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(Answer of question from course note)

1- Preparation of steel substrate before application of paints and related product.
2- Size of particles, hardness, densit and shape of particle.
!- "emo#e or reduce electric static shoc$.
%- &podermic 'eedle (au)e.
*- +on) production run, ,an control qualit, more safet, efficient use of abrasi#e.
-- .mpossible.
/- 0es, the appearance.
1- 'o different.
2- 0es, "ust )rade 3 ha#e a hea# pitted.
14- 224mph.
11- 144psi per nozzle.
12- Polishin) and smooth shin areas which does not pro#ide )ood adhesion.
1!- SA 1
1%- /p&
1*- 5sin) p& indication strip paper.
1-- 6o retards the formation of corrosion product.
1/- "ust (rade A and 3.
11- Pic$lin) process followed b passi#ation process.
12- 4 till /p&.
24- / till 1%p&
21- +itmus paper to measure of either acid or al$alis.
22- Suppl a lar)e amount of water, disposal of slurr and mi7 of inhibitor.
2!- "e#ert, screw, bolt and nuts.
2%- 87pansion, 3ehdration and &eat penetration.
2*- A91, :91, ,91 and 391.
2-- 'eedle ;ettin) or 'eedle (un.
2/- Standard of toolin)- S6 2 means thorou)h hand and power tool cleanin) and S6
! means <er thorou)h hand and power tool cleanin).
21- Phosphorus :ronze and :erllium :ronze.
22- :urnishin) did not pro#ide a )ood adhesion of paint.
!4- +ea#e a #er coarse profile and need to repair b abraded with emer clothes.
!1- %.* 6ill /p&.
!2- =il or water filter>separator.
!!- 14? production.
!%- @lene
!*- :lastin) 6ri))ers which alwas under operator control.
!-- 6o reduce or remo#e electric shoc$ of static.
!/- : Air Aash Separator.
!1- <er hazardous to the operator.
!2- &i)h pressure water blastin) up to !4444psi, &i)h pressure water plus abrasi#e
inBection, +ow pressure water plus abrasi#e inBection and Aater :lastin).

%4- -* till /4C,.
%1- After Pic$lin) Process complete, immerse the steel substrate into a bath of
phosphoric>,hromic acid, 2 ? solution at 14C, for appro7imatel one to two
minute with iron fillin) (4.*?) and after that rinse in clean water and chec$ for Ph
#alues. <alue should be at the ran)e of %.* till /p&.
%2- 24 444psi
%!- +ot of slurr, use lar)e amount of water and use inhibitor.
%%- After Pic$lin) Process complete, immerse the steel substrate into a bath of
phosphoric>,hromic acid, 2 ? solution at 14C, for appro7imatel one to two
minute with iron fillin) (4.*?) and after that rinse in clean water and chec$ for Ph
#alues. <alue should be at the ran)e of %.* till /p&.
%*- "educe dust and )ood to remo#e to7ic paint.
%-- 6o forms rust inhibiti#e laers, which passi#ate the surface and increase the
adhesion properties and also e7tremel resistant to cathodic disbondment.
%/- 6reated b abradin) with emer clothes.
%1- 'o.
%2- 1% photos, 2 for rust )rade A, % photos for each rust )rade :, , and 3.
*4- (rit :lastin).
133 & 134

1- Powder paint.
2- Detones > Acetone.
!- &i)h resistance to mould )rowth, non-flammable, resistance to chemical attac$,
non to7ic and eas maintenance.
%- +ow resistance to some sol#ent, low temperature tolerance (-*C, ma7imum) and
spra application resulted in Ecobwebs E.
*- Ahite Spirits.
-- ,hlorine.
/- 'o, ," contain with stron) sol#ent and Al$d contain with wea$ sol#ent, if ,"
applied o#er Al$d its will result a liftin).
1- Aliphatic &drocarbon>Ahite spirits.
2- 9rom words of Alcohol and Acid reaction.
14- .nert particles with e7cellent li)ht scatterin) properties in order to )i#e co#erin)
power, opacit and colour.
11- A :inder.
12- Acceptable, wea$ sol#ent binder o#er stron) sol#ent binder not creates an paint
fault. ..e. liftin).
1!- 'ot acceptable, stron) sol#ent binder o#er wea$ sol#ent binder will spoilt the
paint sstem. ..e. liftin).
1%- Acceptable, wea$ sol#ent binder o#er stron) sol#ent binder not creates an paint
fault. ..e. liftin).
1*- 'ot acceptable, stron) sol#ent binder o#er wea$ sol#ent binder will spoilt the
paint sstem. ..e. liftin).
1-- Acceptable, wea$ sol#ent binder o#er stron) sol#ent binder not creates an paint
fault. ..e. liftin).
1/- 'ot acceptable, stron) sol#ent binder o#er wea$ sol#ent binder will spoilt the
paint sstem. ..e. liftin).
11- 3e and #arnish.
12- <er brittle and fast dr.
24- Fust be a tpe that will combine with o7)en (unsaturated).
21- 9orms thic$ impermeable laer of hi)h electrical resistance.
22- ,ausin) a chemical reaction between the paint constituent and the substrate.
2!- : sacrifical coatin).
2%- Fulti ,omponent +iquids paints.
2*- 9or ease application, adhesion to substrate, abrasion resistance, chemical
resistance, cohesi#e stren)th and abilit to resist the passa)e of water.
2-- ,opal, dammar and coumarone.
2/- +inseed oil, castor oil, oli#e oil, tun) oil, Soa oil and palm oil.
21- A mi7ture of oil and resins.
22- Silicones, usuall carbon or aluminium pi)mented.
!4- ,arbon and aluminium.

1- Pol means man and Fers means sin)le units, can be sin)le atom or molecule.
2- ;oinin) to)ether of a strin) structure of repeated units.
!- +inear polmer, branched polmer and cross lin$ed polmer.
%- +ess than %*? oil to resin.
*- Fore than -4? oil to resin.
-- .nert particle with e7cellent scatterin) properties in order to )i#e co#erin) power,
opacit and colour.
/- 1>14
1- Saturated oil will not solidif b polmerisation to form a film and unsaturated
oil will combine with o7)en.
2- Semi drin) oil and 'on drin) oil.
14- 3e can easil dissol#e but pi)ment cannot.
11- Animal, #e)etable, mineral and sntheticall produce.
12- Ahite colour.
1!- "ed +ead, calcium plumbhate, ,oal tar and zinc chromate.
1%- Daolin, china cla, calcium plumbhate, ma)nesium silicate and aluminium
1*- Ficacous iron o7ide, (lass fla$e, (raphite and Aluminium fla$e.
1-- A film ha#e a )ood )loss properties but poor co#erin) power and ha#e tendenc
to blister or low cohesi#e stren)th.
1/- ,ritical Pi)ment <olume ,oncentration.
11- 9or a shelf life of paint.
12- A blac$ colour.
24- 8ase of application, adhesion to substrate, abrasion resistance, chemical
resistance and cohesi#e stren)th.
21- Added into primer to protect the steel substrate b b passi#ation.
2!- All particle are not wetted, the paint film would be porous, low in cohesi#e
stren)th and adhesion.
2%- Hinc phosphate.
2*- Pro#ide adhesion, cohesion, films stren)th and durabilit.
2-- (reen, ellow and oran)es.
2/- 6 o )i#e paint fle7ibilit and reduce brittleness.
21- Hinc and Aluminium.
22- 9or o7idizin) oil and resin which are added durin) paint manufacturin).
!4- A Bell paint, non drip and if stir would be chan)e into normal liquid.

136 & 137
!1- Process of millin) or )rindin) a paint in)redient to a suitable size.
!2- .ts will retard the formation of s$in on the paint surface.
!!- Al$d resins and non drin) oil.
!%- 6he resultin) liquids ..e. salts mi7 with water will result salt water.
!*- Salt mi7 into water will result salt water, su)ar mi7 into water will result
sweeten water.
!-- Paint consist of solid particles suspended in the #ehicle where is no solubilit.
!/- Suspension and 8mulsion.
!1- ,on#ertible>'on "e#ersible.
!2- ,ross lin$ed Polmer.
%4- ,hlorinated "ubber, <inl, Acrlic, cellulous material and lacquer.
%1- Allowin) the polmer in a paint structure bac$ into solution.
%2- 'ot allowin) the polmer in a paint structure bac$ into solution.
%!- Sol#ent 8#aporation, =7idation, ,hemical ,urin) and ,oalescence.
%%- ,hlorinated "ubber, <inlIs, Acrlic and fall into +inear Polmer cate)ories.
%*- 6he &e)man (rind (au)e which used to measure de)ree of dispersion of paint.
%-- Al$d, Phenolic and neutral oil and resin.
%/- ,ross lin$in) Polmer.
%1- "e#ersible or non con#ertible and linear polmer.
%2- Phsicall Boint to)ether.
*4- 6he periods of time after mi7in) which paint must be used.
*1- Amides, Amines and .soccnate.
*!- (i#in) off heat, the container will warm up.
*%- 6he len)th of time after mi7in) which the paint should stand before used.
**- 6hermosettin) means the material will cure with the application of heat. And
6hermoplastic means materials soften with the application of heat.
*-- ,ross +in$in) Polmer.
*/- Stand 6ime and +ead 6ime.
*1- 0es, the time depends on Paint Fanufacturer recommendation.
*2- <inl, ,hlorinated "ubber, Al$d and ,ellulose.
-4- 6hermosettin), the powder will cure with the application of heat.
-1- .tIs a :arrier coat.
-!- 8ndothermic reaction, ta$in) in heat, the paint container will cold and formin)
-%- Sto#in), usin) o#en or infra red.
-*- 3epends on 6echnical 3ata Sheet recommendation from paint manufacture.
--- &ea# metal salts, =ctoates or naphtanes of cobalt, man)anese and zirconium.
-/- 6o $eep solid particulated constituents in depression within the paints.
-1- Al$d and 'on drin) oil.
/4- : o7idizin).
136 & 137
/1- 6he temperature at which water #apor in the air will condense.
/2- 6he amount of water #apor in the air e7pressed as a percenta)e of the amount of
water #apor which could be in the air at that same temperature.
/!- Alwas wet bulb first and immediatel.
/%- At a speed of %meter>second.
/*- 3istilled water.
/-- Aspirated &)rometer and Pschrometer.
//- 3ecrease.
/1- Fust be accordin) to :S 2%12.
/2- +impet (au)e, 3i)ital 6hermometer, 6hermocouple and 6ouch Prometer.
14- .mpossible.
136 & 137
1- 9luids resistance to flow, where the liquids with a hi)h #iscosit is one which a
hi)h resistance to flow and it would not run easil, a low #iscosit is fluids runs
#er easil.
2- +iquids with a hi)h resistance to flow. And would not run easil.
!- =ne centi poise.
%- ,(S-Poise and S.-'ewton per square meter.
*- 9ord 9low ,up, Hhan and 9ri$mar and 3.'.
-- 6ime in second at the measure temperature (second>24C,J4.*)
/- 3iameter of nozzle openin) at the bottom of cup.
1- 3namic <iscosit and Dinematics <iscosit.
2- ,omparin) the sample ta$en from the operator at the point of application and the
sample from the paint manufacture technical data sheet.
14- 9ord 9low ,up.
11- 6emperature would effect the drin) and curin) of paint under test.
12- "otothinner )i#in) dnamic #iscosit and Drebs Stomer )i#in) $inematics
1!- ,lean and dr the cup, put on the trian)ular stand and ma$e it parallel usin) spirit
bubble le#elin) on the lid of cup, open a cup, place a fin)er at a nozzle under a
cup, fill a cup with a paint under test and clean out an accesses if paint b ruler,
standb with stop watch, at the time we remo#e our fin)er from nozzle
immediatel at the same time press start button at stop watch and loo$ at the first
bra$e of paint which drop from nozzle under cup and stop the stop watch. 6he
readin) should be Second>24C,J4.*.
1%- 6he &e)man (rind (au)e.
1*- '=, the hi)her temperature is better and safer.
1-- (pa)e -1)
1/- (pa)e -*)
11- Able ,up.
12- :lue flame flash o#er the cup.
24- Aei)ht per <olume. (AK<)
21- 3ensit of @ K 3ensit of water.
22- 3ensit of Aater.
2!- "elati#e 3ensit ,up, Specific (ra#it ,up, Aei)ht per liter ,up, Aei)ht per
)allon ,up and P$nometer.
2%- Dinematics <iscosit.
2*- 6aber "otar Abraser.
2-- ,onical Fandrels.
2/- 6ubular .mpact 6ester.
21- 6est the hardness of paint after full cured.
22- 3etermine correct mi7in) ratio and correct percenta)e of thinner added into a
!4- &umidit ,abinet, Salt Spra ,abinet, Aater Soa$ 6est, 6emperature ,clin)
and prohesion test.
!1- 6estin) a pain in a situation of tropical condition.
!2- &i)her than densit of water.
!!- Sol#ent would reduce or chan)e the #olume solids percenta)e in paint.
!%- 144cc capacit.
!*- Specific (ra#it used for water and 3ensit used for sol#ent.
!-- Aater absorption.
!/- SubBect to constant ccle temperature from hot to cold and hot a)ain.
!1- ,onstant e7pansion and contraction which can result in a crac$.
!2- :allotini 6est and :D 3rin) 6ime "ecorder.
%4- Ahen there are no an scratches #isible on a paint surface.
%1- :lac$ and white fused plate, 6hrou)h 6pe and &idin) Power ,hart and
micrometer adBustable film applicator.
%2- ,apabilit of paint to )i#in) hidin) power to the underlin) surface.
%!- 6o chec$ed opacit of paint.
%%- 6o determine the indi#idual thic$ness of paint film.
%*- 6o control thic$ness durin) application which )i#e a confidence that after paint
dr the thic$ness still in the ran)e of dr film thic$ness a per spec requirement
and control a paint consumption.
%-- 8ccentrics "ims and Aet ,ombs.
%/- 6o determine accurate thic$ness readin).
%1- ,omparin) with paint manufacturer technical data sheet.
%2- 'o, used for ferrous metal substrate onl.
*4- 'o, used for non ferrous metal substrate onl.
*1- 'o, used for ferrous metal substrate onl.
*2- &idin) power chart in opacit test.
*!- (lossmeter.
*%- : a reflectance of li)ht at specified an)le.
**- 3e)ree of dispersion, particle size, resin tpe, sol#ent tpe and pi)ment #olume
*-- %4Lm.
*/- 14-24Lm.
*1- Almost 144?.
*2- 3e)ree of )loss for primer and mid coat paint.
-4- +i)ht would be deflected and the )loss percenta)e readin) would be lower.
-1- <-,ut test, ,ross &atch ,ut and 3oll test.
-2- 3oll 6est units in Fpa>psi>lb>'ewton.
-!- ,ohesi#e failure within a paint film.
-%- Sodium ,hlorides.
-*- &dro)en and ,hlorine )as.
--- After <-,ut the paint must not e7posed the substrate. ..e. 9.:.8 *mm onl after
21 da.
-/- Sacrificial Anodes and .mpress ,urrent.
/4- 'o, these sstems onl control the corrosion formation.

138 & 139
/1- 0es, b primar defence ( coatin))
/2- 'o, at the liquids le#el onl b cathodic protection, the rest, b paint.
/!- Settin) at 2#olts.
/%- Settin) at -/.*#olts or 24#olts.
/*- 3eter)ent or washin) liquids.
/-- 6o allow immediate penetration of the water and pro#idin) a #er low resistance
circuit bac$ to the control bo7.
//- 'o ad#ice.
/1- 6o wet out the entire surface.
/2- 3irect ,urrent.
14- &i)h #olta)e &olida 3etector.
2- (rindin) a))re)ate and a))lomerate down to a suitable size for the paint tpe
bein) process.
!- ( Pa)e *2)
%- (pa)e -4)
*- Processin) a li)hter colour of paint (used porcelain).
-- Sand mill
/- (pa)e -2)
1- <olume Solids, mi7in) ratio, flash point, curin) time, inter#al coatin) time, pot
life, induction periods and sol#ent used for mi7in).
14- 5sin) 9ord 9low ,up and compare the results with the paint manufacturer
technical data sheet.
11- Aor$in) in sacrificial sstem, its would be sacrifice to protect the substrate due
to corrosion reaction.
12- 3esi)n to contact with a substrate, normall low #olume solid material, wet out
the substrate and pro#ides e7cellent adhesion and also pro#ide a $e for an
subsequence laer. 6he binders usuall ha#e relati#el low resistance to #apour
transmission, and allow water into the film to carr tin amount of the rust
inhibiti#e pi)mentation onto the substrate to form a passi#atin) laer.
1!- 6hese material contain appro7imatel 2-? <.=.,Is in the form of Deatones, and
appro7imatel %? phosphoric acids, tinted with cooper phosphate and used for
etchin) new )al#anise.
1%- &i)h transfer efficienc, )ood ed)e co#er, )ood wraparound, uniform film
thic$ness and low wasta)es.
1*- Snthetic material
1-- 9ailure within a paint film, main reason for cohesi#e failure is sol#ent trap and
incorrect mi7in) ratio of two pac$ paint.
11- :ecause of acids content.
12- =#er spra means particles reachin) surface not wet enou)h to le#el because of
too rapid sol#ent e#aporation, )un too far from surface or paint particles fallin)
outside spra pattern.
24- 8dd current, :anana (au)e, &orse shoe (au)e and 6insle Pencil.
21- 3etermine 3r and Aet :ulb temperature for "elati#e &umidit calculation.
22- Surface turn into :lac$ ,olour.
2!- :efore 1-hrs.
2%- :ase resin and chemical acti#ator.
2*- Producti#it.
2-- 'o o#erspra.
2/- Faterial of substrate to be painted.
21- 6umblin) process usin) powder of zinc for coatin).
22- (ra#it ,up, Suction ,up and "emote pressure cup.
!4- ,oatin) with aluminium b dip the substrate into molten aluminium.
!1- 6o seal Mfish scaleN surface and subBect to hot temperature ser#ice.
!2- &olida or miss spra.
!!- &ue, :ri)htness and Saturation.
!%- Paint easil to flow and wet out the substrate, no sol#ent added to reduce
!*- : turnin) bac$ the spra tip at 114C an)le and pull the spra tri))ers.
!-- ,on#entional spra b air pressure in the spra )un.
!/- Airless spra b air pressure at the piston shaft.
!1- (al#anizin) process.
!2- :rush mar$.
%4- A whitish crstalline formation on bric$, mortar and plaster. ,auses b soluble
salts crstallizin) on the surface.
%1- 8lectric arc sstem and Aire and pistol sstem.
%2- 6he de#elopment of loosel cohesi#e pi)ment a))lomerates in coatin) material.
%!- Shelf +ife of paint.
%%- A sealer coat.
%*- 9i#e depressions to achie#e "AO of *44cc.
%-- 9or to7ic, :lac$ smbol of s$ull and crossbones on oran)e square with the words
6o7ic or #er to7ic, for &armful, blac$ dia)onal cross on an oran)e square with
the words &armful or .rritant and for corrosi#e :lac$ smbol showin) a tilted test
tube drippin) onto a hand with a chun$ out, adBacent to a test tube drippin) onto
stone flat, oran)e bac$)round with the word corrosi#e.
%/- 6he formation of soap b reaction of a fatt acid ester and an al$ali.
%1- Part Per Fillion ( ppm )