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Scythian Vocabulary in the Sources

A. Chay Posting Introduction
Not that we did not have a clue about the Scythian language, and Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev
came to an empty land. Quite the opposite, a thousand yearlong chain o! statements originating with the
geographers, historians, interpreters o! the state diplomatic corps, traders, and eyewitnesses !rom every
wal" o! li!e persistently stated that the new arrivals during #ate Anti$ue and %arly Middle Age periods, i.e.
the &uns, 'ulgars, Avars, (ha)ars, and *ür"s, and the 'ad+ana"s and (umans during the Middle Ages,
were Scythians. &erodotus, and !ew other ,lassical writers brought to us !ew genuine words with transla
tions, in due course they were !ound and analy)ed. *he Assyrian ,unei!orm tablets were deciphered, and
in -./0 a listing o! the Scythian genuine words !rom the time o! the Assyrian empire was published, a
good $uarter century be!ore the philological e$uilibristic o! Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev had begun.
*he !ollowing citation o! the -1 Scythian words !rom the wor" o! A. ,hay, who in 2002 republished the
A.3. Mordtmann list o! the Scythian words !ound in the Assyrian tablets is mirrored below, with a "nown
%nglish translation, and +u4taposed against readily accessible *ur"ish translation. *he *ur"ish translation
belongs to the 5gu) branch o! the *ür"ic language, separated !rom the Scythian originals by a time o! 2/
centuries and space o! hal! %urasia, and still the pro4imity o! the modern 5gu) and ,lassical Scythian is
readily apparent. In the 5gu) *ür"ic, only two words out o! -1 on the list were replaced with unrelated
roots. *hat apparency should have been "nown to Messsers Vs.Müller and V.I Abaev be!ore they
embar"ed on rewriting the history, and leave little room !or sparing their good !aith !rom $uestioning. 6or
a scholarly analysis, a comparative philological data base would increase mani!old, assembling cognates
!rom both 5gur and 5gu) branches, and the ancient !orms that may not be in use any more, possibly
allowing su7cient resolution to provide meaning!ul classi8cation !or the Scythian le4icon recorded by
Assyrians, and e4pand the "nown le4ical body by the later Near %astern discoveries. It should also be
noted that the nearest to the Assyrians, the Ishgu)a9Ashgu)a Scythians populated Sa"asena, called in
today:s literature ;Scythian (ingdom<, the A)eri land in the today:s A)erbai+an in the South ,aucasia,
etymologi)ed as Sa" = As = an, i.e. the land o! Sa"a Ases. *hat the A)eri land was a cradle o! the A)eri
language was noted by the Arabic traveler Ibn &aw"al >travelled ?1@?A?, written in ?//B, who recorded
that the A)eri language was a lingua !ranca in the ,aucasus centuries be!ore the Mongol invasion
ostensibly brought the *ür"ic languages to the ,aucasus. *he modern city myth, composed by Cussian
coloni)ers, and embraced by modern Iranian o7cialdom, does not hold the water, and because it
dis8gures their own history, is counterproductive to their own ob+ectives.
*he Scytho*ür"ic comparison o! the words with "nown translations is a child:s play, they are
immediately and pro!oundly apparent, but the onomasticon is no less telling, with a caveat that the
modern %uropean names ta"en as the only source would lead the li"eminded linguists to a conclusion
that initially the whole o! the %urope spo"e &ebrew. Many names are readily apparent, li"e the Dapai !or
grand!ather, Ani !or mother, and Ata !or !ather. *he others, interpretation o! which is a wild geese chase,
in the ScythoIranian concoction were assembled with a span o! the ;I%< le4icon ranging !rom the 5ssetic
to Indian to 'altic to ,eltic to whatever language happened to carry an I% label, with )ero etymological
depth and a will!ul neglect o! other !actors. In contrast, the suggested *ür"ic speculations are e4clusively
!rom the *ür"ic le4is, without turning to other ;EraloAltaic< or Altaic languages li"e (orean, 6ennic, or
Fapanese, and in numerous cases even that limitation suggests a choice o! allophones. %4panding the
choice to every imaginable ;EraloAltaic< or Altaic language would create the same insane situation that
too" place with the ScythoIranian case, when every random word has somewhere a random isogloss.
Gith such loose selection criteria, it would be a miracle not to 8nd matches !or any word o! the
onomasticon.
In his wor", H.3remov came to an e4traordinary conclusion that a!ter a hundred and 8!ty years o!
$uasiscienti8c wor", no Ilearned ScythologistIlinguist bothered to compose >or publishB a list o! the
Scythian wordsJ IAs is seen, none o! the above dictionaries containing remains o! the Scythian language
>V.I. Abaev, #. Kgusta, (.*. Vitcha", V.D. Detrov ed.B does not satis!y the credibility and completeness
criteria set !orth above. Strange as it seems, the modern science of the Scythian language still has
not developed a full and credible, agreed upon list of preserved traces of the Scythian
language. As a 8rst approach to solving the problem below is a list o! -.? words, the origin o! which can
be une$uivocally associated with the culture o! the %uropean Scythians in the Northern Dontic region o!
the .thL@rd cc. ',. *he bul" o! this list is the le4icon drawn !rom the Scythian records o! &erodotus. *his
list deliberately does not include the Sa"a, Massagetan, Sarmatian, or the Alan words. &owever, the list
contains a !ew ,immerian names, included on the grounds that the ,immerians in the preScythian age
was essentially called the same autochthonous >SicMed.B population o! the North Dontic steppes, which
later became "nown under a generali)ed name o! the Scythians. The list includes the names of the
Scythian epigraphical monuments of the Northern Pontic region, namely those which, on the
one hand, have a transparent "Iranian" etymology confrmed by reputable linguists >i.e. the
sampling is contaminated by tendencious selection ed.B, and on the other hand, belong to the Scythian
period, i.e. were !ound on the stones o! no later than the mid@rd c. ',.I 'ut despite tendentious and
untidy contamination, the H.3remov:s catalog provides the picture that was intentionally ignored by the
other IscientistsI >httpJ99annales.in!o9s"i!9small9onomast.htmB.
Since Hoths are numerously identi8ed by the ,lassical writers as Scythians, the list should be
complemented by Hothic le4icon with attested translations, yet to be compiled. 3itto the Dersian and
Indian sources. 5n a glimpse o! ,hinese, see Sanping ,hen Khou *heophoric Names.
*he posting:s notes and e4planations, added to the te4t o! the author and not noted specially, are
highlighted in blue !ont, shown in >blue italicsB in parentheses and in blue bo4es.
Assyrian Cuneiform Documents A !hay
Scythians//The Turks Ankara, 2002, p. 155, ISBN 975-6782-55-2, 975-6782-56-0, ©
Cuneiform records from the Sus area
Scythian Turkish English Scythian Turkish English Scythian Turkish English
anira tamir
repair
(v)
irci!i c"#a$
increa%e
(v)
vita --
"pp"%ite
(a&')
arta "t(r(% %eat (v) k(tta kat a&& (v) v(r(n v(r(% )eat (v)
&a$&( &"$&(r *$$ (v) ca!ri -- "+%prin!
!ik !,k %k- va$ -"$ r"a&
.e/. A.0. 1"r&tmann, 23)er &ie 4ei$in%cri/ten 56eiter 7att(n!8, 9017 ::I;, 1870, p. 50
Authentic Scythian words translated in Greek sources com!ared only with the Turkish "ranch
of the T#rkic linguistic family
Scythian
Translation
to English
T#rkic
T#rkic translation
to English
Comment Source
"i"r (e"r) man er man
/r"m c"mp"(n&
<i"rpata
=er"&"t(% I; 110
pata ki$$ )at )eat, ki$$
/r"m c"mp"(n&
<i"rpata
=er"&"t(% I; 110
arim 1 ("/ 2) ar-m a$/
/r"m c"mp"(n&
Arima%p"i(ei%)
=er"&"t(% I; 27
%p( e-e %p( e-e
/r"m c"mp"(n&
Arima%p"i(ei%)
=er"&"t(% I; 27
enar(e) ca%trate& enar
n"tce&, i.e. !e$&e&,
ema%c($ate&
/r"m 7recici5e&
>narei%
=er"&"t(% I 105,
I; 67
canna)i% emp kenevir emp =er"&"t(% I; 7?
Api pra-m"ter api mama =er"&"t(% I; 59
Arar river ar-k %tream =er"&"t(% I; ?8
Ara@ river ar-k %tream =er"&"t(% I 202
A%@i /r(it '(ice ak%a &i%
a$%" tran%cri)e&
A%ci
=er"&"t(% I; 2A
Ata /ater ata /ater
/r"m c"in $e!en&
Atai$(%)

I$ c"(ntr- i$ c"(ntr-
/r"m c"in $e!en&
Atai$(%)

I-rk n"ma& i-rk n"ma&
/r"m I-rkae
Bn"ma&ic Sc-tian%B
=er"&"t(% I;.22
=err"% (%acre&) $an& -er eart, $an&
=er"&"t(% I; 5A,
56, 71
ippa mare ("r%e) -a)( "r%e
ippaka C mareD%
mi$k

0ai@ river -a-EF !(%in! (river) m"&ern Gaik (Ga-ik) Ht"$em- 6.1?
%pak" &"!
k,pek
(k")ak)
&"!
/r"m I%pakai an&
Spak"

4r"(ka% Sn"6 ."ckie% 4-ra(ka% Sn"6 ."ckie% H$in- 6.:I:
kr"( %n"6 k-ra( (kar) %n"6 H$in- 6.:I:
ka% r"ck, c$i+ ka% r"ck- m"(ntain, c$i+
H$in- 6.:I:,
=er"&"t(% 1.10?
4a(ka% Iite ."ckie% 4a(ka% Iite ."ckie% =er"&"t(% 1.10?
ka( 6ite ka( 6ite =er"&"t(% 1.10?
SCYTHIAN VOCABULARY G. Dremin
ttpJKKk$a&ina.nar"&.r(K&reminK&remin.tm !e"r!eL&KatK)k.r(
=i$&e!ar& Memp"rini, I"$/!an! =aa%e, N"%ep ;"!t A(/%tie! (n& Nie&er!an! &er r,mi%cen Ie$t,
ISBN A-11-007175-? Ha!e 701
Posting Introduction
Almost all words below are not !a"es manipulated to lin"
the 5ssetian9Iranian and Scythian, they are real words
e4tracted !rom the written statements o! the Scythian
contemporaries. *here is little need to prove the obvious,
that is precisely what the ancient historians, literati, and
politicians were stating !or centuries, that the &uns were
Scythians, and then that all "inds o! other *ür"s were
Scythians. It is only natural that not only ethnological and
cultural traits would be visibly traceable to the later "ins,
but that the linguistic traits would be traceable as easy as
the horse trac"s are distinct !rom cloven trac"s. As a solid
evidence o! agglutination, this brie! list has at least -2
agglutinated compound words. *he situation is a humdin
ger !or everyone who had more then a cursory ac$uain
tance with the controversy, including those de!enders o!
the maveric" theory that are busy buttressing it, the
don"ey ears are stic"ing !rom all holes.
5ne observation is that the languages do not change that
!ast, in a span o!, say, hal! a millennia turning into
absolute dissimilarity. Most o! the ancient Hree" and
Coman vocabulary that was incorporated into various
%uropean languages is still with us, unde!ormed and easily
recogni)able. All Iranian ;cognates<, in contrast, are
utterly de!ormed and totally unrecogni)able. In contrast,
the *ür"ic comparisons are apparent without mental strain
and philological e$uilib ristic. En!ortunately, this list o!
-1N words includes about a third that are li"ely unrelated
to the Scythian language, and most importantly, it does
not include the words outside the Hree" hori)onO the
Indian sources that have a rich inheritance o! literary
monuments, and so do the Mesopotamian documents.
V.Abaev chose to ignore most o! the real Scythian words
that inconvenienced him because they clipped his !antasy
by having a real translation !rom the Scythian. *hey did
not $uali!y !or his criteria o! selecting only those words
that could be matched with any random roots !rom his
selection o! multitude hypothetical I% relatives.
Ancient writers and a historian$
App
Appian - ."man
i%t"rian
)e/"re 170
A0
Ar Arrian - 7reek i%t"rian
)e/"re 175
A0
=e$
=e$$anik"% - 7reek
=i%t"rian
)e/"re ?00
BO
=er"&"t
=er"&"t(% - 7reek
=i%t"rian
)e/"re ?25
BO
=e%
=e%-ci(% - 7reek
6riter
)e/"re ?50
A0
=e%i"& =e%i"& - 7reek 6riter 8t c. BO
="mer ="mer - 7reek 6riter
)e/"re 8t c.
BO
4t
Ote%ia% - 7reek
i%t"rian
)e/"re A80
BO
0.S. 0i" Oa%%i(% - i%t"rian
)e/"re 229
A0
I"r
N"r&an - 7"tic
i%t"rian
)e/"re 551
A0
P(c P(cian - 7reek 6riter
)e/"re 180
A0
1a$ 1a$a$ - 7reek i%t"rian
)e/"re 578
A0
<$
<$-mpi"&"r(% "/
Me)e%
a/ter A80 A0
<v <vi& - ."man p"et
)e/"re 18
A0
Her An"n-m"(% Herip$(% ca. 50 A0
H$ H$in- - ."man. 6riter
)e/"re 70
A0
H"$ H"$ien - 7reek i%t"rian 2n& c. A0
H.O. Hr"c"pi(% Oe%arean
)e/"re 55A
A0
Ht
Ht"$em- - 7reek
%cienti%t
)e/"re 168
A0

6or a statistical assessment o! a chance to 8nd V.I.Abaev
type random ;cognate< roots see Statistical #inguistics.
Candom ,oincidences. Gith the semantical 8eld methodo
logically set to in8nity, the chances to 8nd such a
;cognate< root !or every other root are better than - in
any language, and 8nding random 2@ roots would be, and
actually had been in his case, a regular occurrence.
Step Stepen te B-5antine 6t c. A0
Str
Stra)" - 7reek
=i%t"rian
)e/"re 2?
A0
Oer
M%erete$i - S"viet
$in!(i%t
An- c"mment% >in blue italicsB )e$"6 %"($& )e
taken 6it a !""& &"%a!e "/ %a$t, in n" &e!ree te-
are %c"$ar$-, an& te %c"$ar% tat (%e &iacritic% t"
e@pre%% a &ept "/ teir re%earc (%(a$$- &i%mi%%
%imi$ar materia$ a% amate(ri% "r /"$k et-m"$"!-. Mr.
%tan&% /"r MQrkic, 7r. /"r 7reek, etc. Me 2Ancient8
v%. 21"&ern8 app$icati"n% "/ te 6"r&% are n"t
n"te&, a$$ $an!(a!e% can!e 6it time 6it"(t
$"%in! teir !enera.
*hat "ind o! linguistic e$uilibristic can be compared to a success!ul 8shing in a 8shery. Adding A!ghan,
Armenian, Heorgian, Herman, &ungarian, (abardin, #ithuanian, Mongolian, and Cussian languages to the
e4amined le4ical base in his a$uarium, Abaev should have had do)ens o! candidates !or each root, a real
tric" was not to 8nd a match. Not to duplicate Abaev:s methods, in this posting the words that do not
have any semantical hints are le!t without comments. 6or reasons other then philological, Abaev pointedly
s"ipped *ür"ic and Na"h languages, the last evidently because N0P o! the 5ssetian is Na"h, and the Na"h
people at that time were deported to internment in e4ile. In a science, however, a spoon!ul o! crap does
not spoil a barrel o! honey, +ust the opposite, a spoon!ul o! honey turns crap into gold, and the crap, as it
should be, ends on the garbage heap o! the history.
A little bit o! statistics. Vs.Müller listed 12N names, o! which -A/ >@?PB he proclaimed to be Iranian, and
2N. >A-PB nonIranian. #.Kgusta listed A-@ names, o! which 2.A >1/PB he proclaimed to be Iranian, /N
>-2PB possibly Iranian, N- >.PB aboriginal, and -2? >2-PB une4plainable. V. Abaev:s e4ercise is more
success!ul, since he did not list anything he could not lin" to 5ssetosomething. Hiven that the resear
chers did not even "now i! the words were agglunative o! Qe4ive, nor their semantical meanings, the
results are superbly Scholastic.
SC%T&IA' ()CA*+,A-% G.Dremin
Scythian lexicon accordin to !ritten sources
A"aris - a name "/ =-per)"rean (Sc-tian) %a!e. Me ancient 7reek p"et Hin&ar (522-??2 BO.) t"(!t
tat A)ari% 6a% a Sc-tian 6" $ive& at te en& "/ 7t - )e!innin! "/ 6t cent(r- BO. Me %"pi%t =imeri(%
(A15-A86 A0) a$%" ca$$e& A)ari% a Sc-t. 7reek pi$"%"per =erac$i&e% "/ H"nt(% (A88-A10 BO) attri)(te&
t" A)ari% a n(m)er "/ te"$"!ica$ 6"rk%. In %c"$i(m t" te H$at"D% 2State8 i% a remark tat 2H-ta!"ra%,
am"n! "ter tin!%, 6a% $i%tenin! t" =-per)"rean A)ari% an& ma!ician 9arate.8 >*r. 'ars R bars, leopard,
lionO a popular name that included 'ulgarian, Cussian, and 'ritish royalties, in addition to a plethora o!
*ür"ic personalities, most o! them were scions o! royal linesO the ;a< appear to be a prosthetic vowel, but
could stand !or ;a"< R *r. white, noble, and the li"eO ;a< is also a *r. !orm indicating respect, borrowed
!rom or loaned to the ,hinese. Ge also have a *ür"ic tribe (ubar that +oined Magyars in escape, their
name may be synonymous with AbarJ (uu'ar R Ghite 'arsO and a state 'arsil R #and o! 'arsBB
Pat-%ev ;. Ancient 6riter% a)"(t Sc-tia an& Oa(ca%(%. ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. A19R ;0I, 19?8, N" A, pp. 2?8,
;0I, 1952, N" 2, pp. 267R 4(k$ina I.;. Anacar%i%. ;0I, 1971, N" A, p. 11A-125.
A.hatai /01234356 - Sc-tian c$an, 6ic a%cen&% t" Pip"k%ai. 1.I.Artam"n"v )e$ieve& tat Avat% i% a
%e$/-name "/ te Sc-tian%-ti$$er%. >*r. Avchu, hunter, a direct correspondence. In modern 'al"ar(arachai
mythology, Avshat, a patron o! wild hunting and animals, which Avshat tends as his own herd. It is a
mythological and linguistic lin" between N.Dontic Scythians and N.,aucasus 'ulgars9'al"ars that survived
!or over 2,N00 years. *he notion that 'ulgars were Scythians linger !rom 8rst Hree" accounts about 'ul
gars. &erodotus: alphabet did not have a letter !or ;ch< or ;sh<, they were e4pressed by suitable substi
tutes. &erodotus: spelling with ;S< should be transcribed Auhatai, but !or *ür"ic it is irrelevant, both
dialectal versions e4ist. Dliny con8rms the semantic o! the name Avhat, with ;v<, ;able to throw lasso in
circle and catch with loops the !artherest s$uads<, i.e. cowboy type ensnaring. *rapping has nothing to do
with !arming and a !ate o! hard laborO contrary to Artamonov, the yo"e that !ell !rom the s"y was not a
symbol o! obeisance and hard wor", it was a symbol o! dominance, the same idea as a lasso, a bounding
implement. V.Abaev conceded that the name Avhat is not Iranian, i.e he could not !ancy any random
permutation o! letters to e4tract an Iranian resemblance. *ur"ic voi and its Slavic !orm vyya R nec", and
the *ur"ic verb Ito subordinateI is e4pressed idiomatically with voi R Ibend nec", subdue nec"I, and
hence the Slavic ITUVW, TUXWY, TUZTU[Y9warrior, war, warlordI etc., and the yo"e R collar as symbol o!
power. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, N\, #iberty, 2002, IS'N 0?-11..-A-1.B
=er"&"t(% I; 6R 1.I. Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" A, p. 76.
Agar - a $ea&er "/ te Sc-tian% 6" $e& te Sc-tian arm- &(rin! te Batt$e "/ te Sat .iver "n te Maman
penin%($a in A10 BO >*r. A"er, Ghite Man, with the same connotations o! that was used by the %uropeans
in the beginning o! the 20th c. and the prior @00 years, ;upper race, nobility<. #inguistically and socially,
this division into ;blue blood< and ;blac" bone< is still with us, we have ;'ielorussians< and crowned
monarchsB. 0i"&"r(% Sic($(%, ::, 22-2?R G(.A.;in"!ra&"v. Mere 1itri&ate% %ta))e& im%e$/ t" &eat, p.
92R M. .ice. Me Sc-tian%, p. 216.
073895 - Sc-tian tri)e. O"nnecte& 6it te name "/ te Sc-tian kin! A!ar >*r. A"er, lit. ;Ghite Man< ]
;blue blood<O aga also stands !or ;senior, respected<O both terms may also be interchangeable, blue blood
was respectable, and social esteem made the blood blue. *his is not a verdict, dictionary and culture has
multiple other possibilities, especially because the tribal name was o!ten used as a titlename o! a leaderB.
Appian, a 7reek i%t"rian, ca. 100 - ca. 180 A0
Agathyrs - a %"n "/ $e!en&ar- =erc($e% an& %nake-$e!!e& vir!in - a &a(!ter "/ te river B"r-%tene%
>3nieperB. Acc"r&in! t" te Sc-tian $e!en& /r"m im &e%cen&e& A!at-r% >agglutination Agacheri R *r.
agach = er R tree = man ;!orest people<, con8rmed by Slavic cal$ue !or these people ;3revlyane< R
;6orest people<. See "orysthenes # $nieperB. =er"&"t(% I; 9, 10.
Agathyrs - a name "/ te pe"p$e kin&re& 6it te Sc-tian%. 2Me n"rtern part "/ Sc-tia (p te I%tr
)"r&er% "n A!at-r%i >agglutination Agacheri R *r. agach = er R tree = man ;!orest people<, con8rmed
by Slavic cal$ue !or these people ;3revlyane< R ;!orest people<, which also con8rms at least a partial
bilinguality o! the early Slavs. Nearly all ;who is who< in philology accept Agacheri R ;!orest people<.
Agacheries is one o! the primordial %uropean Scythian tribes traceable to present time. A study o! their
dialect would uncover hints o! their ancient language, ditto about their genetic ma"eup. Hree" sources
lin" Agacheries with the initial composition o! the (ha)arsB. =er"&"t(% I; 100, 10?.
Aelis /05:59; Ailios <= > 0?6 - 4in!% "/ Sc-tia ca 180-150 BO, c"in%. >*here must be a reason !or
distorting the names, at least one name is clearly visible, ^_`_ab Ailios, and pointedly not AelisO with
Hree" ending ios, the name is Ail, where in *r. A stands !or noble, il !or country. ;A< could be an accepted
abbreviation indicating A", Ata ] !ather, Ail as a summer court, or something along that line. cd is le!t
une4plained. In monogram *( only * is visible, it coincides with the tamga 6ig. 2.9-N? !ound in the
estuary o! Syrdarya, see S.\atsen"o. In case i! we see a tamga on the coin, the basic element o! the
tamga I coincides with the (ipcha" basic tamgaB
Ailios ca %&'(%)' "! ( *ing of Scythia



)".. @ugate heads of the Dioskouroi in SAcythian "onnet hats
-e.. @ugate horse heads A monogram <= B C monogram 0?
-e.. @ugate horse heads TD /E6
monogram "elow
Akinak - a %"rt, ir"n Sc-tian %6"r&. 1"%t $ike$-, te 6"r& a% a Sc-tian "ri!in. M(%, in S"!&ian an&
O"re5m $an!(a!e% %(rvive& a 6"r& "yn" - %6"r& >*r. "ingira", with silent e f "inira", close enough,
considering @,000 years separating our languages. (ingira" is a term !or a doubleedged sword, dagger,
"ni!e, in the Middle Asia and South Siberia "inira" 8rst appeared in the graves o! the *agar ,ulture,
/00-00 ',, a!ter (arasu"s, -200/00 ',, mastered iron production and alloys with arsenic and tin.
Scythians brought along their "inira"s still during the (arasu" time, as depicted by the march o! the
"urgans !rom east to west. It would ta"e a scholarly egort not to notice temporal, spatial, and linguistic
evidence. Vaissihre supposes that the %phtilite name (hingila is a name o! the sacred sword worshipped
by the %astern &uns, ;"englu< compared with *ür"ic $ijira$ ;doubleblade "ni!e<. *his sword was
worshipped among the %astern &uns in the same way as the Scythians and the &uns o! Attila worshipped
swords. In modern ,hinese pinyin, "englu is phonetici)ed as ,henglu. Vaissihre stipulates that (englu
was also a name o! the god o! war among %astern &uns and the &uns o! Attila, so %phthilite (hingila
might have been a theophoric nameO that, however, conQicts with the concept o! *engriism, which holds
*engri as Almighty, allowing spirits and alps, but not other gods. Vaissihre 200@, -2?. 6. &irth calls the
word "ingira", Ia doubleedged "ni!eI among the weapons that (ing Gu 武 o! the Khou personally used to
con$uer the Shang, Ithe oldest *ur"ish word on recordI kIAncient history o! ,hina, to the end o! the ,hou
dynastyI, New \or", -?0.O reprint 6reeport, New \or", -?A?, p. A/l. *his claim is consistent with
archeological 8ndings that show stri"ing similarity in bron)e daggers !ound in ,hina and west SiberiaB.
Fig. G Distri"ution histogram for all
HI
C dates for Scythian time monuments of HstJKrd !eriods
>Note that the timescale stops at -00 A3, while the "urgans "ept on going up until present
and in %urope e.g. Dereschepino "urgan AAN A3B

Akrosa /Akrosas6 - Sc-tian kin! in 0")r(&'a. In te 2n& c. BO Akr"%a minte& c"in% 6it i% name in te
M"m an& <&e%%a citie%. >3obrud+a is the historical land o! Se"lers. Fudging !rom a picture o! a replica, the
attribution o! the coin to the nomadic Scythians or Sarmatians does not 8tO there could be any number o!
alternate arrangements that would bring producers o! grain under Scythian or Sarmatian title, but none o!
them would put them on horses and ma"e them nomads. *hough tentative *ür"ic names could be
suggested, they would not be +usti8ed ethnologically. Hree", Illirian, 3acian, *hracian etc. would be a
better attribution.B
A+rosandros , c "!( *ing of Scythia

M.;.B$avat%k-. ;0I, 19?8, N" 1R =armatta, St(&ie% in te i%t"r- an& $an!(a!e "/ te Sarmatian%, 1970, p. 22.
AliLons - pe"p$e in Sc-tia. 2Me- $ea& a Sc-tian 6a- "/ $i/e, )(t %"6 an& eat c"rn, "ni"n, !ar$ic, $enti$%,
an& mi$$et.8 >&ere we may have the endonym o! the *imber Hrave people. Ghen the two Qows o! *imber
Hrave culture migrants have met in the N1th c. ', in the ,horasmia area, one !rom the N.Dontic or
;Scythia<, and the other !rom the eastern, more Mongolised, %urasian steppes, they had no problems
establishing symbiosis, and proceeded to establish the ,horasmian civili)ation that lasted !or a millennia,
and survived centuries o! the Dersian assaults and coloni)ationB =er"&"t(% I; 17, 52.
From Ancient T-r+ic glosses .Scythian words/ in written wor+s of ancient authors / /
Proceedings of the Hst scientiMc and !ractical conference N'omadic ci.iliLations of Central
and 'orthern Asian !eo!les$ &istory status !ro"lemsN Part H DyLyl J Drasnoyarsk OPPQ
J !!. HIR J HAA
A$a5"ne% - acc"r&in! t" te ancient 7reek i%t"rian =er"&"t(% (5t c. BO), %" 6ere ca$$e& te Sc-tian
tri)e% $ivin! near B$ack Sea 6e%t "/ te 0nieper .iver. Me %tem "/ te tri)a$ name% ala), 6it"(t
7reek /"rmative aT@e% -on an& -es, i% a&apte&, i.e., =e$$eni5e& /"rm "/ te etn"n-m A$a&', ari%in!
/r"m "cc(rrin! in vari"(% $an!(a!e p"netic %()%tit(ti"n "/ ")%tr(ent a+ricate U&'V 6it a %i)i$ant U5V.
In M(rkic $an!(a!e% te p"neme U&'V ma- %"(n& $ike U&5V, U'V, UtW X YV an& U5V, /"r e@amp$eJ &'i!it X 'i!it
D-"(t, a!i$eD, BaEt-&'an X BaEtWZn X BaYZn -. ma$e pr"per name, &'er X 'er X &5er X 5er DeartD.
Me 6"r& alam ] alan i% kn"6n am"n! %"me MQrkic pe"p$e%. S"r e@amp$e, am"n! te 4a5ak%, it i% an
arcaic %-n"n-m /"r %e$/-name $a)a$R in ear$ier time% it 6a% (%e& )- te 4a5ak% an& N"!ai% a%
nati"n6i&e )att$e cr-. A pre%erve& in /"$k$"re pra%e alto alan, $it. DSi@ A$a% tri)e%D i% (n&er%t""& eiter
a% a c"mm(nit- "/ %i@ MQrkic pe"p$e, "r a% a (ni"n "/ 4a5ak tri)e%. ;ari"(% interpretati"n% "/ ti%
%-nta!ma (tere are 1A interpretati"n% "/ ti% e@pre%%i"n) in&icate% a !reat antiF(it- "/ it% "ri!in.
Am"n! te tri)e% tat 6ere part "/ te <!(5 a$$iance, me&ieva$ a(t"r% menti"n 4a$a'e% X ="$a&'e%
(=a$a&' X =a$aY)"/ Neti-%( (an appearance in /r"nt "/ %"me 6"r&% tat )e!in 6it a v"6e$ "/ a
pr"%tetic e$ement UV i% a caracteri%tic pen"men"n /"r %"me MQrkic $an!(a!e% an& &ia$ect% ). Me
1(%$im 6riter I)n 4a$&(n ca$$e& te c"(ntr- $-in! n"rt-ea%t "/ Ma%kent a =a$i' $an&. <ver te
cent(rie%, %eparate !r"(p% "/ ti% etnicit- m"ve& /r"m 4a5ak%tan t" te 6e%t, %"(t an& %"(t6e%t.
<ne "/ te $ar!e%t Ha%t(n tri)e% - te 7i$5ai% ([i$&'i- X =a$&'a-) !enetica$$- a%cen&% t" 4a$a'e% 6"
6ere pa%t(rin! at te 7a5ni p$atea(. In 1290, te 4a$a' MQrk% capt(re& te 0e$i cit- an& e%ta)$i%e&
a ne6 %tate in te n"rtern In&ia, te 0e$i S($tanate. Me &e%cen&ant% "/ a part "/ tat tri)e tat
mi!rate& t" te Oentra$ Iranian p$atea(, n"6 c"n%tit(te te MQrkic-%peakin! etnicit- re%i&in! in ?6
%ett$ement% %"(t-6e%t "/ Meran.
Me A$at tri)e n"6 $ive% in 6 c"(ntrie% a% c"erent etnicitie% - 4a$a' in Iran, 4a$at in 4"ra%an,
Ha%t(n in A/!ani%tan, 7a$5ae in In&ia, A$at in 4a5ak%tan, an& A$at an& A$acin in A$tai in .(%%ia.
In Oine%e te- 6ere ca$$e& %loch+i, an& 'oma /"r teir B%ke6)a$& "r%e%B. 7iven tat in O$a%%ica$
time te- 6ere kn"6n t" =er"&"t(% in te 6e%t an& Oine%e in te ea%t, in te AntiF(e time te-
6ere a% &i%per%e& a% te- are n"6. S"me 6t c. BO Sc-tian k(r!an% in te 0nieper-B( inter\(via$
ma- )e attri)(te& t" te A$at Sc-tian%. A$at ]am!a^ in 4a5ak%tan an& Oina 6a%
(4ipcak-)a%e&) K (4ipcak-)a%e&) K (4ipcak-)a%e&) K (0"&(r!a) K
(4"$p"%) K (Oine%e rec"r&%), %"6in! e@cepti"na$ c"n%i%tenc- "ver 2 mi$$ennia.
Amadok /0S3T9U956 - Sc-tian tri)e "r c$an. Ama&"k% a% %pecia$ Sc-tian tri)e *r%t "/ a$$ menti"ne&
=e$$anic(%, 6" $"cate& tem )et6een 0nieper an& Sever%k- 0"net%. A$t"(! =er"&"t(% &"e% n"t
menti"n Ama&"k%, teir name 6a% 6e$$ kn"6n in ancient time%. S"r e@amp$e, te =-per)"rean Ama&"k
er" 6a% "n"re& at 0e$pi an& 6it an"ter =-per)"rean, =-per" e 6a% cre&ite& 6it %avin! te
0e$pi temp$e /r"m an inva%i"n "/ te 7a($% (7a$atian%). In te 5t an& ?t cc. BO in Mrace 6ere kin!%
6it name% Ama&"k I an& Ama&"k II. Ht"$em- in i% )""k menti"n% an e@i%tence "/ Ama&"k cit-, $"cate&
"n te )ank "/ te river B"r-%tene% >3nieperB, Ama&"k $ake an& Ama&"k m"(ntain%. S"me re%earcer%
ave /ait tat m"&ern 4-iv i% $"cate& "n te %ite "/ te ancient cit- Ama&"k. Ht"$em- p$ace& Ama&"k
m"(ntain% 6e%t "/ te 0nieper mi&&$e c"(r%e >6rom the ethnological re!erences and coins, most
researchers suggest that Amado"s were a *hracian sedentary agricultural tribe, subordinated by the
Scythians, and other than the grain tribute and li"e duties, ethnically unrelated to the nomadic Scythians.
Dossibly, &erodotus mentions Amado"s under a generic name o! sub+ugated people 'udinsB.
=e$$anik recite& )- Stepen te B-5antineR Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. A17.
Amurgion /0S18759V6 - Sc-tian tri)e "r c$an.
=e$$anik recite& )- Stepen te B-5antineR Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. A17.
Anaksirida - Sc-tian-Saka c$"tin! e$ement. =er"&"t(% rep"rte& tat 2te Saka%, "r Sc-tian%, a$%" 6are
"n teir ea&% %trai!t )"nnet at%, 6ear anak%iri&%, ave $"ca$ )"6%, &a!!er% an& %a!ar a@e% >ana"sirida
sounds li"e a Hree" or Dersian wordB. =er"&"t(% ;II 6?.
Anacharsis /0V3238;5W6 - Sc-tian prince, %"n "/ 7n(r >!rom a Hree" concubine wi!e, thence his Hree"
nameB, a !ran&%"n "/ Pik, !reat !ran&%"n "/ Spar!apit, )r"ter "/ Sav$i(%, (nc$e "/ I&an*r%. B"rn ar"(n&
625 BO >A-1 ',pB. =e $ive& /"r a $"n! time >!rom ca 20 to ca N0 years oldB in 7reece. =e kne6 S"$"n.
7reek% )e$ieve& tat Anacar%i% 6a% "ne "/ te %even %a!e%. <n i% ret(rn t" Sc-tia e 6a% ki$$e& )- i%
)r"ter Sav$i(% >!or abandoning Scythian nomadic traditions and religionB.
=er"&"t(% I; ?6, 76. Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. A18.
Antakei - (!e )"ne$e%% *% "/ )e$(!a >sturgeon, AcipenseridaeB /ami$-. Acc"r&in! t" =er"&"t(% Antakei
6ere /"(n& in B"r-%tene% >3nieperB >*r. 'ulgar name !or 'orysthenes was 'urichai, undoubtedly o! the
same root, chai is river in 'al"ar, among other *ür"ic languages, li"e (arachaiO in the (ipcha"
'echen9'ad+ana" language, 'echens called 'orysthenes 'arou4 >,onstantine VII Dorphyrogenitus, ;3e
Administrando Imperio<B. %tymologyJ 'uri9'aro9'qri R wol!, than R body o! water, water space, riverO
than9tan is a borrowing into Dersian language, as it does not appear in any other I% languagesO 5ssetian
does not have than9tan, its closest cognate is a *ür"ic borrowing ;tangi)< !or la"eO also, among present
Altaian peoples ;barisa< is a sacral location where spirits are worshipped and sacri8ces made, which li"ely
also ascends to 'qri R wol!. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, N\, #iberty, 2002, IS'N 0?-11..-A-1, p.
-?2. *he word ;Anta"ei< is unli"ely Scythian, it is suspiciously too close to the modern Hree" e4pression
rstS uvuw` R no bones. In classical Hreece, the beluga area li"ely included Mediterranean, and the Hree"
s"illed marines did not need steppe nomadic Scythians to teach them a new word !or the marine li!eB.
=er"&"t(% ;I 5A.
From XDe Administrando Im!erioY, B"nae Impe%i% >&. Ie)eri, 1860, Oapter A9, p.171J
ttpJKKrapi&%are.c"mKin&e@.tm$
Greek$ _`a b `cd ef`gadfha`id `bjkl md c `c `k`n okpqc ofaqc of`ckrsfd kp tkuqoka, ofvnp`fa
of`f `rd mjcdwxpfd `cd monyks kr`cd jk`fxid. ka zn jk`fxkp npsad k5`ka, jk`fxbl jqi`kl b
ofvkwxndkl {fqkwh, jk`fxbl znw`nqkl b ofvkwxndkl |kw}kd, jk`fxbl `qp`kl b ofvkwxndkl
tqkwvvkl, jk`fxkl `m`fq`kl b hfvkwxndkl {qbw`kl, rk`fxkl jmxj`kl b ofvkwxndkl ~mqn`kl.
,atin$ Oeter(m Hat5inacitat(m $"c(%, F(em t(nc ina)ita)ant M(rcae, a \(vii% F(i i$$ic %(nt
c"!n"minat"rR \(mina a(tem i%taec %(nt, prim(% \(vi(% Bar(c appe$$at(r, %ec(n&(% O()(, terti(%
Mr($$(%, F(art(% Br(t(%, Fnint(% &eniF(e Seret(% n(nc(pat(r.
English$ A)"(t te Hat5inak%D p$ace, 6ic 6a% ina)ite& )- M(rk%, river% are !iven te%e name%, cie/
river ca$$e& Bar(c ({fqkwh), te %ec"n& river i% ca$$e& O()"n (|kw}kd), te tir& river i% ca$$e&
Mr"($$"% (tqkwvvkl), te /"(rt river i% ca$$e& Br(t(%, at $a%t te /i/t river i% ca$$e& Seret"% (~mqn`kl).
Antir - N"r&an ca$$e& te Sc-tian kin! 6" /"(!t 6it 0ari(%. 20ari(% i% a 4in! "/ te Her%ian%, a %"n "/
=-%ta%pe%, e 6i%e& t" marr- te &a(!ter "/ Antir(%, a 4in! "/ 7"t% (rea& Sc-tian%).2
N"r&an. <ri!in an& &ee&% "/ te 7"t%.
A!i - 7"&&e%% "/ te Sc-tian pante"n "/ !"&%. =er"&"t(% i&enti*e% er 6it te 7reek 7aia. Api name i%
&irect$- a%%"ciate& 6it te MQrkic 2apai8 - m"ter, mama >Api is a cognate o! *r. %bi9%be, one giving birth,
a precursor o! %ve, and a per!ect complement to biblical ;adam< R *r. man. A dialectal variation o! Api
would be Ami, via b9m alternation, which lin"s it with e4act match o! the Scythian Api, the *r. *engrian
deity Emai. *he Hree" analogue Hea is a primowomb, a grandmother o! KeusO so is Scythian Api and
*ür"ic Emai >5*3 A--B. Emai cognates are ;umai< R womb, ;um< R stomach, ;uma< R mama. 5ther *r.
cognates are ;api9abi9aby9avy9apa9abba9aba9apai< R respectively mama9senior sister9mother:s
sister9!ather:s senior sister9!ather:s mother9appellation ;madam;9husband:s sister9woman. Semantically,
Api is an apogee o! motherhood and womanhood. 6or Iranian etymology, V.Abaev could not come up with
any better than cite E)be" and *a+i" appellation ;apa< R mother, senior sister, o! all I% languages only the
modern *a+i"s adopted this ancient *ür"ic appellation Apa.B. =er"&"t(% I; 59.
Arar - a river in Sc-tia, \"6% tr"(! te Sc-tian $an&, /a$$% int" a river I%ter (0an()e) >*r. ;ary"<
channel, stream. *he list should have included the !orm Ara4 too, we have 2 ma+or Ara4es in the Scythian
land, one ,aucasian, and the other E)boi, both Qowing into ,aspianB. =er"&"t(% I; ?8.
AraZ - 2 ma'"r Ara@ river% in te Sc-tian $an&, "ne Oa(ca%ian, an& te "ter Am(&ar-a canne$ •5)"i,
)"t \"6in! int" Oa%pian (Mr. 2ar-k8 - canne$, %tream. Me pre%ence "/ t6" %tream%, )"t ca$$e& Ar-k in
$"ca$ MQrkic $an!(a!e (M"karK0aae, 1a%!(tK1a%%a!et), c"n/(%e& !enerati"n% "/ %c"$ar%, even t"(!
=er"&"t(% %tate& (neF(iv"ca$$- tat "ne "/ tem in te ea%t a% "n$- "ne canne$, an& tat %peci*e%
•5)"i, )eca(%e te "ter Ara@ \"6in! /r"m te 6e%t a% a &eve$"pe& &e$ta 6it n(mer"(% canne$%. Me
tran%$ati"n "/ te Ara@ a% 2stream< &i& n"t e%cape te m"&ern %c"$ar%, %ince a tir& river n"rt "/ te
1a%!(t%K1a%%a!et%, te S-r&ar-a, 6a% a$%" ca$$e& )- !eneric 2ara@8.
=er"&"t(% I 202 et a$.
Arga - a name "/ a -"(n! =-per)"rean 6"man (Sc-tian), 6" vi%ite& 6it er !ir$/rien& <pi% te temp$e
"/ Ap"$$" at 0e$"%. =er"&"t(% I; A5..
Argim!asa - 7"&&e%% "/ te Sc-tian pante"n "/ !"&%. =er"&"t(% i&enti*e% er 6it te 7reek
Apr"&ite •rania. A%%"ciati"n 6it 2Ar-ppean%8 >agglutination o! *r. Arei >hence %ng. augurB R prophesy
>5*3 220B = gim9gam R "am R priest = mas9pas9bash R head, i.e a head oracle, an e4act match !or
Hree" Aphrodite Erania, as relayed by &erodotus 1.A/. *he Iranian attempt re$uires a change o! the
name to Arti, and suggests no etymology !or the remaining partO mythologically, Iranian Arti vs. Aphrodite
is a conQicting mismatch, a Hree" mythological counterpart o! Arti is *yche, or Coman 6ortuneO to lin" Arti
with Argimpasa ta"es a double con+uration. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<B. =er"&"t(% I; 59, 67.
Arhy!!ei - pe"p$e akin t" te Sc-tian% >Morphologically resembles other Hree" moni"ers Melanchlaen,
&yperborean, ;hippo< is horse in Hree"O but it could be a Hrecici)ed version !or a Scythian word !or
centaur, as agglutination o! *r. Ar = +aby9yabu9+upa4 R ;man = horse<O the Hree" ;hippo< horse is
dialectal *ür"ic ;yabu<B. =er"&"t(% I; 2A, 2?.
Argot/es6 - Sc-tian kin!. In te Sc-tian Nap$e% 6a% /"(n& an in%cripti"nJ 8... "/ te mi!t- Ar!"t, a r($er
Sc-tia .... Ar!"t in 170-150 BO 6a% a (%)an& "/ B"%p"ran €(een 4ama%%aria >*he simplest etymology is
!rom ar R man = got R tribe, but Ar also may be a proper name o! the tribe, with the same semantical
origin !rom ;man<. Ese o! tribal names !or titlenames was a commonplace in *ür"ic title nomenclatureJ
Sibir"han, Masgut"han, Erus"han, Aiyar >AvarB"han, and so onB.
G(.A.;in"!ra&"v. Mere 1itri&ate% %ta))e& im%e$/ t" &eat. p.1?0.
Ares - !"& "/ 6ar in te Sc-tian pante"n "/ !"&%. <n$- t" im te Sc-tian% in%ta$$e& %anct(ar- in te
/"rm "/ a %6"r& em)e&&e& in a pi$e "/ *re6""& >Ar in *r. is a ;soldier, warrior, man<. %4tension to a ;god o!
war< !rom a memorial a"in to ;eternal Qame< would not be too une4pected. 'ut any *ür"ic etymology is
nothing more then V.I.Abaevtype philological !antasy, because Ares is a Hree" god, li"ely o! *hracian
origin, a son o! Keus, and an inhabitant o! 5lympus. &erodotus did not cite the Scythian name !or the god.
In Hree" mythology Ares was a god o! war, or rather o! violence and destruction caused by war. #ong
be!ore &erodotus, Ares was depicted as wild, unrestrained, and traitorous. All romantic myths about Ares
are incongruent with the depiction o! the Scythian god o! war, using &erodotus: terminology. A better
description in *engriism would be an Alp, or a patron, instead o! god, and not o! destruction, but o!
military success, his symbol was a sword. *he Scythian ceremonies described by &erodotus are nearly
identical to those depicted !or the %astern and Gestern &uns o! the !ollowing millennium. 6or the Gestern
&uns, the name o! the god o! war was recorded as (uar, the ,hinese rendition was ,hing #u. *he parallels
described !or god Hor in %gyptian mythology, Sumerian Ish"ur, Dersian Hurchesh, Coman Mars, all point to
cultural borrowings, even though the Sumerian Ish"ur was recorded as early as 2Ath c. ',. *he *ür"ic god
is reconstructed as (ur, in ,hinese transcription ,hing #uO (ur !alls into the same phonetical group as Hor,
Ish"ur, and Hurchesh. It may be too presumptuous to suggest that *ür"ic (ur was a model !or the
!ollowing gods o! war, but in Sumer the word ;"ur;means ;!oreign hostile country<, hinting on invaders.
*he *ür"ic proper name (ur9,hur indicates a military leader, with slight dialectal variations it was widely
spread geographically and temporally, 8rst mentioned !or the leaders, and later as a widespread name.
Among *ür"ic names and titles are Hur(han, Hur as part o! tribal names, Hurchi and (uarchi !or royal
bodyguards !or ,hingi)ids and Sa!avids, ,hari" !or (han:s guard regiment, Fenichars !or 5ttoman
swordsmen, Horgud and (or"ut !or prophets. *he sources elaborate that ;pile o! 8rewood< is actually a
"urgan, or a natural hill, on top o! which is set up a plat!orm, where a sword is mounted and ceremonies
held. Ge have records describing the service ritual !or Scythians, %astern and Gestern &uns, and
,aucasian *ür"s. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 2@@ on B.
=er"&"t(% I; 59.
Ariant /0853V43W6 - $ea&er "/ te Sc-tian%, "n i% "r&er 6a% ma&e a (!e ca$&r"n 6it v"$(me "/ 600
amp"rae. Me ca$&r"n 6a% ca%t "/ )r"n5e arr"6ea&%, "%ten%i)$- in "r&er t" e%timate te n(m)er "/
re%i&ent% in Sc-tia >Scythian, &unnic, *ür"ic caldrons are a trademar" o! *ür"ic nomadic military culture.
,ounting methods, where the troops supplied !or war by subordinate tribes, on review pass one at a time
and leave some ob+ect !or counting, stayed in the nomadic cavalry to the Middle AgesB.
=er"&"t(% I; 81.
Aria!eith /0853[\5]^W6 - Sc-tian kin!, r($e& te Sc-tian% "/ te 0nieper an& B(! re!i"n /r"m ?90 t"
?70 BO. H"%%i)$- 6a% a %"n "r !ran&%"n "/ I&ant-r%. Me e$&e%t %"n "/ Ariapeit, Ski$$, 6a% )"rn /r"m an
I%ter (0an()e) 6i/e. Ariapeit /"(!t 6it Mere% I, a kin! "/ Mrace, an& ten marrie& i% &a(!ter an&
a& /r"m er a %"n <kt"ma%a&. =i% tir& %"n A(ric 6a% /r"m a Sc-tian <pia. =e 6a% ki$$e& at /"rt- -ear%
"$& in ?70 BO /r"m te an& "/ Spar!apit, a 4in! "/ A!at-r%. =er"&"t(% I; 76, 78.
Arima - mean% "ne at Sc-tian%. S" =er"&"t(% interpret% te name "/ Arima%pa% >Actually, ;arym, yarom,
yaro< is not one, it is a hal! o! a pair. *he semasiology o! the *ur"ic and 6innoEgric languages usually
names paired parts with nouns in singular !orm, li"e ;eye< also stands !or ;eyes<, ;leg< also stands !or
;two legs<, etc. *hese languages add a de8nition to e4press ;one o! a couple< , hence lit. arymspu9sepi R
hal!eye R ;one eye< Arimaspu is not ;5ne %yed<, but ;&al! %yed<, and ta"en literally in Hree" it is
e4pressed as ;5ne &al! o! *wo %yed< or ;5ne %yed<. Actually, Arimaspu means ;S$uinted %yed<, and has
corresponding semantical ridicule in any language in contact with s$uintedeyed Mongoloids. *he other
part in Arimaspa is ;spu9sepi<, a *r. !or eye. *hese three Scythian words, arym, spu, and arimaspu belong
to the translated Scythian le4icon cited by &erodotus, they do not have a place in the Iranic !amily, and
belong to the *ür"ic languages. Ce!. M.Ka"ievB.
=er"&"t(% I; 27R Pat-%ev, 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. A07.
ArimaL - Sc-tian $ea&er, a/ter 6"m 6a% name& Arima5 S"rtre%% (•qaxflkw jn`qf) in S"!&iana. H"$ien
rep"rt% "n te capt(re "/ ti% /"rtre%% )- A$e@an&er te 7reat (Strat., I;, A, 29) an& Stra)" (Arrian,
Ana)a%i%., I;, 28, ?) >Another agglutinated compound with the ;arym< hal!, in this case ;&al! o! Ases<,
i.e. Ases, and a part o! Ases: wing. Signi8cantly, the prominence o! Ases ,h. \ue)hies in the Hree" source
predates their appearance in the ,hinese annals by a century, and they already appear as a dynastic
tribe. *he Ases: dynastic achievements and ambitions survived into the -0th c. A3B.
>$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. 80.
Arimoi - te name "/ te Oimmerian tri)e i% menti"ne& in ="merD% epic (•qaxkasa). Stra)" $"ca$i5e tem in
P-&ia (7e"!r. :II 8, 19). Me A%%-rian %"(rce% "/ te 1At cent(r- BO menti"ne& Arima, te $ater •rartian
%"(rce% menti"ne& Arme >6rom the ;arym< hal!, a wing o! the whole, a superethnic appellative. In the
#ate Anti$ue time, the appellatives !or ;wing< were also con!used by e4ternal observers with ethnicity,
ta"e ;*olis< and ;*ardush< ;eastern >le!tB hal!< and ;western >rightB hal!<. ;*olis< was con!used with the
*ele tribal union, *ardu was ta"en as proper name in *ardu"agan, instead o! a ;Gestern (agan<, (utrigur
was ta"en as an ethnonym instead o! ;Gestern *ribes< !or a ;Gestern Ging9Gestern &al!<. *he ;hal!s< in
the Hree" and Assyrian stories are surely digerent, belonging to digerent con!ederations. Signi8cantly,
the -@th c. ', division into ;hal!s< predates the ne4t positively "nown division o! the 8eld army into wings
among the %astern &uns o! the @rd c. ', by a !ull millennia. Notably, though the threepartite division o!
the state e4isted in every *ür"ic state !rom gargantuan to miniscule in si)e, every age and every society
came up with their own name !or the wings. #i"e any other appellative on the list without any semantical
content, any speculation remains +ust a speculationB.
>$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. ?6.
Arimas!oi /085S3;[956 - =er"&"t(% 7e"!rap- p$ace& Arima%pie% (2oneeyed< in &erodotus) )e/"re
=-per)"rean% (2SuperNortherners< in Hree"). 4n"6n /r"m te 6"rk% "/ Ari%tea% "/ Hr"c"nne%(%
2Arima%pei%.8 >$nit%k- $ink% Arima%p"i "/ =er"&"t(% 6it Arima "/ A%%-rian %"(rce% >*he signi8cance o! the
appellation Arimaspoi is that it has a translation !rom the Scythian, and does not allow wild philological
speculations. *he word Arimaspoi is prominently absent !rom the Abaev:s list o! @N. ;Scythian words<, not
without a good reason. Arimaspoi is a *ür"ic compound, semantically and phonetically e4actly as stated
&erodotus, !rom the agglutination o! ;arym< *r. hal! = ;spu9sepi< *r. eyeO Arimaspu is ;&al! %yed<, i.e.
;S$uinted %yed<. %nglish also has in addition to ;s$uinteyed<, derisive appellations ;coc"eyed<, and
;crosseyed<, and ;s"eweyed<, and ;walleyed<, and probably more. *he su74 poi stands !or *r. bai, a
popular su74 in *ür"ic tribal and personal names. Ce!. M.Ka"ievB.
=er"&"t(% I; 1A, 1?, 27R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. ?7.
Aristagoras - Sc-tian kin! "r a kin!D% me%%en!er. In ?95 BO ne!"tiate& 6it te Spartan kin!
O$e"mene% I a)"(t '"int mi$itar- "perati"n% a!ain%t te Her%ian% >*a"en as agglutination Ar>isB = *agor R
Ar>isB = *ag = 5r9Ar, this is a straight!orward compound o! *r. Garrior = Mountaineer R Garrior =
Mountain = Man. *ag in *r. is ;Mountain<, and is present in a number o! appellativesJ *ochar, *agar,
*aur9*avr, Sary*au, 3agestan, and so on. A synonymous term !or the ;Mountaineer< is ;$ayaxi R
$ayachi<, with an element ;(ai<, the term documented in the Eigur *arim area. *he dialectic division o!
*ag9*au9*av93ag is well documented, the eastern languages have it as *ag93ag, the western *ür"ic
languages have it as *au, and that division ascends to the 8rst linguistic studies. 6rom the spread o! the
;*aus9*avs< in the earliest Hree" sources, we can conclude that that was a predominant western *ür"ic
ancient !orm. Signi8cantly, the alternate !orm !or the ;Mountain< is ;As<, a synonym common to all
recorded *ür"ic languages, which ma"es Ases and *ochar not only synonymous appellations, but initially
e4onyms, applied by steppe peoples, li"e ;mountaineer< , and ;Damirian<, and ;Iberian<, and
;Appalachian< are synonymous in respect to the mountainous location as viewed !rom the plains.
&owever, &M.\iliu! gives an opposite etymology !rom the same semantical 8eld, ;As< R plain, probably
!rom the (a)a"h language, and derives Ases as ;lowlanders<, apparently as seen !rom the highlands.
,onsidering the anti$uity o! the term, 8rst appearing in the @rd c. ',, and be!ore that in the .th c. ', as
Scythian R Asgu)ai, the initial etymology may reQect something beyond our visionB. =er"&"t(% ;I 8?.
AriZ /08529W6 - ti% name i% rea& "n te ca%t ")"$ an& $ar!e &"$pin c"in%, i%%(e& in <$)ia in ?60-?25 BO.
A$ek%eev G.A. e@pre%%e& an "pini"n "n te i&entit- "/ te name% "/ Ari@ an& <ri@ (_qahkl). <ri@ (A(ric)
6a% a %"n "/ a Sc-tian kin! Ariap-t an& -"(n!er )r"ter "/ Ski$ an& <kt"ma%a&. =e c"($& )e a Sc-tian
$ea&er '(%t in time t" i%%(e c"in% 6it te in%cripti"n •qahkl >names ascending to *r. ;Ar< R ;Garrior< were
and still are popular *ür"ic, and their neighboring people, names. *he neighbors !re$uently do not suspect
that their popular names are slightly distorted *ür"ic names, li"e 'oris, Haidar. *he de8nition o!
7"r!"nei"n "n te ")ver%e "/ te c"in i% err"ne"(%, $or$yu is participle ;terri!ying, inspiring !ear<, !rom
the verb $qr$ ;to !ear<, hence the terri!ying images o! Medu)a and Horgons. *he happy !ace on the
reverse can:t have anything to do with the !earinspiring HorgoneionB.
*CIGP AriZ )"ol from )l"ia ")v. 7"r!"nei"n
rev. 6ee$ 6it /"(r %p"ke%R )et6een %p"ke% AHI: (Pat. A.I:)
H.<. 4ar-%k"v%k-, 1ASH, N" ?, 1962, pp. 222R G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Bar)arian% in Hr"%"p"!rap- "/ 6t-5t
cc. BO <$)ia K 0em"!rapic %(t(ati"n ...R G(.A.A$ek%eev. Sc-tian kin!% an& r"-a$ k(r!an% "/ te 5t-?t cc.
BO, ;0I, N" A, 1996.
Ar!oksai /08[9_35W6 - mi&&$e %"n "/ Mar!itai, an ance%t"r "/ te 4atiar c$an an& Mra%pie%. Acc"r&in! t"
1.I. Artam"n"va, 4atiar% 6ere a part "/ Sk"$"t% >Coyal ScythiansB. An"ter rea&in! "/ te name Arp"k%a- -
it Arp, 4arp (ence te Oarpatian%). Acc"r&in! t" an"ter ver%i"n "/ te Sc-tian !enea$"!ica$ m-t
Arp"k%ai 6a% ca$$e& A!at-r. Me c$an "/ Arp"k%ai-A!at-r inva&e& Oarpatian%, 6ere $ive&
4atiar%-Akatir%-A!at-r%. An"ter c$an !ave te $ine Mra%pi-Mr(ck%-Mracian% >*a"en as agglutination Arpo =
"sai R ;arpa< is cognate o! *r. ;arpaly"< R ;possession o! land< = a"soi R A" =Soi R ;Noble = ,lan<, i.e.
;Coyal ,lan o! the #and<, ;3ynastic 5wner o! #and<. 'eats the V.Abaev:s distorted and nonsensical
;Dosessor o! 3eep Gaters<, and nearly as much nonsensical trans!ormation o! Arpo to apra. *he
corroborating pointers indicate a religious contentJ agglutination o! Arpo" = sai R ;arpo"< is cognate o! *r.
!rom *ur"ish to Eigur ;arpae, arbae, erbae< R ;divination, incantation, spell, enchantment, witchcra!t,
sorcery< = Sai R ;,lan<, i.e. ;Driestly ,aste<. *he cognates o! ;arpo"< spilled out to 6innic and MongolianJ
;arpa< in 6innish is a divination tool, and in Mongolian ;arba$u< is to enchant. Arpo"sai was an eponymic
ancestor o! (atiar !armers and *raspi priest tribes. Cespectively, he received !rom the S"y a plow !or
(atiars and a chalice !or *raspies. *he plowtype agricultural tools in *ür"ic are derivatives !rom the root
;"ot, "at<, which is an apparent root !or the (atiar tribal appellation. Another *ür"ic name !or a plow is
;aral<, which in Slavic trans!ormed to ;oral< with derivatives, and the root ;ar< is a 8tting component o!
the (atiar eponymic patron Arpo"sai. 6or the *raspies, the range o! the *ür"ic cognates is too wide to
ma"e a positive determination. Apparently, the best match has to do with a patron o! water,
;tursuv9tursub9tursup<, whose symbol and tool is a vessel. In the historical period in the *ür"ic societies,
including &uns, the supreme priestly duties were per!ormed by a male head o! the dynastic clan, while
the internal agairs, including law and +ustice, belonged to the head o! the maternal dynastic clan, who
was also responsible !or harvest and plentitude. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 2-0 on, -/? onB.
=er"&"t(%, ;I 5, 6, 1.I. Artam"n"v, ;0I, 19?7, N" A.
Arsakom- %" i% ca$$e& a Sc-tian cie/ in a P(cian &ia$"!(e "/ 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip8, e $e& te Sc-tian
arm- in a )att$e 6it B"%p"rian%, Sarmatian% an& A$an%. P(cian a$%" menti"n% /e$$"6% "/ Ar%ak, P"ant an&
1akent. P(cian c"($& (%e te rea$ name% "/ te Sc-tian >agglutination Ar = Sa" seems to be evident,
;Sa"a Garrior<, identical to a number o! Arsa"s9Arsacs, all suitable !or personal names and titles o! the
con$uerorsB.
P(cian. O"$$. "/ 6"rk% in t6" v"$(me%, 1"%c"6, Penin!ra&, 19A5, v"$. 1.
/Assaioi6 0;;3595 - tri)a$ name. Stepen te B-5antine t"(!t "/ tem a% Sc-tian%, an& Ht"$em- a%
te Sarmatian%. Mat name re%"nate% 6it te term ~faka - Sai"i menti"ne& in te &ecree in "n"r "/
Hr"t"!ene% /r"m <$)ia >agglutination As = Sai seems to be evident, ;As ,lan<. Ases persisted in
association with Scythians, &uns, Ashina *ur"s and beyond !or millennia onB.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?8, N" A, p. A12.
AsZi/Aschi - '(ice /r"m te 2H"ntic8 /r(it tree. 7.A.Stratan"v%k- (1972) in c"mment% t" te =er"&"t(%
2=i%t"rie%8 ")%erve% tat te m"&ern >*ür"icB Ba%kir% ave a &i% 2ak%a8 >*his is not a 'ash"ir word, it
is a common word !or a variety o! modern *ür"ic peopleB. Me 6"r& )e$"n!% t" te pe"p$e kin&re& 6it te
Sc-tian% >i.e. 'ash"irs and their *ür"ic "ins. *he signi8cance o! as4i9aschi is that it has a translation !rom
the Scythian, and does not allow wild philological speculations. *he word as4i9aschi is prominently absent
!rom the Abaev:s list o! @N. ;Scythian words<, not without a good reason. %tymology o! as4i9aschi comes
!rom axi R acidy, !ermented, turn sour, chi is a property!orming su74, in Cussian dialect a soup schiB.
=er"&"t(% I; 2A.
Ateus /04\3W Atheas6 - Sc-tian kin!, 6" at te t(rn "/ te ?t-5t cc. BO create& a %tr"n! Sc-tian
kin!&"m in te $"6er B(!KB( an& $"6er 0an()e area. In AA9 BO, at a!e 90, e 6a% ki$$e& in a )att$e 6it
Hi$ip "/ 1ace&"n >*he name Ateus9Atei >^ztw{, AtheasB is a Hree" distortion, mani!estant o! other
distortions that historians and linguists ta"e !or academiclevel spelling and even try to per!ect by using
all "inds o! convoluted diacritics, li"e |}~•€•, a"in to showing millimiter accuracy at a distance eyeballed
at about 2 days o! travel. Ge "now how Atails not Atheas coined his nameJ
It says A*AI#‚, an obvious agglutination Ata = Il = ‚ R *r. ;6ather< = ;#and, ,ountry, Nation< = Hree"
a!!i4 ;‚<, a compound used over and over through the millennia, in all "inds o! combinations that start
with Ata or include Il, Ata*ür" and %l*erish (agan are most !amiliarB.
H$(tarc, Stra)", <.N. Mr()acev 2<n Sin&% an& teir $an!(a!e2KK€(e%ti"n% "/ $in!(i%tic%, N" ?, 1976.
*ookola"ra /`99U9:3a836 - Sc-tian name e@p$aine& )- Me"p-$act Sim"catta (ca 6A0) a% 2ma!(%,
te %ame a% prie%t, c$er!-8. MQrkic 'q"üler X 2&eep %it8 i% "ne "/ &eri%i"n% /"r /"rt(ne-te$$er%
Me"p-$act Sim"catta 2Me =i%t"r-8 U‚.Iit)- 1986, p. A0V
*orysthenes J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 a name va!(e$- a%%i!ne& t" a n(m)er "/ $"cati"n%,
inc$(&in! =ipani%-B(, 0nieper, an i%$an&, an "ri!ina$ name /"r cit- <$)ia, an& m"re. 0nieper i% )e%t kn"6n
a% B"r-%tene% /r"m te $ater %"(rce%. S"r et-m"$"!-, %ee Antakei. =er"&"t(%D name %"($& )e rea&
*orusthenes /`981;]cV^W6 in te p"netic% "/ te =er"&"t(%D time, in%tea& "/ m"&ern p"netic%.
*orysthenetai J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 an "ri!ina$ name /"r cit- <$)ia. Me name %"($& )e rea&
*orusthenetai /`981;]cV^4356 in "ri!ina$ p"netic%. Me pre%ence "/ &"c(mente& native name
prece&in! te name 8<$)ia (_v}pf ekd`aoƒ)8 in&icate% tat te $"cati"n )"re a MQrkic name )e/"re te
/"(n&ati"n "/ te 7reek c"$"n- pri"r t" te 5t cent(r- BO, 6en te c"$"n- 6a% vi%ite& )- =er"&"t(%. Me
MQrkic name c"rr")"rate% arce"$"!ica$ *n&% tat &em"n%trate tat te ear$- 7reek re$i!i"n, e%pecia$$- te
<rpic 1-%terie%, 6a% eavi$- in\(ence& )- Oentra$ A%ian 8%amani%tic8 practice%, a% te name
8B"r-%ten8 C 8I"r%ip .iver8 imp$ie% in m"&ern A$tai $an!(a!e%. A $ar!e n(m)er "/ <rpic !raTti
(nearte& in <$)ia te%ti/- tat te c"$"n- 6a% "ne ma'"r p"int "/ c"ntact 6it a)"ri!ina$ pe"p$e.
*udin - pe"p$e, akin t" te Sc-tian%. B"(&in $ive& in te /"re%t area "/ te $"6er 0"n re!i"n >;'udun< is
a *r. term !or undistinguished human mass, a"in to ;tribes<, ;!ol"<. *he word may be a cognate o! %nglish
;buddy<, short !orm ;bud<, that came into the 8eld o! vision o! the philologists only in the -Ath c,
descending !rom the indigenous Hermanic languages. In %nglish it also connotes a layman !ellow, or a
mass o! layman !ellows. *he %nglish word may be o! Sarmatian originB.
=er"&"t(% I; 108R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. ?5.
*utir - a %"rt "/ cream "r %"(r cream /r"m te Sc-tian%. Strikin! %imi$arit- "/ Sc-tian B(tir 6it 7erman
B(tter - )(tter >#atin butyrum, Hree" boutyron, lit. Hree" ;cowcheese, the Scythian word was not
borrowed . 'utter was un"nown in ancient Hreece and Come, &erodotus described it among the oddities
o! the Scythians. Apparently, Scythian staple !ood was not e4ported, the terms "umiss, airan, meat,
sheep, mutton, soup, etc were not borrowed. 'ut the cheese tyrum was named a!ter *yre nomads, the
horse ippos was named !rom *r. +aby9yabu9+upa4B.
=ipp"crate%, 20i%ea%e%8 "/ p()$i%in! Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. 298.
Caucasus J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 m"(ntain% p"p($ar 6it =er"&"t(%. In MQrkic ka(Kk(Kk(( i%
B6iteB, te %ec"n& part "/ 6"r&% ,aucas an& (rou"as i% -"as, it mean% in MQrkic „r"ck, r"ck- m"(ntain….
Mi% i% n"t even an et-m"$"!-, it i% a m"&ern MQrkic &ai$- %peec. =er"&"t(% 1.10? "n
Croucasis J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 BSc-tian%... ca$$ 1"(nt Oa(ca%(% Or"(ca%i%, 6ic mean%
D6ite 6it %n"6D.B - H$in- 6.:I:. In MQrkic "yrau i% „/r"%t, /r"5en &e6, %n"6…, te %ec"n& part "/ 6"r&%
,aucas an& (rou"as i% -"as, it mean% in MQrkic „r"ck, r"ck- m"(ntain…. Mi% i% n"t even an et-m"$"!-, it i% a
m"&ern MQrkic &ai$- %peec. H$in- 6.:I:
Gnur - a kin! "/ te P"6er B(! an& te P"6er 0nieper re!i"n Sc-tian%. =e $ive& in te %ec"n& a$/ "/ te
)e!innin! "/ te 7t-6t cent(rie% BO. =e 6a% a /ater "/ Anacar%i% an& Sav$i(%.
=er"&"t(% I; 76R Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. 298.
Gelon - a %"n "/ te $e!en&ar- =erc($e% an& %nake-$e!!e& vir!in, a &a(!ter "/ te river B"r-%tene%
>3nieperB. =e 6a% an ance%t"r "/ te 7e$"n tri)e >In the preceding short passage all three proper names
are *ür"ic words. *he whole sentence resembles a Cussian speech, a blend o! *ür"ic and some other.
Helon93+ilan9Filan9\ilan is a sna"e, with initial consonant the word belongs to the 5gur branchO &ercules is
agglutination o! *r. Ar = (ul = Hr. a74 es R Man9Garrior9&ero = #a"e = es, with initial & standing !or
aspirationO (ul is an epithet o! power and authority, a component o! many *ür"ic titles and names, its
other semantical !orm is *ingi)93inge)9,hingi) Sea, so we have (ul%r"in, and (ul *egin, and
,hingi)(han. *he part 'ory9'orys in 'orysthenes is the same root as in the names o! the %uropean
royalty, 'oris, which is *ür"ic !or 'ear and Gol!. No wonder that advocates o! the ScythoIranian
hypothesis never even descend to address a *ür"ic etymology, save !or immediate sin"ing. #i"e in the
Cussian language, you do not need to strain yoursel! too much, it is on the sur!ace, your only tool to
escape it is to claim utter linguistic ignorance and listen to the nationalistic propaganda o! the state
institutions.
Another interesting aspect o! the term <Helon< lin"s it with the %lamites, the aboriginal people o! the
Iranian plateau. *he phonetic variations o! the name <%lam< are close enough to the phonetic variations
o! the <Helon< R Helon93+ilan9Filan9\ilan R sna"eO the !re$uency o! noting the <Helons<, and the pro4imity
o! their locations to the Iranian plateau also lin" them with <%lam<O the agglutinative <%lam< language
and agglutinative *ür"ic languages belong to the same linguistic phyla, and at some remote point may
have constituted a single vernacularO and the &erodotus: re!erence to the <Helons< as
hal!Hree"9hal!Scythians only pertains to the name o! the city, and should not be e4panded to the Hree"s
or the Scythians proper. *he %lam hypothesis obviously conQicts with the popular interpretation o! the
term <Helon< R sna"e in *ür"ic, which can:t either be proved nor disproved with the materials at hand,
and may lead to a !ruit!ul e4aminationB.
=er"&"t(% I; 9, 10.
Gelon - 6""&en cit- "/ te 7e$"n%. B(rne& )- te Her%ian% &(rin! te 0ari(% campai!n in Sc-tia. 7e$"nD%
remain% /"(n& near a vi$$a!e Be$%k
>*he city was populated by a good portion o! Hree"s, who
developed a good Hreco*ür"ic vernacular, reported &erodotus.
*he remains o! Helon are impressive. *he mobile Scythians must
have evacuated, and only poor Hree"s were toasted by the noble
Dersian pedestrian adventurer. Helons and Helonias are in
abundance in the Anti$ue %ra, they are "nown !rom their literate
neighbors. In Mongolian language Helonias became (ais, in ,h.
they are "nown as &i9Si, due to h9s alternation, (ais became a
sub+ect o! the %astern &un state in 200 ',, and traced a long
history, in the /th c. A3 they were heading the (ime" (aganate,
and in the --th c. they became (umans in Hree" and (uns in
&ungarian, they played a ma+or role in the -2th c. N.Dontic
(ipcha" con!ederation,
in the Cus annals they are "nown under ad+ectives ;Kmiev< Sna"e:s and ;,heshuev< >8shB Scale
among others. A!ter a trac" record o! over -,A00 years, their glory vanished a!ter the Mongol con$uest.
&istorians and archeologists note a !eature common to bedouin and nomadic con$uerors, they do not
+ump in and turn into the city dwellers. *he centers and villages o! the nomadic con$uerors remain
separate !rom the aboriginal sedentary population, whatever was the name o! the con$uerorsJ (ushans,
*ür"s, Arabs, Mongols, you name it. Ge can discern in the 'els" Helon the traditions and li!e o! the
indigenous people prior to the Scythian con$uest and Hree" coloni)ation, and the overlay o! the nomadic
culture, whose remains are mostly prominent in the surrounding "urgan cemeteriesB
=er"&"t(% I; 108R Sc-tian 6"r$&, 4iev, 1975, p. 128.
Gelons - pe"p$e $ivin! at te =er"&"t(% time in te B(&in%D $an&. 7e$"n% 2en!a!e& in /armin!, !ar&enin!
an& eat )rea&.8 27e$"n% 6ere 7reek% /r"m $"n! a!", te- %peak part$- in Sc-tian, an& part$- in =e$$enic.8
>*his is how we 8nd out the ethnic name o! the 'udini !ol"s, they were HelonsO and i! &erodotus reports on
the whole tribe, and not on the Hree" peasantry, artisans, and traders who lived in the Helon city, the (ai
tribe in the %astern &un con!ederation originally descended !rom the Hree"sB
=er"&"t(% I; 108, 109, 120R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. ?5.
Goytosir - a !"& in te Sc-tian pante"n. =er"&"t(% name% te Sc-tian 7"-t"%ir a% Ap"$$" >*os in
*ür"ic is a generic spirit, li"e angel spirits in Fudeo,hristianIslamic traditionO the *ür"ic deity %rli" is a tos,
his !ull name in *uvan is %rli"tos, he belongs to a triumvirate o! tesesspirits called (yrbustaO semantically
Appolo and *os are identical. *osir would denote a being >Spirit = ManB. *he noun ad+ective that de8nes
*os may carry one o!, or a combination o! the semantics li"eJ Qoy*osir R Sun Hod, Qoychu*osir R
Shepperd 3eity, Qayit5sir R Cesurrecting 3eity >Dhoeni4typeBO 5y*osir R 3eity o! *hought. Since Hree"
Appolo was a multi!unctional deity, the semantical variations o! the *ür"ic etymology may be reQected in
the spectrum o! the Appolo:s heavenly duties. *he Iranian etymology suggests Iranian Haiomart, who is
semantical e$uivalent o! &eracles, and not o! Appolo, and needs philological analysis to cover the stretch
to transit !rom the Haiomart to Hoytosir. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 2//, @-. onB.
=er"&"t(% I; 59.
&err - a river in Sc-tia. In area% near te river =err $"cate& Sc-tian r"-a$ )(ria$. =er"&"t(% p$ace& ti% in
te 0nieper .iver, an& Ht"$em- - in te Sea "/ A5"v >Semantically, Herra is a heartland, where royal
cemetery is located, !rom it would be derived &err river, and &errs tribe. >In *ür"ic, \er is land, earthO
%nglish %arth, Herman %rde, !rom the *ür"ic root <er,< which produced Hermanic noun <ertho,< and
ultimately Herman <erde,< 3utch <aarde,< 3anish and Swedish <+ord,< and %nglish <earth.< Celated !orms
include Hree" <era)e,< meaning <on the ground,< and ,immericGelsh <erw,< meaning <8eld<, as opposed
to the Indo%uropean Sansr. <thira<, #at. <terra<. *he *ür"oHerman e$uivalent is per!ect. *he Dersian
e$uivalent is Kamin, 'aluchi MittiB. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
&erros - p$ace in Sc-tia, near pre%ent-&a- Nik"p"$ (1/.NƒN @1.Nƒ%B, 6ere te river =err \"6% int" te
0nieper >'a)avlu" west o! Ni"opol, *oma" 1/.AƒN @1.Aƒ% east o! Ni"opol. 6rom their a74es, both names
appear to be *ür"icB. In 7err"% 6a% i&&en a main Sc-tian %anct(ar-, a r"-a$ necr"p"$i% >&err seems to
be a *ür"ic \er R earth, land, a cognate o! %nglish ;earth<, semantically suitable !or ;our land<. *he Qood
o! (a"hov"a Ceservoir on the 3nieper Civer raised water level by A m and may Qooded the necropolis.
&owever, Ni"opol boasts a wealth o! Scythian remainsB.
=er"&"t(% I; 5A, 56, 71, B.A..-)ak"vR P.A.>$nit%k-, Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%, N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p.
116.
&errs - a tri)e tat, acc"r&in! t" =er"&"t(%, $ive& in Sc-tia in te 7err"% area. P.A.>$nit%k- a/ter 4i%%$in!
)e$ieve% tat =err% i% a %e$/-name "/ te r"-a$ Sc-tian% >A tribal or a !raction o! a tribe geographical name
a!ter its &err location is semantically reasonableB. =er"&"t(% I; 57, 71R P.A.>$nit%k-, p. 116.
Gilea - $"ca$it- in Sc-tia, near te e%t(ar- "/ te river 0nie%ter, te m"&ern H"$e%ie (S"re%t area).
Apparent$-, in 7i$ea 6a% $"cate& "ne "/ te Sc-tian %acre& center%. Mere, =erac$e% came t" intimac-
6it te %nake vir!in. Anacar%i% 6a% ki$$e& tere >Sounds li"e a Hree" derivative or reQection o! Hilan R
*r. sna"e. *he Slavic mythology retained traces o! apparent translations o! the *ür"ic nomenclature
connected with sna"eJ Sna"e Island, Sna"e Camparts. *he Sna"e Island is identi8ed with %uripides: Ghite
Island at the 3anube estuary inside the %u4ine Hul!B. =er"&"t(% I; 9, 18, 19, 76.
&y!anis - a river in Sc-tia, m"&ern S"(tern B(! river >It would be erroneous to ascribe all toponyms in
Scythia to the Scythians. Any organi)ed migration or military action starts with reconnaissance, when
geography, topography, names o! all pertinent mar"ers and obstructions are de8ned, supply sources
identi8ed, routing options are compared, and location and strength o! the opposition evaluated. 6or this
reason, the Scythians "new be!orehand the names o! all ma+or rivers and other obstructions. Most o! the
main toponyms preserved their names a!ter occupation, and in most cases a!ter multiple consecutive
occupations. *his phenomenon allows us to study the etymology o! the toponyms, and ma"e +udgment on
the linguistic a7liation o! the longgone populations. *he etymological studies must be systemic, and 8rst
o! all based on a "nowledge o! the potential underlying candidates and their languages, otherwise a study
is a random wanderingB. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
&i!akiris - a river in Sc-tia, m"&ern river 4"$"ncak. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
&yrcani J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 BP-in! t" te ea%t "/ te Oa%pian%... are te tri)e% "/ te...
=-rcani, /r"m 6"%e %"re% te Oa%pian )e-"n& te river Si&eri% )e!in% t" )e ca$$e& te =-reanian SeaB -
H$in- 6.:I:. In MQrkic Iyr" i% Bn"ma&B, ence te 7reekKHer%ian BI-rkaeK=-rcaniB - Bn"ma&ic Sc-tian%B, an&
te area =-rcaniaK7ircania. H$in- 6.:I:
&yreanian Sea J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 BP-in! t" te ea%t "/ te Oa%pian%... are te tri)e% "/
te... =-rcani, /r"m 6"%e %"re% te Oa%pian )e-"n& te river Si&eri% )e!in% t" )e ca$$e& te =-reanian
SeaB - H$in- 6.:I:. In MQrkic Iyr" i% Bn"ma&B, ence te 7reekKHer%ian =-reanianK7irkanian Sea H$in- 6.:I:
Gorit - Sc-tian ca%e /"r te )"6 an& arr"6% >'ut unli"ely a Scythian word, Hree"s used bows long be!ore
Scythians, this must be a substrate word. *r. "obur, "olchan >"olcan, "ulcanB, o"9yay durumda, ta!tui,
tahtui, sada$, sayada$, saada", sagada", sagaida", saida"B.
DaiZ /d3526 J /addition to G.Dreminbs list6 a name "/ a river Gaik, a$%" kn"6n (n&er a %$e6 "/ %pe$$in!%,
05aik, 0aic(%, 0ai@, 0iek, 7ei, Maic, Naec, Ga-ik, Na-iF. &erodotus: 3ai4 indicates that that *ür"ic name
was an accepted name in the Nth c. ',, when in the constructions o! Iranists the N.Dontic and Middle Asia
were a domain o! the Iranian linguistic sphere. *r. etymologyJ ;yayo$< R ;pouring, egusive >riverB< „
yay9+ay ;to spread<B *he high Qow velocity o! the river made it way more dangerous and prominent then
even larger, but much slower rivers, li"e Itil and 3nieper. Somehow, \ai" escaped attention o! the Iranist
linguists.B.
Dana!r /d3V3[85W6 - river 0nieper. Herap% ti% i% )eca(%e Sc-tian% ca$$e& te te river 6it tat
name. In ancient Iranian †fdf i% a river >It loo"s that V.Abaev, and not &erodotus, carries the modern
name o! the river to the Iranian roots. &erodotus calls it with its Scythian name, 'orysthenes, and does
not give any alternatives with a preScythian local name. 3anapr could be a postScythian version,
probably a 3acian name, since Cumanians, the descendents o! the 3acians, have IndoIranian elements in
their language, li"e the ;ape< water. Hree"s use hydra !or water, must be a carryover !rom their
substrate language. I leave 3anapr on the list to show Abaev:s linguistical manipulations. 5ne o! the main
ob+ections to the philological e4ercises o! Messsers Vs.Müller, V.Abaev, M.Vasmer, F.&armatta, #.Kgusta,
etc. is that the lists they were using were not Scythian, but predominantly o! other ethnicities that
populated 'osporan colonies at a later time, they are ;< only by unsubstantiated and unprovable
presumption, and the name 3anapr is a good illustration o! that, because it conQicts glaringly with the
terminology o! the Scythian contemporaries brought to us by numerous sources. %tymologically, a Slavic
adaptation o! a *r. ;ten< R ;large river< !or the 3anapr seems to be $uite viable, possibly emerging a!ter
conse$utive cycles o! ma+or population replacement with incompatible linguistic separators in between,
li"e ScythiansSarmatians Rf Hoths Rf &uns'ulgars Rf Slavs Rf 'ad+ana"s5gu)es(ipcha"s Rf
SlavsB.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A12.
d3V3;485W - 0nie%ter .iver. S(pp"%e&$- c"me% /r"m †fdf (river) ‡ as`q (I%tre%) >Another Abaev:s
!alsi8cation not connected with Scythians. &erodotus: 3niester was *yrus, a!ter a Scythian tribe. And once
again, <dan< is not a river in Iranian, the root <dan< was adopted during a 8shing e4pedition, !rom obscure
re!erence incompatible with such basic term as <river<. No river in the IndoIranianspea"ing area carries
a name <3an<, while in *ür"ic ;ten< R ;large river< generically. In 5ssetic, <don< is a !orm o! a *ür"ic
word, probably ad+usted !or the Na"h phonetics, +ust li"e <tengi)< R <la"e, sea<.B
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A12.
d3V91a59W - 0an()e >Another Abaev:s !alsi8cation not connected with Scythians. Ascends to the same
common *ür"ic word ;ten< R ;large river<. In contrast, the Dersian is darya, sud"hane, 'aluchi dira, &indi
nedi, Dan+abi nedi, derya, *a+i" dar, and so on. In respect to the I% Asian !orm dar9dir9der, in *ür"ic the root
;ar< has derivative etymologies connected with the semantics ;water, moisture<. In *ür"ic, the root ;ar<
connected with li$uid comes in !orms o! all Qavors and incarnations, !rom a vessel to proper namesJ ar
>waterB, aran, ara", aral >AralB, arashan, arat etm…", ara)i, arbu), argasun, arga+, arei, ari", arinti, arp,
ar$u, arsa, artysh >IrtyshB, ary", aryan >airanB, ar4ari", ar4ach, örez, …rima", and so on. 'oth terms, the I%
;dar< and *ür"ic ;ar<, are con8ned to the %urasian steppes and its !ringes, and appear to be variations o!
the same original word, separated by precipitous ar f a$ R a$ua and ar f ap R ape !rom other linguistic
branchesB.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A12.
Ditulas /d541:3W6 - in "ne "/ te Ari%t"pane% c"me&ie% (n&er tat name i% %"6n a Sc-tian p"$iceman
(sowˆfa `k‰k`fa). Ari%t"pane% >ca. 11A L ca. @.A ',B, .an., 608.
Dugdamme /Dugdamme Tugdamme6 - $ea&er "/ te Oimmerian% 6" $e& tem in te A%ia 1in"r
c"nF(e%t campai!n%, a /ater "/ San&ak%art. 1enti"ne& in A%%-rian %"(rce% a% te kin! "/ te
Saka-•!(t(m tri)e >Quti9(iti p 5gu)esp Etes9Edes9Esesp Dliny calls the ,aucasian Edes ;Scythians<,
implying nomadic li!estyle, horse husbandry, and li!e in yurts and wagonsB. >$nit%k- P.A. *n&% a Oimmerian
kin%ip 6it te Oa%pian Saka%. Me name i% Oimmerian, "6ever, a c"nnecti"n 6it te Sc-tian% i% n"t
e@c$(&e& >Ghile the Scythians per &erodotus came !rom the depths o! Asia, the ,immerians appear to be
o! the N.Dontic provenance. ,onsidering that both the ,immerians and Scythians belonged to the (urgan
,ulture, and that the Scythian "urgans were proved to originate in the Altai area, see A.Ale"seev et al
<-1,<, the ,immerians belonged to the *imber Hrave (urgan people o! the N.Dontic. #ater, the .th c. ',
encounter o! the Scythians with ,immerians was repeated in the N1th c. ', around the Aral Sea, when
the two branches o! the *imber Hrave (urgan people re+oined to establish the &ore)m civili)ation, see #.*.
\ablons"y <Ancient ,horasmia<. Enli"e the events o! the .th c. ',, the Aral encounter ended in
cohabitation and symbiosis. In both cases, the N.Dontic descendents o! *imber Hrave people encountered
the *imber Hrave descendents !rom the eastern Middle Asia or western ,entral Asia steppes. In the .th c.
',, their cultures were practically identical, archeologically undistinguishable, see A.Ivanchi" >200-B
<,immerians and Scythians<. In the N1th c. ', their versions o! the (urgan culture still appear to be
clearly related, save !or digering imports, but the eastern branch genetically carried along a heritage o!
the eastern Mongoloidness admi4ture, which could be imperceptible to both sides at the time, but is
clearly distinguished by the modern physical anthropologists, and reQected in the art o! 'osporus
monuments and in the art trophies o! the Solo"ha "urgan. *he I% theory o! Himbutas, or any modi8cations
o! that theory can withstand, or e4plain away, the evidence presented by the !acts on the groundB.
Stra)., 7e"!r., I, A, 12R >$nit%k- P.A., I)i&, p. 26.
E.timahos /e145S329W6 - te name "/ an arcer "n a )$ack-*!(re SranY"i% crater, pr"&(ce& in 570 BO )-
an Attic ma%ter >r!"tim an& painte& )- O$-tie%.
1.;.Skr5in%ka-a. =er"e% "/ Oimmerian an& Sc-tian $e!en&%, ;0I, 1986, N" ?, p. 8?.
farina /g385V36 - F(een "/ te Sc-tian%, Saka% >ca 100 ',B >Scythians, li"e the &uns, Esuns, *ür"s,
Arabs, Mongols, etc. married local nobility to establish "inship relations. Karina sounds li"e a 'altic name,
the 'alts are historically attested to occupy !orest belt o! N.Dontic and 'al"ans. Karina is a"in to
#ithuanian +ariya, pl. +aryyos ;hot coals<, etc.O Drussian sari ;heat<O #ithuanian +ara ;dawn<, +ereti, +eriu
;Qash, shine<, +eruoti ;smolder, glow<, +irstu, +irti ;spar"ing< ra+aras ;gleam o! dawn Vasmer. Karina was
one o! the $ueens, but surely not the $ueen, which could only come !rom a Scythian con+ugal dynastic
lineB. Ote%ia% >ca 100 ',B.
Igdam!ayis /?7T3S[35^W6 - a name "n a )$ack-*!(re ki$ik ?80D% BO /r"m <$)ia. G(.7.;in"!ra&"v &ra6%
attenti"n t" te c$"%ene%% "/ ti% name 6it te Sc-tian t"p"n-m >5ampai"% (Š‰fxjfakl) (=er"&"t(%, I;,
59). ;.H.Ga-$enk", 4SIA, 159, 1979, pp. 57R G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Bar)arian% in Hr"%"p"!rap- "/
6t-5t cc. BO <$)ia K 0em"!rapic %it(ati"n ...
Idantemis /?T3V]\S5W6 - te name /r"m te in%cripti"n "n a \a%k "/ te *r%t a$/ "/ 6t c. BO /r"m
Bere5an. Me entire in%cripti"n rea&%J 2M" I&antemi% &e)a(cer ti% cannikin a% a !i/t.2
G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Bar)arian% in Hr"%"p"!rap- "/ 6t-5t cc. BO <$)ia K K Me &em"!rapic %it(ati"n in te
B$ack Sea &(rin! te 7reat 7reek c"$"ni5ati"n. M)i$i%i, 1981.
Idanthirsos /?T3V]58;9W6 - Sc-tian kin! 6" $e& *!t in 51? BO a!ain%t te Her%ian%. Iit Sk"pa%i%
an& M"k%aki% e $e& a '"ine& arm- "/ te Sc-tian%, Sa(r"matian%, B"(&in% an& 7e$"n%. A !ran&%"n "/ te
kin! 7n(r, a %"n "/ Sav$i(%, a nepe6 "/ Anacar%i%.
=er"&"t(% I; 76, 120, 126, 127, N(%tin >Funianus Fustinus, 2nd century A3B, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(%
6"rk% >-st century ',B, II, ?, 8 ;0I p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Ish!akai /Ih!akai6 - $ea&er "/ te Sc-tian% in teir campai!n% in A%ia. 4n"6n /r"m te A%%-rian %"(rce%.
Acc"r&in! t" >$nit%k- a %i%ter "/ I%pakai, Spak", )ecame a 6i/e "/ te Oimmerian kin! Me(%pa (Mei%pa).
Me name% "/ I%pakai an& Spak" c"me /r"m te Sc-tian. ‹paka - &"! >*r. Ishpa"ai R Ish9Ash = pa" = ai
R As >tribeB = prince >be"B = personal su74 o! respect ai. *he names o! Ishpa"ai and Shpa"o are
homophonous with •pa"a R dog. In *r. dog R "ope", somewhat close, especially considering the h9s
alternation. s f h f ", which apparently preceded the /th c. ',B, )(t ;a%mer &e&(ce% it /r"m te Ave%tan
2a%pa8 - "r%e >*here are @ problems with Vasmer manipulation, i! a change o! a letter is 5(, then Shpa"o
R •pa"a R dog R "ope" is 5( tooO the part Ish stands !or Ases, as in Ishgu)a, so s and p clearly belong to
digerent roots, Ishpa"ai is a head o! Ishgu)ai, this mista"e is symptomatic !or the philologists who blindly
apply I% Qe4ive structure to the words belonging to nonI% agglutinative languagesO and i! the use o!
animals in the names is ethnologically very *ür"ic, and patently not a Dersian custom, why loo" !or it in
the Dersian le4icon and not in *ür"ic le4icon. In Iranian etymologies, aspa R horse serves as a magic
wand, when nothing helps, wave the wand. Vasmer is gambling og his credibilityB.
=er"&"t(% I 110R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, pp. 25, 6it re/erence
t" 4"ni! S.I. A$te%te 7e%cicte &er 1e&er (n& Her%er - &er A$ter <rient, Peip5i!, 19A?, B&. AA, =. A1?, A1
Danita Danites /i3V5436 /*ani, Ape6- Sc-tian kin! 6"%e $an&% 6ere in 0")r(&'a, )e-"n& te
0an()e. At te en& "/ te Ar& - )e!innin! "/ te 2n& c. BO minte& c"in% 6it i% name in te M"m an&
<&e%%(% (3obrud+a is a historical land o! Se"lers. *ür"ic roots with <"han9"an9"aean9"agan9$an< abound in
royal titles, and !oreign distortions magni!y their prominenceJ Shanuy, ,hanuy, (anish"a are the most
obvious. *he insignia o! *hracian principality with nonScythian secular, religious and agricultural
symbology points to autonomous sedentary *hracian mints stri"ing in the name o! su)erainB.
2*anites0 "ASI *ANI, AP1.2/ ca %'' "! *ing of Scythia

&ermes right in !etasos / in eZ caduceus B !alm.
B.N.7rak"v, 1ateria$% ..., N" 17R M.;.B$avat%k-, 7reek% an& Sc-tian% in te 6e%t B$ack Sea, ;0I, 19?8, N"
1R =armatta. St(&ie% ..., 1970, p. 22.
Canna"is /i3VV3a5W6 - te name "/ canna)i% >hempB am"n! Sc-tian% >*r. "enevir hemp, a nearly
per!ect matchB. =er"&"t(% I; 7?.
/Darar.es6 i38381\W - "me in Sc-tian >agglutination *r. "ara R blac", usual >8g.B, west = ev R home,
i.e secondary home, coch, coach, as opposed to permanent dwelling or locationO in the Ath c. A3 the
Hree"s called Scythians 'ulgars and *ür"s, this could be a direct citation !rom the 'ulgars or *ür"s. *he
%uropean classical sources, and li"ewise the ,hinese classical sources accentuate the most stri"ing, in
the eyes o! the sedentary agriculturists, !eature o! the horse husbandry li!e, the wagons and yurts, and
glide over their permanent "ishla" villages and homes, though both mention the harvests and settled land
tillers. Some types o! permanent dwellings were identi8ed !or the %astern &uns, but the same type
dwellings !ound in the %astern %urope are routinely ascribed to nonScythian population, based on the
sourcesinspired belie! that Scythians did not have permanent dwellings at all. *hat resembles the
situation with the naive <surpri)es< e4pressed by numerous geneticists when they run into
*ür"icconnected genetic results among the samples 8rmly presumed to be <%uropean< and
<IndoIranian<, even though they are educated that the nomadic horse husbandry developed !rom the
seminomadic husbandry, which in turn developed !rom the Neolithic sedentary hunting and subsistence
agriculture economy, which !eatured permanent dwellingsB.
=e%-ci(% >&b†‡_a{, Ath c. A3, !rom MiletusB
Dargaluk - Sc-tian name /"r A5"v Sea, ."manK7reek $ake "r a )"! 1e"ti&a, an& a$%" BSc-tian "r
Sarmatian p"n&%B >*ür". (arga R IoldI, lu" R su74, to see who the word (argalu" belongs to, Hoogle itB.
Carthasis - )r"ter "/ a Sc-tian kin! &(rin! A$e@an&er 1ace&"n era.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, re/erence t" O(rti(% .(/(%.
Datiars - a Sc-tian c$an, a%cen&in! t" Arp"k%ai, a mi&&$e %"n "/ te $e!en&ar- Mar!itai. 4atiar%, a$"n!
6it Avat%, Mra%pian% an& Hara$at% )e$"n!e& t" te tri)e "/ te r"-a$ Sc-tian% - Sk"$"t% >Arpo"sai, a
patron o! (atiar tribe, he received a plow as a heavenly gi!tO the plow in *r. is "otan, "etmen, !rom <$at<
R layer, stratum. *he word "etmen, adopted by the Slavs, transitioned into the Cussian language as word
!or a hoe. *he word ar9yar in the second part o! (atiar in *r. means split >v.B and man >n.B. *he original
meaning o! the contraption is a tool that splits a layer. *his direct etymology 8ts per!ectly the &erodotus:
story, the origin o! the name !or the plow, and the origin !or the name o! the tribe in direct appellation !or
their role in the society. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. -/2 onB.
=er"&"t(% I; 6R 1.I. Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" A, p. 76.
Do"os /ija9W6 - $ea&er "/ te Oimmerian (Sc-tian) Mrer tri)e
Stra)., 7e"!r., I, A, 12.
Dolandak /i9:3VT3U^W6 - te name "n a )$ack-!$a5e& ki$ik /r"m te )e!innin! "/ ?t c. BO /r"m <$)ia.
•n&"()te&$- a $ink "/ okvfdzforl 6it te Sc-tian Sk"$"t tri)e >*r. "olan R girth, cinch, "olanda R in
girth, that coincidence does not mean anything, +ust a random case. &ow the suggested lin" became
<undoubted< is anybody:s guessB.
I. M"$%t"-, 7raTti "/ ancient 7reek citie% "/ te N"rtern B$ack Sea c"a%t. Penin!ra&, 195A, pp. 11R
G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Bar)arian% in Hr"%"p"!rap- "/ 6t-5t cc. BO <$)ia K 0em"!rapic %it(ati"n ...
Doloksai /i9:3_35W6 - a -"(n!er %"n "/ Mar!itai, te Sc-tian% c$an Hara$at a%cen&% teir "ri!in /r"m im.
7.A.Stratan"v%k- in i% c"mment% /"r te tran%$ati"n "/ =er"&"t(% !ive% a /"$$"6in! Iranian tran%cripti"n
"/ te name - Sk"$a%a--a. 1.I. Artam"n"v %(!!e%t% para$$e$%J 4"$"k%ai -4"$ - Sk"$ - Sk"$"t >,oge grounds
are as much use!ul !or random guessing. In *r. ;"ola< stands !or bron)e and indirectly !or sword >o!
bron)eBO the word ;"halyg< !or s"y is also close semantically and phonetically, since it was (olo"sai who
was able to retrieve the heavenly gi!ts. A!ter *argitai, (olo"sai became a head o! the S"olot dynastic tribal
union, in line with the *ür"ic tradition that the youngest, as opposed to the eldest son in Indo%uropean
traditions, inherited the parental domain. Mythologically, (olo"sai received sword as a heavenly gi!t,
which &erodotus correlates with the Hree" god o! war Ares with its cult o! sword, and Ares in turn is the
%gyptian &or, Coman Mars, Sumerian Ish(ur. *he Ish(ur, a !oreign god borrowed at least in the 2Ath c.
',, is at least 2 millennia older then the &erodotus: Scythian ;Ares<, @ millennia older then the &unnic
(uar, and is a Sumerian ;Hod o! 6erocity<. *he *ür"ic patron (uar >in the Hree" lingo o! the time
&erodotus used the word ;god<B parallels the Hree" Ares, and the *ür"ic cult o! sword parallels the Ares
cult o! sword. In the historical period, Gestern and %astern &uns, and the ,aucasian &uns, Avars, Albans,
and 'ulgars were recorded as revering their swords. *he last "nown sword swearing ritual was described
!or Suleiman the Hreat 5smanli in the #ate Middle Age. Dris"us directly identi8ed Gestern &uns with
Scythians, and described how Attila regained a longlost sacred sword o! his ancestors, using it to buttress
his position and heavenly blessing. *he semantical and phonetical cognates "eep lingering among various
*ür"ic peoples with pro!oundly digerent historiesJ the word ;,hor9,hur9Hur<, with r9l alternation, and
e4pressed as ;,hu< in early ,hinese, !or a millennia stood !or ;Anointed Drince<, best "nown !rom the
titles li"e (ara ,hur and Hur"hanO the ubi$uitous (erogly myth endows (erogly with a heavenly swordO
Mars in *ür"ic is (ürüdO *uvians have (ogol !or Datron o! Gar, 'uryats have Hal3ulen and HalNurman !or
6iery 'east, and Hal *engri !or &ost o! *hunderO E)be"s have MomoHuldura" !or &ost o! *hunderO
,huvashes have (huras Antara"an !or &ost o! DowerO A)eris o! the ?th c. pronounced (uar ;(hurram<.
(olo"sai, the youngest son o! *argitai, holds a prime position in the &erodotus: narrative as a praroyal
wielding a cleaving sword, and his numerous mythological remnants play the same role in the *ür"ic
mythology. Ghile the Indo%uropean mythology gives pre!erence to the eldest son, the *ür"ic mythology
gives pre!erence to the youngest son, e4tensively reQected in the Slavic legends that retransmit the
*ür"ic storylines. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 2-A2NN, 2?AB.
=er"&"t(% I;J 5, 7, 1.I. Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" A.
Dolos /i9:9W6 - /"(r-$e!!e& anima$ in Sc-tia. Mi% anima$ c"($& %ta- 6it"(t 6ater /"r a $"n! time. In
%i5e 6a% )et6een &eer an& %eep. O"$"r 6ite an& /a%ter tan te a)"ve anima$% >'eing a local animal,
we should e4pect a preScythian name. ,ougar, puma, llama, iguana, opossum, mai)e, etc. are good
e4amples !or preserving aboriginal names. #oo" !or 'altic, 6innic, Egrian as best bets, (urdish also has
signi8cant topographical presence in the N.DonticO Iranian to chec" the Hambitus theoryB.
Stra)". 7e"!rap-, ;II, ?, 8 in Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" ?, p. 207.
,ik - a river in Sc-tia, \"6% tr"(! te $an& "/ Mi%%a!ete%, &rain% int" 1e"ti&a. Hre%ent river 1an-c >It
is accepted that *hissagetes is a misspelling o! Massagetes, which is Hree" !or Masguts. In the &erodotus
time Manych was a Qowing river, and this record tells us that Masguts were located in the N.,aucasian
steppes, in addition to the Aral area. Enless, o! course, *hissagetes is a compound with something that we
do not "nowB. =er"&"t(% I; 12A.
,ik /k1U9W6 - Sc-tian kin!, %"n "/ Spar!apit, /ater "/ 7n(r, !ran&/ater "/ Anacar%i% an& Sav$i(%.
=er"&"t(% I; 76.
,i!oksai /k5[9_35W6 - e$&e%t %"n "/ Mar!itai, a pr"!enit"r "/ te Sc-tian c$an Avat. 1.I.Artam"n"v
p"inte& t" te matcin! "/ te name% Pip"k%ai - Pip - acc"r&in! t" an"ter $e!en&, 7e$"n >5n phonetical
grounds, #ip renders *ür"ic Alp R Spirit, Datron, &ost, Angel, Saint. *his revision ascends to
5.F.Maenchen&el!en and G.'.&enning, who noted a loss o! IaI !rom IalI, resulting in initial Ila9li9<.
#ipo"sai received a yo"e as a heavenly gi!t, he is a trapper. *he hunting tribe Avhat descended !orm
#ipo"sai. *he yo"e is a symbol o! entrapment and control. *he &erodotus: story about #ipo"sai being only
one able to string a heavenly bow is duplicated in the ubi$uitous *ür"ic legend about Alpamysh,
con8rming the mythological identity o! #ip and Alp. In mythological applications, Alp is a power!ul
miraculous patron. In secular usage, Alp denotes a noble descend, and in that capacity had a widespread
propagation. No Iranian etymology has been ogered !or #ipo"sai in either mythological, epical, genitor, or
secular aspects, even though as Alp Ar *ongi, #ipo"sai is prominent in the Iranian mythology as Athrosiab
and a son o! *ur, closely paralleling the &erodotus: descent o! #ipo"sai !rom *argitai. *he *ür"ic legends
continue the epic line o! the &erodotus: myths, agording #ipo"sai and Arpo"sai a position o! the Alps,
while the youngest (olo"sai is given a dei8ed position. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 20120?,
2/2B.
=er"&"t(% I; 5, 6, 1.I. Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" A.
,ohant - a caracter in te P(cian &ia$"!(e 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip8, a c"mra&e "/ / Ar%ak"m, a $ea&er "/
te Sc-tian% &(rin! teir )att$e 6it B"%p"rian%, Sarmatian% an& A$an%. H"%%i)$-, P"ant i% a !en(ine
Sc-tian name. P(cian >o! Samosata, -2N-.0 A3B 0ia$"!(e 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip.8
ladius /m3T1^W or m3T1W6 - %"n "/ Hartat(a (1a&ie% - %"n "/ Hr"t"tie%). 1a&i(% came t" p"6er a/ter a
&eat "/ Hartat(a in 65A BO, i% rei!n i% (%(a$$- a%%"ciate& 6it 228 -ear% "/ Sc-tian &"minati"n "ver
A%ia.2 =er"&"t(% I 10AR S.=.7(tn"v. Sc-tian p"rtrait% K K N"(rna$ 20M;8, N" A, 1999.
lakent - a caracter in te P(cian &ia$"!(e 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip8, c"mra&e "/ Ar%ak"m, a $ea&er "/ te
Sc-tian% &(rin! teir )att$e 6it B"%p"rian%, Sarmatian% an& A$an%. H"%%i)$-, 1akent i% a !en(ine
Sc-tian name. P(cian 0ia$"!(e 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip.8
larsaget - a )r"ter "/ te Sc-tian kin! (p"%%i)$- )r"ter "/ I&antr%). Acc"r&in! t" Ote%ia% Oni&(%,
1ar%a!et 6a% capt(re& )- te Her%ian%, t"!eter 6it "ter Sc-tian%, )e/"re te 0ari(% Sc-tian
campai!n >*r. popular 'ars R #eopard = get R gu) R tribe, in the ;m< dialect o! the ;m9b< alternation,
!airly widespread at present, but li"ely con8ned to distinct tribes in the past. A good e4ample is Mal"ar !or
'al"ar in 'al"arianB. Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. 299.
latas /m343;1W6 - ti% i% a name in a $etter 6ritten in 6A0-610 BO )- a re%i&ent "/ Bere5an Ai$$"&"r.
G(.7.;in"!ra&"v "&% an "pini"n tat te name i% "/ a Sc-tian "ri!in. Sr"m te $etter /"$$"6% tat 1ata%
6a% an "6ner "/ )(i$&in!% an& %$ave%.
G(.7.;in"!ra&"v, ;0I, 1971, N" ?, G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Bar)arian% in Hr"%"p"!rap- "/ 6t-5t cc. BO <$)ia K
0em"!rapic %it(ati"n ...
lyrgetai /m187\4356 - a Sc-tian pe"p$e, rep"rte& "n$- )- =ecate(%, an& n")"&- e$%e "/ te ancient
a(t"r%. Pat-%ev a%%(me& tat =ecatae(% mi%taken$- ca$$e& 1ir!etai te %ame pe"p$e 6" 6ere ca$$e&
Mira!ete% )- H$in-, Miran!ete% )- Ht"$em-, an& Mirr!ete% )- Stra)" >Myrgetai has a transparent *ür"ic
etymologyJ Mir R ruler = get R gu) R tribe. *iragetes were the people that gave cheese to the Hree"sB.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. 299.
'a!aris - river in Sc-tia, a tri)(tar- "/ I%ter >3anubeB. =er"&"t(% I; ?8.
'a!it - a name "/ a /"rtre%% in te Orimea, Sc-tian% )(i$t it in te 2n& c. BO.
An&reev, =i%t"r- "/ Orimea, 1., 2002.
)a! /n389W6 - river in Sc-tia. 1"&ern river Sa$ >1/.NƒN 10..ƒ%B. Ht"$em- app$ie& ti% name t" te ;"$!a.
=er"&"t(% I; 12A, 12?R P.A.>$nit%k-, p. 109.
)ior!ata /n598[3436- Sc-tian% ca$$e& te Ama5"n% (in te tran%mi%%i"n "/ =er"&"t(%) <i"rpata
>%r9ir9eir in *r. means ;man<, and pata in *r. means ;:brea"s, beats, "ills<. *he author !ails to note not only
;that the Scythian eor is remar"ably similar to the *ür"ic oyor, eyr, er man<, but that the Scythian pata is
remar"ably similar to the *ür"ic pata brea"s, beats, "ills. A chance coincidence o! the compound words
is ne4t to impossible. *hese ;Iranians< were more then remar"able, they spo"e *ür"ic as a native
language, using compound wordsB. See >"rpata. =er"&"t(% I; 110.
)ium /)yum6 - $an& in Sc-tia in 7"tic (ca$$e& Sc-tian )- N"r&ane%) $an!(a!e, N"r&ane% (%e% it a% a
name /"r etnic territ"r-. Me MQrkic Matar a% te /"rm "/ qm… 2c"mm(nit-, c"mm(ne8, /r"m 2ai&,
c"mm(na$ e$p, v"$(nteer e$p8, 4aka% ("ri!ina$$- >ni%ei 4ir!i5) - qme "r ime, /r"m 2'"int e+"rt,
t"!eter, $ea!(e&8, 6it aT@ -ty9ly it %erve% a% a tri)a$ marker. Iit -b9m a$ternati"n, te 6"r& )ec"me%
qb…9qbe9ibe an& i% ren&ere& oba, $ike in M"k%-")a "r 4ara-<)a "r 4"%-<)a "r 4($ <)a "r a m-ria& "ter
MQrkic t"p"n-mic e@amp$e%, 5baly C pe"p$e $ivin! in obaR t(% oba i% a c"!nate "/ >n!$i% habitat, i.e.
2p$ace t" $ive, native p$ace, "me$an&8, an& obaly i% "me/"$k, kin%. Me 7"tic 5ium i% i&enti*e& 6it te
%"re% "/ te A5"v Sea, 6ic in B($!arian appene& t" )e ca$$e& A$t-n <)a C 7"$&en ="me$an&
U=.I"$/ram, M.N.0(n$ap, 1990, 2=i%t"r- "/ te 7"t%8, p.?2, n. ?2V, p"p($ate& )- Sarmatian Spa$i "r Spa$ei
"/ ten-tri)e <n"!(r c"n/e&erati"n. N"r&ane% 60,15 an& 61, 1, 2Me "ri!in an& &ee&% "/ te 7"t%8
)lka.as /n:U3a3W6 - Sc-tian name. Appian, Sr"ntin(%.
)ktomasad - a %"n "/ te Sc-tian kin! Ariapit /r"m a &a(!ter "/ te Mracian kin! Mere% I (525-??8
BO). <kt"ma%a& 6a% a $ea&er "/ te c"n%pirat"r% 6" re)e$$e& a!ain%t te kin! Ski$. B- an "r&er "/
<kt"ma%a& in ?50 BO, Ski$$ 6a% ki$$e& >;Shad< in *r. is ,rown DrinceB. =er"&"t(% I; 80.
)!iya /)!oiya6 - a 6i/e "/ a Sc-tian kin! Ariapit, a Sc-tian. Se )"re te kin! a %"n <rik. A/ter a
&eat "/ Ariapit in ?70 BO %e 6a% a c"-r($er 6it te e$&e%t %"n "/ Ariapit, Ski$$, t" i% a&($t""&. Me
name <pi-a i% %"n"r"(% 6it <pi%, a =-per)"rean -"(n! 6"man 6" vi%ite& te temp$e "/ Ap"$$" at 0e$"%
>;Apa< in *r. is a !emale counterpart o! male ;Aga<. ;Apa< is ;senior, elder, senior sister, respectable
woman<. A senior wi!e would be called ;Apa< by all other wives and her husband. In a !amiliar appellation,
li"e !or an aunt or sister, ;Apa< would be added to the name, Argaapa, Shpa"oapa, etc.
A separate ethnological mar"er is the institute o! regents. Enli"e all their neighbors, and especially in
contrast with the mentality o! the Indo%uropean people, the *ür"ic people held their women in high
regard and a large degree o! e$uality. Gomen participated in decisions o! the state agairs, in the
diplomatic receptions, in the state celebrations, in the selection o! husbands, had !ull inheritance rights.
Epon a death o! a husband, and be!ore an election o! a successor, a widow was a de!ault regent, and
remained so until a maturity o! an elected successor. She could de!er the e4ecutive duties o! a regent to
her brother, usually a maternal uncle o! the young "ing, who belonged to a maternal clan or tribe, and
there!ore himsel! was not eligible !or succession. &istory le!t us a number o! names o! the reigning widow
regents, some o! them even headed an army in a time o! a war. A head o! the maternal clan %rmi was a
regent, called ;Hostun< in Nominalia, !or the young (han (urbat. In particular, the presence o! the
institute o! the widowregent serves as a best ethnological argument against Dersian9Iranian9IndoIranian
linguality o! the Scythians. Dersian9Iranian9IndoIranian traditions are incompatible with a concept o!
!emale primacy. *he *ür"ic institute o! !emale regency is a direct conse$uence o! a dualistic
maternalpaternal martial union between two con+ugal dynastic tribes, where the land, the country, the
people belong to the maternal hal!, but are ruled by a selected candidate !rom a paternal hal!B.
=er"&"t(% I; 78.
)!is - te name "/ a -"(n! =-per)"rean (Sc-tian) 6"man 6" vi%ite& Memp$e "/ Ap"$$" at 0e$"% 6it er
/ema$e /rien& Ar!a >;Apa< in *r. is a !emale counterpart o! male ;Aga<. ;Apa< is ;senior, elder, senior sister,
respectable woman<B. =er"&"t(% I; A5.
)rdess - river in Sc-tia, a tri)(tar- "/ I%ter >3anubeB >Maybe a!ter a location o! a ruler:s camp, ;horde<,
!rom ;orta< R centerB. =er"&"t(% I; ?8.
)rik /n85U9W6 - a -"(n!er %"n "/ a Sc-tian kin! Ariapit. =i% m"ter 6a% a Sc-tian <pi-a >5piya *r.
;Apa<B. =er"&"t(% I; 78.
Palak /Palakos <3:3U9W6 - Sc-tian kin!, a %"n "/ te kin! Ski$(r. .($e& "ver te Orimean Sc-tia, 6it
a capita$ in Sc-tian Neap"$i%. =e /"(!t 6it Oer%"ne% in 107 BO, 6a% ki$$e& in )att$e 6it a 1itri&ate%
;I mi$itar- c"mman&er 0i"pant(% >Dala" could be a part o! a title connected with location, in this case a
!ort Dala", !rom *r. ;baly"9bali"< a settlement, city, !ortO a less li"ely royal name etymology ascending to
homophonic ;baly"9bali"< R 8sh, li"e in %nglish beluga whale, or in Cussian loanword !or sturgeonB.
S.A.Ne)e$ev, Me $a%t Heri%a& an& te Sc-tian re)e$$i"n in te B"%p"r(%, ;0I, 19A8, N" AR <.N.Mr()acev,
Me $in!(i%tic periper- "/ te ancient S$av%. In&"-Ar-an% "n te N"rtern B$ack Sea c"a%tKHr")$em% "/
Pin!(i%tic%, N" 6, 1977, p. 17.
Palakion /<3:3U59V6 - name "/ te /"rtre%% )(i$t )- te Sc-tian% in te Orimea in te 2n& c. BO.
•n&"()te&$- te name "/ ti% /"rtre%% i% $inke& 6it te name "/ te Sc-tian kin! Ha$ak >*r. ;baly"9bali"<
is a settlement, city, !ortO both names ascend to the same word, but in spite o! Andreev, direct connection
is unli"elyB. An&reev, =i%t"r- "/ Orimea, 11-2002.
Palos /<3:9W6 - a Sc-tian c$an. 1.I.Artam"n"v $inke& te Ha$% 6it =er"&"t(% Hara$at. =e )e$ieve& tat
Ha$%-Hara$at% came /r"m A%ia, 6i$e Sc"$"t% 6ere a(t"ct"n"(% ina)itant% "/ te B$ack Sea area
>&erodotus directly states that S"olot is a general name !or a tribal union o! Avhats, (atiars, *raspies and
DaralatsO the name S"olot is recogni)ed in modern Se"lers who continued to live in 3obrud+a, an ancient
Scythian land, and in %s"els, who continued to live in N.Dontic, and in the %arly Middle Age were a
prominent tribe in the 'ulgarian con!ederationO both splinters o! the ;Scolots< are un$uestionably
recogni)ed to be *ür"iclingualO Se"lers preserved their version o! the runi!orm script to the -/th c.O now
&ungarianspea"ing, they still have heavy traces o! the substrate *ür"ic languageO a philological study o!
the preserved materials on the Se"ler language would help to illuminate the language o! the ;Scolots<.
'oth generic terms !or the Scythians, the Hree" Scyth, and Dersian Sa"a, had been etymologically lin"ed
to the generic term !or the S"olot tribal union, or the S"olot tribes, !rom the root ;S:"l<. *he etymology o!
the Dalos is anybody:s guess. Ce!. M.Ka"ievB.
0i"&"r(% Sic($(%, Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" ?, p. 250R 1.I.Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te
Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" A.
Panasagor - a %"n "/ te Sc-tian kin! Sa!i$$a. =e 6a% %ent )- i% /ater 6it a $ar!e arm- t" te ai& "/
Ama5"n%, 6en te- /"(!t 6it te 7reek% >Sagill appears to ve a transparent Sa"a = il R land, country,
where Sa"a is a !oreign derivative !rom the root ;S:"<, a la Atails, Atilla, etc. *he same root ;S:"< word
may be present in the ;sagor< part o! the son:s name, denoting the common genuine endonym !or
Scythians and Sa"a. *he su74 ;l< in the ;S:"l< is a reQection o! the *ür"ic su74 ;ly9lar;J Scythian f
Scythians, Sa"a f Sa"as. B.
N(%tin >Funianus Fustinus, 2nd century A3B, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(% 6"rk% >-st century ',B, II, ?, ;0I
p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Pantica!eum /Pantica!eum <3V45U3[^W6 - a river in Sc-tia, c"mpare Hanticape(m Strait >'lac" Sea
is *r. punty9pünte ;rich with !ood<, !rom the root bün9bun ;soup, pottage< with a *ür"ic possessive a74
th9t:9dh9d:9lh9ly. *r. "apag9"apa is ;gate8. *oponym Donti"apei historically ascends to the *r. ponty"apy
;Dont Hate<. *his city was later renamed to (erch, which is an antonym o! word Donti"apy, *r. (eresh is
;entrance< M.Ka"iev, 2002. *he river may be called by the name o! the townB.
=er"&"t(% I; ?7.
Pa!ai /Pa!ei6 - a !"& "/ te Sc-tian pante"n. =er"&"t(% c"mpare& im 6it te 7reek 9e(% >*r.
Dapai9'abai is ;grand!ather, ancestor, progenitor, primogenitor<. *he Slavic grandmother ;baba,
babush"a< ascends to the *r. word 'abai, with voiceless ;p9b<, Dapai. 5! the e4tant -@ main *ür"ic
languages, . have a voiced !orm ;babai8, @ have a voiceless !orm ;papai2J Alataic, ,huvash, and
(ha"assian. *here is no need !or gerrymandering, Dapai is a straight!orward *ür"ic word, still alive and
"ic"ing with the same meaningB.
=er"&"t(% I; 59.
Paralates - Sc-tian c$an, &e%cen&e& /r"m 4"$"k%ai, a -"(n!er %"n "/ Mar!itai. 1.I.Artam"n"v $inke&
Hara$at 6it Ha$%, rep"rte& )- 0i"&"r(% Sic($(%. 1.I.Artam"n"v )e$ieve& tat Ha$%-Hara$ate% came /r"m
A%ia, 6i$e Sc"$"t% 6ere a(t"ct"n"(% ina)itant% "/ te B$ack Sea >*r. parala R hac", !rom par R pieceO
*r. paralt R shine, to shine, ma"e shining >rendered in %nglish ;Sublime<BO because o! their homophony,
the name Daralat could have meant both meanings at the same time. Additional Qavor could have come
!rom a derivative bala R younger, son, reQecting the (olo"sai:s mythological origin o! a younger son. *he
combination o! suggested individual and collective etymologies 8ts per!ectly with the mythological
destiny. 5n top o! it, a *r. balta >voicedB R palta >voicelessB R a4e9sword9halberds lur"es along, standing
!or the heavenly a4e9sword that !ell to the (olo"sai:s destiny. *he division o! the Scythians into two
categories, pro!essional, or !ulltime warriors, and the rest, who are militia, per 3iodorus Siculus, and
contrary to M.I.Artamonov, is an economicosocial division, and has nothing to do with migrationsB.
1.I.Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" AR P.A.>$nit%ki-, Sc-tia "/ te
>(ra%ian %teppe%. - N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. 11?.
Pardokas /<38T9U3W6 - (n&er tat name in te Ari%t"pane% c"me&- (.an., 608) i% pre%ente& a
p"$iceman (sowˆfa `k‰k`fa) Sc-tian. It i% p"%%i)$e tat te name 6a% invente& )- Ari%t"pane%, "6ever,
te i%t"rian B$e&-5 n"tice& tat ti% name %"($& rea& a% ~jfqzkofl "r ~jfqzfokl. Mi% name i%
i&entica$ 6it te Patin Spartac(%.
Ari%t"pane%, .an., 608.
Partatua - $ea&er "/ te Sc-tian%, kn"6n /r"m A%%-rian %"(rce%. =e came t" p"6er a/ter a &eat "/
I%pakai in 67A BO. In 66A e '"ine& an a$$iance 6it A%%-ria, an& t""k A%%-rian prince%% a% a 6i/e. =e 6a%
a /ater "/ 1a&i(% (1a&ie%) 6" a/ter te &eat "/ Hartat(a in 65A )ecame a Sc-tian kin!.
>5n Darthi see DarthiansB
=er"&"t(% I 10AR S.=.7(tn"v. Sc-tian p"rtrait% K K N"(rna$ 20M;8, N" A, 1999.
Parthians /<38]134956 - a tri)e "/ 0aae Sc-tian%. N"r&ane% %tate% 8...UMe-V $e/t te *!tin! /"rce% "/
te tri)e, an& "n teir "6n %ett$e& in &i+erent re!i"n% "/ A%ia... H"mpe(% Mr"!(% te$$% tat /r"m te name
an& r""t "/ &e%erter% (/r"m te 7"tic 4in! Mana(5i%D arm-) came te Hartian%. Mat i% 6- t" ti% &a- in
Sc-tian te- are ca$$e& /(!itive%, i.e., te Hartian%8. Ae$i(% =er"&ian in i% e%%a- B<n te !enera$
pr"%"&-B !ive% ti% etn"n-m in te /"rm efqˆwf`ka (2Hartiat8 "r 2Hart-at8). In MQrkic ti% etn"term i%
partuaty Œ par C bar, te r""t "/ ver) baryrga 2!", ri&e8‡ tu9ti C ver)a$ n"(n aT@ ty ‡ tu = 2name,
m"niker8 ‡ y C appen&e& /"rei!n en&in!. Me "ri!ina$ /"rm "/ te etn"n-m Darthian 6a% D)art-atD "r
Dpart-atD 6it %emantic% D&iverte& tri)eD. N"r&ane% !ive% a c$"%e %emantic% 2e%capee%, &e%erter%8. 1.9akiev
eF(ate% Hartian 6it m(c $ater kn"6n MQrkic etn"n-m Har&-KBar&-. G(. 9(ev trace& 0aae a% a /"rm "/
M"kar%, $ater kn"6n in /"rm% M(%i an& 0i!"r%, a 1a%!(tK1a%%a!et tri)e
N"r&ane%, 2Me "ri!in an& &ee&% "/ te 7"t%8, 1"%c"6, 1960, p. 70.
Pata - Sc-tian 6"r& /"r 2ki$$8 /r"m te 6"r& e"rpata - t"%e 6" are ki$$in! teir (%)an&%. O"mpare /r"m
te Ave%ta pa&a - erita!e, "+%prin! >*he *ür"ic and Scythian pata is ;to "ill<, and the Avestan pada R
;heritage, ogspring< is unsuitable, but the Hermanic ;bat< as a verb and a stri"ing tool is very applicableB.
=er"&"t(% I; 110.
Pelamida - *%, !en(% t(na in te 1e"ti&a.
Stra)". 7e"!rap-, ;II, 6,2 p()$. Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" ?, p. 207.
Plin - a -"(n! man /r"m te Sc-tian r"-a$ $inea!e. A/ter e@p($%i"n /r"m te Sc-tia, e %ett$e&, 6it
Sk"$"pit, in te Oappa&"cia c"(ntr- "n te )ank% "/ te river Merm"&"nt. Mere, te- e%ta)$i%e& a tri)e "/
/ema$e Ama5"n%.
N(%tin >Funianus Fustinus, 2nd century A3B, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(% 6"rk% >-st century ',B, II, ?, 1 ;0I
p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Pontik - a tree 6"%e /r(it eat Ar!ippei%. Me 6"r& )e$"n!% t" te pe"p$e c$"%e$- a%%"ciate& 6it te
Sc-tian% >*r. punty9pünte ;rich with !ood<, nutritious, nourishing<B. =er"&"t(% I; 2A.
Porata /<983436 - a river in Sc-tia, a tri)(tar- "/ I%ter >3anubeB, m"&ern river Hr(t. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
Portmei - a Oimmerian cit-. =er"&"t(% 6r"te tat te )"r&er )et6een >(r"pe an& A%ia !"e% tr"(!
Manai%, 1e"ti&a, an& Oimmerian Oit- H"rtmei. =er"&"t(% I; ?5.
Pse.dartaki /o\1T3843U^ Psefdartaki6 - a %acre& p$ace in Sc-tia. An"ter /"rm i% •ndzfq`for,
H%en&artaki. Stepen te B-5antian. ;0I, 19?8, N" A, pp. A12.
-oZanaki /pj_3V3U^6 - a main cit- "/ te Sc-tian%-Sa"as >In the 1th c. ', Massagets9Masguts
occupied deltas around the Aral Sea, were semisedentary, lived commingled with previous ethnically
digerent population, and their archeological traces were !airly well investigated. ;Era"sy< in *r. is
;!armer<B Ote%ia%. N. 7i$m"re. Ote%ia%. Me /ra!ment% "/ te Her%ika, 1888.
Sa.lius - a Sc-tian kin!, rei!ne& in te *r%t a$/ "/ 6t c. BO. =e %(cce&e& a/ter te &eat "/ i% /ater
7n(r. =e ki$$e& i% "$&er )r"ter Anacar%i% 6en tat ret(rne& /r"m 7reece. Sav$i(% 6a% %(cce&e& )-
I&antir%, a Sc-tian kin! 6" /"(!t 6it 0ari(%. =er"&"t(% I; 76R 0i"!ene% Paerti(% >ca
1-2@2@',B, Bi"!rapie% an& teacin!% "/ /ame& in pi$"%"p-, 1, 1979.
Sa.makos /q31S3U9W6 - a Sc-tian 6" in 109 BO t""k te tr"ne "/ te B"%p"r(% kin!&"m a/ter
a%%a%%inati"n "/ te kin! Heri%a& ;. Me Savmak"% rei!n $a%te& /"r t6" -ear%, a/ter 6ic e 6a% capt(re&
an& taken t" te capita$ "/ te H"nt(% kin!&"m )- 1itri&ate% ;I c"mman&er 0i"pant(%.
S.A.Ne)e$ev. Pa%t Heri%a& an& Sc-tian re)e$$i"n in te B"%p"r(%. ;0I, 19A8, N" A.
Sagaris /;37385W6 - a t-pe "/ Saka (Sc-tian) a@ "r )att$e-a@. =er"&"t(%, &e%cri)in! te Saka% 6it
%trai!t at%, %ai& tat 2Saka%, "r Sc-tian%, a& %trai!t p"inte& at% "n teir ea&%, te- 6"re
anak%iri&% a& $"ca$ )"6%, &a!!er% an& %a!ari% )att$e-a@e%.
=er"&"t(% ;II 6?R P. 9!(%ta, Her%"nennamen ...
Sagill - a name "/ te Sc-tian kin!, t" 6"m, acc"r&in! t" a $e!en&, t(rne& te Ama5"n% /"r e$p &(rin!
teir 6ar 6it te 7reek%. M" e$p te Ama5"n%, Sa!i$$ %ent a $ar!e arm- ea&e& )- i% %"n Hana%a!"r.
N(%tin, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(% 6"rk%, II, ?, ;0I p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Sai /q3595 Saioi6 - B.N.7rak"v )e$ieve& tat Sai 6a% a %e$/-name "/ te r"-a$ Sc-tian%, &e&(cin! teir
name /r"m te Ave%tan @%a-a, t" %ine, t" &"minate. A)"(t Saie% te$$% a te@t "/ an <$)ia &ecree "n"rin!
Hr"t"!ene%J 8... an& &(rin! tat prie%t, 6en Saie% came in m($tit(&e t" receive !i/t%, )(t pe"p$e c"($& n"t
!ive tem ...8 >In *r. sai R clan, genealogical line, that is the reason this a74 show up in so many *ür"ic
names and titles. #i"e the Scythian word !or the dog, shpa"o, this notable a74 survived and is widely
used in A!ganistan and its eastern !ringes. *he etymology o! the sai mirrors that o! the name &un, which
is a generic &un R "ün R "in, i.e "indred tribes, and that !or the *ür", which generically means belonging
to a law or to an organi)ed state, and a number o! other *ür"ic ethnonyms that designate a generic
belonging to a social group. Sai may be connected with ,h. Se, the original tribe o! the Ashina *ür"s, and
with the Serica o! the Hree" sourcesB.
I<SH> I
2
N" A2. >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. - N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, pp. 11? an& 152R N.
=armatta, St(&ie% in te i%t"r- an& $an!(a!e "/ te Sarmatian%. - S5e!e&, =(n!ar-, 1970.
Saitafern /q3543r38V^W Saitafarnis6 - a kin! "/ Sc-tian% "r Saie%. Mi% name i% kn"6n /r"m a &ecree
en!rave& )- <$)ia re%i&ent% "n a mar)$e %te$e in "n"r "/ Hr"t"!en. 8... Ien te kin! Saita/ern arrive& t"
4"nkit an& &eman&e& !i/t% "n te "cca%i"n "/ i% arriva$, Hr"t"!en at te reF(e%t "/ te pe"p$e !ave ?00
!"$& ...8 >*he 8rst part may be agglutination o! Sai R tribe, clan = ta9ty R place case a74, i.e. Io! the
SaisIB. I<SH> I
2
N" A2.
Sakaia /q3U3536 - a name "/ a Sc-tian "$i&a- >Cesembles the structure o! the *ür"ic Sabantui, a
harvest celebration named a!ter the tribe Saban, which is a collo$uial name !or the tribe o!
Suvars9Savars9SibirsO Sa"aia in that case would be a celebration o! Sais, adopted as a common !estivity.
Anyway, there is no indication that Sa"a is a religious 8gure, a second possibility !or the origin o! the
holydayB.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A01
re/errin! t" te 6"rk "/ =e%-ci(%.
Sakesfaris /q3U\;r38^W6 - a Saka Sc-tian kin!, )e-"n& te river Bactr >&istoriographically, this is a
!amous etymology that on very logical grounds, and not by a random 8shing, lin"ed Scythian and
5sserian and Iranian. Abaev converts ;!aris< to ;!arn<, a ;son< in 5ssetian and a cognate o! Iranian ;son<,
and etymologi)es the word as a composite ;Sa"a:s Son<, a logical name !or a Sa"a "ing. *he rest is easy,
by a random 8shing we can reconstruct all other words o! !ormerly un"nown language. Viva the supreme
Soviet science guided by a wisest Darty led by a suprawisest genius SecretaryB.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A01,
6it re/erence t" te 6"rk "/ H"$ien.
Saka /q3U35 Sakai6 - Me Her%ian% ca$$e& )"t te A%ian an& >(r"pean Sc-tian% 2Saka%8. Aca&. N.Ga.
1arr )e$ieve& tat te 6"r& 2%ak8 mean% p"%terit-, c$an, tri)e >*here is no ;Iranian< etymology, all
attempts !ailed.
*he cognate list should include, in addition to Sa"a, Scyth, and Ish"u), the Arabic !orms Sa"aliba >pl.B and
Sa"lab >sin.B, with its *ür"ic derivatives Sa"sin >cityB and Sa"sin >provinceB, also spelled with ;$<, and
translated as Ghite Sa"a, Ibn 6adlan applied AsSa"alib to the 'ulgars, the Dersianised S"un"a and
Hreci)ed S"illur. In the Arabic sources, Sa"aliba stands !or (ipcha"s, as a cal$ue o! their name ;(uu
,ha"9Sa"< R Ghite Sa". directly lin"ing Scythians, Sa"a, and (ipcha"s and 'ulgars. In the (ha)ar state,
ca AA0-0N0 A3, the Sa"sin province e4tended !orm Itil to 3on, and Sa"sin city, also "nown as
Sa"sin'ulgar and Sarai 'atu >1.ƒN 1Aƒ%B, was located on the Itil river, encompassing the Scythia o! the
,lassical Deriod. *he Arabic sources directly lin" the Dersian Sa"a, Hree" Scythians, Arabic
Sa"lab9Sa"aliba with the *ür"ic (ipcha"s9'ulgars.
In *ur"ological studies, both Sa"a and Scyth, and possibly the Ish"u) are derived !rom the root s:" > :
stopguttural consonant, analogous to ;o< in 'olgar and to ;u< in 'ulgar, in 'ulgar ,yrillic it is rendered
with voiceless stopguttural ;ˆ<B, with attributive >possessionB a!!i4 ly9dy>thyB9ly‰9ty‰ >in the
*ür"oSogdian coins it has the !orm d" >de"B or l" >le"BO dy>thyB is reQected in the Hree" and Assyrian
!orms rendered as th and ) respectively.
*he s:" could stand !or *r. s"i9es"e9esh"e9ysh"y R "ni!e > M.Ka"ievB, or something o! which we may never
learn, because our dictionaries o! 5ld *ür"ic start !rom the Islamic period, and most terms associated with
the ancient *engrian religion were already purged !rom the literary le4icon, or were omitted as
sacrilegious ;heathen< words. It is accepted that ;Sa"a< is a !orm o! ;Sogd<, in *r. sogdy is an ad+ective
;strong, potent, healthy<, and is a popular name. Gith the s:" as the root accepted by most *ur"ologists,
the name S"olot also belongs to the list o! cognates, its *r. morphology is S:" = l = t R S:" = ly = ty, l9ly
is a possessive a74, t9ta is plural a74, a"in to Angelinos !rom Angeles >#os AngelesB, i.e. S"olot is not a
royal status term, but a straight!orward ethnic termO S"olots were Sa"a and Scythians, the others were
not, and in the sources the others were called not with ethnic, but with a generali)ed names as ;generic
Sa"a, Scythians<.
Numerous *ür"ic dialects in the Altai area have a native term usually rendered ;seo"< in ,yrillic
transcription, literally meaning ;bone<, but used as an appellation applied as ;ethnic group, clan, tribe,
posterity line, subtribe<. In the conte4t o! the *ür"ic milieu in the Altai area, which served as a re!uge
area !or many splinter groups,;seo"< depicts a distinct group within an administrative politonymJ ;(ipcha"
seo" o! South Altaians<, ;(umandy >(umanB seo" o! Northern Altaians<, and the li"e. Semantically, ;seo"<
is synonymous with the appellation ;o"< literally meaning ;bone< and used as an appellation also applied
as ;ethnic group, clan, tribe, posterity line, subtribe<, and usually translated ;tribe<. A third synonym is
;gu)< >5gu) branchB with dialectal !orms ;gur9gar< >5gur branchB and ;u)9gut9goth9get< and the li"e. *he
prosthetic consonant in anlaut indicates the 5gur linguistic branch. And the !ourth nearsynonym is the
term ;&un<, literally meaning ;"in, "indred< and applied with ethnic determinantJ in the written sources
all or nearly all ancient *ür"ic tribes >*ür"s, (ir"uns, Agacheri, 5no", *abgach, ,omans, \omuts, *uhses,
(uyan, Sybu", #an, (ut, Ho"lan, 5rpan, Eshin and othersB carried the name I&unsI. Indisputably, the word
;seo"< with the root ;s:"< is the best match !or the root s:" !ound in the ancient Sa"a, Scyth, Ish"u), and
in the later %s"el, %segel, %seg, %)gil, As"al, Is"il, I)gil, \s"yly, Se"el, Se"ler, S)e"ler, S)e"ely, S)e"elye"s,
Sa"ha, and more. *he widespread distribution o! the ethnonym ;S:"< corroborates that the !orm ;seo"< is
a reQe4 o! the !orm ;S:"<, it was a universal generic term !or a division within a communityB.
=er"&"t(% I 15AR N.Ga.1arr, Se$ecte& I"rk%, ;"$ 5, e%%a- 2Me term 2Sc-t8, 1., 19A5R >$nit%k- P.A.,
Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. 9A.
Sakyndaki /q3U1VT3U^6 - a t-pe "/ Sc-tian c$"tin! >&esychius: borrowing !rom Middle %astern
languages is a possibility, given the Middle %astern appealtion !or the ScythinsB.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A05
6it re/erence t" te 6"rk "/ =e%-ci(%.
Sandaksatra /Shadakshatra6 - %"n "/ te Oimmerian $ea&er 0(!&amme (Pi!&ami%). =i% name i%
menti"ne& in te A%%-rian c(nei/"rm &"c(ment% in c"nnecti"n 6it te event% in A%ia 1in"r.
>$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. - N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. 27R P. P. 9!(%ta. 0ie Her%"nennamen
!rieci%cer Sta&te &er n"r&$i%cer S6ar5meerk(n%te. Hraa, 1955.
Sanerg /q3V\87\W6 - a name !iven in I<SH>, I;, p. 290. >$nit%k- P.A. )e$ieve% tat ti% i% a Sc-tian name
>Cesembles the name o! the Masgut "ing Sanesan, who was also a "ing o! the &uns and Albans, ca 100
A3. Masguts, who were antecedent and maybe ancestral to Alans, were characteri)ed as Scythians.
Sanesan is etymology)ed as *r. 2storming<, !rom Senesen B.
>$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977.
Sane.n - acc"r&in! t" te 5t c. BO 6riter =e$$anik "/ 1iti$en, Sanevn 6a% a Sc-tian kin!, an& in i% time
6a% pr"&(ce& a *r%t ir"n 6eap"n. 1an- ancient 6riter% $inke& te pr"&(cti"n "/ te *r%t ir"n ")'ect% 6it
Oa$-)e%, 6ic 6ere inc"rrect$- c"n%i&ere& t" )e Sc-tian% >Cesembles the name o! the Masgut "ing
Sanesan. *he earliest instrumental dating o! iron weapon is a dagger in Ar+an2 "urgan, with "urgan
latest date o! .-0 ', >.?N ', mean dateB, so it too" 1 centuries !or the iron weapons to tric"le to the
Middle %ast. As to ,halybes, we "now the (oban ,ulture with symbiosis o! local Northern ,aucasians and
Scythians, who could be simultaneously termed Scythians and nonScythians. It is well "nown that
innovations are disseminated, not reinventedB.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. A15.
Sa!erdis /q3[\8T^W6 - a name /"r >a type o!pB *% in Sc-tia.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. 29A
6it re/erence t" te 6"rk "/ =e%-ci(%.
Sara.ara Sara"ara /q383a3836 - %" a c"me&- 6riter "/ te *r%t a$/ "/ te ?t c. BO Anti/an ca$$e& te
Sc-tian pant%. In i% c"me&- 2Me Sc-tian%8 e p"inte& "(t tat 2ever-)"&- i% &re%%e& in tr"(%er% an&
t(nic%. Beca(%e te 7reek% &i& n"t kn"6 pant%, 6e can a%%(me tat Anti/an (%e& a Sc-tian 6"r& t"
&e%cri)e %(c c$"tin! >Saravar9sharovar is a staple o! Middle Asian clothing, both among Sarts9*ad+u"s
and *ür"s. *he migrants li"e Cussians, E"rainians etc. have not adopted these pants as customary
clothing. *he word is habitually attributed to the Dersians, who did not wear pants at all be!ore they
adopted Scythian innovationsB. Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. A19.
Sari /Sariakos6 - a Sc-tian kin! %"(t "/ 0an()e. In te 2n& c. BO e minte& c"in% 6it i% name in
7reek citie% M"m an& <&e%% >Sary is a popular *ür"ic ethnonym, ;pale yellow<, and is used in numerous
ethnonyms li"e Sary Eigurs, Sary (ipcha"s, etc. *here was also a perennial *ür"ic tradition o! including
the name o! the clan or tribe as a part o! the titlename. li"e Sibir(han, 5gu)(han etc. *he multiple
insignia o! digerent *hracian principalities with nonScythian religious and agricultural symbology points
to autonomous sedentary *hracian mints stri"ing in the name o! su)erainB.
2Saria+os< 3"A4SI SA5I ca ,)' "! *ing of Scythia
"ow and "owJcase "onnet helmet with horseJtail
crest/siZJ!ointed star
grain ear and clu"
M. B$avat%k-. 7reek% an& Sc-tian% in te Ie%t B$ack Sea re!i"n. ;0I, 19?8, N" 1.
Satrakis /q3483U^W6 - Sc-tian kin!, 6" $ive& N"rt "/ S"!&iana.
A)aev ;.I., Sc-tian-Sarmatian &ia$ect% K S"(n&ati"n% "/ Iranian Pin!(i%tic%. ;"$.1, 1"%c"6, 1979, p. A09
6it re/erence t" te 6"rk "/ Arrian >o! Nicomedia, ca ?2ca -/N A3B
Silis - Sc-tian name /"r te S-r 0ar-a - Gak%art. H$in- te >$&er 6r"teJ 8...ti% re!i"n, )"(n&e& a% it i% )-
te river Na@arte%, )- te Sc-tian% kn"6n a% te Si$i%, an& )- A$e@an&er an& i% "Tcer% %(pp"%e& t" ave
)een te Manai%8 (H$in- 6.18 (16), Ž•Ž H$in- 6.?9.A) H$in- 6.18 (16)R S"$in(% Umi&-tir& cent(r- O>V ?9.5
S. 4am"$i&&in in i% 6"rk BAncient MQrkic M"p"n-m% </ Me 1i&&$e A%iaBJ
...$"6er 6aterc"(r%e in te Ara$ area, in antiF(it- it a& te name Sir, 6ic %()%eF(ent$- 6a%
tran%/erre& t" te 6"$e river U1(r5aev, 1957, p. 25AV. S"r te *r%t time te name Sir i%
menti"ne& in te ?t cent(r- BO ancient ."man %"(rce% in te /"rm Silis U7"r)(n"va, 1976, p.
27R 4$-a%t"rn-, 196?, p. 75-76V. Me Oine%e %"(rce% menti"ne& ti% name in te /"rm
Si-er-e, i. e. te river Sir. Me name Sir i% a &erivative /r"m te Saka 6"r& sir, 6ic mean%
„„p$enti/($…„, „„in(n&atin! river…„ U1(r5aev, 1957, p. 25AR 1i$eev, 1961, p. 80R 4$-a%t"rn-, 1961,
p. 26V, "r /r"m MQrkic „„)en& "/ te river8. Me 6"r& sir can )e /"rme& /r"m te >*ür"icB ver) sir
„„6a% "(t„„, „„t" make a trace…„, c"nnecte& 6it te r""t ir "r irim. (1(r5aev, 198?, p. 2A5). Me
name Sir c"($& a$%" )e c"nnecte& 6it te MQrkic etn"n-m Sir, rec"r&e& in te M"n-(k(k
m"n(ment U1a$"v, 1951, p. 65, 70R 1(%aev, 198?, p. 192V an& in te pre-I%$amic 4"re%mian
c"in% U1(amma&i, 2000, p. 9?V. Me tri)e% Sir an& *ardush 6ere a part "/ te *ele
c"n/e&erati"n, 6ic /"rme& a/ter &i%inte!rati"n "/ te =(nni% empire, an& in te 6t cent(r-
te- 6ere "ne "/ te m"%t p"6er/($ tri)e% in te >a%t M(rke%tan U="&'aev, 200?, p. 7. 19, 20R
=('aev, 2001, 2A-6.V. Me $an!(a!e "/ te Sir tri)e )e$"n!e& t" te „„n"rtern„„ ancient MQrkic
$an!(a!e, 6ere in te Sir &ia$ect are 6ritten m"re tan 200 m"n(ment% "/ te ancient MQrkic
r(ni/"rm 6ritin!… U4$-a%t"rn-, 200?, p. ?5-?6V. Me "ri!in "/ te name Sir9Sil i% a$%" $inke& 6it
te ancient MQrkic 6"r& sel9selem, 6ic 6a% pre%erve& in te O(va% $an!(a!e 6it a
meanin! „„pear$(%)8 UO=.S, p. A57R S"ni-"5"v, 1990, 22-2AV >,huvash sel9selem allows to
suggest that Sa"a Scythian was an 5gur wordB.
Sirgis /&irgis6 - a river in Sc-tia, a tri)(tar- "/ 0"n. =er"&"t(% I; 57, 12A
Ske.lyas Ske"lyas /qU\a:13W6 - (n&er tat name in "ne "/ te Ari%t"pane% c"me&ie% i% %"6n a
Sc-tian p"$iceman (sowˆfa `k‰k`fa). Mi% name c"($& )e invente& )- Ari%t"pane%, )(t te name "/
an"ter Sc-tian p"$iceman efqzkofl i% a &i%t"rti"n "/ te Mracian name ~jfqzkokl (Spart"k).
Ari%t"pane%, .an., 608.
Skulis /qU1:^W Gr. dog6 - a %"n an& eir "/ te Sc-tian kin! Ariapit. In ?70 BO a/ter te &eat "/
Ariapit Sk($i% )ecame a kin! "/ Sc-tia. Ski$$ %pent =e$$en"pi$ p"$ic-. e 6a% ki$$e& in ?50 BO )-
c"n%pirat"r% $e& )- i% )r"ter <kt"ma%a&.
=er"&"t(% I; 80, G(.7.;in"!ra&"v. Si!net rin! "/ kin! Ski$. H"$itica$ an& &-na%tic i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in
te *r%t a$/ "/ ;. BO K K SA, 1980, N" A.
Skileia - a name "/ te Ama5"n% %"6n "n a %k-p"% "/ a ma%ter O$-tie (570 BO). Ski$eia i% a /ema$e /"rm
"/ te name Ski$. M6" "ter Ama5"n% &epicte& "n ti% va%e ave name% Me$epi$e-a an& I*t".
1.;.Skr'in%ka-a. =er"e% "/ Oimmerian an& Sc-tian $e!en&%, ;0I, 1986, N" ?, p. 8?.
Skilur /Skiluros qU5:9189W6 - a kin! "/ Sc-tia 1in"r. In 108 BO e /"(n&e& in te Orimea a Sc-tian
Neap"$i%. Acc"r&in! t" a $e!en&, e %ire& 80 ci$&ren. =e an&e& "ver p"6er t" i% e$&e%t %"n Ha$ak.
Stra)", 7e"!r., ;II, ?, A.
Scythics - a t-pe "/ %"e%, ti% 6"r& 6a% pre%erve& in te 6"rk% "/ Pici(%, an Attic "rat"r "/ te 5t-?t
cc. BO an& in te p"etr- "/ A$cae(%J 8... an& avin! tie& Sc-tic% ....2
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. A01.
Skithins /qU1]5V9W Skythinos6 - te pe"p$e 6" $ive& in te %"(t-ea%tern c"rner "/ te B$ack Sea,
a&'acent t" Oa$-)e%. A)"(t tem rep"rte& :en"p"n in te )""k Ana)., I;, 7, 18.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. A08.
'omadic Scythians /qU1]35 V9S3T\W6 - "ter6i%e te >(r"pean Sc-tian%, 6" at te =er"&"t(% time
$ive& in te %teppe% )et6een te 0"n an& 0nieper. Sc-tian n"ma&% a& &"mini"n "ver a$$ "ter
Sc-tian%. ;%.S. 1i$$er 6a% a *r%t t" p"int "(t a !enetic re$ati"n%ip )et6een te term% 2Sc-tian%8 an&
2Saka%8. Me >discredited long agoB aca&. N.Ga.1arr a% %"6n tat in Napetic $an!(a!e% te )a%e 2%ak8
nat(ra$$- t(rn% in"t a )a%e 2%k(2J %ak %ak-(-ta sfo-w-ˆf sow-ˆf sowˆfa. Sc-tian% In =er"&"t(% time% te
7reek% ca$$e& )"t >(r"pean an& A%ian n"ma&% Sc-tian%.
=er"&"t(% I; 1-7R N.Ga.1arr, Se$ecte& I"rk%, ;"$ 5, in te e%%a- 2Me term 2Sc-t8, 1"%c"6, 19A5.
ScythiansJ-us /qU1]3W 491W pjW6 - ti% etn"n-m i% re/erre& t" in a %c"$i(m c"mpi$e& )- te
B-5antine 6riter Memi%tie% /"r te Ari%t"t$e >@.1@22 ',B c"mp"%iti"n 2<n te %k-.8 2Ie p$ace te mi&&$e
%pace )et6een te Arctic 5"ne, c$"%e t" te N"rt H"$e, an& te tr"pica$ %(mmer 5"ne, 6it te
Sc-tian%-."% an& "ter =-per)"rean pe"p$e% $ivin! c$"%er t" te /ri!i& 5"ne ...8. Pat-%ev F("te% ti%
pa%%a!e in te c"$$ecte& 6"rk% "/ Ari%t"t$e, p()$i%e& )- te Ber$in Aca&em- "/ Science% in 18A6
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. AA2.
Skolo!it /Scolo!itus6 - Sc-tian -"(t "/ r"-a$ $inea!e. Pe!en& re$ate% tat prince% Sk"$"pit an& H$in
6ere e@pe$$e& /r"m teir "me$an&, a/ter 6ic t"!eter 6it Sc-tian% /"$$"6in! tem te- %ett$e& near
te river Merm"&"nt in A%ia 1in"r. Mere te- )ecame ance%t"r% "/ te tri)e "/ Ama5"n%. Me name
Sk"$"pit (n&"()te&$- i% $inke& t" te tri)a$ name "/ te Sc-tian% - Sk"$"t%.
N(%tin, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(% 6"rk%, II, ?, 1 ;0I p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Skolot - =er"&"t(% rep"rt% tat te tri)e% "/ Avat%, 4atiar%, Mra%pi an& Hara$at are c"$$ective$- ca$$e&
Sk"$"t%.
1.I.Artam"n"v, =i%t"r- "/ te Sc-tian% in S"viet %cience, ;0I, 19?7, N" AR N.Ga.1arr, Se$ecte& I"rk%, ;"$
5, in te e%%a- 2Me term 2Sc-t8, 1., 19A5.
Sko!asis - a $ea&er "/ "ne "/ te mi$itar- (nit% "/ te Sc-tian%, 6" /"(!t 6it 0ari(% I. Me Sk"pa%i%
arm- inc$(&e& Sa(r"mate%. =e c"n&(cte& ne!"tiati"n% 6it te I"nian 7reek% /r"m te )ri&!e "ver I%ter.
=er"&"t(% I; 120, 128.
Skunh /SkunZa6 - $ea&er "/ te Saka% "r 1a%%a!etae >MasgutsB. Ia% taken a pri%"ner )- te Her%ian kin!
0ari(% I. Be%(t(n in%cripti"n %a-%J 2I r"(te& "ne part "/ te Sc-tian%, an& capt(re& an"ter part. Meir
$ea&er )- te name Sk(na 6a% capt(re& an& )r"(!t t" me ....2
Bei%t(n in%cripti"n "/ 4in! 0ari(% I.
S!arga!is /q[3873[5;^W6 - a %"n "/ 1a%%a!etae >MasgutB €(een M"miri% >Queen *omiris is one o! the
!emale heads o! state or regents unheard o! in the Iranian and Indo%uropean worldB. O"mmitte& %(ici&e
a/ter )ein! taken pri%"ner )- te Her%ian kin! O-r(% te 7reat. =er"&"t(% I 211, 21A.
S!arga!ith /q[3873[\5]^W6 - a /"(n&er "/ te &-na%t- "/ te Sc-tian kin!%, !reat-!ran&/ater "/
Anacar%i%. A)"(t im rep"rte& =er"&"t(% (I; 76). Mere 6a% an"ter Spar!apit, a kin! "/ >*ür"icB
A!at-r%, /r"m 6"%e an&% in ?70 BO 6a% ki$$e& a Sc-tian kin! Ariapit. =er"&"t(% I; 76, 78.
S!u - in Sc-tian mean% 2e-e. S" =er"&"t(% e@p$ain% te name "/ te tri)e Arima%pi a% "ne-e-e& >6rom
;arym< *r. hal!, ;spu< *r. eye, Arimaspu is ;&al!%yed<, i.e. ;S$uinted%yed<. %anglish also has in
addition to ;s$uinteyed<, derisive ;coc"eyed<, and ;crosseyed<, and ;s"eweyed<, and ;walleyed<, and
probably more. It is a clear re!erence to Mongoloid people. *his is a component o! the two "nown Scythian
compound words that directly testi!y about the Scythian language, bypassing any guesswor"
constructions o! the linguistic scholarsB.
=er"&"t(% I; 27R Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. A07.
Ta"iti - 7"&&e%% "/ te Sc-tian pante"n. =er"&"t(% c"mpare% er 6it te 7reek !"&&e%% =e%tia
>Dossibly a distortion o! the *ür"ic %bi9%be, one giving birth, a precursor o! %ve, and a per!ect complement
to *r. biblical ;adam< manB. =er"&"t(% I; 59.
Tagi - Sc-tian 6"r& /"r 2trea&8R c"inci&e% 6it te %ame MQrkic 6"r&. Me MQrkic c"!nate 2te$(8
2)"6%trin!, t" %tretc8, /r"m Hr"t"-A$taic 2•te$(8 2)"6%trin!, t" %tretc8, 7erman 20rat8 X 2wire<. Me
Hr"t"-A$taic, 6ic appene& t" )e e@act$- te %ame a% MQrkic, i% %" /ar te "n$- $an!(a!e 6ere te 6"r&
can )e et-m"$"!i5e&, 6ic e@c$(&e% a$$ )rance% "/ In&"->(r"pean an& M(n!(%tic /ami$ie%. Me >(ra%iatic
%prea& "/ te 6"r& i% ama5in!J J >n!$i% 2trea&8, 7erman 20rat8, 1"n!"$ian 2te$e8, ="tan 2tti$a8, Ne6
Her%ian 2te$8, 4(r&i% 2te$8, <%%etian 2te$8, 4a$ka 2te$e8, B(r-at 2te$Qr8, 4a$m-k 2te$-8, >venk 2te$)e-8,
Napane%e 2t(r(Kt%(r‘8, etc. (0-)" A.;., ,hronology o! *ür"ic languages and linguistic contacts o! early
*ür"s, 1"%c"6, 2007, p. 806R 1i5i-ev I.1. &istory o! (arachai'al"ar people !rom ancient times to
anne4ation by CussiaKK1in!i-Ma( (>$)r(%), 199?, n". 1 (Nan’Se)), Na$cik, 1in!i-Ma( H()$i%in!, 199?, pp.
7’10?, 206’21AB
Taksakis /s3_3U5W6 - a $ea&er "/ "ne "/ te tree Sc-tian tri)e% tat participate& in te 6ar 6it 0ari(%
>Ceminiscent o! *u"hsi and *o"soba, two o! many similar appellatives !or the *ochars, including
::5ssetian< 3igor, that are spread over %rasia and over 2 millenniaB. =er"&"t(% I; 120.
Tanais /s3V35W6 - a river in Sc-tia, at te pre%ent time te 0"n .iver >In *r. ;cold, icy< river, li"e ;don
durma< R icecream, and icy *anais. A direct word is *ür"ic ;ten< R ;large river<. 'oth etymologies are
viable, but it should be noted that &erodotus called *anais ;icy river<, probably he "new something the
modern Iranists don:tO the Iranian ;don< R ;river<, cited in ScythoIranian etymologies, is an oddball in
the Iranian languages, and suggests a loanword !rom *ür"ic, where it is a common wordB. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
Tanai - a $ea&er "/ te Sc-tian% &(rin! teir e@pe&iti"n t" >!-pt in 6AA BO. Acc"r&in! t" H"mpe- Mr"!(%,
te >!-ptian Hara" H%ammetic I, appri%e& a)"(t te e@pe&iti"n "/ te Sc-tian%, met tem in S-ria
6it !i/t%, an& per%(a&e& tem t" a)an&"n teir campai!n >*he su74 ;ai< in the name *anai may serve
as an e4ample !or parsing other Scythian names that end on ;ai<, but allow other possible parsings. *he
*r. su74 ;ai< is a !ormant !or personal appellation denoting respect, analogous to !ormants
;aga9aba9aby<, and later ;bei9be"9"han< etc., and the Fapanese ;san<. %4amples o! the ;ai< words
are atai !rom ata R !ather, babai and Dapai !rom baba and papa !or grand!ather9ancestor, and a slew o!
proper names. %tymologically, at least one o! meanings o! the name *anai may ascend to the *r. tan R
;large river<B.
N(%tin, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(% 6"rk%, I, /"r te ;0I p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2, p. 181R =er"&"t(% I, 105.
Tanus /Tanusas6 - a Sc-tian kin!. In 2n& c. BO e minte& c"in% in te 0")r(&'a >3obrud+a was a land o!
Se"lers, whose location and name points to their descent !rom the S"olot Scythians. *hat is corroborated
by the Se"lers: standalone mentality, they survived !or 2 millennia as a coherent sel!contained ethnical
unit, analogous to many other dynastic tribesJ Ases, %astern &uns, Eigurs, 3ulo &uns, Ashina *ür"s, Avars,
(ayis, (angars, (irgi)es, 3+alairs, ,hingi)ids. *he sel!esteem, !ol"loric "nowledge o! their !ormer
e4clusivity, and ingrained "nowledge o! their blueblood descent helped the dynastic tribes to survive
intact longer throughout the *ür"ic history then the less prominent *ür"ic tribes. Apparently, their survival
was helped by the other *ür"ic tribes, which were respecting Se"ler pedigree, and de!erred to their
dynastic rights, a trait that parallels situation with every other dynastic line. 5! all the %uropean *ür"ic
tribes, Se"lers were the only tribe that carried their distinct literacy into the Modern Age. Another !actor in
the Se"ler e4clusive longevity may have been the *ür"ic rigid rule o! e4ogamy, which made the union o!
Se"lers and their martial partners biologically and culturally sel!contained. *he tradition o! strict e4ogamy
was noted by ancient geographers and historians as a trait o! some e4clusive *ür"ic tribes, who did not
mi4 with the surrounding population, preserving their biological and cultural distinction. *he name *anus
may reQect the location o! the *anus Scythians along the 3anube, ascending to the *r. tan R ;large river<B.
M.;.B$avat%k-, 7reek% an& Sc-tian% in te Ie%t B$ack Sea, ;0I, 19?8, N" 1R =armatta, St(&ie% in te
i%t"r- an& $an!(a!e "/ te Sarmatian%, 1970, p. 22.
Tarandos /s383VT9W Gr. reindeer6 - a creat(re $ike a &eer /r"m te %kin% "/ 6ic te Sc-tian% %e6e&
c$"te%, rep"rte& )- =e%-ci(% an& Hi$" N(&ea >*he ,hinese accounts give the same news about the early
Asian &unsB. Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" ?, p. 270.
Targitai /s3875439W6 - a m-tica$ /"(n&er "/ te Sc-tian tri)e%. Acc"r&in! t" te $e!en&, &e%cri)e& )-
=er"&"t(%, Mar!itai 6a% a =erc($e%D %"n /r"m a %nake-$e!!e& !"&&e%%, a &a(!ter "/ te river B"r-%tene%.
Me Sc-tian% c"ntemp"rar- 6it =er"&"t(% )e$ieve& tat Mar!itai $ive& e@act$- "ne t"(%an& -ear% )e/"re
te 0ari(% inva%i"n >Enli"e the Iranian ;etymologies< that search !or distant phonetic resemblances
among do)ens I% languages, and announce a victory irrespective o! semantical meaning, the *ür"ic
correspondences many times are obvious. Ge have two >2 B *ür"ic prominent evidences called *argitai,
both !rom the historical period. *he 8rst is *argutai o! the ;Sacred #egend<, a head o! the *orgut tribe o!
the (eraits during ,hingi)"han time, the other is a toponym *argitui in the 'ai"al area. 'oth are
connected with the *ür"ic people. *here is nothing mysterious about the mythical !ounder o! the Scythian
tribes, the *ür"ic !ol"lore preserved do)ens o! cases when an origin o! a tribe is attributed to a legendary
pra!ather, the best "nown o! which is 5gu)(han, modeled a!ter the %astern &unnic leader Mode. *he
*argutai story not only neatly !alls among other *ür"ic progenitor myths, but leads us !urther up and down
the ladder. *he *orgut tribe is associated with the *ür"uts o! the 6irst *ür"ic (aganate, and its etymology
is straight!orward *ür" in pluralJ *ür"s. *he su74 ;ai< is a !ormant o! respect, used !or personal names,
the tribal name is *ür"ut, its leader is called *ür"utai. *he presence o! the *ür"s in the N.Dontic was
documented during the ,lassical DeriodJ Domponius Mela, Dliny the %lderO the presence o! the ;*:r<
ethnonyms and toponyms in the Mediterranean area in the pre,lassical Deriod in particular, and o! the
*ür"ic words in general is ubi$uitous. *his also applies to the etymology o! the name *argitaiJ more then
one suggestion has been proposed, without independent corroboration they all are purely speculative,
individual +udgments which ones are more li"ely are entirely sub+ective and a specter o! reasonable
possibilities is $uite wide. *he best alternative seems to be *r. ;targi< with semantics o! ;creator,
primogenitor<. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. .2, -?.20A.
Since *argitai was a Scythian, we should e4pect his parents to be Scythians too. *he &erodotus: second
origin myth ma"es *argitai a son o! &eracles who was searching !or his horses. Ge have two versions o!
the name &eracles, the Hree" &eracles, and the %truscan &ercle. In *r. "er…"l… means search, and "er
means to string >a bowB, which &eracles did be!ore giving the bow to *argitai. *he ama)ing phonetical and
semantical coincidence con8rms that &eracles was originally a *ür"ic hero, common !or %truscans and
Scythians, and adopted by %gyptians and Hree"s. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p. 2.0, and
M.Ka"ievB. =er"&"t(% I; 5, 7.
Teftamos /s\143S9W Teutamos6 - a Sc-tian name tat appear% in Ote%ia%.
Te.tar - a name "/ a Sc-tian 6", acc"r&in! t" te 7reek m-t, ta(!t =erac$e% t" %""t /r"m a
Sc-tian )"6.
Pat-%ev, 6it re/erence t" =er"&"r =erac$eian. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. 29A.
Teush!a /Teus!a6 - Oimmerian kin!. Me(%pa in 668 /"(n&e& te Acaemeni& &-na%t- in Her%ia. =e 6a%
marrie& t" a &a(!ter "/ a Sc-tian kin! I%pakai - Spak"R "/ teir marria!e 6a% )"rn te /(t(re kin! "/
te Her%ian%, O-r(% I. =e 6a% &e/eate& )- te A%%-rian kin! >%ara&&"n 6it a e$p "/ te Sc-tian
mercenarie% $e& )- Hartat(a.
=er"&"t(% I 110, ;II 11R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, pp. 27R >. 1"$ev.
7reek% an& )ar)arian%, 1., 200A, p. A0.
Tiarant - a river in Sc-tia, a tri)(tar- "/ I%ter (0an()e), n"6 te river A$t. Acc"r&in! t" =er"&"t(%,
Miarant r(n% tr"(! te Sc-tian $an&. =er"&"t(% I; ?8.
Timn /s1SV^W6 - a repre%entative "/ te Sc-tian kin! in <$)ia. e met 6it =er"&"t(% &(rin! i% trave$%
in Sc-tia in te ??9-??6 BO. It 6a% preci%e$- Mimn 6" c"($& !ive =er"&"t(% man- &etai$% a)"(t te
Sc-tian%, teir 6ar 6it te Her%ian%, an& teir c(%t"m%. It i% p"%%i)$e tat Mimn "/ =er"&"t(% 6a% a
4a$$ipi& "r A$i5"n.
=er"&"t(% I; 76, ; A7R >. 1"$ev. 7reek% an& )ar)arian%, 1., 200A, p. 82R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te
>(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. 1A8.
Tiragets - a Sc-tian tri)e% tat $ive& "n te %"re% "/ I%ter (0an()e). A)"(t Mira!et% 6r"te H$in- (I;, 12,
2?). Ht"$em- (III, 10) ca$$e& tem Miran!et%, Stra)" (;II, ?71) - Mirre!et%. =ecatae(% menti"n% 1ir!et%.
Pat-%ev c"n%i&ere& te name Mira!et% t" )e err"ne"(% >'ut it is *iraspol that is le!t to us, not *iranspol,
*irrespol, or Mirspol, and the river was *iras, not *irans, *irres, or Mirs. *he name o! the river, and then o!
the Hree"s who lived on that river, li"ely ascend to the name o! the *ira tribeO a 8rm association o! the
locality and the name o! the tribe may point to its preScythian descendency, associated with the
preScythian ,immeriansO that is corroborated by the !act that *iragetes did not belong to the core o! the
Scythian tribes. %tymologically, *iraget R *ira >tribeB = get R gu) R tribe. *he name *ira undoubtedly can
be speculatively etymologi)ed !rom many languages, there is no constructive use to suggest any speci8c
speculative etymology. In the literature, *uras were lin"ed with other ;*r:s< in the vicinity, including
*yrrhenian Sea and %truscans In the literature on %truscans, the ;*r:s< root o! the endonym is lin"ed with
;*r< in *ür"s, with no consensus about the originB.
Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 1, p. 299.
Tiras /s183W6 - a river in Sc-tia, at te pre%ent time te river 0nie%ter >the river *iras, which was li"ely
named a!ter the *ira tribeB. =er"&"t(% I; ?7.
Tirits - mi@e& =e$$ene%, 6" $ive& in Sc-tia near te m"(t "/ te river Mira% (0nie%ter) >Hree" colonists
in the vicinity o! the river *iras, which was li"ely named a!ter the *ira tribeB. =er"&"t(% I; 51.
Toksakis /s9U;3U5;6 - Sc-tian c"mman&er 6" a$"n! 6it Sk"pa%i% (n&er kin! I&antir%"% $e& a *!t
in 51? BO a!ain%t te Her%ian%. M"k%aki% an& Sk"pa%i% $e& a '"ine& arm- "/ te Sc-tian%, Sa(r"matian%,
B"(&in% an& 7e$"n% >*o"sa" appears as a tribederived name, li"e those thyat were popular in the &unnic
and *ür"ic titlesJ *ohsi9*uhsi = Sa"a, i.e. *ochar o! Sa"a. A!ter their de!eat by the &un:s Mode in ca. -/0
',, *uhsi9*ochar retreated to (angar, and a!ter a generation retreated !urther to the Aral area o!
&ore)mia, !rom where a!ter another generation they assaulted and too" control o! 'actriana. A part o! the
*uhsi that stayed in the &ore)m were recorded as staying in the vicinity o! the ,aspian Sea !or another
millennia, they are "nown !rom the Slav Cus annals as *o"soba, around Mangushla" as 3ügers, in the
N.,aucasus as 3igors, and are a modern clan among *ur"men, all around the ,aspian Sea. 6rom the
overall migrations, it appears that the *uhsi:s ancestral lands were in the northern ranges o! the ,aspian
area, where they were members o! the N.Dontic Scythians. In the 1th@rd cc. ', they sub+ugated the
eastern &unsB.
=er"&"t(% I; 76, 120, 126, 127, N(%tin >Funianus Fustinus, 2nd century A3B, >pit"me "/ H"mpe- Mr"!(%
6"rk% >-st century ',B, II, ?, 8 ;0I p()$icati"n, 195?, N" 2.
Toksamis /s9_3S5W6 - ti% name, a$"n! 6it te name 4imeri"% (oaxnqakl) 6a% impre%%e& "n a 570 BO
ceramic va%e (crater SranY"i%). 1.;.Skr'in%ka-a )e$ieve& tat te arti%t p"rtra-e& per%"na!e% "/ te
Sc-tian m-t%, 6e$$ kn"6n t" te 7reek% in te 6t c. BO >*he name *o"sam is much reminiscent o!
*u"hsi and *o"soba, two o! many similar appellatives !or the *ochars, including ::5ssetian< 3igor, that are
spread over %urasia and over 2 millenniaB.
B.N.7rak"v, 1ateria$% ..., N" 10?R 1.;.Skr'in%ka-a. =er"e% "/ Oimmerian an& Sc-tian $e!en&%, ;0I, 1986,
N" ?, p. 8?.
Toksarid - a name "/ a Sc-tian in te P(cian &ia$"!(e "/ 2M"k%ari& "r /rien&%ip8 >Name reminiscent o! a
prominent *ür"ic tribe *u"hsi and their land *o"soba, a"a *ocharsB.
P(cian. O"$$. "/ 6"rk% in t6" v"$(me%, 1"%c"6, Penin!ra&, 19A5, v"$. 1.
Toksaris - a Sc-tian 6" $ive& in 7reece /"r $"n! time. =e )ecame /am"(% tere a% te !reat ea$er an&
%a!e. 0(rin! a p$a!(e, M"k%ari% a&vi%e& te Atenian% \(% te %treet 6it %"(r 6ine, 6ic %ave&
Atenian% /r"m te epi&emic. S"r tat, te 7reek% )e%t"6e& "n im a tit$e "/ er", an& a/ter i% &eat
in%ta$$e& an ")e$i%k "n i% !rave >(inda implies that he was not buried in accordance with Scythian rituals,
e$uipped !or a travel and under "urgan. In respect to the deceased, this is a crime way worse then a
,hristian dying without ,hristian rites to go to hell because o! that, !or the deceased will linger in this
world and harass the living. *he name *o"saris appear to be the same word ascending to the prominent
*ür"ic tribe *u"hsi and their land *o"soba, a"a *ocharsB.
;.Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!% "/ ...8, ;0I, 19?8, N" 1, p. 299R P(cian. O"$$. "/ 6"rk% in t6" v"$(me%, 1"%c"6,
Penin!ra&, 19A5, v"$. 1, &ia$"!(e% 2Sc-t "r !(e%t8,2Sc-t "r /rien& in a /"rei!n $an&8.
Trers Trars /s8^8\W s838\W6 - a Oimmerian tri)e. Stra)" in/"rm% a)"(t a Mrer $ea&er 4")"% (oc}kl).
P.A.>$nit%ki- %(!!e%t% a !enetic re$ati"n%ip "/ Mrer%, Sc-tian%, an& Mra%pi-Mracian% >*he same
observation noted M.Ka"iev, that there is a suspicious li"eness and unsettled sonority in the cluster *hrac,
*rer, *yr, *ra, all containing ;*r<. *o that number should be added %*rus"ans, *yrrhenians and the
collection o! Indian names !or the ancient sB.
Stra)., 7e"!r., I, A, 12R >$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. - N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, p. ?7-?8R >.
1"$ev. 7reek% an& )ar)arian%, 1., 200A, p. A?.
Fagimasad .Thagimasad, 6agimasad/- a !"& "/ r"-a$ Sc-tian%. =er"&"t(% c"rre$ate% im 6it te
7reek H"%ei&"n >G.Cadlog demonstrated a !ull analogy o! the Hree" Doseidon racing on the seas in a
chariot pulled by longmane horses with a *ür"ic god o! seas and rivers patrolling his possessions on white
and grey horses. %tymologically, the name *agimasad gives two *ür"ic homophonous semanticsJ
-. *agimasad R *agi = mas9bash = ad R herd = heading = horse R heading a herd o! horses, or R mount
= heading = horse R heading riding horses
2. *agimasad R *agi = mas9bash = ad R multitude = heading = river
*he word *agimasad could simultaneously carry both meanings, and still some more. 6rom a raster o!
modern *ür"ic e$uivalents one o! the closest is Sarta"pai in the Altai, whose etymology is very closeJ >SBar
= ta" = pai R watermoisture = herd9mount9multitude = #ord >baiB. *he root ;tag< is the same in both
Scythian and Altai !orms, !unctionally Sarta"pai is a patron o! rivers, he scores their course, +oins them,
brea"s through the mountains, and creates dams !or the la"es. *he magic attributes are identical
between the *ür"ic legends and Hree" mythology, they are horses and trident. *hough the $uestion o!
who borrowed !rom whom may remain open, the connection between the Scythian *agimasad, Hree"
Doseidon, and *ür"ic Sarta"pai with variations is obvious. In the Middle Asia, the *agimasad9Doseidon is
called 3i"anbaba and 3i"anata, where 3i" R *agi in *agimasad, with semantics ;to plant, to sow<O an R
is either su74 or a contraction o! "han in di" = "hanO and baba R Scythian Dapai R god, primogenitor, the
!unctionally synonymous ata is !ather. *he 3i"an R sower, !armer is suspiciously close to the landed
aristocracy o! the Middle Asia, the di"hans, a term habitually attributed to the Dersian origin, but it is
derived !rom the *ür"ic root ;di"9ti"< R to plant, to sow. In the Come, Doseidon trans!ormed into Neptune,
who retained Doseidon:s attributes, and was a patron o! mounted elite. In the sense ;mount, riding horse<,
the word ;tagi< was used in the Sher+ere >NominaliaB o! the 'u"garian (hans to designate the \ear o!
&orse, which !or some time pu))led a number o! researchers. In that, we can discern the Scythian le4icon
in the 'ulgarian. *he etymological bottom line is that *agimasad is ruling land and water, herds o! cattle,
is a !ather o! horses, he sows seeds and harvests grains. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, pp. @@?@1AB
=er"&"t(% I;, 59.
&aras! /Charas!es6 - a Sc-tian kin! in 0")r(&'a, )e-"n& te 0an()e. =ara%p in te 2n& c. BO minte&
c"in% in te 7reek citie% M"m an& <&e%% >3obrud+a is the historical land o! Se"lersB.
M.;.B$avat%k-, 7reek% an& Sc-tian% in te Ie%t B$ack Sea, ;0I, 19?8, N" 1.
Chorsari /Dhorsari6 - a Sc-tian name /"r Her%ian% >*hat is a most marvelous notation in the
ScythoIranian scheme o! things, a"in !or an Italian name !or Italians, Herman name !or Hermans, and
'ritish name !or 'rits. Is there an e4onym !or 'rits in 'ritainp I! not, how comep *he Iranianspea"ing
Scythians were so much more advanced compared with the today:s 'rits that they have something the
'rits could not come up with, a !oreign name !or themselvespB. H$in-.
Sh!ako - a %i%ter "/ I%pakai. B"t name% c"me /r"m a Sc-tian 6"r& %pak" - a &"! >In *r. dog R "ope",
close enough, particularly considering the h9s alternation s f h f ". Apparently, the s f h f " split
happened be!ore the /th c. ',. In the Darthian, dog is sabah, close enough, which also points to the 5gur
3aha9*ochar origin o! the Scythian word !or dog. In 5gu) pronunciation dog R "ope", and the 5gur would
have dog R sope" ] shope". In 5ssetic the dog is "uyd), Dersian, *a+i" sag, (ashmiri hunu, Armenian
shun, A!ghan, &indi "utta, 'ulgarian "uche, Ga)iri spai >close enoughB, %astern Slavic soba"a >close
enoughB. *rubachev e4cluded the Iranian origin o! the %astern Slavic ;soba"a<, and stated a *ür"ic
borrowing, since all other Slavs have the name ;pes< k*rubachev, Slavic names !or domesticated animals,
Moscow, -?A?, p. 2? onl. *he etymology o! the word dog should consider the aggregate body o! evidence,
which une$uivocally points to a dialect belonging to the *ür"ic linguistic !amily, but should not e4clude
borrowing or limited local use. *he presence in the Scythian realm o! many digerent languages is a !act
certi8ed by the contemporary writers, and ethnically digerent admi4tures and constituents undoubtedly
accumulated within the Gestern and %astern *umber Hrave cultures during centuries o! their separation
>&erodotus 1.21, Strabo -.2.2/, Domponius Mela 2.?B. In the !ollowing centuries, in the Scythian territory
transpired areas populated by *ür"ic, Egro6innic, Herman, 'altoSlavic, ,aucasus, ,eltic, and Iranian
linguistic groups, but the only group documented to carry the (urgan ,ulture burial tradition into
historically modern world were the *ür"ic people, and the Hermanic nobility.
*he Scythians !rom Asia belonged to the %astern *imber Hrave ,ulture, and comprised o! the tribes listed
as Arpo"sai:s descendentsJ (atiars, Avhats, *raspians, and the Daralats the descendents o! (olo"sai, all
under a group ethnonym S"olots, and with a distinct language which &erodotus called ;Scythian<.
*he Scythians !rom %urope belonged to the Gestern *imber Hrave ,ulture, and comprised the tribes
listed as Scythians, but with distinctions that made them special ScythiansJ ,immerians, Agathyrs,
'udins, Iyr"s >*r. generic ;nomad<B, *aurs >*r. generic ;mounaineer<B, *raspi*ruc"s*hracians, *yras,
3aha9*ochars >Strabo 2...2B, Neures, MelanhlensMelanchlaeni >Hr. 'lac" Mantle, ethnological ScythiansB,
Sauromats, Alli)ones. A separate subcategory o! that group encompassed a mi4 o! the Gestern and
%astern *imber Hrave cultures in the area immediately east o! the ,aspianJ MassagetesMasguts, Alans,
Aorsi >Awars9AvarsB, Siraci >Seres, Serica, ,h. Se, ancestors o! Ashina *ür"sB, ,horasmians, (halibs o!
(ol"heti >in Apollonius o! Chodes ;Argonautica<B.
A third category are the tribes that are pointedly not ScythiansJ &ellenes, Helons, (allipides, Isters,
AndrophagsAnthropophagi >Hr. Man %atersB, Argippaeans,, MelanhlensMelanchlaeni >Hr. 'lac" Mantle,
ethnological nonScythiansB. Gith all the gold dug up in the Scythian cemeteries, the paucity o! the
osteological studies is remar"able. Apparently, the archeological gold diggers +ust discarded the worthless
bones, and they lay reburied under rubble o! the destroyed "urgan. A !ew precious arti!acts that survived
in the @rd and 1th c. ', monuments o! 'osporus, and in the images on a gorit !rom the Solo"ha "urgan,
demonstrate the physiognomic composition o! the Scythians with a notable degree o! Mongoloidness.
Ironically, the Mongoloidness o! the dead is used as an argument !or the authenticity o! the Scythian
contents o! the Hree" inscriptions, !or the Iranianlingual etymology o! the names >Vs.Müller, V.Abaev,
M.Vasmer, F.&armatta, #.KgustaB, and o! the evidence !or a strong inQuence o! the Mongolic or *uranian
blood among the Scythians. In matinee circus shows, they herald such tric"s as hocuspocus no 2. 6or our
purposes, the presence o! the Mongoloid and ,aucasoid remains indicates a comple4 composition o! the
remains, and points to a possibility that a part o! the indigenous Scythian le4icon may be a borrowing
!rom their ethnically diverse constituentsB.
Spak" 6a% a 6i/e "/ te Oimmerian kin! Me(%pa, /r"m teir marria!e 6a% )"rn te ne@t kin! "/ te
Her%ian%, O-r(% I >Dapa *eushpa is Scythian, mama Shpa"o is Scythian, only poor me is a !ullblooded
Dersian, or at least a "ing o! the Dersians. *he "ingship apparently did not e4tend to the improvement o!
the Dersian language, which retained sag !or the dog, instead o! spa"oB.
>$nit%k- P.A., Sc-tia "/ te >(ra%ian %teppe%. N"v"%i)ir%k, 1977, /""tn"te "n pa!e 27.
&a"ei - name "/ te /"rtre%% )(i$t )- te Sc-tian% in te Orimea in te 2n& c. BO
A. An&reev. =i%t"r- "/ Orimea, 1S-2002
Eor!ata /n598[3436 - te Sc-tian% ca$$e& te Ama5"n% 2>"rpata8. 2Sc-tian% ca$$e& te Ama5"n%
2e"rpata8, 6ic in =e$$enic mean% man-ki$$er%, 2e"r8 in /act mean% a man, an& 2pata8 mean% t" ki$$8
>%r9ireir in !act means in *r. ;man<, and pata in *r. means ;:brea"s, beats, "ills<. *he author !ails to note
not only ;that the Scythian eor is remar"ably similar to the *ür"ic oyor, eyr, er man<, but that the
Scythian pata is identical to the *ür"ic pata brea"s, beats, "ills. A chance coincidence o! the compound
words is statistically ne4t to impossible. *hese ;Iranians< were more then remar"able, they spo"e *ür"ic
as their native language, with composite wordsB. =er"&"t(% I; 110.
Eor - man, (%)an& in Sc-tian /r"m te 6"r& e"rpata - t"%e 6" are ki$$in! teir (%)an&%.. Me e@pert%
n"te tat te Sc-tian e"r i% remarka)$- %imi$ar t" te MQrkic "-"r, e-r, er ’ man. =er"&"t(% I; 110.
&i!!aka /i!!aka6 - a name "/ cee%e man(/act(re& )- te Sc-tian% /r"m mareD% mi$k >,onnection with
mare is via hippa9hippos, Hr. !or horse, !rom *r. +aby9yabu, +upa4, is evidentB.
=ipp"crate%, 20i%ea%e%8 in Pat-%ev. 2Hr"cee&in!%...8, ;0I, 19?7, N" 2, p. 298.
Eksam!ey /e_3S[359W6 - an area in Sc-tia )et6een te river% B"r-%tene% >3nieperB an& =-pani%
>Southern 'ugB. Mere 6a% a %"(rce "/ )itter 6ater. Me name "/ te %"(rce in te Sc-tian i% >k%ampei,
an& in te =e$$enic $an!(a!e - Sacre& Hat%. =er"&"t(% I; 52, 81.
Enareis /\V38\\W6 - Sc-tian &iviner%, e+eminate men. Me- 6ere &ivinin! (%in! 6i$$"6 "+%""t% an&
$in&en %p"n!e. =er"&"t(% %pec($ate& tat enarei% 6ere &e%cen&ant% "/ t"%e Sc-tian% 6" c"mmitte&
)$a%pem-, p$(n&erin! te Apr"&ite •rania %anct(ar- in S-ria. Me 7"&&e%% p(ni% tem /"r ever,
in\ictin! a /ema$e ai$ment >*r. ene >en…B R ;mar", score, ma"e a notch< = r, a su74 on nontransitive
verb, enar R notched, i.e. gelded, emasculated. A per!ect match. Ce!. K.Hasanov ;Coyal Scythians<, p.
@1/@1.B. =er"&"t(% I 105, I; 67.
Eminak /eS5V3U9W6 - ti% name i% rea& "n <$)ian %i$ver c"in% &ate& )- ??0 BO.
H.<. 4ar-%k"v%k-, I1MA, N" ?, 1962R >. 1"$ev. 7reek% an& )ar)arian%, 1. 200A, p. 8A.
Eliy - ti% name i% "n te c"in% minte& )- Sc-tian kin!% in Sc-tia %"(t "/ 0an()e, in te 2n& c. BO
0")r(&'a >*r. %l9Il R ;land, country, possession<, thus ;possessor<O 3obrud+a is the historical land o!
Se"lersB.
M.;.B$avat%k-, 7reek% an& Sc-tian% in te 6e%t B$ack Sea, ;0I, 19?8, N" 1
%yn - in Sc-tian an& M(rk mean% 26""$8 (1i5i-ev I.1. &istory o! (arachai'al"ar people !rom ancient
times to anne4ation by CussiaKK1in!i-Ma( (>$)r(%), 199?, n". 1 (Nan’Se)), Na$cik, 1in!i-Ma( H()$i%in!,
199?, pp. 7’10?, 206’21AB
%sh Ish - Sc-tian ver) 2/ree5e8. Me 6"r& 6it te %ame meanin! i% in 4aracai-Ba$kar an& "ter M(rk
$an!(a!e%J G% (1i5i-ev I.1. &istory o! (arachai'al"ar people !rom ancient times to anne4ation by
CussiaKK1in!i-Ma( (>$)r(%), 199?, n". 1 (Nan’Se)), Na$cik, 1in!i-Ma( H()$i%in!, 199?, pp. 7’10?, 206’21AB.
re/ J ttpJKK%1552A9215."n$ine"me.(%Kt(rkicK27LSc-tian%KSc-tianI"r&Pi%tS"(rce%>n.tm
A)aevD% *able o!
,ontents
A)aevD% Scythian
language
A)aevD% Scythian
Gord #ist
.ea$ Sc-tian I"r&
Pi%t
A)aevD% Kelenchu"
Inscription
Alphabetical Index
Abaris..................................................1
Aelis.....................................................N
Agar.....................................................N
Agathyrs..............................................N
A"ina"..................................................N
A"rosa..................................................A
Ali)ons................................................./
Amado"................................................
Amurgion..............................................
Anacharsis............................................
Ana"sirida.............................................
Anta"ei.................................................
Antir.....................................................?
Api.......................................................?
Arar......................................................?
Ara4.....................................................?
Ares...................................................-0
Arga.....................................................?
Argimpasa...........................................?
Argot>esB..............................................?
Arhyppei..............................................?
Ariant.................................................-0
Ariapeith............................................-0
Arima.................................................-0
Arimaspoi...........................................--
Arima)...............................................--
Arimoi................................................--
Aristagoras........................................--
Ari4....................................................-2
Arpo"sai.............................................-2
Arsa"om.............................................-2
Assaioi...............................................-@
As4i9Aschi..........................................-@
Ateus.................................................-@
Avhatai >^S‡wzw_B................................1
'oo"olabra.........................................-@
'orusthenes.......................................-@
'orysthenes.......................................-@
'orysthenetai....................................-@
'udin.................................................-1
'utir...................................................-1
,annabis............................................-?
,arthasis............................................-?
,aucasus...........................................-1
,roucasis...........................................-1
3ai4...................................................-A
3anapr...............................................-/
3itulas...............................................-/
3ugdamme........................................-/
%"sampey..........................................@1
%liy.....................................................@N
%mina"...............................................@N
%nareis...............................................@1
%or.....................................................@1
%orpata..............................................@1
%vtimahos..........................................-.
Helon..............................................-1p.
Helons................................................-N
Hilea..................................................-A
Hnur...................................................-1
Hoytosir.............................................-N
&abei.................................................@1
&arasp...............................................@@
&err...................................................-N
&erros................................................-A
&errs..................................................-A
&ipa"iris.............................................-A
&ippa"a.............................................@1
&ypanis..............................................-A
&yreanian Sea...................................-A
Idantemis...........................................-.
Idanthirsos.........................................-.
Igdampayis........................................-.
Ishpa"ai.............................................-.
(anita................................................-?
(ararves.............................................-?
(argalu".............................................-?
(atiars...............................................-?
(horsari.............................................@@
(obos.................................................20
(olanda"............................................20
(olo"sai.............................................20
(olos..................................................20
#i"......................................................20
#ipo"sai..............................................2-
#ohant...............................................2-
Madius...............................................2-
Ma"ent...............................................2-
Marsaget............................................2-
Matas.................................................2-
Myrgetai.............................................2-
Naparis..............................................2-
Napit..................................................2-
5ap....................................................2-
5iorpata.............................................2-
5ium..................................................22
5"tomasad........................................22
5l"avas..............................................22
5pis...................................................22
5piya.................................................22
5rdess...............................................22
Dala"..................................................22
Dala"ion.............................................2@
Dalos..................................................2@
Danasagor..........................................2@
Danticapeum......................................2@
Dapai..................................................2@
Daralates............................................2@
Dardo"as............................................21
Dartatua.............................................21
Darthians............................................21
Data...................................................21
Delamida............................................21
Dlin.....................................................21
Donti".................................................21
Dorata................................................21
Dortmei..............................................21
Dsevdarta"i........................................21
Co4ana"i............................................2N
Sagaris...............................................2N
Sagill..................................................2N
Sai.....................................................2N
Saita!ern............................................2N
Sa"a...................................................2A
Sa"aia................................................2N
Sa"es!aris..........................................2N
Sa"ynda"i..........................................2/
Sanda"satra.......................................2/
Sanerg...............................................2/
Sanevn...............................................2/
Saperdis.............................................2/
Saravara............................................2/
Sari....................................................2/
Satra"is..............................................2.
Savlius...............................................2N
Savma"os..........................................2N
Scythians...........................................2.
Scythics.............................................2.
Shpa"o...............................................@@
Silis....................................................2.
Sirgis..................................................2.
S"evlyas............................................2.
S"ileia................................................2.
S"ilur.................................................2.
S"ithins..............................................2.
S"olopit..............................................2?
S"olot.................................................2?
S"opasis.............................................2?
S"ulis.................................................2.
S"unh................................................2?
Spargapis...........................................2?
Spargapith.........................................2?
Spu....................................................2?
*abiti..................................................2?
*agi....................................................2?
*a"sa"is.............................................@0
*anai..................................................@0
*anais................................................@0
*anus.................................................@0
*arandos............................................@0
*argitai...............................................@0
*e!tamos............................................@-
*eushpa.............................................@-
*evtar.................................................@-
*hagimasad.......................................@@
*iarant...............................................@-
*imn..................................................@-
*iragets..............................................@-
*iras...................................................@2
*o"sa"is.............................................@2
*o"samis............................................@2
*o"sarid.............................................@2
*o"saris..............................................@2
*rers, *rars.........................................@2
\sh, Ish..............................................@N
\yn....................................................@N
Karina................................................-.
^ywŠa_.................................................N
Scythians" Sa#a" Sar$ats and Ci$$erians
M" tr"6 Sc-tian%, Saka, Sarmat% an& Oimmerian% in a %in!$e pi$e i% &ea& 6r"n! an& i% &"ne "(t "/
nece%%it-, )eca(%e %" m(c "/ materia$ c"ncern% m"re tan "ne !r"(p. Me Sc-tian%, "/ c"(r%e, are a $iterar-
n(c$e(%, )etter kn"6n )- ancient i%t"rian% an& te m"&ern %c"$ar% a$ike. ="6ever, eac "ne a% it% "6n
"ri!in, it% "6n i%t"r-, it% "6n %tate%, an& it% "6n /ate, an& &e%erve% it% "6n i%t"ri"!rap-.
General Ethnogra!hy
Sc-tian >tnic AT$iati"n
N.(isamov >tnic aT$iati"n "/ te Sc-t"-Sarmatian%
Sc-t"-Si)erian 7enetic%
Mir!aty"h K. Ka"iev >tnic .""t% "/ te Matar He"p$e
(.#aipanov, I.Mi)iev <ri!in "/ te MQrkic pe"p$e%
Iikipe&ia - Scythia
Iikipe&ia - ScythoIranian*heory
Mir!aty"h K. Ka"iev >tnic .""t% "/ te Matar He"p$e
#eonid *. \ablons"y B(ria$ p$ace "/ a 1a%%a!etan
6arri"r
‹. ŒYX•YWUT V Ž. •V•VZT “ ”•–—^˜–™š›œ——
]•••^•—˜ œŽ•–š–ž
Sc-tian Iarri"r% an& Arcer%
Iikipe&ia - Scythia
,inguistical as!ects *iological as!ects
Sc-tian >tnic AT$iati"n
>t-m"$"!- "/ A$an, A%, an& <%%ete
Mir!aty"h K. Ka"iev >tnic .""t% "/ te Matar He"p$e
Kaur Hasanov Sc-tian H"etr-
7.0remin Sc-tian I"r& Pi%t /r"m te S"(rce%
0remin 7. A)aevD% Sc-tian ="a@
>.1ik$"% 1e&e% an& Sc-tian%
4i%am"v N. M(rkic %()%trate in >n!$i%
;.I.A)aevD% )""k a% a /"(n&ati"n "/ te
Sc-tian-Iranian te"r- ()i-$in!(a$)
;.I.A)aev 5ssetian #anguage and 6ol"lore Ma)$e "/
O"ntent% ()i-$in!(a$)
;.I.A)aevD% &e*niti"n "/ te Sc-tian $an!(a!e
()i-$in!(a$)
;.I.A)aevD% Sc-tian I"r& Pi%t ()i-$in!(a$)
;.I.A)aevD% Kelenchu" Inscription ()i-$in!(a$)
P.9!(%ta <$& <%%etic In%cripti"n /r"m .iver 9e$enc(k -
(.evie6)
Iikipe&ia - ScythoIranian*heory
felenchuk Inscri!tion
Sc-t"-Iranian -p"te%i%
;.I.A)aevD% Kelenchu" Inscription ()i-$in!(a$)
P.9!(%ta <$& <%%etic In%cripti"n /r"m .iver
9e$enc(k (.evie6) (>n!$i%)
Ga.S.;a!ap"vD% 9e$enc(k In%cripti"n ;ainak
.ea&in! (in P.9!(%ta p. ?2 "n)
A.9.4a/"evD% 9e$enc(k In%cripti"n A&-! .ea&in!
(in P.9!(%ta p. ?6 "n)
1.4(&aevD% 9e$enc(k In%cripti"n Ba$kar .ea&in!
(in Ba$kar)
1.4(&aevD% 9e$enc(k In%cripti"n Ba$kar .ea&in!
(in >n!$i%)
Oiki%eva M. Anthropological digerentiation in S.G.
Siberian population
A.4$-"%"v MQrkic 0NA !enea$"!-
A.4$-"%"v Me A .D% in .1 =ap$"!r"(p
A.4$-"%"v .1) 0NA =i%t"r-
Oentra$ A%ian%D mt0NA 7enetic% 1? - 1 cc. BO CŸ
50I.>(ra%ian, ?A >.>(ra%ian, 7In&ian
Sarmatian mt0NA 6 c. BO-2 c. A0 CŸ 1 I.>(ra%ian, 1
M(rkic mama%, papa% $ater
Ha5-r-k mt0NA 7enetic% ?-2 c. BO CŸ Ha$e"-Si)irian
an& A$taian mama%
1"&ern MQrk% "/ Ha5-r-k 0e%cent CŸ N. A$taian%,
Me$e(t%, S"r%
>a%tern =(n 7enetic% A c. BO CŸ M(rki% mama% an&
papa%
>a%tern =(n mt0NA 7enetic% 5 an& 1cc. BO CŸ 1K2
H"rt(!e%e 1K2 M(rkic mama%
Sc-t"-Si)erian mt0NA !enetic% A$tai 5t cc. BO CŸ
Ha$e"-Si)irian an& A%iatic
>tr(%can% 7enetic St(&- 7 t" 2 cc BO CŸ ?5 MQrkic,
A5 Ba%F(e, an& 20 N A/rican
<%%etian 7enetic% CŸ0i!"rian% X A&-!%, Ir"nian% X
7e"r!ian%, 6it mama% 12-A1 X Her%ian%
H-%ica$ antr"p"$"!- /r"m =(n% t" pre%ent Iti$ B($!ar%
Sc-tian% 7 c. BO
#eonid *. \ablons"y B(ria$ p$ace "/ a 1a%%a!etan
6arri"r 8-7 c. BO
5ra)a" Ismagulov An&r"n"v", B"n5e A!e, Saka, •%(n%
an& MQrkic pe"p$e
Orani"$"!- An& =i%t"r- - B- O.S.O""n
O"r&e& O($t(re - A$taic .""t% - B- O.S.O""n
>tnic AT$iati"n Sc-tian%
4i%am"v N. 4a-i ¡ 7e$"n%
Classical Scythian tri"es Sarmats
Akat-r%- - A!ac-eri
I%k(5a - A%-!(5e% - A5-eri - A5eri
1a%%a!et% - 1a%!(t%
Sarmat S-n"p%i%
#eonid *. \ablons"y Ha$e"antr"p"$"!- "/ S"(tern
•ra$% p"p($ati"n in Pate Sarmat time
%.A. Smagulov <ri!in "/ Ancient Oac Si-av(%
0-na%t-
Sarmatian mt0NA 6 c. BO-2 c. A0 CŸ 1 I.>(ra%ian, 1
M(rkic mama%, papa% $ater