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PROJECT REPORT

ON
CENTRALIZED ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM
USING GSM CONTROL FACILITY
(B.TECH FINAL YEAR PROJECT)
(2012-2013)

SUBMITTED BY :
SHOBHIT KUMAR JAIN (0903031098)
RAVI KUMAR GUPTA (0903010075)
PIYUSH GOEL (0903031074)
SUMIT KAPOOR (0903031104)

UNDER GUIDANCE OF:
Ms. SHAFALI JAGGA

Submitted to faculty of engineering , U.P. Technical University, in
partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


INDERPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
GHAZIABAD
UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
MAY 8 , 2013



CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Project Report entitled CENTRALIZED
ENVIRONMENT MONITORING SYSTEM USING GSM CONTROL
FACILITY which is submitted by SHOBHIT KUMAR JAIN, RAVI
KUMAR GUPTA, PIYUSH GOEL and SUMIT KAPOOR in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Department of Electronics & Communication
Engineering from INDERPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
affiliated to Gautam Buddh Technical University , under the guidance of
Ms. SHAFALI JAGGA.
It is a record of the candidates own work carried out by them under our
supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been
submitted for the award of any other degree by the candidate or to anybody
else.





Ms. Shafali Jagga Prof. A.K. Giri
(Project Guide) (Head of Department)
(Electronics & Communication Engineering)












DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is our own work and it, to the best of
our knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or
written by another person nor any material, which to substantial extent has
been expected the award of any other degree of the university or other
institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has been
made in the text.


Name: SHOBHIT KR. JAIN Name: RAVI KR. GUPTA
Roll no: 0903031098 Roll No: 0903010075
Date: Date:
Signature: Signature:


Name: PIYUSH GOEL Name: SUMIT KAPOOR
Roll no: 0903031074 Roll no: 0903031104
Date: Date:
Signature: Signature:







ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all we would like to thank our family and friends for making us
worthy to reach this stage of life
We express our deep gratitude to our project guide and supervisor Ms.
Shafali Jagga , of department of Electronics & Communication
Engineering for her guidance in the execution of this project. It was indeed
a great pleasure to work under the genesis of such unerring teacher,
perfectionist and a person of ever helping nature. We are specially grateful
for all the help she has provided and all the resources she made available
without which this project would not have been possible.
We would also like to extend our deep sense of gratitude toward professor
A.K Giri (HOD) of department of Electronics & Communication
Engineering for his guidance and help through this project.
Also we would like to thank to Mr. M.S Giri for his guidance in
microcontroller programming and also we would like to thank to our friends
who helped us during this project.
SHOBHIT KR. JAIN
RAVI KR. GUPTA
PIYUSH GOEL
SUMIT KAPOOR






INDEX
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER 1
1) INTRODUCTION
1.1 GSM MODEM
1.2 MICROCONTROLLER
1.3 SENSORS
1.3.1 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
1.3.2 HUMIDITY SENSOR
1.4 POWER SUPPLY
1.5 BLOCK DIAGRAM
1.6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CHAPTER 2



CHAPTER 3
3) PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 4
4.1 ADVANTAGES
4.2 APPLICATIONS
4.3 CONCLUSION

REFRENCES
DATA SHEETS
APPENDIX













ABSTRACT

This project is aimed at developing a centralized monitoring system for
industrial automation. This system contains certain sensors which
continuously monitor parameters at the workplace, and transmit those values
to the controller at any remote location via a GSM link.
Here we have interfaced temperature sensor LM-35, humidity sensor SYH-
235 and GSM modem SIM-300 with the microcontroller Atmega16, the
output values of the two sensors is displayed on a 162 LCD.
If the temperature value exceeds a predefined limit, the system automatically
transmits a warning signal to the controller via a GSM link, and the
controller can give control signals to the system via the same GSM link.










LIST OF FIGURES

1) FIGURE OF GSM MODEM
2) FIGURE OF MICROCONTROLLER Atmega16
3) BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER Atmega16
4)
5)
6) BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT
7) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT













LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
1) GSM GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION
2) SMS SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE
3) MMS MULTIMEDIA MESSAGE SERVICE
4) SIM SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE
5) USB UNIVERSAL SERIAL PORT
6) MODEM MODULATOR DEMODULATOR
7) LCD LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY
8) MMS MULTIMEDIA MESSAGE SERVICE



















CHAPTER 1
(INTRODUCTION)





INTRODUCTION





















GSM MODEM
A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card,
and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile
phone. From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like
a mobile phone.
When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer
to use the GSM modem to communicate over the mobile network. While
these GSM modems are most frequently used to provide mobile internet
connectivity, many of them can also be used for sending and receiving SMS
and MMS messages.
A GSM modem exposes an interface that allows applications such as Now
SMS to send and receive messages over the modem interface. The mobile
operator charges for this message sending and receiving as if it was
performed directly on a mobile phone. To perform these tasks, a GSM
modem must support an "extended AT command set" for sending/receiving
SMS messages, as defined in the ETSI GSM 07.05 and 3GPP TS 27.005
specifications.
GSM modems can be a quick and efficient way to get started with SMS,
because a special subscription to an SMS service provider is not required. In
most parts of the world, GSM modems are a cost effective solution for
receiving SMS messages, because the sender is paying for the message
delivery. A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial,
USB or Bluetooth connection, such as the Falcom Samba 75.
To begin, insert a GSM SIM card into the modem and connect it to an
available USB port on your computer.

AT command set" for sending/receiving SMS messages, as defined in ETSI
GSM 07.05 and/or 3GPP TS 27.005, can be supported by the Now SMS &
MMS Gateway. Note that not all mobile phones support this modem
interface.
Due to some compatibility issues that can exist with mobile phones, using a
dedicated GSM modem is usually preferable to a GSM mobile phone.
This is more of an issue with MMS messaging, where if you wish to be able
to receive inbound MMS messages with the gateway, the modem interface
on most GSM phones will only allow driver to connection you to send MMS
messages.



A GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with the
appropriate cable and software ect to a serial port or USB port on your
computer. Any phone that supports the "extended" because the mobile phone
automatically processes received MMS message notifications without
forwarding them via the modem interface.
It should also be noted that not all phones support the modem interface for
sending and receiving SMS messages. In particular, most smart phones,
including Blackberries, iPhone, and Windows Mobile devices, do not
support this GSM modem.
Semen's GSM/GPRS Smart Modem is a multi-functional, ready to use,
rugged unit that can be embedded or plugged into any application. The
Smart Modem can be controlled and customized to various levels by using
the standard AT commands.
The modem is fully type-approved, it can speed up the operational time with
full range of Voice, Data, Fax and Short Messages (Point to Point and Cell
Broadcast), the modem also supports GPRS (Class 2*) for spontaneous data
transfer.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERFACES:
The modem comprises several interfaces:
- LED Function including operating Status
- External antenna
- Serial and control link
- Power Supply (via AC Adopter)
- SIM card holder
LED Status Indicator :
The LED will indicate different status of the modem:
- OFF Modem Switched off
- ON Modem is connecting to the network
- Flashing Slowly Modem is in idle mode
- Flashing rapidly Modem is in
Transmission/communication (GSM only)













































MICROCONTROLLER (ATmega16)
ATmega is a low power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
based on the AVR enhanced RISC Architecture.
By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16
achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system
designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
It is a 40 pin IC.
ATmega16 has 16 Kbytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program
memory with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes EEPROM, 1Kbyte
SRAM, 32 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers.
The device is manufactured using Atmels high density nonvolatile memory
technology. The Onchip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional
nonvolatile memory programmer.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

PIN DESCRIPTION
Pin 1-Pin 8: 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
Pin 9: Reset Input
Pin 10: Digital Supply Voltage
Pin 11: Ground
Pin 12: Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier
Pin 13: Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the
internal clock operating circuit
Pin 14-Pin 21: 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
Pin 22-Pin 29: 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
Pin 30: AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D
Converter. It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC
is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC
through a low-pass filter
Pin 31: Ground
Pin 32: AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter
Pin 33-Pin 40: Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D
Converter. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the
A/D Converter is not used






GPS BASED TRACKING SYSTEM
(B.TECH FINAL YEAR PROJECT)

SUBMITTED BY:
TAHSEEN AKHTAR(0903031059)
DRONA(0903031038)
NAVEEN KUMAR(1003031905)
CHANDAN GUPTA(0903031029)
UNDER GUIDANCE OF:
MRS. AARTI SHARMA
Submitted to the Department of Electronics and Communication
Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of
Bachelor of Technology
in
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

INDERPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
GautamBuddh Technical University
May(2012-2013)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration ii
Certificate.. iii
Acknowledgement.. iv
Abstract.. v
List of Figures. vi
List of Symbols vii
List of Abbreviations viii

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
1.1 GPS & GSM MODEM
1.2 Microcontroller (PIC16F877A)
1.3 Commands
1.4 Power Supply
1.5 Block Diagram
1.6 Circuit Diagram

CHAPTER 2
2.1 Working

CHAPTER 3
3.1 Programming

CHAPTER 4
4.1 Application
4.2 Advantages/Disadvantages

CHAPTER 5
5.1 Future of GPS Technology
5.2 Conclusion

APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
REFERENCES




DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that, to
the best of our knowledge and belief, it contains no material
previously published or written by another person nor material
which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of
any other degree of the university or other institute of higher
learning, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the
text.

Name: MD. TAHSEEN AKHTAR Name: DRONA
Roll No: 0903031059 Roll No:
0903031038
Date: Date:
Signature: Signature:



Name: NAVEEN KUMAR Name: CHANDAN
GUPTA
Roll No: 1003031905 Roll No: 0903031029
Date: Date:
Signature: Signature:



CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Project Report entitled GPS Based Tracking
System which is submitted by TahseenAkhtar, Drona, Naveen
Kumar, Chandan Gupta in partial fulfillment of requirement for the
award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Department of
Electronics & Communication Engineering from Inderprastha
Engineering College, Ghaziabad affiliated to Uttar Pradesh
Technical University, under the guidance of Mrs. Aarti Sharma.
It is a record of the candidates own work carried out by them under
our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and
has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.



Date: Supervisor:






ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B.
Tech Project undertaken during B. Tech Final Year. We owe
special debt of gratitude to Associate Prof.MrsAarti Sharma,
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, for
her constant support and guidance throughout the course of our
work. Her sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a
constant source of inspiration for us. It is only her cognizant efforts
that our endeavors have seen light of the day.
We also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of
Prof. A.K. Giri, Dean & Head of Department of
Electronics&Communication Engineering, for his full support and
assistance during the development of the project.
We also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the
contribution of Prof. M.S. Giri for his valuable support and all
other faculty members of the department for their kind assistance
and cooperation during the development of our project. Last but
not the least, we acknowledge our friends for their contribution in
the completion of the project.
TAHSEEN AKHTAR
DRONA
NAVEENKUMAR
CHANDAN GUPTA
ABSTRACT

This proposed work is an attempt to design a tracking unit that uses
the global positioning system to determine the precise location of
an object, person or other asset to which it is attached and using
GSM modem this information can be transmit to remote user. It
can provide tele-monitoring system for inter-cities transportation
vehicles such as taxis and buses. This system contains single-board
embedded system that is equipped with GPS and GSM modems
that is installed in the vehicle. During object motion, its location
can be reported by SMS message. A software package is
developed to read, process, analyze and store the incoming SMS
messages. The use of GSM and GPS technologies allows the
system to track object and provides the most up-to-date
information about ongoing trips. If a password like SMS is sent by
the owner, or we can use it for different other work, it can provide
real time control. This system finds its application in real time
traffic surveillance. The current system can be able to provide
monitoring process from anywhere. The purpose of this system is
to design and integrate a new system which is integrated with
GPS- GSM to provide following feature:
a) Location information,
b) Real time tracking using SMS,
c) Track bus driver activity
d) Communication is instantaneous therefore we can receive
running report quickly.


LIST OF FIGURES

















LIST OF SYMBOLS

















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

GPS Global Positioning System
GSM Global System of Mobile Communication
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GIS Geographical Information System












INTRODUCTION

The Global positioning system is a technology, which provides
unequalled accuracy and flexibility of positioning for navigation,
surveying and GIS data capture. This wonderful navigation
technology was actually first available for government use back in
the late 1970s. The Global Positioning System is a radio based
navigation system that gives three dimensional coverage of the
earth, 24 hours a day in any weather conditions throughout the
world.A GPS tracking unit is a device that uses the Global
Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle,
person or other asset to which it is attached and to record the
position of the asset at regular intervals.
The recorded location data can be stored within the tracking unit or
it may be transmitted to a central location data base, or internet
connected computer using a cellular (SMS), radio or satellite
modem embedded in the unit.
This allows the assets location to be displayed against a map
backdrop either in real time or when analyzing the track later,
using GPS tracking software.
GPS Tracking system is method to locate the exact location of a
receiver (tracking unit) on the earth.




GPS BASIC CONCEPT

By positioning we understand the determination of stationary or
moving objects. These can be determined as follows:
1.In relation to a well-defined coordinate system, usually by three
coordinate values.
2.In relation to other point, taking one point as the origin of a local
coordinate system. The first mode of positioning is known as point
positioning, the second as relative positioning. If the object to be
positioned is stationary, we term it as static positioning. When the
object is moving, we call it kinematic positioning. Usually, the
static positioning is used in surveying and the kinematic position in
navigation.Developed by the U.S. Department of Defense for the
military, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide,
satellite-based, radio navigation system that will give you the exact
position of your vehicles, no matter where they are, what time it is,
or what the weather is like. A total of 24 satellites orbit the Earth,
monitored continuously by earth stations. The satellites transmit
signals that can be detected by GPS receivers located in your
vehicles and used to determine their location with great accuracy.

GPS - COMPONENTS AND BASIC FACTS
The GPS uses satellites and computers to compute
positionsanywhereon earth. The GPS is based on satellite ranging.
That means theposition on the earth is determined by measuring
the distance from agroup of satellites in space.
The basic principles behind GPS are reallysimple, even though the
system employs some of the most high-techequipment ever
developed. In order to understand GPS basics, thesystem can be
categorized into
FIVE logical Steps-
1. Triangulation from the satellite is the basis of the system.
2. To triangulate, the GPS measures the distance using thetravel
time of the radio message.
3. To measure travel time, the GPS need a very accurate clock.
4. Once the distance to a satellite is known, then we need to
know where the satellite is in space.
5. As the GPS signal travels through the ionosphere and
theearth's atmosphere, the signal is delayed.
6. To compute a positions in three dimensions. We need tohave
four satellite measurements. The GPS uses atrigonometric
approach to calculate the positions, The GPSsatellites are so
high up that their orbits are verypredictable and each of the
satellites is equipped with a very accurate atomic clock.
How does GPS work?
Each GPS satellite transmits radio signals that enable the GPS
receivers to calculate where its (or your vehicles) location on the
Earth and convert the calculations into geodetic latitude, longitude
and velocity. A receiver needs signals from atleast three GPS
satellites to pinpoint your vehicles position.
GPS Receivers commonly used in most Vehicle tracking systems
can only receive data from GPS Satellites. They cannot
communicate back with GPS or any other satellite.A system based
on GPS can only calculate its location but cannotsend it to central
control room.
GSM MODEM

A GSM Modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a
SIM card and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator,
just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective, a
GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.
When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the
computer to use the GSM modem to communicate over the mobile
network. While these GSM modems are most frequently used to
provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be
used for sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages.
A GSM modem exposes an interface that allows applications such
as now SMS to send and receive messages over the modem
interface. The mobile operator charges for this messages sending
and receiving as if it was performed directly on a mobile phone. To
perform these tasks, a GSM modem must support an extended AT
command set for sending and receiving SMS messages as defined
in the ETSI GSM 07.05 and 3GPP TS 27.005 specifications.
GSM modems can be a quick and efficient way to get started with
SMS, because a special subscription to an SMS service provider is
not required. In most parts of the world, GSM modems are a cost
effective solution for receiving SMS messages, because the sender
is paying for the message delivery. A GSM modem can be a
dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth
connection, such as the Falcom Samba 75.
To begin, insert a GSM SIM card into the modem and connect it to
an available USB port on your computer.
AT command set for sending/receiving SMS messages, as defined
in ETSI GSM 07.05 and/or 3GPP TS 27.005, can be supported by
now SMS and MMS Gateway. Note that not all mobile phones
support this modem interface.
Due to some compatibility issues that can exist with mobile
phones, using a dedicated GSM modem is usually preferable to a
GSM mobile phone. This is more of an issue with MMS
messaging, where if you wish to be able to receive inbound MMS
messages with the Gateway, the modem interface on most GSM
phones will only allow driver to connect you to send MMS
messages.
A GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with
the appropriate cable and software to a serial port or USB port on
your computer. Any phone that supports the extended because the
mobile phone automatically processes received MMS message
notifications without forwarding them via the modem interface.
It should also be noted that not all phones support the modem
interface for sending and receiving SMS messages. In particular,
most smart phones, including Blackberries, iPhone and Windows
Mobile devices, do not support this GSM modem interface for
sending and receiving SMS messages at all.
Additionally, Nokia phones that use S60 interface, which is
Symbian based, only support sending SMS messages via the
modem interface and do not support receiving SMS via the modem
interface. Semens GSM smart modem is a multifunctional , ready
to use rugged unit that can be embedded or plugged into any
application. The smart modem can be controlled and customized to
various levels by using standard AT commands.
The modem is fully type approved, it can speed up the operational
time with full range of voice, data, fax and short messages (point to
point and cell broadcast).

Description of the Interfaces :
The modem comprises several interfaces-
1. LED function including operating status
2. External antenna
3. Serial and control link
4. Power supply
5. SIM card holder
LED Status Indicator :
The LED will indicate different status of the modem:
1. OFF Modem switched off
2. ON - Modem is connecting to the network
3. Flashing slowly Modem is in idle mode
4. Flashing rapidly Modem is in transmission/communication



MICROCONTROLLER








COMMANDS


There are various types of AT Commands used, but only a
limited no. of commands are used in this project.

AT + CMGF =1 (Set the text mode)

AT + CSCS = GSM (GSM character text mode)

AT + CSAS = 0 (Save SMS Profile)

AT + CMGS = Telephone No. (Carriage return)

(Message)

Ctrl +Z (Carriage return)










WORKING OF GPS


CALCULATING A POSITION
A GPS receiver calculates its position by a technique called
satellite ranging, which involves measuring the distance between
the GPS receiver and the GPS satellites it is tracking. The range
(the range a receiver calculates is actually a pseudo range, or an
estimate of range rather than a true range) or distance, is measured
as elapsed transit time. The position of each satellite is known, and
the satellites transmit their positions as part of the "messages" they
send via radio waves. The GPS receiver on the ground is the
unknown point, and must compute its position based on the
information it receives from the satellites.

MEASURING DISTANCE TO SATELLITES
The first step in measuring the distance between the GPS receiver
anda satellite requires measuring the time it takes for the signal to
travelfrom the satellite to the receiver. Once the receiver knows
how muchtime has elapsed, it multiplies the travel time of the
signal times the speed of light (because the satellite signals travel
at the speed of light,approximately 186,000 miles per second) to
compute the distance.Distance measurements to four satellites are
required to compute a 3-dimensional (latitude, longitude and
altitude) position.In order to measure the travel time of the satellite
signal, the receiverhas to know when the signal left the satellite
and when the signalreached the receiver. Knowing when the signal
reaches the receiver iseasy; the GPS receiver just "checks" its
internal clock when the signalarrives to see what time it is. But
how does it "know" when the signalleft the satellite? All GPS
receivers are synchronized with the satellitesso they generate the
same digital code at the same time. When theGPS receiver receives
a code from a satellite, it can look back in itsmemory bank and
"remember" when it emitted the same code. Thislittle "trick"
allows the GPS receiver to determine when the signal left the
satellite.

USING DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS TO CALCULATE ITS
POSITION
Once the receiver has the distance measurements, it's basically a
problem of geometry. If it "knows" where the four satellites are,
and how far it is fromeach satellite, it can compute its location
through triangulation.
1. The GPS receiver "locks on" to one satellite and calculates
therange to be 12,000 miles. This fact helps narrow the
receiverlocation down, but it only tells us that we are
somewhere on asphere which is centered on the satellite and
has a 12000 miles as radius.


2. Now, consider that the receiver picks up a signal from a
secondsatellite and calculates the range between the receiver
and thesatellite to be 10,000 miles. That means we are also
somewhereon a sphere with a 10,000 mile radius with the
second satellite atthe center. We must, therefore, be
somewhere where these twospheres intersect. When the two
spheres intersect, a circle is formed,so we must be
somewhere on that circle.








3. If the receiver picks up another satellite, say at 11,000
milesaway, another sphere is formed, and there are only two
pointswhere the three spheres intersect.













APPLICATIONS


Global Positioning Systems is in fact is available to users at
anyposition worldwide at any time. With a fully operational
GPS system, itcan be generated to a large community of
likely to grow as there aremultiple applications, ranging from
surveying, mapping, and navigationto GIS data capture.
There are countless GPS applications, a few important ones
arecovered in the following passage.

Military (DoD) civilian uses now exceed military
A Free Utility maintained by the Air Force
Space Travel (NASA)
Survey, Mapping & GIS
Resource and Asset Management
Environmental & Forestry
Mining, Oil & Gas
Agriculture
Utilities & Construction
Transportation
Vehicle Security (Fleet Management)
Public Safety
Emergency Management, Search & Rescue
Crime Prevention
Timing & Synchronization
(banking, telecommunications)
LBS Location Based Services

On Board Vehicle Navigation Systems
Vehicle Tracking Systems (beyond fleet management)
- Rental Car Companies
- GPS-measured Tolls variable taxation (UK)
- Family/Friends vehicle location
- Crime: Stolen cars; Criminal tracking
- Accident notification systems
- Pay-as-you-drive insurance plans
Child/Senior/Pet Safety Tracking Systems
Parole, Probation Tacking Systems
Package/Asset Tracking Systems
Bridge structural monitoring
Sports and Broadcasting (Skiers, NASCAR, Sailboat races)
Golf Courses (distance to next hole)
Geo-Caching (GPS scavenger/treasure hunts)


ADVANTAGES


Mobility
Global coverage
Weather independent
Day or Night
Accuracy


DISADVANTAGES

Requires clear view of sky
Ionospheric influences
Multi-path
- buildings, canyons, trees
- large, wet leaves
- large flat buildings
- chain link fences









FUTURE OF GPS TECHNOLOGY


Barring significant new complications due to S/A (Selective
Availability)from DOD, the GPS industry is likely to
continue to develop in thecivilian community. There are
currently more than 50 manufacturers of GPS receivers, with
the trend continuing to be towards smaller, lessexpensive,
and more easily operated devices. While highly
accurate,portable (hand-held) receivers are already available,
currentspeculation envisions inexpensive and equally
accurate 'wristwatchlocators' and navigational guidance
systems for automobiles.

However,there is one future trend that will be very relevant to
the GIS usercommunity, namely, community base stations
and regional receivenetworks, as GPS management and
technological innovations that willmake GPS surveying
easier and more accurate. Also INDIAin the future will do
use this technology, not only in thefield of Defense, but also
in civilian community as this is not a scientificluxury but is
the need of future.







CONCLUSION


Tracking system is becoming increasingly important in
largecitiesand it is more secured than other systems. It
iscompletely integrated so that once it is implemented in
allvehicles, then it is possible to track anytime from
anywhere.

It has real-time capability, emerges in order to strengthen
therelations among people, vehicle and road by putting
modern
information technologies together and able to forms a
realtime
accurate, effective comprehensive transportation system.

This system has many advantages such as large
capability,wide areas range, low operation costs, effective,
strong expandability and easy to use in vehicle traffic
administration.Upgrading this setup is very easy which
makes it open tofuture a requirement which also makes it
more efficient.












REFERENCES


[1]Mohammad Ali Mazidi ,


[2]EliaNadiraSabudin, SitiZarinaMohdMuji, Mohd.
HelmyAbdWahab, AyobJohari, Norazman Bin Ghani,GSM-
based Notification Speed Detection for Monitoring
Purposes, IEEE, Department of ComputerEngineering,
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in 2008.

[3]M. AL-Rousan, A. R. AI-Ali and K. Darwish GSM-
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