You are on page 1of 12


MAY 2014

OUMH 2203


(Continuous Professional Development courses for Teachers)

MATRICULATION NO : 900114145384001
IDENTITY CARD NO. : 900114-14-5384
TELEPHONE NO. : 017-3031951


Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................................... 2-3
Characteristics of Professional Teachers ....................................................................................... 3
Challenges as Teachers .................................................................................................................. 4-5
Objective of CPD Courses / Program............................................................................................. 6
Costing that involved for CPD Courses / Program 7-8
Benefits / Outcomes for CPD Courses / Program ......................................................................... 8
Bad Implications for CPD Courses / Program ......................................................................... 9-10
Conclusion................................................................................................................................... 10
References................................................................................................................................... 11



To: Secretary General of Education.
From: Norain Binti Abbas, Research Director of Ministry of Education.
Date: 15 June 2014
Subject: Continuous Professional Development courses for Teachers.

This report was written to see if the professional development of teachers is not a master plan for
the Ministry of Education, so that we would not meet the educational needs of all students
(NJCLD, 2000). To achieve what we want, not just the teachers who should be involved, but also
involve many parties, including the administrator in the department of education, leisure, school
administrators, support staff and caregivers or parents. It must be considered the responsibility of
educating our nation's children.

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a continuing education program or activity of a
lifetime profession after a person has completed his formal education and entered the world of
work. It is to keep practicing the profession is constantly maintain their performance in terms of
how increasing the ownership and control of knowledge, skills and recent experience. Only they
can provide a quality service of excellence to the community with the Code of Ethics and Code of
Conduct. In addition the good name of the profession who are doing well. Strengthening of
teachers through continuous training is important for producing skilled manpower.

Looking at the era of the free market and globalization of the world that exists now than it has
prompted professional bodies to look seriously importance of mastering skills by a professional in
a field. Gained knowledge level higher education institutions can no longer be stalled without a
program for generating knowledge continued to strengthen and improve the person's professionals
to meet the challenges globalization. Thus, the challenge of globalization, professional bodies
considers there is a need for continuous learning filling (Continuing learning) of professionals in
various fields. This leads to introduction of CPD programs. Through CPD activities, professional
organizations believe that members they can live a better profession in the context of wider
business conduct viability can fulfill the needs of the current market (Hafizah, 2006). Be based
things, this is the profession of a teacher to move hand in hand in developing and enhancing the

skills and knowledge their knowledge in their teaching to provide quality education and to better
serve the students in school.


A professional teacher should be a teacher of knowledge (content knowledge), skills and
competencies in teaching and learning (pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content
knowledge), a character who can be an example and role model to those who are led. Among the
features of personality that needs to be owned by a private teacher is honorable and has a strong
commitment to the success of whatever program (Md Sani et al., 2008) as shown in Figure 1


Even professional teachers should also have the following six concepts that are able to practice
professionalism in the classroom, professional practices in school, behave professionally in the
classroom and the school, is responsible for advancing the profession, receive training and
professional development education and responsible as an agent of reform communities (in
primary, 2002).


- Have a certain character
- Moral values
- Committed
- Be courteous
- Ability to lead
- Practice the culture

- Technology skills
- Generic skills
- Counseling skills

- Material
- Methods
- Technology


Based on the article Challenges of Teachers in Community Hall in May 2012 (Rizuan) also
provide teachers acting as agents of culture and knowledge hose. In addition, the teacher acts as a
second institution of the family. In this scope, the teacher plays a role as important agents of
cultural inheritance to form a society. The learning process may occur spontaneously and
unconsciously changed personality. Teachers must confront the challenges of a professional and be
aware of the fact that teachers are counselors and educators in a cultured society. Many of
perception which encompasses the teaching profession, which is a perception that the teaching
profession as a simple and bane, but promises a rewarding salary.

Therefore, this report is to gauge interest / benefit CPD to professionals specializing in the field of
teaching. The report will look at regular CPD activities attended, increased earned on knowledge,
skills, quality of service and quality of work and what are the elements found in the knowledge,
skills, quality of service and quality the work itself. This is the essence of the study to be

The Challenge of the School

The challenge of the school is a major challenge faced by teachers. Exam-oriented education
system sees school success based on examination performance achieved by the students. This
phenomenon has sparked academic competition among school administrators to obtain general
recognition by directing teachers provide academic programs such additional classes included in
the holiday time and increasing the number of reference books and motivational activities to make
students excel in exams. This put pressure on teachers and increases their workload. If the targeted
percentage of approval is not achieved, then the teacher will be considered as a teacher who is not
committed and less successful.

Challenges Of Students

Management of effective learning in the classroom is a challenge for teachers. Various red
conjured up by pupils from different backgrounds, qualifications and abilities is the situation faced
by teachers. The existence of different needs among students is a challenge for teachers demanding
more effort from the teacher to understand and meet the diversity of students and their needs. In

this case, the teacher should have sufficient knowledge in terms of understanding the needs of
students and classroom management skills so that good teaching and learning process goes
smoothly. Teachers are also burdened with behavior problems and discipline among students.
Beside that also added to the problem of students not interested in pursuing teaching and learning
process. This is a problem that must be addressed by effective teachers.

Challenge to meet the hopes and expectations parents.

The teaching profession is always vulnerable to criticism of society. Often left entirely the
responsibility of educating parents to teachers. Will parents want teachers to educate their children and
build the character and personality and intellectual abilities of their children is a responsibility and a
terrible challenge for teachers. Parents are quick to blame and question the actions of teachers,
especially in the event of an event that proved unpopular at school involving their children. One thing
that is very important for teachers to be aware of the students' background and family, goals and
aspirations of parents for their children to enable teachers to carry out their tasks smoothly and

Challenge to meet the hopes and expectations Country

Teachers are those who are the hope of the country in the process of formation of human capital for the
nation in the future. The teacher's role in the realization of the mission and vision of the country subject
to a form of citizen generated through the education system. In this context, teachers need to
understand the aspirations of the people and country against the teacher. National Education Policy, the
National Education Philosophy and National Development Master Plan is the document that needs to
be understood and appreciated by the teachers in order to realize the ambitions of the country through
the development of human capital. Balanced production of human capital in terms of intellectual,
physical, spiritual and emotional backbone of education under the National Education Philosophy into
the challenges faced by teachers in a responsible manner.



CPD refers to the Continuous Professional Development is a lifelong learning process for
developing and improving individual competencies:-
CPD encompasses the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable.
Understand and apply new knowledge and skills according to their positions respectively.
Being able to face the changes and challenges in the development of career.
Always appreciate the good values and positive attitude.
Improve the quality of teachers and leadership / management continuing education.
Ensure that teachers gain (Acquire), improved (dramatically improved), master (Master)
and share (share) competencies for effectiveness, outcomes and student excel.
Encourage teachers planned and systematic training which includes training sessions,
learning and personal development.
Meeting the needs of teacher CPD compulsory course at least once in the current grade.

CPD is for everyone regardless of regular teachers, qualified teachers, primary teachers, deputy
head teachers and even principals. Experience with a staff of educators, especially a teacher
contributes to the development of the country and should be recognized as what it has taken to
progress. In addition, for help or enhance their professionalism. In planning the planning of CPD,
teachers and their managers need to consider the specific needs of the individual, taking into
account the school, the ministry and the country's priorities.

The quality of education depends on the course of the teacher educators to ensure that the
challenges of conducting lessons in the classroom or outside the classroom, especially in general
can always be addressed and dealt with calmly and rationally by all teachers. No matter the grade
educators, the CPD should be held to help teachers maximize current performance of pupils in the
school, whether academic or co-curricular areas. If higher standards to be achieved and all students
should be supported by effective in achieving their potential, it is important those teachers are
willing to work on them and that they have the opportunity to improve their skills throughout their
careers by requiring every teacher to participate.



The training focuses on the field of new tasks based on the promotion and improvement of teaching
abilities will benefit teachers. At present, there is no systematic approach related to CPD in the
education system. CPD comprehensive approach will be implemented in 2011 and contains the
following elements:
Tailored CPD modules mapped to every grade to equip academics with the new role once
These modules focus on the opportunities for learning in school;
Various CPD modules such as formal training courses, postgraduate studies, distance learning
and mentoring activities will enable teachers to make the best choice for the development of
their careers without disrupting teaching and learning.

Professional development of teachers should be able to bring about changes to improve the system of
school organization and teaching. In the face of the technological age is growing so fast these days,
teachers must prepare themselves with professionalism themselves to keep pace with the times.
If a program or course shall be conducted as CPD should involve some cost factors needed.

As distinguished from ordinary activities given the role of the teacher or the teacher's involvement
in co-curriculum activities. Only the professional development component activities can be
included to meet the requirements. For example:

5 days 4 nights (30 hours)
Learning sessions:
- Talks
- Androgyny
- Interactive
- Workshop
- Observations holistic
- Brainstorming


- Must attend every slot / signed attendance
- Appoint a Headman / Group Leader
- Return the borrowed equipment
- No smoking
- Always respect the
- Do not break the rules
- Formal dress
- The use of mobile phones

In deciding what activities can be included, the main considerations include suitability for the role
of teachers, the contribution to the achievement of identified learning objectives, activities and
balance in all areas of need.


Harland and Kinder (1997) recommended the subsequent 9 benefits or outcomes of CPD:-

Materials and resources provisions for teaching, like worksheets or activities
Informational outcomes fact-based data, e.g. regarding new policies or schemes
New awareness a sensory activity shift, teachers turning into attentive to new ideas and values
Price harmony the extent to that teachers own values and attitudes slot in with those that the
CPD is making an attempt to push
Affection outcomes however teachers feel showing emotion when the CPD, could also be
negative (e.g. demoralised) or positive (e.g. confidence).
Motivation and perspective like enthusiasm and determination to implement changes.
Information and skills each information and education, combined with awareness, flexibility
and important thought
Institutional outcomes on teams of teachers, like agreement, collaboration and support
Impact on follow the last word aim of CPD



The analysis suggests that cooperative CPD is connected with positive outcomes concerning
teachers' attitudes to operating and reflective collaboratively with colleagues on a sustained basis.
Faculties and CPD coordinators operating with colleagues WHO have very little or no inclination
to figure with others, ought to contemplate making and resourcing opportunities for teachers to
participate in CPD in partnership with one or additional colleagues.

In cases wherever teachers didn't volunteer to require half within the CPD however were needed to
try to thus, the collaboration designed into the intervention helped to convert initial co-operation
into real collaboration. Faculties and CPD leaders ought to contemplate listening to the potential
advantages of collaboration once making an attempt to fulfill the requirements of discontented or
demotivated colleagues. Similarly, CPD coordinators might make sure that they use collaboration
(e.g. in refinement learning goals) as a vital tool for teachers facing obligatory programmes - to
develop possession and personalize their learning.

Most of the effective CPD within the analysis enclosed learning that occurred within the teachers\'
own faculties and lecture rooms. CPD leaders and teachers ought to contemplate harnessing all
accessible in-school opportunities for skilled learning: as an example, through team teaching and
thru making certain that lesson coming up with takes place collaboratively and is structured to
incorporate opportunities for interrogation.

The positive outcomes according within the studies within the review were connected to CPD
interventions that combined reflection with active experimentation. CPD leaders and head teachers
may need to review CPD plans and opportunities to confirm that opportunities for skilled dialogue
or connected to opportunities to experiment with new approaches so as to root learning
conversations in room proof. Teachers ought to contemplate seeking out such opportunities.

Collaborative CPD will be effective in additional intimate settings. College and CPD leaders and
CPD suppliers would possibly need to contemplate giving teachers opportunities for small-group
or paired work among any larger groupings.


There was very little proof regarding teachers' perceptions of the impact of the CPD on their
pupils' learning within the studies that centered solely on impact on the teachers. However studies
from previous reviews by this Review cluster that do contain pupil impact information highlighted
the approach within which pupil impact motivates teachers to sustain their learning. CPD leaders
and programmes managers ought to contemplate encouraging teachers to articulate, record and
mirror upon their perceptions regarding the impact of the CPD and connected changes in room
observe on their students learning.

The review found that studies that centered their aims on each teacher and student outcomes were
additional possible to own unmoving their interventions conspicuous regarding pedagogy.
Conversely, studies that centered their aims on teacher impact were additional possible to own
been unmoving within the literature regarding CPD and adult learning. CPD suppliers and CPD
college leaders may need to confirm that CPD programmes draw expressly on each the relevant
cognition bases regarding teaching and learning and regarding CPD.


We have a tendency to found samples of effective identification of the CPD wants of individual
teachers, United Nations agency were taking increasing responsibility for distinctive their own
development wants. We also have a tendency to found a good vary of CPD activities,
with associate degree increasing concentrate on locally-organized CPD, sharing effective observe,
use of on-line networking and support, and training and mentoring. Several of those activities were
as effective as and more cost-effective than alternative sorts of CPD. Approaches to CPD ought to
reach the best impact on outcomes for youngsters and teenagers and create best use of your time,
experience and resources. To achieve this we want to base CPD on the foremost up-to-date
information concerning however teachers learn and the way their learning will be sustained and
additional developed in learning communities.

(2664 words)



How do collaborative and sustained CPD and sustained but not collaborative CPD affect
teaching and learning? In Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre,
Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

Condignly, P., Bell, M., Evans, D. and Firth, A. (2005). The impact of collaborative CPD on
classroom teaching and learning. Review: What do teacher impact data tell us about
collaborative CPD?

Muijs, D., Day, C., Harris, A. and Lindsay, G. (2004) Evaluating continuing professional
development: An overview. In C. Day and J. Sachs (eds.) International Handbook on the
Continuing Professional Development of Teachers.

Mohd Najib Abdul Ghafar. (1999). Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Penerbit Universiti Teknologi