In the first decade of American colonialism over the Philippines,
the United States government immediately sought to instill an
educational system that would prepare the nation for eventual
independence. Enforced by the Taft Commission, President
McKinley advocated for a free public school system that would
help train and enforce Filipinos of the duties of an ideal colonial.
In 1901, under the Department of Public Instruction headed by
the United States, the Philippine Commission developed a
centralized public school system. This authorized 600 teachers
from America, known as the Thomasites, to teach in the newly
colonized nation. As a result, colonizers created schools that
closely resembled the American public school system arguing
that self-rule would be possible only through their guidance and
support. In reality, however, controlling the educational system
was their way of not only maintaining authority, but also as a
way to pacify all aspects of nationalism. Rather than
encouraging the advancement of Philippines’ literature and
language, colonists imposed Western practices, ideals and
values. Consequently, the history of the Philippines was taught
under American colonial perspective.
This type of education played a profound affect on the future of
the Filipino people. For one, an American education meant that
instruction was in English. At the start of American colonialism,
English became the official language of the Philippines. Students
were not only taught in English, but they were required to read,
write and speak the foreign language as well. This has several
negative implications since it meant forcefully erasing their
native tongue. Instead of educating and informing the people,
Americans’ methods of teaching was meant to train Filipinos so
that they manifest into the ideal colonial. They were brainwashed into believing certain sets of information and values,
which may not necessarily have been applicable to the Filipino people. Moreover, teaching practices did not comprise of
the ―student-teacher‖ model but rather paralleled the ―student-soldier.‖ Rather than assisting, nurturing and helping a
student flourish mentally, they enforced strict rules and policies. Thus, education was treated as an instrument of colonial
policy instead of a tool to free the people from illiteracy and ignorance.
Overall, the education of a Filipino was another way for American colonists to subjugate a people and gain power. With
the support of the United States government and its military leaders, American interests were at the center of the school
system. As a result of colonialism, the educational system in the Philippines still mirrors that of America’s system. For
example, English continues to be a widely spoken language in the Philippines. Moreover, schools do not stress
Americans’ discriminatory and prejudice acts and still view them as ―liberators‖ and ―allies‖ despite their imperialistic
policies. Ultimately, by gaining control over education, they were able to reshape history and alter the memory of the
Filipino people.

Following a general trend across many building types, educational facilities are becoming increasingly specialized. For
example, we have come to understand that classrooms intended for pre-schoolers are fundamentally different from those
that best serve high school seniors or the training of mid-career professionals. Today, even the traditional idea of
"classroom" as an instructor-focused learning space is changing. The growth of computer-based instruction, video
projection, and other telecommunication requirements is causing us to rethink traditional educational patterns and spatial
From an environmental perspective, concerns for the health and well-being of students—particularly young students—
are increasing interest in the improved performance and fabric of school structures. Strategies including day lighting, the
specification of sustainable and non-toxic building materials, and the use of renewable energy sources are gaining
attention in school design. At the same time, resources for the construction, maintenance, and upkeep of educational
facilities remain in short supply.

Fundamental space types for elementary schools include, but are not limited to:
 Administrative Offices – offices which keeps a set of day-to-day activities related to financial
planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics, within an
organisation. An employee that undertakes these activities is commonly called an office
administrator or office manager. The exact duties of an office administrator vary depending on the
employer and level of education.
 Cafeteria—a dining room in a school or a business in which customers serve themselves or are
served from a counter and pay before eating.
 Classroom—A room or place especially in a school in which classes are conducted. Daylighting is
most important in classrooms, where most teaching and learning occurs.
 Common areas – areas which are available for use by more than one person.
 Courtyards/ Quadrangle - an unroofed area that is completely or mostly enclosed by the walls of a
large building.
 Gymnasium - a room or building equipped for gymnastics, games, and other physical exercise.
 Health Service/ Clinic - a place or hospital department where outpatients are given medical
treatment or advice, esp. of a specialist nature.
 Library - A place in which literary and artistic materials, such as books, periodicals, newspapers,
pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for reading, reference, or lending.
 Lobby—Schools often showcase team trophies in the foyer or feature a colorful display at child's eye
 Media Center—Schools are changing traditional libraries into media centers, adapting to new
technology, as well as to other issues such as comfort, flexibility and maximum use of space.
 Multipurpose Rooms - The large room downstairs which includes the gym, the stage, as well as
offices and storage space
 Music Facility – A room in school set aside for instructions in music
 Science Facility - a workplace for the conduct of scientific research
 Art facility – A room in school set aside for instruction in the visual arts
 Restrooms


This school is located in Los Angeles Country, USA.
Considering the public school design the latest trends,
the designer added 650 solar panels to the façade. They
give an eye-catching decoration, indeed, but the main
function is to provide 75% of the energy needed by this
building. Appearing in blue, this modern school is
blended with the sky and looks really impressive.
Moreover, there is nice touch on the wall with colorful
decoration to catch some attentions.
This contemporary school is also completed with some
natural touches. There are greeneries creating a nice
line accompanying the pedestrian street and some plants
next to the building. Designed in three floors design, this
school looks elegant. The first floor is with concrete flooring
and there is a simple concrete staircase to connect it to the
upper floor. There is also a modern white staircase at the
edge of the building which stunningly appears in white
painting with some decorative yet functional panels.
This design trend of providing solar energy can be an
example of some other eco-friendly buildings. The design,
in rectangular shape, is also stunning enough with eye-
catching finishing in white and blue which excellently
connect to the nature.

Architecture, Imposing Public School
Design with 650 Solar Panels.

The High School Albert Einstein, Brassens site, is a
big building of the 60’s. Built with a model, it is composed
by high linear buildings from 60 to 80 cm lengh and big
metallic workshops. The court is the major element of the
project, meeting’s place but also transition. Its
localization offers direct connection with the cafeteria,
restaurant place, administration, workshop, general
teaching room, school life. Here gather the students
during their free time. That is why it is necessary to
propose qualities of specific spaces, easily appropriable,
playful and to bring a feature to the exteriors
arrangements. The landscape treatment of the court is
voluntary urban type like central place, mainly mineral,
allowing a differentiation with gardens.
Spaces are treated and easily recognizable to assert an
idea of sequences and gratitude education’s pole.
Gardens between the buildings are like screens
improving a better visual and thermal comfort and
offering landscape diversity. Visual borderlines are more
and more wide thanks to the preserving of the green
space in the Northwest of the High School.
To think of a sustainable development crosses well on by
the qualitative consideration of materials, a technical
work on the management of the energies, but also by a
logic the layout of places. It is in the sense that we began
this project, by joining in the time. The intervention which
we propose allows restoring coherence and featuring to
the set by means of a new spatial scenography.
School for Burma. The design utilizes an adaptable
framework that balances prefabricated structural
elements with locally crafted, modular, bamboo panels.
By creating entirely flat-packed components, BURMA
[RE]FRAMED can be rapidly reassembled from a flatbed
truck into a courtyard school, a single building or even as
independent multi-use units. By reconsidering the
restrictions of land ownership into an opportunity for
flexible community space, BURMA [RE]FRAMED acts as
a local/global bridge providing at-risk communities with a
physical space around which the population can learn,
grow and thrive.


Build Back Better after Yolanda
Design for survival, as well as for the tropics and
its devastating winds and lashing rains.
Those who helped rebuild Aceh after the 2004 tsunami
say that survivors should not be forced to live in tents
for more than six months, as it causes social tension.
Even at the initial stages of rebuilding, the reduce-
reuse-recycle mantra must be hummed.
Architect Paulo Alcazaren suggests that the trunks of
the three million coconut trees felled by Yolanda be
used as columns and beams for the 500,000 needed
emergency shelters for the displaced. The roofs can
be tarps from all the billboard advertising taken down
in Manila.
Gabaldon school houses were constructed all over the
islands in the early 20th century. The architects based
the building on proven tropical design concepts:
raising the ground floors against floods, damp earth,
and pests, (and) using high-angled hip roofs (that) are
more resistant to winds than the low-angled gable
roofs of current buildings. The Gabaldons also had
high ceilings and large capiz windows for natural light
and ventilation. Modern' schoolhouses are dark and
Rational transport and communication systems; walkable,
well-lit, and tree-shaded streets; compact, mixed-use district
morphology; parks and open spaces (for recreation and
refuge); and elegant but robust civic buildings.‖

Aside from school buildings, the other civic building that
normally transforms into an evacuation center during
calamities is the stadium.
The following retro-fit to incorporate its secondary post-
disaster function: ―1) no regular seating, just planking or
padded mats that can serve as beds for refugees; 2)
rainwater harvested from roof and stored in each column-
silo/cistern to be used for toilets; 3) toilets with more than
the usual number of stalls, urinals, or showers using the
harvested rainwater; and 4) emergency power from
generator sets (mandatory) but augmented with solar panels
plus pedal power.‖
At the same time, the town or city stadium must be ―built on
elevated sites with additional flat areas around for tents and
helicopter landing zones, with emergency clinic and medical
supplies embedded here.

Climate Change-Adaptive Architectural Design

Climate change is brought about by global warming through the unchecked use of fossil fuels (chiefly
coal) by industrialized countries. These have warmed our oceans and have given rise to supertyphoons
(with some also saying that foreign military activities have something to do with it). The Philippines (PH)
is the wall that protects Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia as the PH is the first landfall of Pacific
Ocean-bred supertyphoons i.e. which grow weaker only after passing the PH, thereby protecting the rest
of Asia. Given this reality, climate change adaptation and disaster preparedness/ resiliency for buildings
should now be the norm for PH buildings and structures.

For exposed sites/ buildings/ structures/ projects i.e. those located along low-lying coastal areas, sited at
mountain/ hill slopes or bases, sites constantly battered by strong monsoon and storm winds and similar
locations, these new architectural design paradigms could start by modifying portions of conventional
architectural designs into the following (but not limited to the following), viz:

1. Sites/ Grounds
a) less paving around the building to help retard surface water flow i.e. through
percolation into the ground, inasmuch as the collected surface water contribute to flash
flooding at lower elevations within a community; and
b)proper setbacks and compliance with mandated legal easements (MLEs) along
waterways to maintain floodwater at a low level i.e. narrower waterways translate into higher
flood levels;
2. Buildings/ Structures
a) use of concrete deck roofs instead of sloped metal roofs; however, while this assures
that the building/ structure is climate change-adaptive, there are other key considerations
such as the capital expenditure for waterproofing and maintenance as well as considerations
of the amounts of the reflected light and heat of light-colored finishes for the concrete deck
roof i.e. dark colors cannot be used as these shall absorb considerable amounts of heat,
thereby affecting the operation and comfort levels inside the building;
b)if the use of metal roofs cannot be avoided, provide much steeper roof slopes for
metal roofs (because flatter slopes are easily penetrated by strong winds);
c) use of roof that is sloped at all four (4) sides (since typhoon winds come from all
directions) i.e. cuatro aguas;
d) use of very short eaves i.e. the roof extension outside the exterior wall of the building
or residence, usually provided for shade and aesthetics (inasmuch as long eaves cause
uplift which open up the roof cavity to more/ extensive wind damage); the short eaves could
be paired with medias agua (shed roofs) over windows and doors;
e) gutterless roofs (as leaves and debris clog up the drains, downspouts and catch
basins and the accumulated water cause the undrained roof to collapse; this has to be
partnered with a trench drain, sand pit or a sand and gravel bed at the ground below to
absorb the falling water;
f) controlled roof cavity and/or ceiling cavity openings to relieve or equalize pressure
inside and outside the building during strong winds i.e. a certain amount of wind has to be let
in the building/ structure to relieve and/or equalize air pressures;
g)for flood-prone or flood-risk areas, the use of the lower level as a multi-use, flexible
use space (that can be flooded), and which can be connected to the upper level/s of the
building through stairs or ramps (for use by PWDs or large domesticated/ farm animals); and
h) use of stilted or floating building technologies, if technically and financially feasible, if
safe and if locally available.

The Tyson Living Learning Center: Located at Tyson
Research Center, the Tyson Living Learning Center is an
environmental field station for Washington University in St.
Louis, Missouri. The site has been transformed from a
degraded asphalt parking lot to a native landscaped
garden replete with pervious concrete, local stone pavers,
and a central rain garden. The building fosters
indoor/outdoor education with a large multi-use classroom
that opens directly out to a locally-harvested white oak
deck. Net zero energy is achieved by
using photovoltaic panels mounted both on the roof and
on two horizontal trackers. Potable water is provided by a
chemical-free rainwater harvesting system. Greywater is
treated in an infiltration garden and blackwater by composting toilets effectively eliminating the concept of
Site: previously developed parking lot
Materials: wood salvaged and harvested on-site
Water: all water captured on-site and black water broken down through a composting system
Energy: high efficiency HVAC design and all energy needs supplied by solar panels
Health: low-VOC materials, green cleaning plan and a high daylighting factor

Eco-Sense: Eco-Sense is a private home located in
Victoria, British Columbia that functions as a part of the
eco-system, blurring the line that separates where the
dwelling ends and where nature begins. The residence
was the dream of Ann and Gord Baird who wanted to build
a sustainable home for their three generation family of six.
The family walks the talk of sustainable living with a
conservation first philosophy. The house is also the first
code-approved, seismically engineered, load-bearing
insulated cob (clay, sand, and straw) building in North
Site: brownfield
Materials: cob, clay, sand, and straw house; extensive
reuse of light fixtures, plumbing fixtures, and lumber
Water: green roof to mitigate storm water, composting toilet, and all water harvested on-site
Energy: use of solar panels and wood gasification
Health: low-VOC materials throughout, acoustical design, more natural light, wheelchair accessible, and the
clay structure does not allow for mold

Omega Center for Sustainable
Living: Located in Rhinebeck, New York,
the Omega Center provides innovative
educational experiences that awaken the
best in the human spirit. The Omega Center
is an environmental education center and
wastewater filtration facility that is designed
to use the treated water for garden irrigation
and in a greywater recovery system.
Site: reuse of solid debris landfill and fill
removed and resold
Materials: Embodied carbon footprint = -
1,387 metric tons
Water: annual water use all harvested on-site and all grey and black water treated on-site
Energy: generate almost 40,000 kWh per year via solar panels which is more than their 37,190 kWh/yr
Health: ducts protected during construction, low-VOC material selection throughout, and a green cleaning


 http://www.wbdg.org/design/educational.php
 http://www.wbdg.org/resources/livingbuildings.php
 http://en.51arch.com/2014/02/a3056-albert-einstein-high-school/#more-8958
 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/29105.pdf
 http://www.archdaily.com/191360/school-4-burma-design-winning-proposal-amadeo-bennetta-and-
 http://www.squarestate.net/imposing-public-school-design-with-650-solar-panels/stunning-exterior-
 http://philippines1900.tumblr.com/post/264595846/education-as-a-colonial-tool
 http://www.interaksyon.com/article/75697/build-back-better-after-yolanda-7-lessons-from-albay-
 Philippine Architectural Design Paradigms: Copyright 2013 Architecture Advocacy International
Foundation (AAIF), Inc.
 Use energy, water, and other resources efficiently.
 Integrate renewable energy strategies, including passive solar design and, where appropriate, solar
thermal and photovoltaics.
 Integrate high-performance mechanical and lighting systems.
 Conserve and protect natural areas.
 Incorporate materials and products derived from sustainable-yield processes and/or are
manufactured locally.
 Provide opportunities for safe walking and bicycling to school.
Secure / Safe
 Providing safe schools should be a high priority.
 Maximize visual access to corridors and school grounds.
 Increase occupants' sense of ownership and "territoriality" by providing comfortable, not institutional,
rooms and by clearly defining the school boundaries.
 Control access to the building and grounds by individuals and vehicles.
 Design spaces to meet the specific needs of students and teachers with disabilities
 Design for future flexibility, which enables spaces to be easily modified.
 Make daylighting a priority, especially in classrooms. Daylighting is the controlled admission of
natural light into a space. Glare and hot spots can undermine the learning process. Studiesshow a
positive correlation between daylighting and student performance.
 Integrate daylighting with high-efficient electric lighting and controls to optimize visual comfort.
 Use natural ventilation when possible. (This and daylighting also provide a connection to the
To foster students' sense of community and individuality:
 Cluster classrooms around common areas.
 Connect spaces visually with colors and patterns.
 Provide platform spaces for gathering, sitting, and presenting and alcoves for reading and studying.
 Decentralize administrative spaces to encourage active leadership and maximize interaction with
 Provide a "home base" for each student and teacher.
 Select building elements on the basis of life-cycle cost analysis—Mirror the lifespan of projects and
systems with the expected lifespan of the facility.
 Consider the recyclability of materials.
 Specify materials and products that are easy to maintain (balance this with their impact on children's
health and the environment).
 Use energy simulation and analysis tools to optimize energy performance (integrate daylighting
systems, high-performance HVAC, energy-efficient building shell, and high-performance electric
 Bring the community into the planning process through an integrated design process.
 Provide an interior environment that is visually comfortable and stimulating by providing ample
natural light and incorporating colors that stimulate or soothe, depending on the space function.
 Design for diffuse, uniform daylight throughout classrooms.
 Avoid glare and direct-beam sunlight.
 Use daylighting analysis tools to model the interaction of lighting and materials that reflect or absorb

Adaptive Buildings
Adaptive buildings are designed to adapt to changing needs and conditions, including environmental
conditions such as climate change. Adaptive strategies make renovation or repurposing of space easier, less
expensive, and less burdensome on the environment.
The concepts and technologies to support adaptive building systems are both available and dependable.
Adaptive facilities are poised to capitalize on technology transfer from other disciplines, which can allow the
building industry to mass produce sustainable building parts and bring down the cost of these systems to
attractive levels. Open buildings are also a method for creating an adaptable building in that they are easiliy
remodeled and can easily be adapted for new purposes for which they were not originally conceived.

Climate Adaptation
Strategic decisions on location and layout of a building can significantly reduce risks associated with climate
change such as higher temperatures and water resource shortages. Designing buildings for climate change
contributes to zero impact due to the building's ability to adapt to changes in climate without having to
redesign, and in some cases rebuild. Such strategies may include flood resistant materials and drainage
planning, drought resistant landscaping, passive cooling, planting for shade, enhanced foundations, and
careful planning of vegetation, ensuring buildings do not obstruct biodiversity corridors, and material
selection based on heat island effect. Buildings must also be designed to withstand other natural
hazards including high winds to reduce damage to the building envelope, protect occupants, and minimize
heat gain, heat loss, and moisture penetration. Distributed energy resources, small-scale power generation
sources located close to where the energy is used, can provide an alternative to the traditional electric power
grid and offer the potential for lower cost, higher service reliability, high power quality, increased energy
efficiency, and energy independence.

The concepts of living, regenerative, restorative, and adaptive buildings are outlined and differentiated in the
sections below.
Living Buildings
Living buildings either are autonomous and not reliant upon the electrical grid or other utility systems to
operate, or, in accordance with the concept of net-zero, they take in resources (from the electrical grid, public
water supply, etc.) at levels equal to or less than what they return to the community and the environment (in
renewable energy, recyclables, etc.). Most of these buildings still need to be connected to the grid in order to
contribute excess energy from on-site power generation back to the community. In weather, power, or
security-related emergencies, these buildings can provide their own power from on-site sources, reducing
the need to be reliant upon the grid. Living buildings are also designed, operated, and managed to have no
negative health impacts upon occupants.
A Living Building is integrated with and mimics natural processes, and obtains all necessary resources for
operation from the natural environment (rainwater, wind, sunlight), which achieves a net-zero impact on the
environment as discussed above. A Living Building produces its own energy from renewable sources and
releases zero greenhouse gas emissions; it functions with the water that falls upon the site, capturing
rainwater for interior and exterior uses; and treats all wastewater on-site. It creates zero net waste and
sources sustainable materials. By doing so, the building can function autonomously from power grids and
municipal water systems. The Living Building Challenge (LBC) is the first sustainable building certification
system that provides design and construction teams with guidelines for how to integrate living building
concepts. The guidelines and examples are further outlined below.

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