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SEC.

14.4]
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY 447
indicating
the true
north;
the
magnetic compass,
of
course,
indicates the
magnetic
north.
For small
oscillations,
the
periodic
time of
swing
for the
gyro-
compass
is
(14.315)
r
= =
2w
LA
v
v '
n
\Csl2cosX
Since 12 is so small
(1
revolution
per
sidereal
day
=
2r/86,164
radians
per second),
the
spin
of the
gyroscope (s)
must be
given
a
large
value in order to make r
reasonably
small. If X
=
?r,
the
periodic
time becomes
infinite,
and the
gyrocompass
fails to
function;
but that is
only
to be
expected,
for the
points
in
ques-
tion are the North and South Poles.
Exercise
Assuming
the mass of the
gyroscope
concentrated in a thin
ring,
find the number of revolutions
per
second
required
for a
periodic
time
of 10 seconds at latitude 45.
14.4. GENERAL MOTION OF A RIGID BODY
The
general
motion of a
rigid body
consists of
(i)
motion
of the mass center and
(ii)
motion relative to the mass center.
The
equations governing
these have been
given
in Sec. 12.4.
But it would be
wrong
to
suppose
that the determination of the
general
motion
always splits
into two
parts
a
problem
in
particle dynamics
and a
problem
in the
dynamics
of a
body
with
a fixed
point.
Constraints make the two
problems interlock,
and
complications
arise. We cannot
give
a
general plan
for
the solution of all such
problems
but shall determine the motions
of two
systems
as
examples.
The motion of a billiard ball.
A billiard ball is struck
by
a cue. At time t
=
0,
we
suppose
that the ball is in contact with the
table;
its center has a horizon-
tal
velocity qo,
and the ball has an
angular velocity
G>O.
We wish
to find the
subsequent
motion of the ball.
If the table were
perfectly smooth,
the center of the ball would
retain the
velocity q ,
and the
angular velocity
w would also be
retained. But we shall assume the table to be
rough,
with a
coefficient of kinetic friction
ju.
At a
general
time
t,
the center has a horizontal
velocity q,
and the ball has an
angular velocity
<o. Let K be a unit vector
448 MECHANICS IN SPACE
[SEC.
14.4
drawn
vertically upward (Fig. 157).
The reaction of the table
on the ball at the
point
of contact P
may
be written
where R is the
magnitude
of the normal reaction and F the force
of
friction; F,
of
course,
acts
horizontally.
The
weight
is
mgK,
where ra is the mass of the ball. Thus the
equation
of motion
of the center
is, by (12.410),
(14.401) mq
=
F
+
(R
-
mg)JL.
But,
since the ball remains in contact
with the
table,
the acceleration of the
center has no vertical
component.
Thus R
=
mg,
and we have
(14.402) mq
=
F.
FIG. 157. Ball
slipping
on
a table.
Since
every
axis at is a
principal
axis
of
inertia,
the
angular
momentum about
O is h
=
7wA-
2
co,
where k is the radius of
gyration
about a diameter. Thus the
equation
for motion relative
to
is, by (12.411),
(14.403)
roA-%
=
-aK X
(F
+
KK)
=
-aK X
F,
where a is the radius of the ball.
In the vector
equations (14.402)
and
(14.403),
there are
actually
five scalar
equations.
There are seven
unknowns, viz.,
two
components
of
q,
throe
components
of
<o,
and two
components
of F.
Thus,
two more
equations
are
required; they
are furnished
by
the law of kinetic
friction,
as
long
as there is
slipping
betweon
the ball and the table. This law tells us that F acts in a direction
opposite
to the
velocity
of the
particle
of the ball at
P,
and that
(14.404)
F
=
nR
Thus,
(14.405)
F
-
-
where
q'
is the
velocity
of the
particle
at
P, given by
(14.406) q'
=
c*
X
(-aK).
SEC.
14.4]
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY 449
Hence, using (14.402)
and
(14.403),
we
get
(14.407)
mq'
=
F
+
~
(K
X
F)
X K
since K F
=
0.
Thus, by (14.405)
and
(14.407),
the derivative
of
q'
has a direction
opposed
to
q'.
This
implies that,
as
long
as
slipping
is
taking place,
the vector
q'
has a fixed direction.
Let I be a unit vector in this fixed direction. Then
(14.408)
q'
=
01,
F
=
-/impl,
and, by (14.407),
the
magnitude
of
q' changes according
to the
equation
(14.409) <?'=
-
Hence,
where
q'Q
is the
magnitude
of
qj,
the initial
velocity
of
slipping,
viz.,
(14.411) qj
=
q
()
-
a<o
X K.
By (14.410),
we shall have
</
=
when
(14.412)
t
=
-^
-
-r-i^;
v '
M
a
2
+
A-
2
'
at this instant
slipping
ceases. It is
easy
to see
that,
once
slip-
ping ceases,
the motion becomes a
simple rolling
in a
straight
line
at constant
speed,
for
(14.402)
and
(14.403)
are satisfied
by
constant values of
q
and
w,
with F
=
0.
There is a
point
of interest in connection with the motion of
the center before
slipping
ceases.
By (14.402)
and
(14.408),
we have
(14.413) 4
=
-M0I-
This means that the acceleration of the center of the ball is
constant in direction and
magnitude,
and so the center describes
a
parabolic path
as
long
as
slipping persists.
450 MECHANICS IN SPACE
[Sac.
14.4
The above results hold for
any
ball in which there is a
spheri-
cally symmetric
distribution of matter. If the ball is solid and
homogeneous,
we
put
2
=
fa
2
.
The motion of a
rolling
disk.
Everyone
knows that a child's
hoop,
or a
rolling coin, acquires
stability
from its motion. If the
hoop
or coin rolls
slowly,
it will
start to wobble
violently,
but if it rolls
fast,
it can
pass
over small
obstacles without
being upset.
We shall now discuss such
motions, idealizing
for
simplicity
to the case where the
body
has
a
sharp rolling edge.
We can treat the
hoop
and the coin
(or
indeed
any body
with a
sharp
circular
edge, possessing
an axis and a
plane
of
symmetry)
in a
single argument by using
general symbols
for moments of inertia.
For
purposes
of
reference, however,
we
shall uso the word "disk."
Figure
1 58 shows the disk in a
general
position;
P is the
point
of contact with
the
ground,
which we shall
suppose rough
FIG. 158. Dibk
rolling
on
enough
to
prevent slipping.
Let 6 be
a
plane.
^ mcii nation of the
plane
of the disk
to the
vertical,
and
$
the
angle
between a fixed horizontal
direction and the
tangent
to the disk at P. Let
(i, j, k)
be a unit
orthogonal triad,
k
being perpendicular
to the disk at its center
and i
lying along
the radius toward
P] j
is therefore horizontal
and lios in the
piano
of the disk.
For the
velocity
of the center and the
anguhir velocity
of the
disk,
we
may
write
q
=
ui
+
v]
+
wk,
o>
=
o>ii +
oj
2
j
+ wsk.
These two vectors are not
independent,
because the
particle
at
P is
instantaneously
at rest. This
gives
the condition
q
+
o>
X
ai
=
0,
where a is the radius of the
disk; or,
in scalar
form,
(14.414)
u
=
0,
v
+ aojs
=
0,
w
aui
=
0.
These
equations
determine
q
when o> is known.
Now the
angular velocity
Q of the triad arises
solely
from
SEC.
14.4]
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY 451
changes
in 6 and <. The former
gives
an
angular velocity
0j,
and the latter an
angular velocity <j>
about
OQ,
the vertical
through
0.
Thus,
(14.415)
a
=
-
cos
fa
-
6j
+
sin 6 <k.
But the
angular
velocities of the disk and the triad differ
only
in the k
component.
Therefore
(14.416)
coi
=
-
cos B
<l>,
o)
3
=
-0.
For the reaction of the
ground,
we write
(14.417)
R
=
flii +
#
2
j
+
ft
3
k.
By (12.410)
and
(12.411),
the two vector
equations
of motion
are
(
mq
=
R
+
?rc<7(cos
i sin 6
k),
}
h
=
ai X
R,
where m is the mass of the disk and h is the
angular
momentum
about
0;
we have
h
=
Acoii +
.<4co
2
j
+
Ow
3
k,
A and C
being
transverse and axial moments of inertia at O.
Since, by (12.306),
(14.419) q
=
-wi
+
j
+
ibk
+
a
X
q,
the first of
(14.418) gives
the throe scalar
equations
(m(u
Ow sin
<<>)
=
li\ -f-
mg
cos
0,
m(v
+
sin 6
fat
-f
cos
<M
=
72
a
,
m(?/?
cos
fa)
\ 611) 7?3
ing
sin 0.
By (14.414)
and
(14.116),
we eliminate
?/, *>,
i/J and obtain
(ma(0
2
+
sin <w
3 )
=
/?i +
^.<7
os
0,
-?/i<z(w3
+
cos
00<^)
-
K
2
,
ma($
cos
0a?
3)
=
/?
3
7??^r
sin 0.
Turning
now to the second of
(14.418),
we have
(14.422)
h
=
Aciii + A^j
+ 6'wjc +
ft
X
h,
and so we
get
the three scalar
equations
(Awi
<70co
3
A sin
^w
2
=
0,
Aw
2 +
A sin
<wi +
(7 cos <co
3
=
-a/^
3
,
Cd)
3
A cos <a>
2 +
A
0a)i
=
452 MECHANICS IN SPACE
[SEC.
14.4
By (14.410),
these become
(14.424)
A
-~
(cos
B
<)
+ C0o>3
-
A sin 0<
=
0,
Associating
these
equations
with
(14.421),
we have six
equations
for the six unknowns
6, <, cos,
Ri
t Rz,
Rz-
They
are the
equations
(12.412) applied
to our
special problem.
Before
proceeding
to discuss the
stability
of the disk
rolling
straight ahead,
let us consider
simple steady motjons satisfying
the
equations (14.421) and(14.424).
The most obvious solution is
(14.425)
f'"
'
*
v
I
R
l
=
-mg,
=
constant,
0)3
=
constant,
This is the
straight-ahead motion,
in which the
plane
of the disk
is vertical. Another
simple
motion is
given by
(14.426)
=
constant, <#
=
constant,
co
3
=
constant.
The
corresponding
reactions
are, by (14.421),
I
HI
=
m(a
sin B
<j>& 3
g
cos
0),
#2
=
0,
/^s
=
m(a
cos 6
^>oj 3 +
g
sin
0).
When we substitute in
(14.424),
the satisfaction of these
equa-
tions
requires
(14.428) (C
+
ma
2
)
cos 6 <a>
3 +
mga
sin 6
=
A sin cos e <
2
;
this condition must be satisfied
by
the constant values of
0, <,
w
3
,
in order that the
steady
motion
may
exist. It
is,
of
course,
a
rolling
in a circular
path.
Exercise.
If,
in the motion
given by (14.426),
and < are
small,
show that
the time taken to
complete
the circular
path
is
approximately
Let us now discuss the
stability
of the
rolling
disk. We
suppose
the disk to be
slightly
disturbed from the
steady
motion
given by (14.425).
In the disturbed state the
following quanti-
SEC.
14.5]
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY 453
ties are assumed to be
small,
since
they
vanish in the
steady
motion:
(14.429) 0, 6, S, <, <,
o>
3
,
R
1 +
mg,
R
Zl
R
9
.
With
only
first-order terms
retained, (1 1.421)
and
(14.424)
become
(0
=
#1 +
nig, A<t> + (70o>3
=
0,
mau*
=
-#,,
AS
-
Cfa*
=
aR
9
,
maS
mafas /?a +
mgO,
Cu*
aR>>.
From the second and last
equations
we see that
wa
=
constant.
Elimination of < and R
s
from the other
equations gives
(14.431) A(A
+
ma*)8
+
[C(C
+
ma
2
)o>S
-
Amga]0
=
a,
where a is a constant of
integration. Obviously
the condition
for
stability
is
(14.432)
C(C
+
ma
2
)
14.6. SUMMARY OF APPLICATIONS IN DYNAMICS IN SPACE-
MOTION OF A RIGID BODY
I.
Rigid body
with fixed
point
under no forces.
(a)
For a
general body,
the motion is
given by rolling
the
Poinsot
ellipsoid
on the invariable
plane;
there is an
analytic
solution in terms of
elliptic
functions.
(b)
For a
body
with an axis of
symmetry,
the Poinsot
ellipsoid
is of
revolution,
and the motion is
given by rolling
the
right
circular
body
cone on the
right
circular
space
cone at a constant
rate.
II. The
spinning top.
(a) Steady precession (p)
with fast
spin (s)
:
(14.501)
s
=
-y-
(approximately).
op
(b)
General motion
expressible
in terms of
elliptic
functions.
(c) Sleeping top
stable if
(14.502)
s* >