Republic of the Philippines

Baguio City

G.R. No. !"# Ap$il %& ''"
A(E) (. *A+,*& in his o-n behalf as Ba$angay Chai$.an of Ba$angay ""& /one "& 0aloo1an City
an2 as P$esi2ent of the (,GA NG MGA BARANGA3 SA P,(,P,NAS& petitione$&
COMM,SS,ON ON E(ECT,ONS& *epa$t.ent of ,nte$io$ an2 (ocal Go4e$n.ent& an2 T5E
5ONORAB(E SECRETAR3& *epa$t.ent of Bu2get an2 Manage.ent& $espon2ents.
G.R. No. !%67' Ap$il %& ''"
(,GA NG MGA BARANGA3 8UE/ON C,T3 C5APTER& Rep$esente2 by BON,9AC,O M. R,((ON&

The t-o petitions befo$e us $aise a co..on <uestion; 5o- long is the te$. of o=ice of ba$angay
chai$.en an2 othe$ ba$angay o=icials -ho -e$e electe2 to thei$ $especti4e o=ices on the
secon2 Mon2ay of May ''>? ,s it th$ee yea$s& as p$o4i2e2 by RA "#6 @the (ocal Go4e$n.ent
Co2eA o$ B4e yea$s& as containe2 in RA ##"'? Conten2ing that thei$ te$. is B4e yea$s&
petitione$s as1 this Cou$t to o$2e$ the cancellation of the sche2ule2 ba$angay election this May !& ''" an2 to $eset it to the secon2 Mon2ay of May& '''.
The Antece2ents
G.R. No. !"#
,n his capacity as ba$angay chai$.an of Ba$angay ""& /one "& 0aloo1an City an2 as p$esi2ent of
the (iga ng .ga Ba$angay sa Pilipinas& Petitione$ AleC (. *a4i2 Ble2 on *$ !& ''# a
petition fo$ p$ohibition 2oc1ete2 in this Cou$t as G.R. No. !"#& un2e$ Rule #D of the Rules of
Cou$t& to p$ohibit the hol2ing of the ba$angay election sche2ule2 on the secon2 Mon2ay of May
''". On :anua$y >& ''"& the Cou$t $esol4e2 to $e<ui$e the $espon2ents to co..ent on the
petition -ithin a nonEeCten2ible pe$io2 of Bfteen 2ays en2ing on :anua$y !'& ''".
On :anua$y !'& ''"& the Solicito$ Gene$al Ble2 his fou$Epage Co..ent si2ing -ith petitione$
an2 p$aying that Fthe election sche2ule2 on May !& ''" be hel2 in abeyance.F Respon2ent
Co..ission on Elections Ble2 a sepa$ate Co..ent& 2ate2 9eb$ua$y & ''" opposing the
petition. On 9eb$ua$y & ''"& the Cou$t issue2 a Resolution gi4ing 2ue cou$se to the petition
an2 $e<ui$ing the pa$ties to Ble si.ultaneous .e.o$an2a -ithin a nonEeCten2ible pe$io2 of
t-enty 2ays f$o. notice. ,t also $e<ueste2 fo$.e$ Senato$ A<uilino 8. Pi.entel& :$. to act as
a.icus cu$iae an2 to Ble a .e.o$an2u. also -ithin a nonEeCten2ible pe$io2 of t-enty 2ays. ,t
note2 but 2i2 not g$ant petitione$Gs U$gent Motion fo$ ,ssuance of Te.po$a$y Rest$aining O$2e$
an2Ho$ I$it of P$eli.ina$y ,nJunction 2ate2 :anua$y 7& ''" @as -ell as his U$gent ECEPa$te
Secon2 Motion to the sa.e e=ect& 2ate2 Ma$ch #& ''"A. Acco$2ingly& the pa$ties Ble2 thei$
$especti4e .e.o$an2a. The Petition fo$ (ea4e to ,nte$4ene Ble2 on Ma$ch "& ''" by Punong
Ba$angay Ro2son 9. Mayo$ -as 2enie2 as it -oul2 Just un2uly 2elay the $esolution of the case&
his inte$est li1e those of all othe$ ba$angay o=icials being al$ea2y a2e<uately $ep$esente2 by
Petitione$ *a4i2 -ho Ble2 this petition as Fp$esi2ent of the (iga ng .ga Ba$angay sa Pilipinas.F
G.R. No. !%67'
On 9eb$ua$y !6& ''"& Petitione$ (iga ng .ga Ba$angay 8ueKon City Chapte$ $ep$esente2 by
its p$esi2ent Bonifacio M. Rillon Ble2 a petition& 2oc1ete2 as G.R. No. !%67'& Fto see1 a
Ju2icial $e4ie- by ce$tio$a$i to 2ecla$e as unconstitutional;
. Section >7@cA of R.A. "#6 -hich $ea2s as follo-s;
@cA The te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icials an2$s of the sangguniang 1abataan shall
be fo$ th$ee @7A yea$s& -hich shall begin afte$ the $egula$ election of ba$angay o=icials on the
secon2 Mon2ay of May ''>.
!. COME(EC Resolution Nos. !%%6 an2 !%%" BCing the 2ate of the hol2ing of the ba$angay
elections on May !& ''" an2 othe$ acti4ities $elate2 the$etoL
7. The bu2geta$y app$op$iation of P>66 .illion containe2 in Republic Act No. %!D6
othe$-ise 1no-n as the Gene$al App$op$iations Act of ''" inten2e2 to 2ef$ay the costs an2
eCpenses in hol2ing the ''" ba$angay elections; !
Co.elec Resolution !%%6& 7 p$o.ulgate2 on *$ !"& ''# an2 $efe$$e2 to abo4e& a2opte2
a FCalen2a$ of Acti4ities an2 (ist an2 Pe$io2s of Ce$tain P$ohibite2 Acts fo$ the May !& ''"
Ba$angay Elections.F On the othe$ han2& Co.elec Resolution !%%" p$o.ulgate2 on 9eb$ua$y D&
''" .o4e2 ce$tain 2ates BCe2 in Resolution !%%6. >
Acting on the petition& the Cou$t on 9eb$ua$y !D& ''" $e<ui$e2 $espon2ents to thei$
co..ent the$eon -ithin a nonEeCten2ible pe$io2 of ten 2ays en2ing on Ma$ch "& ''". The
Cou$t fu$the$ $esol4e2 to consoli2ate the t-o cases inas.uch as they $aise2 basically the sa.e
issue. Respon2ent Co..ission Ble2 its Co..ent on Ma$ch #& ''" D an2 the Solicito$ Gene$al&
in $ep$esentation of the othe$ $espon2ent& Ble2 his on Ma$ch #& ''". Petitione$Gs U$gent
O.nibus Motion fo$ o$al a$gu.ent an2 te.po$a$y $est$aining o$2e$ -as note2 but not g$ante2.
The petition -as 2ee.e2 sub.itte2 fo$ $esolution by the Cou$t -ithout nee2 of .e.o$an2a.
The ,ssues
Both petitions though -o$2e2 2i=e$ently $aise the sa.e ulti.ate issue; 5o- long is the te$. of
o=ice of ba$angay o=icials?
Petitione$s # conten2 that un2e$ Sec. ! of Republic Act No. ##D7& app$o4e2 on May #& '%%&
F@tAhe te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icials shall be fo$ B4e @DA yea$s . . .F This is $eite$ate2 in
Republic Act No. ##"'& app$o4e2 on$ >& '%%& -hich $eset the ba$angay elections
f$o. Fthe secon2 Mon2ay of$ '%%F to Ma$ch !%& '%' an2 p$o4i2e2 in Sec. the$eof
that such B4eEyea$ te$. shall begin on the FB$st 2ay of May '%' an2 en2ing on the thi$tyEB$st
2ay of May ''>.F Petitione$s fu$the$ a4e$ " that although Sec. >7 of RA "#6 $e2uce2 the te$.
of o=ice of all local electi4e o=icials to th$ee yea$s& such $e2uction 2oes not apply to ba$angay
o=icials because @A RA ##"' is a special la- applicable only to ba$angays -hile RA "#6 is a
gene$al la- -hich applies to all othe$ local go4e$n.ent unitsL @!A RA "#6 2oes not eCp$essly o$
i.plie2ly $epeal RA ##"' insofa$ as the te$. of ba$angay o=icials is conce$ne2L @7A -hile Sec. %
of A$ticle ) of the '%" constitution BCes the te$. of electi4e local o=icials at th$ee yea$s& the
sa.e p$o4ision states that the te$. of ba$angay o=icials Fshall be 2ete$.ine2 by la-FL an2 @>A
thus& it follo-s that the constitutional intention is to g$ant ba$angay o=icials any te$.& eCcept
th$ee yea$sL othe$-ise& Fthe$e -oul2 be no $hy.e o$ $eason fo$ the f$a.e$s of the Constitution
to eCcept ba$angay o=icials f$o. the th$ee yea$ te$. foun2 in Sec. % @ofA A$ticle ) of the
Constitution.F Petitione$s conclu2e @A that the Co..ission on Elections co..itte2 g$a4e abuse
of 2isc$etion -hen it p$o.ulgate2 Resolution Nos. !%%6 an2 !%%" because it Fsubstitute2 its
o-n -ill fo$ that of the legislati4e an2 usu$pe2 the Ju2icial function . . . by inte$p$eting the
conMicting p$o4isions of Sec. of RA ##"' an2 Sec. >7 @cA of RA "#6L an2 @!A that the
app$op$iation of P>66 .illion in the Gene$al App$op$iation Act of ''" @RA %!D6A to be use2 in
the con2uct of the ba$angay elections on May !& ''" is itself unconstitutional an2 a -aste of
public fun2s.
The Solicito$ Gene$al ag$ees -ith petitione$s& a$guing that RA ##"' -as not $epeale2 by RA
"#6 an2 thus Fhe belie4es that the hol2ing of the ba$angay elections @oAn the secon2 Mon2ay
of May ''" is -ithout su=icient legal basis.F
Respon2ent Co..ission on Elections& th$ough Chai$.an Be$na$2o P. Pa$2o& 2efen2s its
assaile2 Resolutions an2 .aintains that the $epealing clause of RA "#6 inclu2es Fall la-s&
-hethe$ gene$al o$ special& inconsistent& -ith the p$o4isions of the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e&F
citing this Cou$tGs 2ictu. in Pa$as 4s. Co.elec % that Fthe neCt $egula$ election in4ol4ing the
ba$angay o=ice is ba$ely se4en @"A .onths a-ay& the sa.e ha4ing been sche2ule2 in May ''".F
9u$the$.o$e& RA %!D6 @the Gene$al App$op$iations Act fo$ ''"A an2 RA %%' @p$o4i2ing fo$ a
gene$al $egist$ation of 4ote$sA both Fin2icate that Cong$ess consi2e$e2 that the ba$angay
elections shall ta1e place in May& ''"& as p$o4i2e2 fo$ in RA "#6& Sec. >7 @cA.F ' Besi2es&
petitione$s cannot clai. a te$. of .o$e than th$ee yea$s since they -e$e electe2 un2e$ the
aegis of the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e of '' -hich p$esc$ibes a te$. of only th$ee yea$s.
9inally& Respon2ent Co.elec 2enies the cha$ge of g$a4e abuse of 2isc$etion stating that the
F<uestion p$esente2 . . . is a pu$ely legal one in4ol4ing no eCe$cise of an act -ithout o$ in eCcess
of Ju$is2iction o$ -ith g$a4e abuse of 2isc$etion.F 6
As a.icus cu$iae& fo$.e$ Senato$ A<uilino 8. Pi.entel& :$. u$ges the Cou$t to 2eny the petitions
because @A the (ocal Autono.y Co2e $epeale2 both RA ##"' an2 ##D7 Fnot only by i.plication
but by 2esign as -ellFL @!A the legislati4e intent is to sho$ten the te$. of ba$angay o=icials to
th$ee yea$sL @7A the ba$angay o=icials shoul2 not ha4e a te$. longe$ than that of thei$
a2.inist$ati4e supe$io$s& the city an2 .unicipal .ayo$sL an2 @>A ba$angay o=icials a$e estoppe2
f$o. contesting the applicability of the th$eeEyea$ te$. p$o4i2e2 by the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e
as they -e$e electe2 un2e$ the p$o4isions of sai2 Co2e.
9$o. the fo$egoing 2iscussions of the pa$ties& the Cou$t belie4es that the issues can be
con2ense2 intoL th$ee& as follo-s;
. Ihich la- go4e$ns the te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icial; RA "#6 o$ RA ##"'?
!. ,s RA "#6 insofa$ as it sho$tene2 such te$. to only th$ee yea$s constitutional?
7. A$e petitione$s estoppe2 f$o. a te$. othe$ than that p$o4i2e2 un2e$ RA "#6?.
The Cou$tGs Ruling
The petitions a$e 2e4oi2 of .e$it.
B$ief 5isto$ical Bac1g$oun2
of Ba$angay Elections
9o$ a clea$ un2e$stan2ing of the issues& it is necessa$y to 2el4e b$ieMy into the histo$y of
ba$angay elections.
An a unit of go4e$n.ent& the ba$angay ante2ate2 the Spanish con<uest of the Philippines The
-o$2 Fba$angayF is 2e$i4e2 f$o. the Malay Fbalangay&F a boat -hich t$anspo$te2 the. @the
MalaysA to these sho$es. 8uoting f$o. :uan 2e Plasencia& a 9$anciscan .issiona$y in D""&
5isto$ian Con$a2o BeniteK ! -$ote that the ba$angay -as $ule2 by a 2ato -ho eCe$cise2
absolute po-e$s of go4e$n.ent. Ihile the Spania$2s 1ept the ba$angay as the basic st$uctu$e
of go4e$n.ent& they st$ippe2 the 2ato o$ $aJah& of his po-e$s. 7 ,nstea2& po-e$ -as
cent$aliKe2 nationally in the go4e$no$ gene$al an2 locally in the enco.ien2e$o an2 late$& in the
alcal2e .ayo$ an2 the gobe$na2o$cillo. The 2ato o$ $aJah -as .uch late$ $ena.e2 cabeKa 2e
ba$angay& -ho -as electe2 by the local citiKens possessing p$ope$ty. The position 2egene$ate2
f$o. a title of hono$ to that of a F.e$e go4e$n.ent e.ployee. Only the poo$ -ho nee2e2 a
sala$y& no .atte$ ho- lo-& accepte2 the post.F >
Afte$ the A.e$icans coloniKe2 the Philippines& the ba$angays beca.e 1no-n as Fba$$ios.F D
9o$ so.e ti.e& the la-s go4e$ning ba$$io go4e$n.ents -e$e foun2 in the Re4ise2
A2.inist$ati4e Co2e of '# an2 late$ in the Re4ise2 A2.inist$ati4e Co2e of '". # Ba$$ios
-e$e g$ante2 autono.y by the o$iginal Ba$$io Cha$te$& RA !7"6& an2 fo$.ally $ecogniKe2 as
<uasiE.unicipal co$po$ations " by the Re4ise2 Ba$$io Cha$te$& RA 7D'6. *u$ing the .a$tial la-
$egi.e& ba$$ios -e$e F2ecla$e2F o$ $ena.e2 Fba$angaysF N a $e4e$sion $eally to thei$ p$eE
Spanish N by P*. No. %# an2 P* No. DD". Thei$ basic o$ganiKation an2 functions un2e$
RA 7D'6& -hich -as eCp$essly Fa2opte2 as the Ba$angay Cha$te$& -e$e $etaine2. 5o-e4e$& the
titles of the o=icials -e$e change2 to Fba$angay captain&F Fba$angay Fba$angay
sec$eta$yF an2 Fba$angay t$easu$e$.F
Pu$suant to Sec. # of Batas Pa.bansa Big. !!!& % Fa Punong Ba$angay @Ba$angay CaptainA an2
siC 0aga-a2s ng Sangguniang Ba$angay @Ba$angay Council.enA& -ho shall constitute the
p$esi2ing o=ice$ an2$s of the Sangguniang Ba$angay @Ba$angay CouncilA $especti4elyF
-e$e B$st electe2 on May "& '%!. They ha2 a te$. of siC yea$s -hich began on :une "& '%!.
The (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e of '%7 ' also BCe2 the te$. of o=ice of local electi4e o=icials at
siC yea$s. !6 Un2e$ this Co2e& the chief o=icials of the ba$angay -e$e the punong ba$angay& siC
electi4e sangguniang ba$angay$s& the 1abataang ba$angay chai$.an& a ba$angay
sec$eta$y an2 a ba$angay t$easu$e$. ! B.P. Blg. %%& the O.nibus Election Co2e& !! $eite$ate2
that ba$angay o=icials Fshall hol2 o=ice& fo$ siC yea$s&F an2 state2 that thei$ election -as to be
hel2 Fon the secon2 Mon2ay of May nineteen hun2$e2 an2 eighty eight an2 on the sa.e 2ay
e4e$y siC yea$s the$eafte$.F !7
This election sche2ule2 by B.P. Blg. %% on the secon2 Mon2ay of May '%% -as $eset to Fthe
secon2 Mon2ay of$ '%% an2 e4e$y B4e yea$s the$eafte$ !> by RA ##D7. Un2e$ this
la-& the te$. of o=ice of the ba$angay o=icials -as cut to B4e yea$s !D an2 the punong
ba$angay -as to be chosen f$o. the.sel4es by se4en 1aga-a2s& -ho in tu$n -e$e to be
electe2 at la$ge by the ba$angay electo$ate. !#
But the election 2ate set by RA ##D7 on the secon2 Mon2ay of$ '%% -as again
Fpostpone2 an2 $eset to Ma$ch !%& '%'F by RA ##"'& !" an2 the te$. of o=ice of ba$angay
o=icials -as to begin on May & '%' an2 to en2 on May 7& ''>. RA ##"' fu$the$ p$o4i2e2
that Fthe$e shall be hel2 a $egula$ election of ba$angay o=icials on the secon2 Mon2ay of May
''> an2 on the sa.e 2ay e4e$y B4e @DA yea$s the$eafte$ Thei$ te$. shall be fo$ B4e yea$s . . . F
!% SigniBcantly& the .anne$ of election of the punong ba$angay -as change2. Sec. D of sai2 la-
o$2aine2 that -hile the se4en 1aga-a2s -e$e to be electe2 by the $egiste$e2 4ote$s of the
ba$angay& F@tAhe can2i2ate -ho obtains the highest$ of 4otes shall be the punong
ba$angay an2 in the e4ent of a tie& the$e shall be a 2$a-ing of lots un2e$ the supe$4ision of the
Co..ission on Elections.F
Un2e$ the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e of ''& RA "#6& !' se4e$al p$o4isions conce$ning
ba$angay o=icial -e$e int$o2uce2;
@A The te$. of o=ice -as $e2uce2 to th$ee yea$s& as follo-s;
Sec. >7. Te$. of O=ice. N
@cA The te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icials an2$s of the sangguniang 1abataan shall
be fo$ th$ee @7A yea$s& -hich shall begin afte$ the $egula$ election of ba$angay o=icials on the
secon2 Mon2ay of May& ''> @E.phasis supplie2.A
@!A The co.position of the Sangguniang Ba$angay an2 the .anne$ of electing its o=icials
-e$e alte$e2& inte$ alia& the ba$angay chai$.an -as to be electe2 2i$ectly by the electo$ate& as
Sec. 7%". Chief O=icials an2 O=ices. N @aA The$e shall be in each ba$angay a punong
ba$angay& se4en @"A sanggunian ba$angay$s& the sanggunian 1abataan chai$.an& a
ba$angay sec$eta$y an2 a ba$angay t$easu$e$.
Sec. 7'6. Co.position. N The Sangguniang ba$angay& the legislati4e bo2y of the ba$angay&
shall be co.pose2 of the punong ba$angay as p$esi2ing o=ice$& an2 the se4en @"A $egula$
sangguniang ba$angay$s electe2 at la$ge an2 the sangguniang 1abataan chai$.an as$s.
Sec. >. Manne$ of Election. N @aAThe . . . punong ba$angay shall be electe2 at la$ge . . . by
the <ualiBe2 4ote$s in the ba$angay. @E.phasis supplie2.A
Pu$suant to the fo$egoing .an2ates of the (ocal Autono.y Co2e& the <ualiBe2 ba$angay 4ote$s
actually 4ote2 fo$ one punong ba$angay an2 se4en @"A 1aga-a2s 2u$ing the ba$angay elections
hel2 on May '& ''>. ,n othe$ -o$2s& the punong ba$angay -as electe2 2i$ectly an2 sepa$ately
by the electo$ate& an2 not by the se4en @"A 1aga-a2s f$o. the.sel4es.
The 9i$st ,ssue; Clea$ (egislati4e ,ntent
an2 *esign to ( Te$. to Th$ee 3ea$s
,n light of the fo$egoing b$ief histo$ical bac1g$oun2& the intent an2 2esign of the legislatu$e to the te$. of ba$angay o=icials to only th$ee @7A yea$s as p$o4i2e2 un2e$ the (ocal
Go4e$n.ent Co2e e.e$ges as b$ight as the sunlight. The ca$2inal $ule in the inte$p$etation of
all la-s is to asce$tain an2 gi4e e=ect to the intent of the la-. 76 An2 th$ee yea$s is the ob4ious
9i$st. RA "#6& the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e& -as enacte2 late$ than RA ##"'. ,t is basic that in
case of an i$$econciliable conMict bet-een t-o la-s of 2i=e$ent 4intages& the late$ enact.ent
p$e4ails. 7 (egis poste$io$es p$io$es cont$a$ias ab$ogant. The $ationale is si.ple; a late$ la-
$epeals an ea$lie$ one because it is the late$ legislati4e -ill. ,t is to be p$esu.e2 that the
la-.a1e$s 1ne- the ol2e$ la- an2 inten2e2 to change it. ,n enacting the ol2e$ la-& the
legislato$s coul2 not ha4e 1no-n the ne-e$ one an2 hence coul2 not ha4e inten2e2 to change
-hat they 2i2 not 1no-. Un2e$ the Ci4il Co2e& la-s a$e $epeale2 only by subse<uent ones 7! N
an2 not the othe$ -ay a$oun2.
Un2e$ Sec. >7Ec of RA "#6& the te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icials -as BCe2 at Fth$ee @7A yea$s
-hich shall begin afte$ the $egula$ election of ba$angay o=icials on the secon2 Mon2ay of May
''>.F This p$o4ision is clea$ly inconsistent -ith an2 $epugnant to Sec. of RA ##"' -hich
states that such Fte$. shall be fo$ B4e yea$s.F Note that both la-s $efe$ to the sa.e o=icials
-ho -e$e electe2 Fon the secon2 Mon2ay of May ''>.F
Secon2. RA ##"' $e<ui$es the ba$angay 4ote$s to elect se4en 1aga-a2s an2 the can2i2ate
obtaining the highest$ of 4otes shall auto.atically be the punong ba$angay. RA ##D7
e.po-e$s the se4en electe2 ba$angay 1aga-a2s to select the punong ba$angay f$o.
the.sel4es. On the othe$ han2& the (ocal Autono.y Co2e .an2ates a 2i$ect 4ote on the
ba$angay chai$.an by the enti$e ba$angay electo$ate& sepa$ately f$o. the se4en 1aga-a2s.
5ence& un2e$ the Co2e& 4ote$s elect eight ba$angay o=icials& na.ely& the punong ba$angay plus
the se4en 1aga-a2s. Un2e$ both RA ##"' an2 ##D7& they 4ote fo$ only se4en 1aga-a2s& an2 not
fo$ the ba$angay chai$.an.
Thi$2. *u$ing the ba$angay elections hel2 on May '& ''> @secon2 Mon2ayA& the 4ote$s actually
an2 2i$ectly electe2 one punong ba$angay an2 se4en 1aga-a2s. ,f -e ag$ee -ith the thesis of
petitione$s& it follo-s that all the punong ba$angays -e$e electe2 illegally an2 thus& Petitione$
AleC *a4i2 cannot clai. to be a 4ali2ly electe2 ba$angay chai$.an& .uch less p$esi2ent of the
national league& of ba$angays -hich he pu$po$ts to $ep$esent in this petition. ,t then necessa$ily
follo-s also that he is not the $eal pa$tyEinEinte$est an2 on that g$oun2& his petition shoul2 be
su..a$ily 2is.isse2.
9ou$th. ,n enacting the gene$al app$op$iations act of ''"& 77 Cong$ess app$op$iate2 the
a.ount of P>66 .illion to co4e$ eCpenses fo$ the hol2ing of ba$angay elections this yea$.
(i1e-ise& un2e$ Sec. " of RA %%'& Cong$ess o$2aine2 that a gene$al $egist$ation of 4ote$s shall
be hel2 Fi..e2iately afte$ the ba$angay elections in ''".F These a$e clea$ an2 eCp$ess
conte.po$aneous state.ents of Cong$ess that ba$angay o=icials shall be electe2 this May& in
acco$2ance -ith Sec. >7Ec of RA "#6.
9ifth. ,n Pa$as 4s. Co.elec& 7> this Cou$t sai2 that Fthe neCt $egula$ election in4ol4ing the
ba$angay o=ice conce$ne2 is ba$ely se4en @"A .onths a-ay& the sa.e ha4ing been sche2ule2 in
May& ''".F This Ju2icial 2ecision& pe$ A$ticle % of the Ci4il Co2e& is no- a Fpa$t of the legal
syste. of the Philippines.F
SiCth. Petitione$s po.pously clai. that RA ##"'& being a special la-& shoul2 p$e4ail o4e$ RA
"#6& all allege2 gene$al la- pu$suant to the 2oct$ine of gene$aila specialibus non 2e$ogant.
Petitione$s a$e -$ong. RA. "#6 is a co2iBe2 set of la-s that speciBcally applies to local
go4e$n.ent units. ,t speciBcally an2 2eBniti4ely p$o4i2es in its Sec. >7Ec that Fthe te$. of o=ice
of ba$angay o=icials . . . shall be fo$ th$ee yea$s.F ,t is a special p$o4ision that applies only to
the te$. of ba$angay o=icials -ho -e$e electe2 on the secon2 Mon2ay of May ''>. Iith such
pa$ticula$ity& the p$o4ision cannot be 2ee.e2 a gene$al la-. Petitione$ .ay be co$$ect in
alleging that RA ##"' is a special la-& but they a$e inco$$ect in stating @-ithout ho-e4e$ gi4ing
the $easons the$efo$A that RA "#6 is necessa$ily a gene$al la-. 7D ,t is a special la- insofa$ as
it go4e$ns the te$. of o=ice of ba$angay o=icials. ,n its $epealing clause& 7# RA "#6 states that
Fall gene$al an2 special la-s . . . -hich a$e inconsistent -ith any of the p$o4isions of this Co2e
a$e he$eby $epeale2 o$ .o2iBe2 acco$2ingly.F The$e being a clea$ $epugnance an2
inco.patibility bet-een the t-o speciBc p$o4isions& they cannot stan2 togethe$. The late$ la-&
RA "#6& shoul2 thus p$e4ail in acco$2ance -ith its $epealing clause. Ihen a subse<uent la-
enco.passes enti$ely the subJect .atte$ of the fo$.e$ enact.ents& the latte$ is 2ee.e2
$epeale2. 7"
The Secon2 ,ssue; Th$eeE3ea$ Te$.
Not Repugnant& to Constitution
Sec. %& A$ticle ) of the Constitution states;
Sec. %. The te$. of o=ice of electi4e local o=icials& eCcept ba$angay o=icials& -hich shall
be 2ete$.ine2 by la-& shall be th$ee yea$s& an2 no such o=icial shall se$4e fo$ .o$e than th$ee
consecuti4e te$.s. +olunta$y $enunciation of the o=ice fo$ any length of ti.e shall not be
consi2e$e2 as an inte$$uption in the continuity of his se$4ice fo$ the full te$. fo$ -hich he -as
Petetione$ (iga ng .ga Ba$angay 8ueKon City Chapte$ posits that by eCcepting ba$angay
o=icials -hose Fte$. shall be 2ete$.ine2 by la-F f$o. the gene$al p$o4ision BCing the te$. of
Felecti4e local o=icialsF at th$ee yea$s& the Constitution the$eby i.plie2ly p$ohibits Cong$ess
f$o. legislating a th$ee yea$ te$. fo$ such o=ice$s. Ie Bn2 this theo$y $athe$ no4el but
nonetheless logically an2 legally Ma-e2.
Un2oubte2ly& the Constitution 2i2 not eCp$essly p$ohibit Cong$ess f$o. BCing any te$. of o=ice
fo$ ba$angay o=icials. ,t .e$ely left the 2ete$.ination of such te$. to the la-.a1ing bo2y&
-ithout any speciBc li.itation o$ p$ohibition& the$eby lea4ing to the la-.a1e$s full 2isc$etion to
BC such te$. in acco$2ance -ith the eCigencies of public se$4ice. ,t .ust be $$e2 that
e4e$y la- has in its fa4o$ the p$esu.ption of constitutionality. 7% 9o$ a la- to be nulliBe2& it
.ust be sho-n that the$e is a clea$ an2 une<ui4ocal @not Just i.plie2A b$each of the
Constitution. 7' To st$i1e 2o-n a la- as unconstitutional& the$e .ust be a clea$ an2
une<ui4ocal sho-ing that -hat the fun2a.ental la- p$ohibits& the statute pe$.its. >6 The
petitione$s ha4e .ise$ably faile2 to 2ischa$ge this bu$2en an2 to sho- clea$ly the
unconstitutionality they a4e$.
The$e is absolutely no 2oubt in ou$ .in2 that Sec. >7Ec of RA "#6 is constitutional. Sec. %&
A$ticle ) of the Constitution N li.iting the te$. of all electi4e local o=icials to th$ee yea$s&
eCcept that of ba$angay o=icials -hich Fshall be 2ete$.ine2 by la-F N -as an a.en2.ent
p$opose2 by Constitutional Co..issione$ @no- Sup$e.e Cou$t :usticeA 5ila$io G. *a4i2e& :$.
Acco$2ing to 9$. :oa<uin G. Be$nas& S.:.& the a.en2.ent -as F$ea2ily accepte2 -ithout .uch
2iscussion an2 fo$.ally app$o4e2.F ,n2ee2& a sea$ch into the Reco$2 of the Constitutional
Co..ission yiel2e2 only a fe- pages > of actual 2elibe$ations& the po$tions pe$tinent to the
Constitutional Co..issionGs intent being the follo-ing;
MR. NO((E*O. One cla$iBcato$y <uestion& Ma2a. P$esi2ent. Ihat -ill be the te$. of the
o=ice of ba$angay o=icials as p$o4i2e2 fo$?
MR. *A+,*E. As .ay be 2ete$.ine2 by la-..
MR. NO((E*O. As p$o4i2e2 fo$ in the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e?
MR. *A+,*E. 3es.
T5E PRES,*ENT. ,s the$e any othe$ co..ent? ,s the$e any obJection to this p$opose2 ne-
section as sub.itte2 by Co..issione$ *a4i2e an2 accepte2 by the Co..ittee?
MR. RO*R,GO. Ma2a. P$esi2ent& 2oes this p$ohibition to se$4e fo$ .o$e than th$ee
consecuti4e te$.s apply to ba$angay o=icials?
MR. *A+,*E. Ma2a. P$esi2ent& the 4oting that -e ha2 on the te$.s of o=ice 2i2 not
inclu2e the ba$angay o=icials because it -as then the stan2 of the Chai$.an of the Co..ittee
on (ocal Go4e$n.ents that the te$. of ba$angay o=icials .ust be 2ete$.ine2 by la-. So it is
no- fo$ the la- to 2ete$.ine -hethe$ the $est$iction on the$ of $eelections -ill be
inclu2e2 in the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e.
MR. RO*R,GO. So that is up to Cong$ess to 2eci2e.
MR. *A+,*E. 3es.
MR. RO*R,GO. , Just -ante2 that clea$ in the $eco$2.
Although the 2iscussions in the Constitutional Co..ission -e$e 4e$y b$ief& they nonetheless
p$o4i2e the eCact ans-e$ to the .ain issue. To the <uestion at issue he$e on ho- long the te$.
of ba$angay o=icials is& the ans-e$ of the Co..ission -as si.ple& clea$ an2 <uic1; FAs .ay be
2ete$.ine2 by la-FL .o$e p$ecisely& F@aAs p$o4i2e2 fo$ in the (ocal Autono.y Co2e.F An2 the
(ocal Autono.y Co2e& in its Sec. >7Ec& li.its thei$ te$. to th$ee yea$s.
The Thi$2 ,ssue; Petitione$s Estoppe2 9$o.
Challenging Thei$ Th$eeE3ea$ Te$.s
Ie ha4e al$ea2y sho-n that constitutionally& statuto$ily& logically& histo$ically an2
co..onsensically& the petitions a$e co.pletely 2e4oi2 of .e$it. An2 -e coul2 ha4e en2e2 ou$
*ecision $ight he$e. But the$e is one last point -hy petitione$s ha4e no .o$al ascen2ancy fo$
thei$ 2ubious clai. to a longe$ te$. of o=ice; the e<uities of thei$ o-n petition .ilitate against
the.. As pointe2 out by A.icus Cu$iae Pi.entel& >! petitione$s a$e ba$$e2 by estoppel f$o.
pu$suing thei$ petitions.
Respon2ent Co..ission on Elections sub.itte2 as AnneC FAF of its .e.o$an2u.& >7 a .achine
copy of the ce$tiBcate of can2i2acy of Petitione$ AleC (. *a4i2 in the May '& ''> ba$angay
elections& the authenticity of -hich -as not 2enie2 by sai2 petitione$. ,n sai2 ce$tiBcate of
can2i2acy& he eCp$essly state2 un2e$ oath that he -as announcing his Fcan2i2acy fo$ the o=ice
of punong ba$angay fo$ Ba$angay ""& /one "F of 0aloo1an City an2 that he -as Feligible fo$ sai2
o=ice.F The Co.elec also sub.itte2 as AnneC FBF >> to its sai2 .e.o$an2u.& a ce$tiBe2
state.ent of the 4otes obtaine2 by the can2i2ates in sai2 elections& thus;
. *A+,*& A(E) (. !
. Magalona& Ruben D6
!. 8uinto& Nelson (. 76
7. Ra.on& *olo$es /. !6
>. *ela Pena& Robe$to T. D
D. Castillo& (uciana >
#. (o$ico& A.y A. 6"
". +alencia& A$nol2 6!
%. Ang& :ose '"
'. *e<uilla& Te$esita *. D%
6. P$i.a4e$a& Ma$celina D!
,f& as clai.e2 by petitione$s& the applicable la- is RA ##"'& then @A Petitione$ *a4i2 shoul2 not
ha4e $un an2 coul2 not ha4e been electe2 chai$.an of his ba$angay because un2e$ RA ##"'&
the$e -as to be no 2i$ect election fo$ the punong ba$angayL the 1aga-a2 can2i2ate -ho
obtaine2 the highest$ of 4otes -as to be auto.atically electe2 ba$angay chai$.anL @!A
thus& applying sai2 la-& the punong ba$angay shoul2 ha4e been Ruben Magalona& -ho obtaine2
the highest$ of 4otes the 1aga-a2s N D6& -hich -as .uch .o$e than *a4i2Gs
!L @7A the electo$ate shoul2 ha4e electe2 only se4en 1aga-a2s an2 not one punong ba$angay
plus se4en 1aga-a2s.
,n othe$ -o$2s& follo-ing petitione$sG o-n theo$y& the election of Petitione$ *a4i2 as -ell as all
the ba$angay chai$.en of the t-o (iga petitione$s -as illegal.
The su. total of these absu$2ities in petitione$sG theo$y is that ba$angay o=icials a$e estoppe2
f$o. as1ing fo$ any te$. othe$ than that -hich they $an fo$ an2 -e$e electe2 to& un2e$ the la-
go4e$ning thie 4e$y clai. to such o=ices; na.ely& RA "#6& the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e.
Petitione$sG belate2 clai. of igno$ance as to -hat la- go4e$ne2 thei$ election to o=ice in ''>
is unacceptable because un2e$ A$t. 7 of the Ci4il Co2e& F@iAgno$ance of the la- eCcuses no one
f$o. co.pliance the$e-ith.F
,t is ob4ious that these t-o petitions .ust fail. The Constitution an2 the la-s 2o not suppo$t
the.. ECtant Ju$isp$u2ence .ilitates against the.. Reason an2 co..on sense $eJect the..
E<uity an2 .o$ality abho$ the.. They a$e subtle but nonetheless selfEse$4ing p$opositions to
lengthen go4e$nance -ithout a .an2ate f$o. the go4e$ne2. ,n a 2e.oc$acy& electe2 lea2e$s
can legally an2 .o$ally Justify thei$ $eign only by obtaining the 4olunta$y consent of the
electo$ate. ,n this case ho-e4e$& petitione$s p$opose to eCten2 thei$ te$.s not by see1ing the
peopleGs 4ote but by faulty legal a$gu.entation This Cou$t cannot an2 -ill not g$ant its
i.p$i.atu$ to such untenable p$oposition. ,f they -ant to continue se$4ing& they .ust get a ne-
.an2ate in the elections sche2ule2 on May !& ''".
I5ERE9ORE& the petitions a$e *EN,E* fo$ being co.pletely 2e4oi2 of .e$it.
Na$4asa& C.:.& Pa2illa& Regala2o& *a4i2e& :$.& Ro.e$o& Bellosillo& Melo& Puno& 0apunan& Men2oKa&
9$ancisco an2 To$$es& :$.& ::.& concu$.
+itug& :.& $ese$4es his 4ote.
5e$.osisi.a& :$.& :.& is on lea4e.
Sen. Pi.entel -as the p$incipal autho$ of the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e of ''.
! Petition& p. !L $ollo& p. >& G.R. No. !%67'.
7 Signe2 by Chai$.an Be$na$2o P. Pa$2o an2 Co..s. Regala2o E. Maa.bong& Re.e2ies S.
9e$nan2o& Manolo B. Go$ospe& :ulio 9. *esa.ito& Te$esita *. (. 9lo$es an2 :apal M. Guiani.
> Resolution !%%" -as signe2 also by the Chai$.an an2 siC co..issione$s of the Co.elec
.entione2 in note 7.
D Subse<uently& on Ma$ch & ''"& Co.elec Ble2 a Manifestation an2 a co$$ecte2 4e$sion
of its Co..ent.
# Petition& pp. 7E>L $ollo& pp. DE#& G.R.; No. !"#.
" Petition& pp. > et se<.L $ollo& pp. # et se<.& G.R. No. !%67'.
% G.R. No. !7#'&$ >& ''#.
' Co.elec Co..ent& pp. 6E& G.R. No. !%67'.
6 Co.elec Co..ent& p. "& G.R. No. !"#.
Agoncillo an2 Alfonso& A Sho$t 5isto$y of the 9ilipino People& '# e2. p. 7%L Cushne$&
Spain in the Philippines& '" e2. p. D.
The Encyclope2ia of the Philipines& +ol. ),& 'D7 E2. p. !& autho$e2 by /oilo M. Galang $elates
that F@tAhe -o$2 BARANGA3 is o$iginally BA(ANGA3 f$o. the Malay BA(ANG -hich .eans a
boat la$ge$ than the chinese sa.pan. ,t is use2 in the 2i.inuti4e sense& ha4ing the su=iC ay . . .
The ety.ology of this -o$2 conB$.s -hat the histo$ians say about the -ay the Malay people
e.ig$ate2 fo$ the B$st ti.e to @ou$A ,slan2s. They ca.e in s.all boats @BA(ANGA3A. These
g$oups by Spania$2s an2 1ept by the. to the en2 of thei$ 2o.inion.F
! BeniteK& A 5isto$y of the Philippines& '>6 e2.& p. '. See also Gue$$e$o& Philippine
Society an2 Re4olution& '" e2.& p. #.
7 Blai$ an2 Robe$tson& the Philippine ,slan2s& >'7E%'%& +ol. )+,& pp. DDED".
> A$cilla& An ,nt$o2uction to Philippine 5isto$y& '" e2. p. "7.
D See 5ay2en& The Philippines& A Stu2y in National *e4elop.ent& 'D6 e2. p. !# et se<.
5o-e4e$& Casiano O. 9lo$es an2 :ose P. AbleteK @Ba$angay; ,ts Go4e$n.ent an2 Manage.ent&
'%' E2.& p. 7A& a4e$ that Fthe ba$angays beca.e ba$$ios an2 co.ponents of Spanish pueblosF
e4en p$io$ to the a$$i4al of the A.e$icans. See also& O$tiK& The Ba$angays of the Philippines&
''6 E2.& p. .
# A$uego& Ba$$io Go4e$n.ent (a-& '" e2.& p. D.
" Section !& RA 7D'6.
% App$o4e2 on Ma$ch !D& '%!.
' App$o4e2 on 9eb$ua$y 6& '%7 as B.P. Blg. 77".
!6 Sec. >>& B.P. Blg. 77".
! Sec. %#. B.P. Blg. 77".
!! App$o4e2 on *$ 7& '%D.
!7 Sec. 7"& B.P. Blg. %%.
!> Sec. & RA ##D7.
!D Sec. !& ibi2.
!# Sec. D& ibi2.
!" App$o4e2 on Octobe$ !& '%%.
!% Sec. & !n2 pa$ag$aph& RA ##"'.
!' App$o4e2 on Octobe$ 6& '' an2 too1 e=ect on :anua$y & ''!.
76 Collecto$ of ,nte$nal Re4enue 4s. Manila (o2ge No. "#& 6D Phil. '%7& cite2 in Agpalo&
Statuto$y Const$uction& ''6 E2. p. 7#L 9$ancisco& Statuto$y Const$uction& Thi$2 E2.& pp. D an2
6#L Ma$tin& Statuto$y Const$uction& '"' E2. p. >6.
7 Agpalo& Statuto$y Const$uction& ''6 E2. p. !'>.
7! A$t. "& Ci4il Co2e.
77 RA %!D6.
7> G.R. No. !7#'&$ >& ''#.
7D ,f the (ocal Go4e$n.ent Co2e .e$ely p$o4i2e2 that all local o=icials& -ithout specifying
ba$angay o=icials& Fshall ha4e a te$. of th$ee yea$s&F then such p$o4ision coul2 be 2ee.e2 a
gene$al la-. But the Co2e p$o4ision in <uestion @Sec. >7OcPA speciBcally an2 specially .entione2
ba$angay o=icials. 5ence& such p$o4ision cease2 to be a gene$al la-. Rathe$& it the
natu$e of a special la-& o$ a special p$o4ision of a co2e of la-s.
7# Sec. D7>.
7" ,loilo Palay 4s. 9eliciano& 7 SCRA 7""& Ma$ch 7& '#DL :oa<uin 4s. Na4a$$o& % Phil. 7"7
7% Abbas 4s. Co.elec& "' SCRA !%"& 76&$ 6& '%'L (i. 4s. Pa<uing !>6 SCRA
#>'& :anua$y !"& ''DL People 4s. Pe$.a1iel "7 SCRA 7!>& #"D& May !& '%'L (a Union
Elect$ic Coope$ati4e 4s. 3a$anon& "' SCRA %!%& %7#& *$ >& '%'.
7' Basco 4s. Pagco$& '" SCRA D!& #%& May >& ''.
>6 Ga$cia 4s. Co.elec& !!" SCRA 66& Octobe$ D& ''7.
> +ol. ,,,& pp. >6#E>6% an2 >D.
>! The petitione$ is estoppe2 f$o. contesting the applicability of the th$ee yea$ te$. of
electi4e ba$angay o=icials as BCe2 by the Co2e.
The p$esent set of ba$angay o=icials -e$e electe2 in ''> to a th$eeEyea$ te$. un2e$ the
p$o4isions of the Co2e.
The $ules issue2 by the Co..ission on Elections co4e$ing the ba$angay elections of ''> state othe$ things that the la-s that go4e$n the sai2 elections inclu2e the Co2e. ,n fact& -hen
the petitione$ an2 the can2i2ates fo$ punong ba$angay Ble2 thei$ ce$tiBcates of can2i2acy fo$
pu$poses of the ''> ba$angay elections& they ha2 to state catego$ically that they -e$e
stan2ing fo$ election as punong ba$angay& -hich the Co2e $e<ui$e2 but -hich -as not so
$e<ui$e2 un2e$ Rep. Act No. ##D7 an2 Rep. Act No. ##"'& as the t-o acts then p$o4i2e2 fo$ t-o
2i=e$ent -ays of electing the punong ba$angay -hich ha4e been eCplaine2 ea$lie$.
One of the p$o4isions of the Co2e that the Co.elec i.ple.ente2 in connection -ith the
ba$angay elections of ''> is Sec. >7& -hich catego$ically o$2ains that the ba$angay o=icials
-oul2 only ha4e a th$ee& not a B4e& yea$ te$..
The petitione$ as -ell as othe$ electi4e ba$angay o=icials -ho a$e no- in o=ice 1no-ingly $an
un2e$ the p$o4isions of the co2e. They ha4e been electe2 un2e$ the st$ictu$es of the Co2e. The
petitione$ an2 all the electi4e ba$angay o=icials a$e .a1ing use of the 4a$ious p$o4isions of
Co2e. They a$e hol2ing sangguniang ba$angay .eetings an2 passing ba$angay o$2inances
un2e$ the p$o4isions of the Co2e. They a$e $ecei4ing the hono$a$ia g$ante2 the. by the Co2e.
They a$e getting in behalf of thei$ ba$angay thei$ sha$es of the taCes an2 the -ealth of the
nation as 2i$ecte2 by the Co2e.
9o$ the petitione$ @an2 the ba$angay o=icials associate2 -ith his causeA to a4ail of all the
beneBcial p$o4isions of the Co2e inten2e2 fo$ the ba$angay eCclusi4e& ho-e4e$& of the th$eeE
yea$ te$. li.itation fo$ ba$angay o=icials is plain oppo$tunis.& patently lu2ic$ous an2 shoul2&
thus& be laughe2 out of the cou$t F @Co..ent& pp. 6EL $ollo& pp. >E D& G.R. No. !"#.A
On the othe$ han2& in a $athe$ 2elaye2 an2 un2ate2 FU$gent ECEpa$te . . . ReJoin2e$ to the . . .
A.icus Cu$iaeF Ble2 -ith this Cou$t on Ma$ch 7& ''"& Petitione$ *a4i2 la.ents the allege2$ate& ungentle.anly an2 uncalle2 fo$ language . . . of @theA 2istinguishe2 legal
p$actitione$ an2 fo$.e$ senato$.F 5e a$gues that F@tAhe ba$angay elections of ''> -e$e hel2
solely at the instance of the COME(EC an2 all the $ules& o$2e$s an2 2i$ecti4es go4e$ning the
elections in ''> -e$e p$epa$e2& p$o.ulgate2 an2 i.ple.ente2 by COME(EC.F 5e asse$ts that
the Fbla.eF fo$ the failu$e of the RA "#6 to eCp$essly $epeal RA ##D7 an2 ##"' an2 the
confusion $esulting the$ef$o. shoul2 be lai2 on Sen. Pi.entel& the p$incipal autho$ of RA "#6&
an2 not on the Flo-ly an2 innocent >!6&666 electe2 ba$angay o=icialsF -ho a$e see1ing Ffo$ the
B$st ti.e a Ju2icial inte$p$etation of the la-s an2 issues in4ol4e2 . . .
>7 Rollo& pp. "D& %#L G.R. No. !"#.
>> ,bi2& p. %".
The (a-phil P$oJect E A$ellano (a- 9oun2ation

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