the micro-aspects possibletranstbnnation Croatianenteryrises. oI of Vesna l\r\i(' olleltd a synthetic rcviervof micro irspects the global socialtru$fbrmation of CentralEtropern of :lirrot A briel fialysis of Polish. Czechoslovak and Hungarianextunples $i11 indicate what was the lLrxlrlrclt,rl brckboneottrxlltfiDna{ion process eachoneof tlese count es (Prsii, 1992r1429). i P(nrnd b€gfulits tmfftbmation some ten yexrs befbrc the filst free elections,i.e. belbrc rhe vjcrory ,,l S.lklNlir) and TaderNz govemment, lbrming an altenativepolitical eliE me poLsh Mazowiecki's by ..nxlunist elile, crearingmore fiee spacefbr intemal political mrneuvering, dr eariy 1980shad to in rf\ nrxln) Siti(i.rity's growirlgslrcngth. Living throughthe )e:rs of the srate emergency, of bans,plisons. ru.l Nlice clffhes. rhe mentren of the "altemative" elire were accumularingnegoriating |,,lrrL(rl L\lJcr'rrrrch] comnnrnicatmg with govennnents politicalpruties. and Olre prl1 of Eastempolitical elites .rnd indi\riduals eagerto anlrii higher sratN developer.l terlb/c :? /\'/txt \tth: b"y sl1 plr8 a politicirl style odel]teC, c.nryntion and r]./tu 1coordination of interssts. to ^,Lt/ (lflf(nrsrlrtinc lll€ lrngnntical elite style. PoLl]cxl balance between representativesof diftbrent elites , \lrhlishr(l in this way positivelyillluencesrhelevelof democratic stibility that is reached. lhc' conplefe politrcal opposition, united by tie leadenhip of Solidarity and under the proteclion ,,i r r fri,rxnnors Cxtholicchurchwith enough pubtcly rhe right of civic starus. corragelo expfess began r\ r.li\ ir\ ;rs . tonl (ethic) elite. gr.duall) turning nrc a, rc.1 altenative lnlitictl e//.e witl polirrcal .\f.ri.nft'ln (Pr$ii. 1992: l4). Budened witl rraditionalism r politicalcuLturc and aurhorjtadanisln, ir lr\ r(l rhouglt difLrcnt stafles werctypicallbr Eastem-European that societies, well aslbr yugoslav. as Ilo$'evef. durin€ra decadeof assefing and fosrering, the new politictl etite crearedcondirions to Lr:lrtreilr. llclrxn dter the elections ard the victory of the oppositionin Poland."lnsteadof comhining r lrerpe eoced jdealists ircl profit makers. power was talren by politiciam witl rel1,yeal tr)rli.ril\ .\jir|rcncc. ()rglnizatrons, oppositionisnr and with a conception, only lbr overtakhg power, but for not rlmilrisrrrling the stxre. Thus it h.rppened Polfld, a he noment of coup d'etat(rumingpoinr) had an that i Ilf: ir . L senl ! ilegal.but existingdemoc, aticallyoriented politicalette" (Pusii6, ],992 Z2t). In rhe UNr fiee, multipirty elec{ionsin Polad, ri8htisr parties w(nr over one rhid of rhe electorate r r(l(^.r -10percenl p.uli:unentary of seats. the elections ln heldin lgg3, rhe left coalirionwhich comprised ,il thc llnr()n oI l)emocraticLefi (fbnner CP), Fmners'Party and a SocialDemocratic faction emerged ritcr rlr( rlis$hrlion of Solidarity won over 40 percentof votes and 70 percentof parliimenrnryserrs O rl'rihir'r!i(:. , 1996). Irnlile Polmd. Czechoslovakix Dot developan iilremativepolirical elite, bur preesses ol did ftirbli\hillg rnd de!elopnle civil society were noticed. During rhe inter-war, pre-sociajisrsrllge. ( 1.(lr )!l( rk ia wasa countrl,of a developed (bou r,ith a prosper.ous civiliur past:rnd Eeois) middle ctass, ^ tl!\fl{)Pr.l rxirsrr:v In the period of comm ist exp:ulsion, Czechoslovalstnreappanlus soullht to the 'l|le public spont:xreously ll,rrirrlr'. polilic l competitioD. tlrmed ro everydaylife, rec.mstnrcring and L\|re\srrg rt\ own interests. ple.rded an assertion hrnnar rights,freedomofthe presstu1d lt tbr of crcarivlt),. ol development civil action stlalegy.So it hepened that public and of J,x,rerlxnr hunr r enviroDment, .xft.'. |ntiricrl allairsbecalne lirlly sepinted fiom civil :mdsecrer ones. r\n irNentive,crcativemiddle classcontributed the development civil societyin Eurcpean to of lrf(ljli()r ln(l lbunded on the collectiveexperience rhnt the sratehad not to and could not be the main rLlr^ l(ry ()i dr\eiopnent ard modenrizxtion. the tr rsitionalpriod it seruedas a stabilizertbr the ln ol estrhlishilg a still uDdeveloped demcrracy.Il1 cjvil societyRatph Dahrcndorf,lbr exampte, fJlres\ .( (,!n ise! frocelses of fbn\nn9 constitutional or constirurionmakin€!policy" (Dalrendorf, in: ftlsi4 I 99:: I | ). J)r rllcl n) rhe econonic.cLrltuml, crc ive lx1d prvate lile of citizens. With removalof fbrei$ conrrol, .riil\\lLcrl iD tlre SovietUDioo.which fftilicially guaranree.d supremacy rhe political e]ire,rhe civil rhe of

, rr. grir{lLLrll) trev.rilcd.In the couNeof tnne societywould recnit a ne$ political elite which will now civil normsofexisringcivil elites. rfr(lv h\ iisell represen( established prcca ous rxrdd.nrgeroLN periodof "dissembling party stateard comnaod economy" l)Urjrg tlr r) lhlr!|lr). $,lrenold institutionstunbled. there were not new oies to undertaketherr hnctlon r.llrllifirlil\. r tclbntEd segntentof the old lolitic erTe servedir,sa s(ability factor inthe prccessof rriiLrln)rrrtionfi{rnr old to new t}?e of govenunent. tjnlike atnost all countries former real-sociaiism, of rh. lrlrrcll of rhe old tlovennnentin Hungarydid not causechaos,but constructed dominantrclon a ((,1 l\e A: il renrporiry. IfluNitbnnl lnlitical ebte, iT expe(ly md capxbly, ensureda creative. peacehrland, po$er I r rc Ilurrgirdrrr cffe. ahnostorymisedtmnsilion rd tftu$fbrmation. this plocess did nor seizF In it (lemr)crafic (Pusii 1992r:9). O{y in Hmgary ud in Slovenia the refbnn .|n,l hl(xl development litrrit)ns (JI rornrnunist pi(ies. with programmatic elements inld politic sryle of ciril pafties, Eor rirrt,Iilfrjftr sr4po|t in tlle electorate won insidethe old pafy. As a transitional ar ette. it completed its {nt. In rlrelollowrngelectoril cycles.it alsoexerted power.so l|nr! impofint influemce againcameto :uld lLrt rr ihc |r\r pcriodthe mling political elite lbmed a coaljtio|rof civil nrodemtely rightist md center ]lr .\ ( Libelxl Democrxtic pxl1y). I Th. lilely democmtic politicil tradifion on which a strong, autonomols civil society w$ ,\rirhlinr.'d (CTechoslovakix), developedaitemativepolitical elite (Poland),relbrmed political elites a llJrrrfir\, Slovr:niir) hercire someoflaious dircctions ofcunent:u luturc trirnsfbrmxtion processes of I Lr!)cr \(,crcri.\. Establishing denrocratjc insdnrdonsand accepting democntic "n[es of the gtune' that succeeded improving the level of democntic lilb. Opposire in l,ni\.(l r() be delinilive nl societies , \xnrt).\ ,n rnr.leleloped democratic habitrs, despitethe lolmal intrcductionof democratic institutions. .,r1..(l pn)c.sses chinviris( conlliofs.suppoftin€! widesp.ead ot the opinion that partsof C€nrrxlEa.sten I rrr,Irefle chflacterized with "pdmordixlbackwardness", pimtuily in politicalcr ture.Her€ we m ur the Ulh(nirrirrr, )ddemocralic cltalaclerof soci: rclations,crlde political methods,narrow-minded :xld \ rrLnri(rl itiorr isrn. concentrarion approprietion and from elitescirclesthat nationsnmnot emucipirte j\ ir: .$r lorres.vffious conlirsing, nebulous false"politicalphilosophies" and (Jarti4 1993: 152). Vrfiotrs sourcesand mutes of chxuvitisation condition ditTerentpattenrs of fbming mling elites. \ ,lr\l)ruir)'bd$een ihe peacehdand refonnistic,.u the others,tumultuoustransfomanonsc:m be .!,,grli7.rl ind ex:nined in ch nlelliDg discontent irto chxuvinistm (Yugoslavia),a tow c:rpaciryof (CenrralEutopein counrries), d in divergentpoliticaL )r,rrilLrllringchauvinisrn traditions.md cultures \L 'lrir IIrSfl\'. B]zxrtirnn-Otlonin Empire)(Kuljii. T). lI l1)nirer Yugoslavia. last yearshavebeenthe "tirneof establishiru lbe nation-sta1es". They were ,,r. lx\\.\fl. crcated "libeml-dernocmric on priilciples, it wasisserred victoious Dationatistic as by etitcs I r,' rsrilbli\hrnsrrol nationstateshas been in lact rhe "basicm.uripulative method of tmrNfonningthe .LLrrlrrirri| rotoa delnocmtic pluralist ritn and order'(Sekelj, 1995:137). AI JTIIORITARIAN CONFORM]SM OF NATIONAL ELITES I h. poliricalandeconomic reslructuntion "the greatsocialtransfonnation", tmnsitionlo the ol the rrlk rr nrilker world of the entrcprenduruld prilate ownelship,fiom an authoritarian a democralic to r,lrtLfrl \r\idr. niry he done al a higlrcr or a considerably lower civilizationd level, it may come ro .r ri.| irie l nlore moden, indLrstriatized democraticsocjefy,or but and aspectof a new European d J)crit)lr.$' of Pedpher)/' tuo difieremt worlds(Peiujli4 1996). (lcorgc Schocpflir connects problems of political ttnsfomalion and trfiNfomjng challengesof rh. r,l(l.lites in posr-socidist societieswilh lhe exp:msion nitionaiism(Schoepflin, of 1q95: i66).hsome

In rlr. tirsr lr.c elections in Hun8art lnrious colscrlarive pafties wor 40 percent of the vore dd more rhin .(r p.,..rr r)l prrliamentary seits. In ele.tions held in 199.1, the refbmed communists jumped frcrn their .\,L)!,, I I pcrccnt to 33 percefl of tbe vdie - eDoughlo $,in a nnjoriry in pirli Dent (5.1percent of senrs). i) ri...rr p,,blic opinion rcse.r.h ir Hungary todiy sho\s rhar ihe socialisrsfell from rheir previotrs:13percenr r , , ) r r l p.f.e ,rro frh e l o i e (P ri b i i e v i i . O .. | 996). li t,)r'rcr !)c rlist countries. oliicial polic) nowhere lucceeded ro rl,.*e the naiion.t question Dotirica y ,,.l.rfnr irrrl ro rcrrove sour.es of nationui conflicrs. The quesdon of minoriries ofren crerred sedous

(Huruary. Polandand space communists €cupying nationalist by !,,1rlrie\ \rrongnatiorfisls lbrestxlled wff I rr\lr) lr ()rh.r counldesnaliona.Lism too wsrk to do the s.me, offering a chanceto the previous :\1 nlll.|l(hlure, ilready changedirto the nationalistic Slrise,to rcstoreits positionsand rcvita.lise o1d Serbia couldbe considered such). a's BulEi ia md /rrrl/.iil r/r,/c1Rrrl])aoia. has ofEastemEuDpeancormffies nor io The lUNwer the q eslionwhy the rnodelof trarNfbmation An extensiveresearch &1d ftndament.llreflections. tumlysisof the b..r irt)t)lir.lir Yulloslavi.lreqrdres the pointsto the dominad detenninants intluencing actualspice YLrg,,\ll! p(rslsoci jstpattenrofch.nrges ,,i ln.\trcciL'dcllects.Theseirlr: cultufal); rlJtlrL rornpleriiyofstructurcs(s(xial.political,economic, rtionil, religious, r ,) irir.\lulrsiLnr uationalism: ol rr I (orne\l.1 rnnedcl.sbesi r(l)lh. (lisn)lLrtior theconmunit-vl ot rLr rrlernrri(nrrlisriion coillicts. r of to The rr(horirflirxr chancrerof the politicxl systempresented the Yugoslavs.among existing rno.lels.the projectofunited nationnlcolnmunityas the optimal one.Local political elites, r(lrrrrillcrri(nr frir(rrg rll possibleiltegrilive models.optedlbr the pmject of one nationalcomnunity- The destnrctive prrrri.. ol posr-sociaiist Yugoslxv nxtionalism has iistalled authoftarian collectivism with national ind nfrx)Seneir\and rr,rdc"al' nations,Serbsaid Croatsand Hunlladlxls:rndSlovenians otheB teel like n irlllerr irr ihcir own country".Croxti:rbegun,fbr example(PrBii, 1994:6 l0), to build its independeff, .,!rrfrnt)rrl, idenliry with the populntionhavhg mostly been caught by nation.lism ' xenoPhobic, L,r1..,,,t|\.,rggrcslive. and chauvirrism might causethe destntction a of expc enceteaches that nationahsm llL\r()r'ic'rl lbr rLli r! tx)liricrl elite, but they cor d not be a substitute democncy "withiil" the nation. Na.ionalisn it rirl]lrlle\ r Fople whni is its own becomesworthier only because js "ours" (Bedin. q oted in flrd it leadsinto a ne$ ln(xleofpopulism'. in which the individualhasno lieedom lir'lr\\k!. L()85: 107) ,n .ht)ice bLr hrs to blindly subordtuate himself to the will - dictate" of the nation, of the ethnic in .l llnrnir!. lhilr is of x givenpolitical -cr tural elite,or a leaderwho decides the nffne of the ndion or ,n In(li\ alterJaiiii.1993r 148-150). lllrirl{l)c\'et*, quoted (lni\ersnl expedence sbowsthat peoplearc well-disposed identify the essence strangeness to of :md or $ rrhs(!r.rhi|g lesswonrhy.llrdunconsciousl!, to projectthen own othemess shadowof their own (Young, aiier Sekelj, 1995: ll8). "Thrt is the lNli|l.c,)l inleriorily. Erilt oid tirstmtions on stm.ngers (!rrliri('rlinrbasictiustratiorolnxtionalism: itis r idexl,ilways rcxcly analgetic ctnonicallytakhg lbr of situation. r. ( rr. (lefciclcv in iodilidual rd tnre cr hrralidentity".The rapid aggravation economical (Du.klrein), the disintegntionor a thrcatening bre:rk-down the multiethnic,multinational of r(irinle\snes! ,,,rnnrLLrir!'. dcsirr of thc inclividrnl(or Eoup. politicalpar0, to maintafucontlol. orto retair confto] hisic socialtaLtors rhatstimulate Dationalism r. . ftr rhe Gecmmovii 1995:105). Th. iptrei ofn ionaiisrn rcsls uF)n i sritable liamework that cormectstoday, fike in tie tbrmer r.:illrf. r\errl lunctions:it provideslegitimry to ruling elites:x motivatespeopleto acceptaspinlions (economic political.belbrei[). ,r1ne\ p. $ .f cenrers ll oew powerdistnbunon .ncl and One oi rhe lacts chlrlctedsirg the processof acquisitionand aficulation of identity in the ro||nri.\ ol ('entralEurope.includirg ours,is identitymodelingilrougl grcupsby birth, most liequently (n ,\ ,,,1t ril l)eloueing (Ntihajhvii, 1996).rly becoming nalionalist, hasno rcason suspect s o$n one to one 10 thit thereis no placelbr doubt.One is now. rlcnrirt ()r.ilrnle is ilr doubt. onehasreason .ssrre oneself (.,ririrll) slrD.l)ody, ard lrot nobody (Kecmnrovi4 1995: l3,l). Howevef, an analysisof electionsin
r, (rhl.N! in rh. rehtionships between socialisl countdes. ln rhe foiner Soviet Union, ii wns cleady shown. rli,,r rlr'r. c\in.d r lor df unsohed problerns.The fomer CzechosloviLi.t. f.er pohncal shocks und rviih .r ! .,rrlr .rpo\ri niriional mo ent". has tmnsfonned ar this constixrrionallow poifi ftom 'corlecied ni&rrv rt, .r ii, r,f l T(fh of statearrangement(Pasii. l99l: 707). Alier rhe cisis. fte Czechian- Slovakian tederaiion lo li,r. lrll.r ,rp,|J. iriier it had happened So!iel ind Yugoslav auihoritv. ' Ni,ri(nii,lj$n lhould nol necessrf lerd to poprlisrn. There are other more successful foms to handle r.,ri(rrirLllrr. fin exrmple wilh.hnirn 'SecondReich" or contemporarytlnited Shtes. Therc are alislocmtic. by t!,t)rliir. fl.hi{ irr.y. socialist..orpontive. nationil. e(c. nationnlisms(conecily suggesied dr Vlada llii. lNr

of to Ilur)gr}. Ibland or h Ldvia sbws thit questions nation,ethic and nationals)'mbolss(opped be of and questions that concem their dircct economical l\r\ im|1rfrnre t() \,otercwheo mfll(ing decisions, fr.r'si .|)L',!cd The h lslbllahon fiom "pohics of symbolism" to "inlercst politics" exhibits an (Pdbiie\14 O., 1996). in Ir|,inflrt sico ol democracy consolidxtion thesesocieties hr YLrgoslrvia, the coouict between republicm subgroups of the command hierarchy absoltied ( ki.h |ped', erpressiorby V. PrLsiOmassrnd intellect al energyaway from the process democracy of of socialism and so it prevented, postponed or Irr()nrriorrl tc irodal conflicts.a1themonenl of the crisis rh. be!innins ot sysremxlic tnrsfbnnations(L^zi4 1993:73). ,\ hrfthcr andysis of elitesin post socialistcountriessufigests that theseeljtes.like the lbmrel in!'\. ,ifllrrrllte lrom beyond the economy".Hencethey by, in the opinion of DusanJanjii, to presefr'e over econorny, althoughthey clamorously declare their supportlbr posFcornmrrrism tr)liri.ll d(nnrnlfi(nr (Jn1ji{ 1993:143). with "economic dilettantism" llrl 1lc. llnlk.t. Besides, is marked its ll\ing a competent !tical discouNe, Vladimir Coati distinguishes federal, rcpublican, region.J, an (SFRY). .Lrl xl locrl *rlitocmtic elites.The reflrhlicanelitesplayeda key role in the tbrmer YuSoslavia to so I ),y'rrr /?(r i_!,/c.' detenniied access key positions in the lederal politicil apparatus, that lederal elites .,!rl(i hr Incrr;())cdexclusivel) as "se€ond.:ty elites",without the own base.The completeabsence of of rhe federalelite designates conlbcleral the character the corntry. "Havnrg in mind the of I r(lepef(lence polilocl..lcy, shouldtalk aboutthe lexdingeroup in plural, such .s politocracies' we lf) r,l. ol republicii.]l :16l). 1(;(,rli. l()()l: ll)' essesstug econonical structurc oI the fbrmel Yugoslavia, Mladen Lazii sagaciouslypoints the rr I crlr.|lt\ ot t)1]litical cooditionnlgof ar "il] bal.urced" transfonnation the "commandeconomy"iand of f.(nr(nri(rl rnr€ioalisation"ol the pnvatepropertystatus. The brqrkdownof EastemEuropernregirne\ I lhe hre eigllriesimposed an xlterationof the institutionalframes works inside which lhe lomer political ind economical YU:{)\h\ so,riet} Iilnctioned. While entering the stage oi indispensable ir.|n.li) rrrion. The FederalRcpublic of YugoslaviaITRY) made effortsto introducepolitical pluralism rn(l lrrft.t feorgrxrization. that tire, the leedirg socialgroupingin FRY kept its position. changed At lfirloli(rl chflrcte.istics of political sq']es. rctainedthe sourcesot politicr power. articulatingthe tntt.Ll:ttit tttlL'. Substitutirgin due time seiilist legitimationwith the nationalistone, it managedto ..rr\oli(hle irs lorver. 'lt perfbnnedthe ownershiptr stbrmation"for its own benelit of savirg lbmer (L:rzii, I 994b: 122). ir(i illi\n rti!e iLrrctions T\ro lurcls of socl. elites ine relevant for our anxlysi\: politicxl -adninishi?tr€ (socio-political. .'flllt.i(iriiishrri!c) aod e.ororre4 thus political d economical elite. Tlr econonic elite. hom the sll]ndfx)int ot authorised membem, nduences social processes;it '\ \t\ ;rt ihe brsic poirxs of economicpower .u decisionmaking, where i]rvestments a.ndsorfces of r, \ [(1i\ e nrerns arc located; lhe econonic elite is not a unifed struclurc; some economic elites (dircctols Lij irfcr strie enteprises and a fbw owDeN of private enteryrises with special privileges - loarN, fr.rllrinrlise c(Jrrtinllenls and sinilar) llre closely coft1ecledwith political elites, at the same tune rr,rllccting lra*el baseof lir e8e; economc decisions determined political reasons, that the ihe al€ by so qdth each other, blockine the tuflctioning of the rirfrrlr.rs of rhe economicelire eglectsconnections frrkel los( developmenl of prxircnve brlsile-ss stiridards. The rccent economjcally dominaiing r or lrirrgin FR Yugoslavia consists publicand privateentrcprcneurs, the analysis of thus could be diEcted It'.r rrUhlic Ddvitesector. rnd Whrr is tlr rclationship betweeo today's economic elite rnd processes economical oi and political !\ \lcln rlrnslbnnations? Thepublic enneprcneus represent existingsystematic fbrms, or do not actively ..rllrp()lr ch rges.or only ro r Linited extent. Thepubltc seclorischTactedsed collectiveownership irs by r.rfrflr\ Uerftrg iI mind the integntjve closeness the pubtc sectorwith style of elites' potitical of rt,ltfirrcc. politicxl comditjons directlytied with the administration public enterprises. public are of The \..r()r (t cLLrrent oftwo substrata: thal makesdecisions economicelitc corlsists one and one that direcd! .rrhllinislrxles entelprises.

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lorder Form , I lrrlikc public entrcprenerrs,pir'./e otes are defined "both struclurally and by seli_undentanding, r\ rh. l)r\ic aclors of possible translbnnation" (L^i6, 1994b 1?]6)-n1e Pivate secrot coffists of private arnongwhich a specixlsubgroupof the so caued "war proliteers"is 'set rpan The war . rrrctJrcnerLrs. in lollle\l rrrd tlle cn;hing eticts of sinctions crealedspeciic social circumstances YuSoslavia:the the needsand the impossibilityof their satisfactlon, the ,r\hlusri(nr(]1 re\onrces. hcrcase of unsatislied of ()f the leSal order. the acceleration social diftilentiation. ]t causes . proportiond {||\t|t!cli(nr elrichment of a nanow stratumof people(!azii, 1994b:122)' t,,rr|friTrtr ofthe maiority arxt sudcien : their firms do it) (or enlarged by ilegal, or by paftrtegilmeans; o'vnership morc precisely, llr.'y a"qrrirccl statesuppot (bec se it ensures or with cooperation, tacit usua11y, 1,.\iric\\ nrnsrgions on lhose bases, or rrli\|]ensrlrlc inte atiooal exchanfle. they gair 'war or othef \nerits')" (L^zii, 1994b: 123) The tnerk(to$,n of leSiliry oftered a lxvorlble oppomuity to "public" sectordirectors to take advanta8eof their of p,xrtrrr p,rver tor trirnstfing Propefy to privaleliJmsof their own or ownedby members their lamily show that we th didnt precedethe founclationof private i I _xzrt:.I99.1b: 1ll). "Anatysj s o{ resexrchrcsulrs ofownin!!a 1inn".(Lazii, 1995:68) .nrfrlrises. but wasxcorrsequence The 6rst subllroup of pnvxte entrepleneurs \\ hit are the ways ot recruiting private entrepreneurs? ({)f\i:rs {)l ircins olnoclest social oillrlTheir c:reer wirs sell:madestrltinS with positions of low betorethey setot] to the world of privateprcperty'wherethey usedihe most diveNe l rlill( fri.nr llrLrofine whoselathersbelontledto the of The secondsub'!rcupconsists managers ,:rlrrciries rchieve success. ro positionswithin the nrediati]Eclass(of agenls) lirialy they occupied ,rf!i{)Lrs l.hninislntjve hierarch},. Nf(l thrlr lhe! Ino\'ed to elitistic positions ol p.ivirte entrepreneursThe thid subgroup Elathen they have r.lrltsdrtrriles of I'aious stanrsorigfu. Advarcing to conrmandpositionir public enterPrise' reselrr'oir" of a,e rhcir t(,Unrte(t oun. "private1inns".cenerally.public entrcpreneurs "the main recruitment (Lazri. l9q'+b:ll0) lni rte os,ncrs sharc the iate of the rest of the population, In renns of matedai difLrcnces, public entrepreneurs hiSh incomes(Lazii, I994b: 133-134)'By rs LirLikc tnilrre enneprcne who nost o{ten eam extremely lacts that 23 percentof pubhc martagers posirionof economicelites.Lazii quores , |lt)sing ihe nr:rredat of a s enneprenelr occupied "low materialposition",70.2 percent fhe lormer .l1d rrl I a lfrcenr of priv,rte ' and 35-9 percent I t)t'rft1rlol ihc latter€cupied c "loweLmi(lclle"rld "rniddleposition"' 6.7 percent, i() \r'hile no managerreacheda "high position". In conhast' 5 l percentol rt\|ccrilell lrigh lniddle", the moreprecisely creationof an elite oi rich people .nrr.Diureul1 di(I. An inDorhnr socialdiftbrcntixtion. (Lazii, 1995:68). r(tr'kt)Lrre nririnlydueto:rctivily iffide the privxtesector ,\ Inrn()rily of entrepreneuial etites is party engageclResearchlesults demonstmtethat o{ l/5 of in who declaredtheir memberchipin some of the parties. more than 80 percent d.re the efri eprcneLrrs plr) (L..lzii, lc)q4:139-l'10). So(i11i\r all assemble fhe key function holdeN lllllike economicelites.potiti.xl elites,in xbrotrdersense, to access inlluentialpoliticd to maling processes a relevmt extent,including \ nr t)lrliciplte irr clecision to of rr'rjrrri()nsrrxl o€disations'; il consists citizenswho areelected parliammt aid to the Elovennnent md the goven nent' as lhxl are rppointedby parliament tederd level).then lo all Places ind lr.t)Ubii(rtn boardsand all sftfe hodiesfrom polilicrl pafies. prominmt membeEof essembly of r.ll rs kcl rnerntrers YuSoslavr.r, in r in I n(| |e!i( )r to tederallevels.In the fi rsr lnl tipafy elections. Epublicsof disconstructed r 'fr$ of Todxy theystill crnprisethe nuclerB tultInwerlnlitical gctttPs' lr)liricrlelites wereelecled. MIMICRY OF PAROCHIAL POLITICAL CULTURE Itchiniog soutcesofpower. srtbstiirtir)€rthe idmlo€lical foundation of;.riet7dd Politiall sry'le ^lso providescol'finuity of the th |r iL'rnso| prrcticalefiect,the localpoliticnlelite suggests thejr rccruitment orientedcirclesarc without practicnlpolitical Membe.sof intellectwrlly l<rrsrx,liricatnomenclanrre. rrr,,r to cjrcles:re Inodiryingthe bioSraphies differcntelirisficcffeeN A .\|.ficuce. lljld oftihootsof dissidenf
I h. inrerul polirical sceneof pafy and polltical life in Setuir rnd Yrgosla!ia is dislinguishedby m insrabilily. higl desi:e ofconflici situatiors' an atomizedatmosphere (lhe presence . \nrf\1.it,l!r.rrisn. of ,t ,rgrcrr nrmber of polirical sub iecls) the Prc!riling absence infrashucrunl prcconditionsfor noe hienrchy of iniem l the *. i, i rs poI ir icr I ictiv ily. unshble pary- identification of the electornre. emphasized to tuld the striling of panies then ing one abore n11. ,,rrrr rri:nions rirh extrerte. parrocralictendencies , ,,nrr(,1 und.\ el(De.l cilil society.rcsulting in rising political ipa{hv and satuition (Stojiljkovii. I996) i,f

t r ol polilicrd elites most thquently originate fiom acknowledged,once hjghly appreciatedand eminent joumalists. actors, After their politicaldebut, businessmm, suchasjudges, doctoN,protessors, t)roless()ns. rhet rcnoactivel) get vocational "retminin€!" into rcalpolitici0rN, or they become amateur sociologists, philosophen. tlolitrcololdsts. Considering the educational level, Sedrian political elites do not lag behind elites of other post socir isr colntdes . More than 90 perceff of elite memLreNare high-school tu1dunive$ity edrcated 27 pcrceDtofnrembelr! of political elites finished Grammar school or higHy profbssional educxtion in Serbia, and x doctoml title was attainedby I I percent 56 pcrcenrgot lrniversity degree, 6 percentmastels clegree, ol rbe exftnioed subjects. Therc were no agdqrltrre pfolessions, and only 1.5 percent werc workels in (Anl()rii. lgq5: 54). The advantageof the old political nomenclanue may be recogrrised applying their procedures, hrt, at the s.lcrxl-decfldes long experienceof "real political memory", tu1dacquaintflce wilh \rll|e lirne, lhey :ue chiracterised by abilities tbr mimicry and an uileadiness for the pl!'tilist "p'rliticnl of The complex social situxtion ir the fomer Yugoslavia causedProcesses a new ideologlsation of of 'controlleclpoliticalculture,instead continuingthe process its liberation"(Golubovii, 1993: of tilr'r) .i | ). It is possitrleto analysethe tve oJpolilcal peXonnanceof mernbersof actual poli.hcal nomenclatures usint! a mixed model $lrosepoliticaldebuttook placewith little (oftenwithout ry) political experience, ptochixl atld utittari&t etn-cal attitudes. L1 contrasl to their r rlll \{ould exprcss a mixture of t;Lrti rfcomplislrc'.| cchrcxtion,the political culturc of political elites is chancterised by exclusiveness,often authodtatian conlbrmity, dognatic afiitude and a high clegrceof il)sLrrce ol tolerince, unscnrpulousness. the 'honc(nNensual inrerrcli\c rrrirnosity."The manitbstalionof an ! horitadim spiit demonstlates chrfrctei ol political elites, intoleranceard a piror capacity for historical compromise, and all aspintion to (omplL'rcl! clestro) rivals thal causes pa-mlyses society or the disintegration (Peaujt4 1996) 'The of nrtiondisr comrplion of poJitical competition is a speciil mecharism of adveNe, and thereby negative climb to the top..." and al] that by poliriml selectior.thnt makesthe wont, or evellthe leastscrupr[ous, rsing insnlrments that are not .lt the disposal of any political pffty in the political system "where the .(onorny iurd other arcas of socretal liL are independentof the political establishment" (Madtu, 1995: ls5) (irrrenr memberc the Serbiin politicxL elite t mosl ollen recndbd Aom lniddle strataiin l5 of ol lhe cises. theit latheN were wofters, ir1 1,1percentfarmels, in 23 percent professionals, a'ld in tJr'fcent (Antonii, 1995:58.). I 5 pcrcenr employees of prltuchial and s bjectedpalitical culfirc is remarkable tn the pltical The Jntxrifest nltnit! i /. of eliles in Serlria. lt is confimed by a reseffch that discovercda heightenedcosmopolitalr orientation. Thc gip b.twceo orientation and pnctice could be explained with thejr need to compensatelongtime isol ion ol YLrgoshvia liom uo d integntional process.The same rcasonscausedand abardonment of economic rhrr ertrrlrc w:rFnation: laiaticism tlom 1991:rnd i992 which tailedto carryout the inevitable pri[rarily in onler to stqj iD power. nE parochial p'olilcal cultute is tu(l so{irLl trulsfonnxtion, ol rhrrlcterizcd bY a Darrow awareness social intercsts ,nd a deficient notion of wider political Processes. li ntbindl Nlitical culnlres i majodty of Fople penreive political processesand their importarce, but drc)' hr\e no developedDeeds.md values that stimulate jndependent(self-directing) irfluence on decision nrrkir)g. d politicallife (AJnond andVerba,in: Matii, 1993:834). Lr his llj l)'sis Slobodafl Artonii oflirs a model of differentiation of the Serbian political elite, c(usrflrctcd on ctteria of "tirndamenld ideological patterns (instexd of tunctioning or status)". He sets

A hr osr 9-l perceni of lhe So! iel romenclniure ftom 1988 haspostgnd ate school nnd tacully diplomas. and that percentage slighily (9.r.3) (ll.rrley, in Anronii, l99s: 54). rlr. Rrssirn poljiic l elite from I99l surpnssed llrer. fl. limil r rates in other former socialjst couniries: over 96 Percent of the Hungadan political n,nrenclrtue Nprcsentnrivesattained poslgnduaie education - Polish,93.3 pecen(, Russim. 92.2 percent) r l- ( r k r . in A r t o n i i . 1 9 9 5 :5 :1 ). In ltrssii, i new politic elite contirruesto rec t fron the fonner nomenclnlue families or appiratLLs . \ f. | | ! irf,l e,r p lovees(Hanler,,in: Antonii. I 995: 5.1).Ir Polrnd and Hungnry n new political elite oriSinates l. nr nr i( ldle. n .l n p p e rmi d d l e c l i s s (s l .s p e rcent,then32P ercent)(Fodor.i n:A ntoni il,995: 57).

rtJrircnralgroups(Aitoni41993:166197)'thatreflectcomplexfoundationsofcollectiveactionbeyond tional-poPtlist atd p",iy division "narowly" rude$tood. He otirs a qpology of etatistic "ri.,i|lg eiin's. I shall use it to poifi to crr7ent chancteistics of the potitical elite xnd to the specificity of lih,:nl slrlL' iti Serbia. ip etttist elire, consistjng of memben of the state - political nomenclatureof the ruling party' is of Communist the rhr polilicd clile of the authonlariarsysiem Rentuning leaderhip of fhe formerkague (SSRN of Serbia)in July 1990' aid ol ierbi.r (SKS), unittng it $ith Socialistunion of wo*ing people and "restoringthe of nr ,rrrrillins legitirnacyin ihe perioa 198?-1989 processes "pmple's happenings" positiondunng elite improvedits monopolistic established S.rbir r srate'(Trhrlja, 199i: 178),the :Jready (1945-1991) Yugoslavia second rh--ll g !€riocloln e ofthe regimeofthe :l he c(nNhxcf of rhe political systemof a set of post socialist societjesis a specilic political hybrid the krx)\\lr as /.)tr /r/cr.s/l'./er?@/rcJ: in which reduceddemocncy inte|sectswith new authoritarism' and (Pe.ujlii, 1996)'The et,tistic elite to democncytendsto be rcduced the elecdonacl |r|.$l) $on L|nstlrble (1990, 1992' 1993)(Coxti, 1995:201) That tact colrstfttes all electornlcontests ro nrrriaged $in ii {titJcre;ce h.Jween se6ia and orher post_soci:ist counrries (,,exceprMonrenegro"). In rhe second elecrlon wisdomand natioral pride".Its is obligednot to lose any elections, the rtreelite Dlaved ,ole of "statesnan ^'liti.xl ir.p,,'r'erlie"jnurdivideclgovemment.-inxsymbiosisofteritorial("Southrail")andgroupinterests (tr.'rhroncN, tannec,...)(Sekelj,1995:l2? I28). Th.]l'liticxlstyteofetntisticeliteischoracleisedbyacapacityofeasytr:nsfomationof"political irs pittems wherebyit "leSitimises ruljng position" (Aitol]ld, ron)rrhs,, tlirr is. trurspareniideotogicxt counties the personalco.rposition has been in the other posr-socialist t()()-lt.Dificrent fLom Sertia, l n(hrnenlrlly tr.ursfbrmecl, nol only of the most impormt state bodies, but also of significait A cultuml and inlbrmationareas. good exampleis HunSarywherenl a sho( in or.sroisrtl(nls econornic, l]er*""n tp.iug 1989 tu1dautuml 1990 - 80 percent to 90 percent of the political elite compositjon ryi.d, \\A retlrccd (Brhid. in: Goati. 1995:202) politic'al alpitalisnt (Weber, in: Antolrli' ,\ rrrdirionally known phenomenon.wbich Webet na]r,eal throughthe socio-politicand cultur:context. Profit is realised 99-lr ll+) \r'a! revivedin the domestic of making money, including overt abuses and nNrc is a nredium rnd through uninsdnrdonal chamels lirstly its conmunist name. then the )i\il.gcs. In the cisis 1990 ye:[, tbe ehtistic elite abandoned srrialiit selfn'age'rent ideobgy that rv.s used as reprcsentativeof it- The previor$ state community, rt)gerh.r wirb r ir;darnental soci.d value - peacewas " sacriliced" to pa(ial interests,during 1991 -ln l 99l of loedcol the courtry end standard the biggestpart of population 'e'e "s'criflced to the thc ecr)lrrrnic determined savethe controlposihonat rny to (Antonii, I 993: 172).Feverishly t( )liricrI ise of new elites |o|'|.ilthxryedtht:e\te]n(snhce)chancE|isricofsryleThepragmaticinversionoffundiment.lv^]ues tn oi col nunily : so initialed a tunslbnnation of the soci stlucnrre, rnd carBeddramatrc con'sequences "Iibenl" dstance, eierlriry lile of society. Reviti izing Ihe sty'e of aryarently non interfe@re politicalstylesof ^1d behaviour:indjffbrent, (t(nl.,\tif eiircsdelinedits placein a rypologyof David tuesman's in: etc (Riesman, Beyme,l9??: 187). infbrmatjon couecring Inoralisric. The notioo of style is used to ctistiiSujsh pragnxtic behaviour lixed on certain v'lue notions' of t'r)tilicrl style urcludescerrxir pr.ocedures a prolbssed ethic of resp:sibility, in which the aw:uenessof political styles. Blocking rc41 ({)rrscquences acrion w\rulcl be an esserrial elementof contemponry eLites' ol civic st ndardsot social lile. The public, domesticFliticxl elitesnelllected lr.ssibititicsof a democraric was legrtinised by "a plum.listicdecor and acmmpanying fbm'l democmhc cliecti\e moropoly pottiqrl styte,ard (MactZ,r,1995:186).In crisis,nr April 1993,without silos of a developed lrLocerlrrLrs" previous decisiorN, over dght, the political of the ,rb"cnceof responsibility fbr political consequences 'r elire rl) rloned the s:imenxtionil progmm ("All Serbs the sxmecolmtry") (Aitonii, 1993: 173).that l[]tn'd lhelr to presenttheir leadilg position as 'ljust", overcoming,thus, "the prcvious crisis of modilied pats of their lbmatior$ As pdonq tn its ettes successhrlly DLrdng199,[etatistic legiturracy". the I'r lgg5 ld 1996it became "loudest"protectofoi "the abolitionof s:rnctions'. poli.f rr enphasised lor process, deniedirs resposibiLiry it ir disconrinuity the peacanrking ir.,.ce.(lnnpe'sar g by obvioLLs the of its own actrons, the Not anticipating cohercnce rhe \\rf priicipation" oll the partof Serbiai people. the institution{ and stlenSthen ctite negiecrsrc:r1mi'ks of a losi.g comnunity *nable ro recognise lftchrlni\nrs lor lhe democmtic (rriistbnnation of sociely

th': nxtional ppu|ist elite consistsof the "headman" ("glave5iia") and the hiSher leaderslrp of fhe of The SRS programsniveslbr the "restoration a free, scI l)im Rnd icrl Pafy (SRS (A1lorii, I 993: I 67.). ) which meansthat it will inde|en(lelr trn.l demolratic Se|.bi:ulstate that would include the entire serbdom, Se$ian Dubrcvnik, Serbiin Bosnix,Se$ian Hercegovina, .rrlose witlrii its boldelx: l Serbi.rlcountries: S. )im D malia. Serbi r Lika, SerbianKodun, Se$ian Bania, SerbianSlavonia,SerbianWest Srem, ScrhianLtrriruirard Serbiri Macedonir"(Pro:rarnof the SetuianRadicalParq, in: Trkttlja, 1993: 182) ollellng l \{-v slnple solutionit fil:t sight fbr the most paintul stateand socialquestions,_ the nxtional /e |n)lrllist elite sbrlre .r, rlasTbrlsl sa.t stimulating arcrrlc enotionxl stntctures.Using sweedy homlytng rhcl.rc rhe! :rfc "kir ling torcy wjth m iffolent lanlaronade about re.l and imxginary crime" (Anlonio, to to tlr)cllriminslheirselves be pDlectorsof a whole "madfbldly imperiled people",which tuxrly htus lhink {!nv atroutirseu.to corxjder its nationalilterestsmd its nalionalfuture (Kecmanovii, 1995: I 16). (i)nsl rl cflrtioll to so-called "oonspirncies" is the main determinator of the appearanceof the nationil Tbey constantly retbr fo "stlDng en of the mobiiisecl Serbianmasses. f(r|ulistic clire \\hich seductively groups.The tnabrlily and the othernationalist $orll rrt ponise to "urunask villainousi'nentio[s" of were easily $ith the ideaof milit ]y supremacy, llure 01rhen own m:nlnerof policy rn*ing, associxted rh.T or t)oflrc.lilrto a sirnplilied pjcturc that Serbiaand Se$s have been satanised into a sta1emm1 fhe of eneDrt tlr Se$s in the third Balkirnwar "ticked the world" (Sekelj,1995:126). The liberll elite consists of party leadeN of the democratic opposition and their peNonal by Often they arc cnt ofi liom real sulrour(irrgs(Alronii, 1993: 167).lt is chamctedsed weakrootedness. oftbr lbr longtem proJects. They undeNtrnd !,cirl !oil, roclinedto salon sophistry,with tr moderate p(rlirics Nsr mtutel arld a pafy ,s business".The fiberal elite is chxracterisedby p|aematrsm, tn which c|rhrge.l xnporruce is xttibuted to politicxl marketing, md there is excessivecareior party rating and their position(Stojiljkovii. 1996).Media "liberation"."tair" elections, a ret mof the King', mirket lerrrltr's h)nllrllrs dl lhese fmgrneDtary"local therapies"- ecle.tically iitegrxte segmentsof a traditional pltical \r\.le tith nL'Il,lont lasof elites' xctii\,. such as: educxtion. The politioat and econornic elite's sta$s is protect€d by different possessions, js knowledgetoundatiorl;profbssion: ism, i.e. skills (aristucficy by alena Lash 1996: 43,.16); thrr to or of urslilur(nrrlpositioos elitementrers;apprtlenance organisations largersocialSmupswith a special and making centers; kno$4edge iilbrmation sources decision rrllrLcnce. is access money,rcpulxtion. rhd to (r1pr,(e([Lres. Analysingthesee]ite stanrscriteda we are lhcrng a rcgulationind manrSement. codlict (t .\rioir: is rherc still a chmce fbr contempora4 Yugoslav elites to become a lbmation thxt would oller i)t enin)t:i), t:titeia ol actiot. luxl pnvide an e\entpLuy rcllection on tu1dimplementation of tlte intetest (,/ /rd .7rzclrt Individ :rl and grcup appartenarceto an intblmai community of might and eminence dd iit the role ol r rstomation egency. rlor provide one with the capacity 10 plrvide social -lliutxntee Srmilird), b^rc rccunulation of attributesrnd demandsdo not condition democralic contentsand tnosress. rh( t r1)ccss.! ariseo. coul,se. rcsponsibilitylbr this fttNformation doesnot only lie with the elite. Of tlt llrther ir lrlst be consideredas a civil duty which applies to all citizens as political subjects. Consnlctive elite in the Post is |n^vrr. pdissional skil tnd a real socialinlluence not comrnonto the contemporary their exceptional stdus usiig a !(rciilist trxnsitrolr conxnunity.Elites estabtish context ol the Yu€loslav of rllldrl( rl power€seNoir, ruIi1g powcr aboveothersocialparts,rnd neSle.tingthe real social interest ihe I rfirr\ion atidr. Wilhoul \illjng to soundlike prophet, u'ould like to pfoblematise actualpenpectives lnla])'tic evaluation thepoliticalscene. of ,,1nlrx)nr ll 'conpetent"elites.lNingan inspiralive Recenl relonn projects oI Yugoslavia diftirrentiated two extreme attitudes: one predicts the citizenship e md based co[sensrs$ith developed oI1 rcSional of |n)srrssiv. constitution liberaldemoc|acy oi areaof civic societyithe other relieson complex(ethno)nationalismwith e r(nr]lnrhcrr\ion the b:r.sic politicalfonnation"in Serbia, as rhxulinislic clxle.differentlrcm the projelt of "la nation". The Caesarist over the civil society oo "ornnipotent colonisation repression and ot ,r resrdue dem.rmtic despotisn,based (Podunrvac. 1995:234)."Ever if recent of L'ri.i'. eristsas a resturation "or€mic ly-pdochial autonomy" md usedto conprehendthe existing Serbim societyis so atomised r\rfcrnc mriuralism niSht weir-ken, ((!rdrti()niN lhe nonn, thxt a successhrl of in and institutions construction civil society, a fbrm of interests \!llicl\ .k) not contbnn with nationalones,could not be expe.tedin the near future" (SchoeFlin, 1995: (r$1. project,-nda rcalisation civil of lrl the hnsition tiom an ideologyen to :tn epochof a reflective "a blood ard soi]" \('cier) iller!. Serbi,rncLitesallowed themselvesan trchaic political style [Elsonified in

|)|()i.ct'Thevdidnlrcsistthecha]tengeofethnag:|drelyonanadonalist'ehabilitationof,'arevenge betrayal Regional elites agrue tor. a.TetDprcJec'' me of i,,'i..r ror'gel-.i,f", rcpression iith and of bases "the law of the.jungle" ThlB, l'e on nation,state the classical on Sertrjan "*,utrti"t,n,",,iot".o,n ,ribute' was reactivated, along with the "resistanc€to modenizing processeswith . ti* .i ',.looa pledgeof stabilityof ",.i,r^ " shed"is aprecious is"t.lj, rrr5r 137),wherea "higherquantitvof blooct 'i"' ''","l\i of the bulk of politifl llld behaviour thinking" "Retrosmde 1993:136)tf,. ,r,,i. r,,']""t.,i(vutt"al()vii, everydty litb .''d overall g*erares the main ct;c. ols.rlal .'.1o,', while in arduous ,,,*t i,ri.ri-.rr,,r tncl of "rir.r (lcc.\ xre 'rcsultmts of lln :rntinodenlising,iegrcssiveanswerto the challenges social crisis .(nrlll(r\'(\irjo!ii, 1995:I I l) poiiticxl styles ol h1)speclrve tr:ristbnn.rtions of a Post-socidist Yugoslav society, blcf.ked by and tolemnce in a coordinating system t trhatit)tixn snlrctute. did not rccognise^ pragmatic :rrrangement insintions T\e niling elites wilirlly blrrked the prmclpal u,t rit,,tLntttiyetl plannetl denrtiic to exposure the laws of the m ket' ptocedures, ,'"',.il,ri,^,ir,* .'f,n" p"lilical systen :rnddemocratical of of collectivepropefy, ihe feorganisalion the burexucracv atoJt tne Leprivatisrtion Inrti|g decrsions the development of a modem, rational. principary ,,n.r",,i,,r. _a rhe esrxblislunerlt of conditions tbr The shategy ol iErtia proves resistart' but ofticial interprelafions of ch^otic i'il,i""'i.,l,,r i;,'r.",t.'""y' optiod demonstraeda djsashrN elier' ol ii,,snrcrr,,rr Guch as. "tire relilqrrisllnent" to pea'ekeeping efieds of trxditional ,,trrri,t,tc.t in tle nentelity, whose elites promote a transfbrmation generaling the active prcsence of elite members in the pmcessesoi postlrrliie s of v{)hurta4"' backuarclness.The xnd action h *rialilr rlrnnomatioi irplies in the fiNt place a capacily to rellect on i"ividual clloicrs rnd imprcving the conditionsfor sahsfyingfie with launchinginitiaties rnftrxlesbehrliouLcoordin;tect ()f flee citizens. llns elrte concePtaflilrns inclividualqualities,derplle af(l. aSti!1stconExnnl n...ls processesof socid r)/xrr./c\: It i! .tr?r,ecte<lv'ith thePtuiect of x changed individuxl rcIe n dnrmatic one hind tbere Tlt Politicd style of domestic elites is peFaded by a double determhatiorlsl on the of tilbstyle: onrhe other, theie 're lrll rclated ir rht' rrLrthoriiarrr revival ol Pxnchixl mtdsubjectedc'ontents one strntum withir t\i I n,in\h)t ]:ltion ol the behaviou ol snns Sroups Deriving fiom the subculture of of tlle civic lyfest,'|e r r( !o.icry. prr?/.r1.it /e Econstnats a sohetitutefor the MdevelopedPtivate 'sphele promoteindividual vilues nomrs and ildicdors of public behaviour t,r,,."",e*-,,i aitrr,sionof democraric shaping a participatorymodel of citrzen'spublic life The irrl instinrti$alise criteda oi successfirl pofidclll stye improves a grcup model of "pmsperity"' and establishesquality stand'rrdsof /,uri.Fttitr hlocked tlE pfhlii'qpeiiance urd activity The seltinadecoNuming style of domesticnational elites 'ltinhct such as the existing There arc destmctive consequences tlctctopftnt ()f t'1e iitl socitl resources. ot cirlluL mcl politica.l moclels that \\'ould supPof tolerance of diffeEnc€' improve ifierest nr(nhge r(n lrnnni\esairdrcly on crcrtlvrlyesttblishes Thc xulonomy of rhe seio-ecolomic sphere,in conoast to the despotism of authoriq ' h by-agencies' individual tnd reelimes, goals,proceclures lroduced i\cll ir the pluriiisln of phenonena, prblic lr.-ecli,nranrithe civil ri€tllts of the citizen as political subjecl The nfe of law and in independent practice'which hrlly democratic of :rrhf|t r()rl.!Dondio :rn nnclerslanding civil socjetyas a demilitarjsed so developnent tif of civilisation0l .\pi:ct! xlllhc .iclxevements ?u Some resultsof.Jecentsociological researches analyses"carried out by Yugosltv aurhon dlrect presupposilions oI not e L. to rhe conclusionihar 1,4 nlin[r elite has satisfied neither concepttnl nor practical
cotrld be ' lf (l(nf.dic sci.ntific circles a higlet degree of criticism toward "inflaled anti-buenucrrism" e\ |] . ( lei|. i' e ' rc l e a rc ra n .tn x l l e u n i v e l s a l defi ni ti oD oftheconceptofbureaucracy' ddnncx,mi nati on of tiuctionility of rhis social srcup This presulns rhe.liberdion of the v$lioN t erlion. il.i,ll",, rr' 'r''itri"" nrtrtti _ i.leolosicat sedimenrations, well as the disrinction betweenburearcracy as as "'. rrrci,n.epi irorn rheir ,,t ('Kr jji l989: l3E) ln this pirr ofrhe wofld' administrarion an.t burcaucralisation lr,,pcr.on,'r,iml pedicrable if we wish ro rrri(fNlisirrioi ol buErucracy .lnosr seens ro be a vetl urgenl slep of defl@'aiisalion .'rules of the g ne'' will be i'e. where the *ill bc mo.Iern trn.I niional. Predictable. .,'',.r,ri"r. ..ai,;... 'r."1 an inquisitive rnd prosno'Iic ' Th. in\esrig.rion of eliie political st-vlein posr'sociilist lmsformntion has (har ha'e been.lone here confnm lhis nnPression'as do foreign nulhors' inquides of r),,.,,riLlr\. R$r.u.hs o,r lbc posr - "o.riltn PoLrricrl scene ldentifving divergences:rnd pointiry to differenccs i.,",,,.,r ','r.r


its xnte. n1e deixy of lhe amounced democmtisationof society to the next Sene.ations(and decades)ard it enconngenrentof lhe ftttD-direction of tnilit.ted transfomations 2.re,le only outcones of elite activityNeitber Serbid people, nor the state appamtus,or cuffmt political and economic elites in pa.rticularhave ptoveDcompetentin gmppliog with rcal challengesof transfomation. On the contrary, by reuiing ethno.y'6odes. they have unwittingly demonstrated the limited possibilites of a project which denies the irnporxnce of the fundamentalprinciples of civil sociefy.

berweenvndous currenr insights is the subject of some interdisciPlinary work - e.8. (for exalnple, Laszlo a'd Transfomntioi ofElites in Post-Conmmist Societies,Central European tittezt (1991) Regine - CbanAe I Jnilersitv. DeDartment Poliiicr Science) of


LTTER,{TTJRE Serbia: Real and S. ,^rrtonki, (1993)"Demokatija u Srbiji stvamoi moguie" ("DemocEcyin i ddlloklatiJb (Serbia Between Popt isn and Democnct), t'ossible"). lri S/bir lzreAt Wuliznn lPS, tseogr:d Anronia. S. (1995) "Demokr xtijx i politidka etita u Srbiji" ("Democmcy and the Political Elite tn No 4,p.51 72 Selbir"). S/ps,{aprrrC*, nisxa (Selbian Political nrcught), \r,n. R (1967) Jory, aL?.q Polittc\ Class.Ruling Chss, Lipset & Bendir (CottemPorary Political Theot;r) Stvamost' tseynre. K von (197?) Sdvrcnene politi&e teoriJ:e Zrgreb Conmwnst ttnlszt, L ( 1994) Rclire-charyte and the Tnnslbtmation ofElites in Post.\i)i /er'er Cle'rlnl Europflr University, Departmentof Politicnl Science,manuscript Ireher.F. AEri, H., MarhE,D. (lqA6) Lrlitxtun nadPouebtunr (Dicktolship Over Needi), R^d. Ueogm.l (n,rti. V. (1991):"Ko poseduje in: Popovi4 poljtidkumoC' ("Dstribution ofPolitical power"), (Serbiain the late /980s) lnstihrt za socioloska isfiaAvnnja Nl.G'-l):sirliia knjen o,sandesetih 1: FiloTofilkog (Ilteta. Beognd (nriri, V. ( 1995)"Solijaha osnovapoJrtidkih Politlcal panija Sftiji" ("The SocialBaseof jn: Pavlovii, V. (The (ed): Porsrulo ciuilto druitvo SupPressed Civil P:rries io Serbia"), .tir'/erl'), EKO cent r, Beogrid ("The Y,.t€oslxv Case: fmm do YU sluaaja" Col,bolii. Z. (1993)"od riiiagnoze objainjenja peEed (Sociologici Ret?eq'r, No l-4 Dirlr|osis to Explar1ation"),Socioloiki State and u Ist(rcIloj Evropi" ("The Nation I:lrliii. D. (1993)"Nrcijr- drzavt i integtacija Srednje (Sociologicai Rewatt) No. Socioloiki pegled IffegirtFn in Centr.i EislEurope'), preobrazaja bivsih rcalsocijalistiakih druitava' Ianir:iievii. (1993)"Socioloikateodjai srrategije M. ( Sociolo€ricalTheory amdStmtegiesof Tmnsfbmations in Fomer Real-Socialist Societies"), t L totaakipteEJed (Socialogial Reriew), No. l-4 Ke(mrrr{)vii. D ( 1995) Mrrown psihologije necionliznx (MassPsychology ol Nationalism). Vrcme Beogrxd kniigc. Adnrinistatiotl), Krlliia, r. ( 1989),?1ok t/, i ka.ltovska uprava(BurctucncJi mdPenonal N ral krign, tseogfacl ( ("Sociology: nlusronsancl Between Lrzi!, i\'1. 1993)"Sociologij izmedjuiluzija j stvamosti" (Sodolot ical Review) No. l-4 Re ri) ). .5irlolai&pegd./ Filip Vianji4 Beoemd l.rzid. \1. ( 1994a),tsrd, t i slotn (n1e Systemrnd /.r Co1L1Prer, EconomicElire'), i elite" ofthe ekonomske ("Transformation l-lzia.\4. (l9s4b) Prcobnzxi

Srr'eryr, Filip Visnjii, Beograd of L.rz.it.\1. (ed.\: Razxftnlbdtuitva (Destruction "osobenosti globahednGtvene ttuNfbnnacjjeStuije" ("Specific ( 1995) l -zir:. l\1. ( hrfacte sticsof theGlob SocinlTrtuNformation"), h: Boldii, S (ed): l)ntitvene Pnlmenei (Social Aanges andEverydal Life: Setuiain sr:tAtxhrvti 2iv<tt:Srbija Fietl@n devedesetih
l1r' htlr 'gAs).h1sitrl zn socjololka istraivinja Filozotskog fakulteta, Bgd and totalitarizam" ("Elecforal Capture N{rdti |. t-J. ( I 995) "lzbomr snrpicai nacionaLisLiaki rism ), in: Pavlovii, V. (ed.):ibid. NrtioDrlistTotolitari poiitiike kulnne Mriir'. Nl (1993) "Politiaka kultum" ("Political Culn]le"), m: Enciklqedije dmiristracija, Beograd (11k.r.lDpedia of PolitictJ Orltrer. Savremena N{riii. NL (1994) PorrC*i sisren (Palitjcal Sfster .Insdftt za pottidke studije, Beogrul politiakii stlruuka"("The Social Bachground ol Naihrilovii.S. (1996)"Socjjalnoutemeljenie I,olitic,rl Padies"), Meduiarodni nauani skup: P.?uJbi partiiski sisteni u post komutnstiikin Symposium: Prlt;s .2t / Systems ofParlies in Post-Communist .r?/i.r'lr,2 (Intenrtional Scientilic .5ir.'/e1lei1 tseogtad (1969)Pofti.dE TesCeorge Allen & Unwin,London I'lnr). N & .1. (e.l ): ibid ("NationandNationalism"), in:Matii, M Prsid.N. (199-l)"Naciiai nxciooalizam"



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