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The Blood of the New Testament

Wine or Grape Juice?


"And as they were eating, Jesus took read, and lessed it, and roke it, and
ga!e it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat" this is my ody# And he took the
cup, and ga!e thanks and ga!e it to them, saying, $rink ye all of it" for this is
my lood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of
sins# But % say unto you, % will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the !ine,
until that day when % drink it new with you in my &ather's kingdom( )*atthew
+,-+,.+/0#
The partaking of the 1ord's 2upper is an important part of the faith of
the New Testament 3hurch# 4owe!er, there are 5uestions concerning what
e!erage was in the cup# Was the symol Jesus used for 4is lood wine or
grape 6uice? Whate!er Jesus used as the symol was identical with that which
the Jews in that age used in oser!ance of the 7asso!er# %n oser!ance of the
7asso!er, the Jews were commanded to put away all lea!en out of their
houses )89odus :+-:;0# %t has een said that fermented wine could not e
used at 7asso!er ecause it contains lea!en and lea!en is foridden# Because
no lea!en was to e used is the !ery cause wine 24<=1$ e used#
Grape 6uice is full of lea!en and is what causes fermentation#
&ermentation is the process y which all lea!en is purged out of the grape
6uice# That which causes fermentation in wine is the yeast cells which collect
naturally on the skins of the grapes, and is comparale or e5ual to lea!en#
1ea!en is foreign to the nature of wine# &ermentation is ut the latent energy
of the 6uice nature to throw this lea!en o>, where it settles to the ottom of
the !essel as the dregs so as to lea!e the wine pure and clear, ?tted to drink
as a symol of the 2a!iour's pure lood#
1ea!en was foridden in all o>erings to the 1ord y ?re )1e!iticus
+-::" ,-:@0# 4owe!er the drink o>ering which was poured out o!er the ?re
was 2TA<NG W%N8 )Numers +/-@" :;-;, @, :B" $euteronomy C+-C/0# This
strong wine like all wine, used after fermentation, was drawn o> or separated
from the dregs so that not e!en the dead lea!en killed in the fermentation
process was poured out on the sacri?ces# 2o, any lea!en that was in the
original unfermented grape 6uice ne!er came upon the sacri?ces# Therefore
according to Bilical de?nition, wine $<82 N<T contain lea!en# Dittel's
Theological $ictionary of the New Testament )DT$NT0, !olume ;, page :,+
states-
"W%N8 is speci?cally mentioned as an integral part of the 7asso!er meal no
earlier than Juilees EF-,, ut there can e no dout that it was in use long
efore#"
DittelGs T$NT, !olume C, page @C+, @CC reports-
"The Jewish 7asso!er of the time, according to Jewish sources, especially 7es#
:B and features of the Jewish rite con?rmed y the NT, the course of the
7asso!er at this period was as follows- The meal was to take place on the
e!ening of the :Eth Nisan in Jerusalem# At least :B persons had normally to
e present# When the meal has een prepared, those participating took their
places at the tale# The head of the house opened the feast with two
lessings, ?rst for the festi!al and then of the W%N8- Blessed e Thou,
Hahweh our God, Ding of the world, who hast created the &A=%T <& T48 I%N8#"
The %nternational 2tandard Bile 8ncyclopedia, !olume :, page :,; states-
"<ther details in the synoptics characteriJe the 2upper as a 7asso!er- it was
a lengthy and well prepared meal" it took place at night" the disciples reclined
at the tale )*ark :E-:/0 and drank W%N8" the whole meal closed with an act
of praise#"
4asting's $ictionary of the Bile, !olume C, page :E/-
"3hrist took the two simplest and most uni!ersal representati!es of
sustaining food, read that strengtheneth man's heart, and W%N8 that maketh
glad the heart of man, and employed them as the uni!ersal representati!es
of spiritual foods, of his ody roken and his lood poured out# 4is loyal
followers ha!e from the ?rst retained these#"
Alfred 8dersheim, The Temple- %ts *inistry and 2er!ices, states-
KThe use of W%N8 in the 7aschal 2upper, though not mentioned in the 1aw,
was strictly en6oined y tradition# According to the Jerusalem Talmud, it was
intended to e9press %sraelGs 6oy on the 7aschal night, and e!en the poorest
must ha!e Lat least four cups, though he were to recei!e the money for it
from the poorGs o9G )7es# 9# :0#(
The 7asso!er was not held in the season for grape 6uice to e fresh# There
was no way of keeping the 6uices from fermenting# 7asteuriJation, the
process used today to keep 6uices from fermenting, was not used until :/,F#
2ome ha!e een misinformed y Bile commentaries which tell of an
"ancient custom" of storing grape 6uice under streams and in deep wells for
thirty days to keep it from fermenting# This recipe comes from 3ato the 8lder
)+CE M :EF B#3#0, $e Agri 3ultura :+B-: which states-
K%f you wish to keep grape 6uice NmustumO through the whole year, put the
grape 6uice NmustumO in an amphora, seal the stopper with pitch, and sink in
the pond# Take it out after thirty days" it will remain sweet the whole year#(
&irst of all it is not clear how reliale 3atoGs recipes are# 3ato claimed that
caage was the cure.all for septic wounds, cancer, and other diseases# 3ato
also stated that the cure for any dislocation was to split a green reed down
the middle, let two men hold it to the hip and recite a chant# 2econdly,
N<T4%NG in 3atoGs recipe indicated preser!ing wine in an unfermented state#
The end result was that the 6uice would Kremain 2W88T#( This is referring to
the taste of the 6uice, not that it would remain unfermented# This is
con?rmed y 3olumella )c# A#$# ;B0, $e re Austica :+-+F-: which states-
KThat must may continue always sweet, as if it were new, manage it thus-
Before the husks of the grapes are put under the press, take the freshest
must out of the wine.!at, and put it into a new amphora, and dau it, and
pitch it carefully, that no water at all may enter into it" then sink the whole
amphora into a pool of cold and fresh water, so that no part of it may stand
out of it" then, after forty days, take it out of the pone, thus it will continue
sweet a whole year#(
Notice that N<T4%NG in this recipe indicates preser!ing wine in an
unfermented state# 3olumellaGs statement of KA2 %& it were new( actually
indicates that he e9pected the 6uice to ferment# Again, this recipe was simply
to keep the 6uice Ksweet( as opposed to sour )like !inegar0#
4asting's $ictionary page F@E, article Wine and 2trong $rink says-
"%t maye stated at this point that N< TAA382 can e found, among the
hundreds of references to the preparation and use of wine in the *ishna, of
any means employed to preser!e wine in the unfermented state# %t is e!en
%*7A<BAB18 that with the means at their disposal the Jews could ha!e so
preser!ed it had they wished )cf# 7rofessor *acallaster's statement as to the
L%*7<22%B%1THG <& =N&8A*8NT8$ W%N8 at this period in 4astings' $B ii,
CE0#"
4asting's $ictionary of the Bile, !olume +, page CE states-
"When acti!e fermentation is in progress these skins ecome some
distended, and are liale to urst# This is especially liale to occur with new
skins of young animals ###The preser!ation of wine $%$ N<T mean keeping it
from fermentation, .for, with the total asence of antiseptic precautions ###it
would ha!e een %*7<22%B18 to do so#"
*ississippi 2tate =ni!ersity, 3ollege of Agriculture and 4ome 8conomics
states-
"There is no temperature short of &A88P%NG that will completely stop
fermentation# Grape 6uice can e stored at +/ degrees and will still ferment#"
1et's e honest# There are no streams or wells in the *iddle 8ast that get
colder than +/o&# Therefore the 7asso!er cup could not ha!e contained
anything ut fermented wine# %f there was no such custom of preser!ing
grape 6uice for 7asso!er and the Jews did not use a method of preser!ing it to
a!oid fermentation in the oser!ance, then Jesus could not ha!e used grape
6uice#
The only method of storing grape 6uice mentioned in the whole Bile is in
ottles which correctly translated would e wine.skins#
"Neither do men put new wine into old ottles" else the ottles reak, and the
wine runneth out, and the ottles perish- ut they put new wine into new
ottles, and oth are preser!ed" )*atthew F-:@0#
Grape 6uice is preser!ed only as fermented wine# The reason the skins can
urst is ecause during the process of fermentation and killing the lea!en in
fresh 6uice, caron dio9ide is released creating pressure within the skins )cf#
Jo C+-:F, KBehold, my elly is as wine which hath no !ent" it is ready to
urst like a new ottle(0#
The Jews were to keep a 2aath of the land e!ery se!en years#
K2i9 years thou shalt sow thy ?eld, and si9 years thou shalt prune thy
!ineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof" ut in the se!enth year shall e a
saath of rest unto the land, a saath for the 1<A$- thou shalt neither sow
thy ?eld, nor prune thy !ineyard# That which groweth of its own accord of thy
har!est thou shalt not reap, neither gather grapes of thy !ine undressed )that
is LseparatingG them from the !ine0- for it is a year of rest unto the land( )1e!
+;-C.;0#
Therefore the Jews had to har!est enough on the si9th year to get them
through the remainder of the si9th year and all the way to the har!est time of
the eighth year .. almost two years# Therefore, the 6uice that was pressed out
of the grapes in the si9th year had to last until the !intage of the eighth ..
almost two years# %t is %*7<22%B18 to keep grape 6uice fresh for two years#
Not e!en the grape 6uice manufacturers can do this# 7asteuriJed grape 6uice
has a typical shelf.life of :; months# Grapes only ha!e a shelf.life of C to ;
daysQ According to 7urdue =ni!ersity, and e9tended shelf life )+ weeks to ,
months0 can only e achie!ed y freeJing the grapes at +/o& in a controlled
atmosphere# 7asteuriJed grape 6uice has an e9piration date on the carton
ecause it will e!entually spoil, ut ottled wine can stay preser!ed for o!er a
4=N$A8$ H8AA2# Again, it must e stated that out of the 4=N$A8$2 of
references in ancient Jewish writings of preparing wine, there are N<
references of preparing it in an unfermented state# Therefore the Jew
asolutely drank fermented wine in oser!ance of the 7asso!er#
%f you can ?nd fresh unfermented grape 6uice it must e drank the same day
or it will egin to cleanse out the lea!en and fermentation starts# This is
concluded within :+.:E days when all the lea!en is dead and new wine
results which the :+B were accused of drinking on the day of 7entecost#
Therefore, eyond a shadow of a dout the Jews used fermented wine for
7asso!er which is si9 months after the pre!ious year grape !intage when the
6uice would ha!e een fresh only for a short time#
%t is e!ident that the early 3hurch used wine, not grape 6uice for the
3ommunion# 1ook at the 3orinthian 3hurch e9ample# 7aul reuked the
3orinthians for getting drunk while taking 3ommunion-
"&or in eating e!ery one taketh efore other his own supper- and one is
hungry and another $A=ND8N( ): 3or ::-+:0#
2ome ha!e argued that the word Kdrunken( in the te9t is in contrast to
Khungry( and means "full of food" and not Kinto9icated#( But is this true?
The ne9t !erse pro!es such claims are false-
"What? 4a!e ye not houses to eat and $A%ND in?( ): 3or# ::-++0#
<!iously then the word K$A=ND8N( in !erse +: is a reference to K$A%ND( in
!erse ++# K$runken( refers to drinking wine to e9cess which 7aul later
reuked ut he ne!er said using wine in a Godly manner was sinful# 4is
mention of the proper use of wine concerning Bishops, 8lders, $eacons, and
older women pro!es such to e the case# 2o the word Kdrunken( refers to
Kdrink#( The word Kdrunken( is the Greek word "methuo" )2trong's C:/E0,
which means, "to drink to into9ication#" Now surely one cannot eat food to
into9icationQ %s this what 7aul reuked as some want us to elie!e y
changing Kdrunken( to ha!ing a full elly of food? 2urely it was not
pasteuriJed grape 6uice they drank to the point of into9ication )methuo0Q
Notice that Apostle 7aul said that he had recei!ed from the 1ord that which
he had deli!ered unto them concerning the 1ord's 7asso!er ):3orinthians
::-+C0# Now if they were drinking the wrong sustance )wine instead of
grape 6uice0, don't you think 7aul would ha!e 6umped on this right away as a
per!ersion and corrected them? 4e ne!er told them they drank the wrong
sustance, he only told them the manner in which they were celerating it
was wrong# 3learly it is inferred from these te9ts that the early Apostolic
3hurch drank fermented wine for 3ommunion#
&or o!er :/BB years of 3hurch history the use of fermented wine in
3ommunion was ne!er deated# While other issues concerning the 1ordGs
2upper were deated )transustantiation !s# symolism, etc#0 the issue of
what e!erage to use during 3ommunion was not M they all drank W%N8Q
Grape 6uice was not generally used in 3ommunion until the mid to late :Fth
3entury ):/BB's0# This was rought aout mostly y the American
Temperance 2ociety against men and husands who fre5uented saloons,
ars, and di!es and who had ecome addicted and were no longer eing
proper husands, fathers, 3hurch memers, and e9amples to children# Their
tirades against whiskey and white.lightening turned also upon wine for use in
the 3ommunion# This rought them right into the church houses where they
then claimed Jesus drank grape 6uice and not wine# The Temperance
*o!ement changed some 3hurches e!er since and continues till today#
%t was not until :/,F that $octor Thomas Bramwell Welch, a dentist y trade,
and a *ethodist y con!iction, successfully pasteuriJed 3oncord grape 6uice
to produce an "unfermented sacramental wine" for fellow parishioners at his
church in Iineland, N#J#, where he was communion steward# Because the
Temperance *o!ement taught that alcohol was a poison, he suggested to his
pastor that they 5uit using wine and use his new "unfermented" wine for
3ommunion# Welch's son later started Welch's Grape Juice 3ompany in :/@+#
This was the eginning of se!eral groups using grape 6uice for the 1ord's
*emorial a certain departure from the ancient practice held at 7asso!er for
nearly C,EBB years#
%n Genesis :E-:/, *elchiJedek, the priest of the most high God, rought
read and wine )4erew Kyayin( N2trong's C:F,O fermented wine0 to Araham
for communion and fellowship# This was a type or foreshadowing of the 1ord's
2upper that 3hrist, who is after the order of *elchiJedek )4erews @-:@0
would present to the 3hurch, Araham's seed#
The simple facts of the matter are- )A0 7asso!er was not held during the time
grape 6uice was fresh" )B0 it was impossile to keep grape 6uice from
fermenting into wine" and )30 the Jews used fermented wine for 7asso!er#
7asso!er wine is a eautiful symol of the lood of Jesus 3hrist# The lea!en
collects on the skins of the grapes, 6ust as Jesus took on our sins, yet in 4im
was no sin# The skins of the grapes are crushed to ring forth the 6uice, 6ust
as Jesus was ruised for our ini5uities and out of 4is side came lood and
water# The freshly s5ueeJed 6uice lays dormant for aout three days, 6ust as
Jesus was in the tom three days and nights# After three days the process of
fermentation takes place and the 6uice ecomes Kali!e(, 6ust as after three
days Jesus arose from the gra!e# The process of fermentation Kcon5uers( and
Kcleanses( the 6uice of all lea!en, 6ust as the lood of Jesus 3hrist cleanses us
from sin# The wine had to sit for forty days to e declared kosher for the
7asso!er# This is similar to Jesus spending forty days with 4is disciples
teaching them the things concerning the kingdom of God# Thus we see that
the fermented wine used at 7asso!er during the time of 3hrist is the perfect
symol of the lood of Jesus 3hrist, K&or this is my lood of the new
testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins( )*atthew +,-+/0#
3ommon Ruestions 3oncerning 3ommunion
:# Was the wine Jesus made at 3ana fermented wine or grape 6uice?
Answer- 2ome ha!e attempted to ?nd linguistic support for saying that this
was grape 6uice rather that wine# 2uch support is lacking# 4asting's
$ictionary of the Bile, !olume +, page CE says-
"An attempt has een made to otain te9tual support for total astinence y
di>erentiating into9icating from unfermented wine in the Bilical terminology"
ut it is only special pleading without ade5uate foundation#"
The Bile is !ery plain aout the miracle of 3ana# The word for wine is the
Greek word "oinos" which refers always in the New Testament to fermented
wine# 8phesians ;-:/- "Be not drunk )methusko, to into9icate0 with wine
)Greek oinos0###( Thus, Koinos( refers only to fermented wine#
+# %f Jesus turned water into wine, wouldn't this 6ustify a 3hristian supplying
ooJe to a party?
Answer- The 3hristian answer is de?nitely N<Q God killed 7haraoh in the Aed
2ea" this does not mean we should go drown the ungodly# 2econdly, the
answer is rather in the culture of the ?rst century 7alestine and what the
2criptures speci?cally laeled sin under the <ld Testament# =se of wine in a
Godly manner was ne!er a sin in the <ld Testament# *any places in the
*iddle 8ast the water was more harmful than wine, thus wine was the
common drink of that time# Also, the wine usually used y the common
people in the days of 3hrist according to the %nternational 2tandard Bile
8ncyclopedia was not as strong as it is today# %t was only :SC to :SE as strong
ecause there were no additi!es put into it to increase the alcohol content# To
make it strong wine in the days of Jesus they cured the wine in wormwood
casks and mi9ed in other strong drinks to make it addicti!e# And rememer,
while wine was used lierally throughout the early 3hurch era, there is no
Apostolic record where any *inister or 3hurch pro!ided wine for the purpose
of getting guest drunk# We do not ?nd this as the purpose of Jesus when he
turned water into wine# The use of wine for 7asso!er does not rise or fall
ased upon the 3ana miracle#
C# $id Jesus drink wine or grape 6uice?
Answer- Jesus said in 1uke @-CC.CE-
K&or John the Baptist came neither eating read nor drinking wine" and ye
say, 4e hath a de!il# The 2on of man is come eating and drinking )wine M that
which John did not drink0" and ye say, Behold a gluttonous man, and a
wineier, a friend of pulicans and sinnersQ(
Notice, Jesus drank that which John the Baptist did not# According to 1uke
:-:;, John the Baptist did not drink wine or strong drink# Therefore Jesus $%$
drink wine and strong drink# %f Jesus did not drink wine then the accusation
that he was a wineier would ha!e een asurd# Think of the Jews
charging Jesus with eing a ier )drunkard cf# 7ro!ers +C-+B.+:0 of
something totally uninto9icatingQ What then was the accusation? That he
drank grape 6uice? <!iously Jesus did drink wine and his holiness and
sinlessness was not at all a>ected# 4ad he gotten drunk and used wine
wrongly then 4e would e guilty of sin# We may then deduct that Jesus used
wine Godly and for the right purposes# And in our discussion, the old
7asso!er and the 1ord's 7asso!er are oth Godly and the right purpose#
E# Wouldn't the use of fermented wine at 3ommunion 6ustify social drinking?
Answer- $e?nitely not as for reasons stated ao!e# The 2criptures command
us to e soer so any use of wine that would take away our right mind or
conduct is foridden ):Thessalonians ;-,, /0# Bishops, 8lders, $eacons, <lder
women, Houng women and Houng men are A11 commanded to e soer
):Timothy C-+, ::" Titus :-/" +-+, E, ," :7eter :-:C" E-@" ;-/0# To e soer not
only means to e discreet in personal conduct and haits, ut to ha!e a right
mind una>ected y any de!ise that would or could alter the mind or ody to
do otherwise# 2ome ha!e !oiced a concern towards 3hristians who were
once alcoholics, that using wine in 3ommunion might cause them to relapse#
The truth of the matter is, if a thimle full of wine used in holy re!erence
towards the 1ordGs 7asso!er can cause a 3hristian to turn towards alcoholism"
then they were ne!er deli!ered in the ?rst place# Jesus said, K%f the 2on
therefore shall make you free, ye shall e free indeed,( )John /-C,0# *any
other things we use in our daily life contain alcohol which ha!e a higher
alcohol content than naturally fermented wine, such as- cough syrup and
mouth wash, none of which should cause a 3hristian to stumle in their walk
with God# %n regards to our su6ect, there is asolutely no way any person
oser!ing the 1ord's 7asso!er could e anything other than soer throughout
the entire celeration# After all, the glory of the e!ent is rememrance and
eing soer minded is the key to the whole oser!ance#
;# When 7aul told Timothy to take "a little wine" was the "wine" a grape 6elly.
like sustance that was mi9ed with water?
Answer- 4asting's $ictionary of the Bile, !olume E, page /,F states-
"The latter is the 6uice of the grape, oiled to the consistency of thick treacle,
and set aside to cool into a mass resemling in appearance candied honey# %t
is N<T TA=8 that this sustance is anywhere used or known as wine# %n its
commercial form it is no more a e!erage than crystalliJed honey, and no
one here e!er saw or heard of any one drinking it and using it as a drink#"
We would conclude from this that the idea of 7aul telling Timothy to make a
grape.6elly drink to a!oid the use of real wine is simply error# 2ome ha!e
speculated that Khoney( in the <ld Testament was actually oiled grape 6uice
which when mi9ed with water was considered wine# 4owe!er, the <ld
Testament makes a clear distinction etween Khoney( and Kwine#( K4oney(
was foridden as an o>ering made y ?re )1e!iticus +-::0# 4owe!er, the drink
o>ering, an o>ering made y ?re, was Kwine( )Numers :;-:B0# The Greek
word 7aul used for Kwine( ): Timothy ;-+C0 was oinos, the 2A*8 word used in
8phesians ;-:/, KBe not $A=ND with wine )oinos0T( To say Timothy had
stomach ulcers is con6ecture and is not in the te9t# Timothy could ha!e
su>ered from any numer of intestinal disorders of which wine could ha!e
een used as a cure or aid# Again, whate!er Timothy's stomach disorder, the
practice of using wine for the old 7asso!er or the 1ord's 7asso!er is totally
una>ected#
,# 4ow could wine e used for 3ommunion, when the Bile says it is a
mocker )7ro!ers +B-:0 and that in wine takes away the heart )4osea E-::0
and that wine inUame them )%saiah ;-::0?
Answer- <f course these in the te9t are those who ha!e not used wine in a
Godly manner and there is no condemnation of those that do# The
condemnation is against those who use it wrongly and they are so identi?ed#
Notice also that no mention is here made against using wine for the 7asso!er
or for any of the other good purposes# The word Kwine( )4erew yayin0 when
used in the !ulgar sense can mean Kinto9ication( when so identi?ed y the
conduct of a person and is used in Genesis F-+E to show such an e!ent- "And
Noah awoke from his wine )into9ication0#" %n %saiah ;-:: it is rought out more
clearly- "Woe unto them that rise early in the morning, that they may follow
strong drink" that continue until night, till wine )into9ication0 inUame them#"
Notice here that it is the misuse of wine to into9ication that is pointed as the
e!il and not wine itself# %n the 2criptures mentioned ao!e the misuse of
Kyayin( refers to the state of into9ication not to the actual e!erage . wine#
4owe!er, the e!erage, wine, is used as a symol of GodGs lessings
throughout the Bile# %n 7salm :BE-:E.:;, the Bile states that God gi!es us
wine that Kmaketh glad the heart of man#( 7ro!# C-F.:B states, K4onor the
1<A$ with thy sustance, and with the ?rst fruits of all thine increase- so
shall thy arns e ?lled with plenty, and thy presses shall urst out with new
wine#(
@# 4ow can wine e used for 3ommunion, when the Bile says that God ga!e
us Kthe pure lood of the grapes?(
Answer- The !erse is found in $euteronomy C+-:E, "Butter of kine, and milk
of sheep, with the fat of lams, and rams of the reed of Bashan, and goats,
with the fat of kidneys of wheat" and thou didst drink the 7=A8 B1<<$ of the
grape#" Those who contend for grape 6uice 5uote this !erse ut they do not
rightly di!ide it# %s the Kpure lood of the grape( fresh 6uice or fermented
wine?
The key here is the word Kpure( which in 4erew is Kchemer( )2trong's
+;,B..wine Vas fermentingW- pure, red wine0(# The word Kpure( refers to
fermented wine, not fresh grape 6uice# This same word chemer is also found
in %saiah +@-+ and is translated KA8$ W%N8#( The te9t then rightly di!ided
would say- KT and thou didst drink the fermented lood of the grape#( 4ere
we ha!e a graphic proof that wine is the lood of the grape, and that it was
considered K7=A8( which all grape 6uice users deny# But now with the ao!e
e!idence we trust they will e honest and confess that wine can e pure and
is also the lood of the grape# Therefore the te9ts actually states, God ga!e
us the &8A*8NT8$ lood of the grape not that he had gi!en grape 6uice and
this was the pure lood# This !erse can only e used y those who ser!e
wine, the pure lood of the grape# That is what Jesus did on the glorious
e!ent of sealing his wedding co!enant with the 3hurch when he lessed and
then ser!ed his 7asso!er cup to the Bride represented y the twel!e apostles#
/# $oes the word Kwine( refer to unfermented grape 6uice since %saiah ,;-/
states that Knew wine is found in the cluster?(
KNew wine( $8&%N%T81H refers to fermented wine, and N<T to unfermented
grape 6uice# The phrase Knew wine( in 4erew is tiyrosh, and in Greek is
gluekos# The Bile indicates that B<T4 tiyrosh )4osea E-::0 and gluekos )Jo
C+-:F 1XX" Acts +-:C0 are fermented wine which can cause into9ication# The
phrase Knew wine is found in the cluster( is what grammarians call a
prolepsis# A prolepsis is Kthe representation or assumption of a future act or
de!elopment as if presently e9isting or accomplished( )Wester0# We ?nd a
similar statement in Jo +/-;-
KAs for the earth, out of it cometh read- and under it is turned up as it were
?re#(
KBread( does not literally come out of the earth# What comes out of the earth
)ground0 is grain which is made into Kread#( This statement )6ust like %saiah
,;-/0 is simply a statement of anticipation i#e# a prolepsis# We ?nd a similar
statement throughout the Bile that God ga!e %srael Kread from hea!en(
)89odus :,-E" Nehemiah F-:;" 7salm :B;-EB" John ,-C:.C+0# The Kread from
hea!en( wasnGt literally read, ut was some sort of a grain the siJe and
shape similar to the Kcoriander seed( )Numers ::-@0# The people gathered
this manna, ground it in mills, and aked it in pans )Numers ::-/0" the ?nal
product eing a Kcake( or Kread#( Thus, we see Knew wine is found in the
cluster( is simply a statement of anticipation descriing the ?nal product of
fermented wine#
F# %s there a particular date or day in which 3hristians Kmust( oser!e the
1ordGs 2upper?
There are di>erent groups who teach that the 1ordGs 2upper must e
oser!ed on a particular date or day# There are some who teach that the
1ordGs 2upper must e oser!ed only on 7asso!er )Nisan :E0" while others
teach that it must e oser!ed e!ery 2unday )?rst day of the week0#
4owe!er, it must e oser!ed that there is N< direct command in the New
Testament on how fre5uent 3hristians are to oser!e the 1ordGs 2upper#
:3orinthians ::-+; . +,, After the same manner also he took the cup, when
he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my lood- this do ye,
A2 <&T as ye drink it, in rememrance of me# &or A2 <&T8N as ye eat this
read, and drink this cup, ye do shew the 1ordGs death till he come#
The phrase Kas oft( or Kas often( in Greek is hosakis# Podhiates, Word 2tudy
$ictionary, p# :B,C de?nes this as, K%n the NT, Las many times as you do,G
followed y an )CB+0, a particle denoting supposition, wish, possiility, or
uncertainty T There is no implication of urgency or fre5uency#(
Those who teach an oser!ance on 7asso!er )Nisan :E0 are called
Ruartodecimans )from 1atin meaning Kfourteen(0# They contend that the
1ordGs 2upper is a continuance of the 7asso!er, and should e oser!ed on
the same night )Nisan :E0 that it was instituted# 4owe!er, the 1ordGs 2upper
was also instituted in Jerusalem in an upper room, ut no one teaches that
these should e oser!ed alsoQ %n fact the <ld Testament 1aw not only
instructed what to eat )lam, unlea!ened read, etc#0 and when to eat )Nisan
:E0, ut also what time to eat )at e!en i#e# sunset0 and W48A8 to eat
)Jerusalem cf# $euteronomy :,-C.@0# At the 1ast 2upper, Jesus only instructed
4is disciples W4AT to eat )read and fruit of the !ine cf# *atthew +,-+,.+/0,
ut N8I8A when or where#
*odern Ruartodecimans appeal to the supposed tradition of the Apostle John
and 7olycarp )his student0 of oser!ing the 1ordGs 2upper on 7asso!er as
proof of their doctrine# 4owe!er, the ishops of the West claimed that their
tradition of oser!ance on 2unday was handed to them from 7eter and 7aulQ
Also, 7olycarp ne!er considered the issue a test of fellowship, and e!en
consented to oser!ing the 1ordGs 2upper with Anicetus on a 2unday )see
wikipedia KRuartodecimans(0#
Those who contend that the 1ordGs 2upper must e oser!ed on 2unday
appeal to <N8 passage in the ook of Acts#
Acts +B-@, And upon the ?rst day of the week, when the disciples came
together to reak read, 7aul preached unto them, ready to depart on the
morrow" and continued his speech until midnight#
&or the sake of argument, weGll agree that the phrase Kreak read( here in
Acts +B-@ refers to the 1ordGs 2upper# %f this is the case, then it must e
oser!ed that the same phrase is also used in Acts +-E, where the 2criptures
indicate that the disciples continued K$A%1H with one accord in the temple,
and reaking read from house to house#( The oser!ance of the 1ordGs
2upper is not regulated to a particular time or place# 3ertainly 3hristians 3AN
oser!e the 1ordGs 2upper on 7asso!er )Nisan :E0 or on a 2unday" ut there
is N< command in the New Testament indicating on what dateSday 3hristians
*=2T oser!e the 1ordGs 2upper#
:B# 4ow can wine e used for 3ommunion, when Jesus called it the Kfruit of
the !ine( )*att# +,-+F0?
Answer- We ha!e already shown that W%N8 in the 7asso!er celeration is
lessed y Jews as the K&A=%T <& T48 I%N8(Q The 7asso!er cup of lessing
contained wine and no Jew will e!er deny this# Try to get one to confess that
it was grape 6uice ecause they were trying to a!oid use of wine ecause
either it was sinful, or had lea!en in it, and watch him laugh#
The most authoritati!e Greek scholars agree that "fruit of the !ine" refers to
wine-
Bauer, Arndt, Gringrich, $anker 1e9icon, page :;E states- "of W%N8 as the
product of the !ine#"
Iincent Word 2tudies of the New Testament, !olume :, page :CF states this is
"applied to the W%N8#"
A#T# Aoertson, Word 7ictures, !olume +, page +,@ states- "the fruit of the
!ine and not oinos though it was W%N8 undoutedly#"
4einrich *eyer, 3ommentary on *atthew, page E@B states- "The use of this
term instead of oinos has something solemn aout it, containing as it does,
an allusion to the form of thanksgi!ing for the 7asso!er W%N8#"
4asting's $ictionary of the Bile, !olume +, page CE states- "There are
se!eral ?gurati!e names for W%N8- 'fruit of the !ine' )1k ++-:/0, 'the lood of
the grapesG )$eut C+-:E0#"
A# 3# 4# 1enski, 3ommentary on *atthew, page :BC+ says- "Because oinos
does not appear in this account, the use of wine is at least gra!ely
5uestioned, which means practically denied# The fact that *atthew writes
not merely 'fruit of the !ine' peri hagiphen, the lo!ely liturgical term for W%N8
used in the 7asso!er ritual, ut most de?nitely 'this fruit of the !ine,' the one
regularly used in the 7asso!er and thus used y the 1ord for his supper, is not
appreciated y those who will not use wine in the celeration of the 1ord's
2upper, for they think grape 6uice ?ts this phrase etter then wine although in
April such a thing as grape 6uice was an impossiility in the 4oly 1and of
3hrist's time# %t could e had only when grapes were freshly pressed out,
efore the 6uice started to ferment#"
According to the Jewish 7asso!er tradition, the !ery prayer o!er the cup of
wine called it the Kfruit of the !ine#( Notice that Jesus said that 4e would not
drink any more of T4%2 fruit of the !ine, until that day 4e drinks it Knew( in
the &atherGs kingdom )*att# +,-+F0# The word Knew( in this te9t has the
meaning of Kfresh( as opposed to Kold#( This statement is a thesis, with an
understood antithesis# &or e9ample when Jesus said, KThis is the lood of the
N8W testament( this is in opposition to the <ld Testament which had already
een in a>ect# Thus JesusG statement that 4e would no longer drink of this
fruit of the !ine until 4e drank it Knew( or Kfresh( is in opposition to drinking
it Kold( i#e# fermented, as 4e was then drinking it with 4is disciples# Thus the
phrase Kfruit of the !ine( de?nitely refers to fermented wine#
There are thirty.se!en commentaries on the Book of *atthew in 4arding
=ni!ersity 1irary that % checked in doing this research pro6ect# Twenty.si9 of
these reference works state that Kfruit of the !ine( refers to fermented wine"
ten of them do not state either way, and only one commentary stated that
the Kfruit of the !ine( refers to grape 6uice, which we know is an asurdity,
since neither this one nor has any other, e!er pro!ed the Jews used grape
6uice for the 7asso!er for the purpose of not using lea!en or ecause wine
was considered a sinful product for the oser!ance#
That is out of C@ reference works <N1H <N8 !oiced an un5uali?ed opposition
to "fruit of the !ine" not eing wine# This commentary was that of the
2e!enth . day Ad!entist which states- "The cup contained the pure 6uice of
the grape, untouched y fermentation, and was proaly diluted with water#
The method used in ancient times to preser!e grape 6uice in an unfermented
state from the !intage si9 months prior to the 7asso!er season is N<T
DN<WN#"
%n other words, W8 $< N<T DN<W T4AT T48H $%$ %T, AN$ %& T48H $%$ %T,
4<W T48H $%$ %T, AN$ W8 3AN &%N$ N< J8W T< 2AH T48H $%$ %T, B=T W8
B81%8I8 T48H $%$ %T AN$ %T WA2 $<N8Q
$r# &rancis Beare's translation and commentary on *atthew +,-+@ states-
"And he took a cup of W%N8, and when he ga!e thanks, he ga!e it to them,
saying, L$rink of it all of youG#"
Aoert Bratcher's, A Translator's Guide To The Gospel of *atthew, page CCE
states concerning *atthew +,-+@- "$rink it- '$rink from it' or '$rink the W%N8#'
%t may e etter to egin the !erse '4e took a cup full of wine,' which will
make drink it more intelligile#"
Wine is the natural "fruit )product0 of the !ine#" What else could wine e the
fruit of? All a person needs to do is crush the grapes, let the grapes and the
6uice mi9 as if in an old wine press, let the mi9ture stand a few days and wine
is created as the lea!en is con5uered and killed out of the 6uice# Heast cells
collect naturally on the skins of grapes, and when e9posed to the sugars of
the 6uice fermentation egins according to the *ississippi 2tate =ni!ersity
3ollege of Agriculture and 8conomics#
::# $oes it really matter what element or e!erage we use in oser!ing the
1ordGs 2upper?
Answer- %f the element does not matter, then the 3hurch could simply supply
milk and cookies for 3ommunion# %f the element does not matter, we could
ser!e tomato 6uice for 3ommunion ecause tomatoes grow on Kthe !ine#( We
understand that the element is essential in other 3hurch ordinances# John the
Baptist instituted aptism )immersion0 in water, no other element will suYce#
%t would e unilical to aptiJe a con!ert in milk, champagne, tomato 6uice,
soda, etc# When James commanded the elders of the church to Kanoint with
oil( we understand that oli!e oil is meant, not motor oil, corn oil, or hair oil#
3onsider this, we place much emphasis on the proper mode and formula of
aptism )immersion in the name of Jesus 3hrist0, then why shouldnGt we place
as much emphasis on the proper symol of 3hristGs lood# Therefore the
element or e!erage we use in the 1ordGs 2upper should e identical with
that Jesus used as a symol of 4is lood M fermented wine#
:+# 2hould the congregation use only <N8 cup in 3ommunion, or is it
permissile for each memer to ha!e their own cup?
Answer- %t is true that Jesus chose only one cup to institute the 1ordGs 2upper#
4owe!er, Jewish tradition states that &<=A or &%I8 cups were passed around
y the Jewish householder during the 7asso!er meal# 1ukeGs account of the
1ast 2upper suggests that Jesus may ha!e used TW< 3=72 as the symol of
4is lood )1uke ++-:@.+B0# The T4%A$ )or possily &<=AT40 cup )which is
proaly the one referred to in *att# +,-+/0 was known as Kthe cup of
lessing#( The emphasis of JesusG statement was not on the container itself,
ut the e!erage in the container# The e!erage )wine0 in the one cup was
the Klood of the New Testament#( When the Bile refers to Kthis cup( or Kthe
cup of the 1ord,( the 818*8NT in the cup is what is eing referred to, N<T the
actual container# We do this also today# We may ask someone if they would
like a Kcup of co>ee,( and they reply, KNo thanks, %G!e already had La cupG#(
K3up( would actually refer to the e!erage, and not the container# Greek
scholars agree that Kcup( refers to the e!erage, and not the container-
Thayer, Greek.8nglish 1e9icon, Ky metonymy of the container for the
contained, the contents of the cup, what is o>ered to e drunk, 1uke ++-+B(
Bauer, Arndt, Gingrich, $anker, Greek.8nglish 1e9icon, Kcup stands, y
metonymy, for what it contains ### 1uke ++-+B ### % 3orinthians ::-+;(
Bullinger, Greek.8nglish 1e9icon, K1uke ++-:@, +B . 3up is put for its
contents, as is clear from ### % 3or :B-:,, +:, ::-+;, +,, +@, +/ . %n these and
other places 'cup' is put for its contents(
DittelGs Theological $ictionary of the New Testament, KNe!ertheless, the
second element in the 1ord's 2upper is almost always called the cup rather
than the wine in the N#T# ### it refers, not to the cup, ut to its contents#(
Thus, the correct element )wine0 is what is important to our oser!ing of the
1ordGs 2upper, not the amount of containers# %f a congregation wishes to
oser!e the 1ordGs 2upper using only one cup, this is clearly permissile#
4owe!er, one should not make a doctrine that a congregation *=2T only use
one cup# Jesus was aptiJed in water in the Jordan Ai!er# This does not
necessitate that 3hristians e aptiJed in the Jordan Ai!er )the container0,
only that they e aptiJed in water )the element0# Thus, the element )wine0
is the essential part of 3ommunion, not the numer of containers#
#
We conclude y saying that whate!er the Jews used for 7asso!er is what
Jesus used in his own 7asso!er memorial cup# No one has e!er pro!ed that
unfermented grape 6uice was e!er used at the 7asso!er ecause Jews
considered wine a sin to use or that Jews considered wine to e lea!ened and
unlawful for 7asso!er use# =pon this authority and upon the authority of the
Word of God, wine should e used for the commemoration of the 1ord's
cleansing lood that was shed for the remission of sins#
"After the same manner also he took the cup, when he supped, saying- "This
cup is the New Testament in my lood- This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in
rememrance of me" ):3or ::-+;0#