You are on page 1of 805

所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
Useful Formulae ® 闻水国 ©

Useful Formulae

= = 6.58 ×10−25 GeV sec = 1


=c = 0.197 GeV F = 1 e+ e−
≡ time
(1 GeV) −2 = 0.389 mb E >0 (− E ) < 0
e2 1
α= =
4π 137
⎛∂ ⎞
x μ = (t , x), xμ = (t , − x) p μ = ( E , p) = i ⎜ , −∇ ⎟ = i∂ μ
⎝ ∂t ⎠ J PC
μ
p ⋅ x = Et − p ⋅ x, p ≡ pμ p = E − p = m 2
2 2 2
P = −(−1) L
(,2 + m 2 )φ = 0, (i γ μ ∂ μ − m)ψ = 0. C = (−1) L + S
μ μ μ
In an electromagnetic filed, i∂ → i∂ + eA (charge − e)

j μ = −ie(φ * ∂ μφ − φ∂ μφ *), j μ = −eψ γ μ ψ

γ-Matrices Tra/ 1 " a/ n = 0 (for n odd)

γ μ γν + γν γ μ = 2 g μν , γ μ † = γ 0 γ μ γ 0 .
† †
γ0 = γ0 , γ 0 γ 0 = I ; γ k = −γ k , γ k γ k = − I , k = 1, 2,3.

γ 5 = i γ 0 γ1 γ 2 γ 3 , γ μ γ 5 + γ 5 γ μ = 0, γ 5 = γ 5 .
(Trace theorems on pages 104 in relativistic quantum mechanics of Bjorken)
Standard representation:

⎛I 0 ⎞ ⎛ 0 σ⎞ ⎛0 I ⎞
γ0 ≡ β = ⎜ ⎟ , γ ≡ βα = ⎜ ⎟, γ = ⎜
5

⎝ 0 −I ⎠ ⎝ −σ 0⎠ ⎝ I 0⎠

⎡0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 −i ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤
σ1 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ2 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ3 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ0 = ⎢ ⎥.
⎣1 0 ⎦ ⎣i 0 ⎦ ⎣0 −1⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦

Spinors

⎧(p/ − m)u = 0 ⎧⎪u ≡ u † γ 0 , Γ ≡ γ 0 Γ + γ 0


⎨ ; ⎨ μ
⎩u (p/ − m) = 0 ⎪⎩ p/ ≡ pμ γ , A / ≡ γ μ Aμ

∑u

u ( r ) u ( s ) = 2 Eδ rs , u ( r )u ( s ) = 2mδ rs , (s)
u ( s ) = p/ + m = 2mΛ + 标量 (φφ * ) J P = 0+
s =1,2

1 1 赝标 (φγ 5φ * ) J P = 0−
(1 − γ 5 )u ≡ uL , (1 + γ 5 )u ≡ uR .
2 2 矢量 (φγ μφ * ) J P = 1−
1 1 轴矢 (φγ 5γ μφ * ) J P = 1+
If m = 0 or E  m, then uL has helicity λ = − , u L has λ = + .
2 2
Mandelstam variables

p1 p3

p2 p4

s = ( p1 + p2 ) 2 = ( p3 + p4 ) 2
t = ( p1 − p3 ) 2 = ( p2 − p4 ) 2
u = ( p1 − p4 ) 2 = ( p2 − p3 ) 2

p1 p3 p1 p3

p1 p3

p2 p4 p4 p2 p4
p2
s-channel t-channel u-channel

Time

Feynman parameter integral


1 1 dx
=∫
ab 0 [ax + b(1 − x)]2

Trace Theorems

a/ ≡ aμ γ μ , ab μ ν
/ / = a ⋅ b − iσ μν a b
Tra/ 1 " a/ n = 0 for n odd; p μ pν = g μν p 2 / d ;
Trγ 5 = 0; Tr1 = 4; / / = 4a ⋅ b;
Trab
α β γ δ
Trγ 5 ab
/ / = 0; Trγ 5 abcd
/ / / / = 4iε αβγδ a b c d ;
γ μ a/ γ μ = −2a/ ; γ μ ab μ
/ / γ = 4a ⋅ b; γ μ abc
μ
/ / / γ = −2cba
/ / /;
Tr[γ μ γ ν γ λ γ δ ] = 4( g μν g λδ − g μλ gνδ + g μδ gνλ );
Tr[a/ 1a/ 2 a/ 3a/ 4 ] = 4[a1 ⋅ a2 a3 ⋅ a4 − a1 ⋅ a3a2 ⋅ a4 + a1 ⋅ a4 a2 ⋅ a3 ]
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
Useful Formulae ® 闻水国 ©

Useful Formulae

= = 6.58 ×10−25 GeV sec = 1


=c = 0.197 GeV F = 1 e+ e−
≡ time
(1 GeV) −2 = 0.389 mb E >0 (− E ) < 0
e2 1
α= =
4π 137
⎛∂ ⎞
x μ = (t , x), xμ = (t , − x) p μ = ( E , p) = i ⎜ , −∇ ⎟ = i∂ μ
⎝ ∂t ⎠ J PC
μ
p ⋅ x = Et − p ⋅ x, p ≡ pμ p = E − p = m 2
2 2 2
P = −(−1) L
(,2 + m 2 )φ = 0, (i γ μ ∂ μ − m)ψ = 0. C = (−1) L + S
μ μ μ
In an electromagnetic filed, i∂ → i∂ + eA (charge − e)

j μ = −ie(φ * ∂ μφ − φ∂ μφ *), j μ = −eψ γ μ ψ

γ-Matrices Tra/ 1 " a/ n = 0 (for n odd)

γ μ γν + γν γ μ = 2 g μν , γ μ † = γ 0 γ μ γ 0 .
† †
γ0 = γ0 , γ 0 γ 0 = I ; γ k = −γ k , γ k γ k = − I , k = 1, 2,3.

γ 5 = i γ 0 γ1 γ 2 γ 3 , γ μ γ 5 + γ 5 γ μ = 0, γ 5 = γ 5 .
(Trace theorems on pages 104 in relativistic quantum mechanics of Bjorken)
Standard representation:

⎛I 0 ⎞ ⎛ 0 σ⎞ ⎛0 I ⎞
γ0 ≡ β = ⎜ ⎟ , γ ≡ βα = ⎜ ⎟, γ = ⎜
5

⎝ 0 −I ⎠ ⎝ −σ 0⎠ ⎝ I 0⎠

⎡0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 −i ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎤
σ1 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ2 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ3 = ⎢ ⎥ , σ0 = ⎢ ⎥.
⎣1 0 ⎦ ⎣i 0 ⎦ ⎣0 −1⎦ ⎣0 1 ⎦

Spinors

⎧(p/ − m)u = 0 ⎧⎪u ≡ u † γ 0 , Γ ≡ γ 0 Γ + γ 0


⎨ ; ⎨ μ
⎩u (p/ − m) = 0 ⎪⎩ p/ ≡ pμ γ , A / ≡ γ μ Aμ

∑u

u ( r ) u ( s ) = 2 Eδ rs , u ( r )u ( s ) = 2mδ rs , (s)
u ( s ) = p/ + m = 2mΛ + 标量 (φφ * ) J P = 0+
s =1,2

1 1 赝标 (φγ 5φ * ) J P = 0−
(1 − γ 5 )u ≡ uL , (1 + γ 5 )u ≡ uR .
2 2 矢量 (φγ μφ * ) J P = 1−
1 1 轴矢 (φγ 5γ μφ * ) J P = 1+
If m = 0 or E  m, then uL has helicity λ = − , u L has λ = + .
2 2
Mandelstam variables

p1 p3

p2 p4

s = ( p1 + p2 ) 2 = ( p3 + p4 ) 2
t = ( p1 − p3 ) 2 = ( p2 − p4 ) 2
u = ( p1 − p4 ) 2 = ( p2 − p3 ) 2

p1 p3 p1 p3

p1 p3

p2 p4 p4 p2 p4
p2
s-channel t-channel u-channel

Time

Feynman parameter integral


1 1 dx
=∫
ab 0 [ax + b(1 − x)]2

Trace Theorems

a/ ≡ aμ γ μ , ab μ ν
/ / = a ⋅ b − iσ μν a b
Tra/ 1 " a/ n = 0 for n odd; p μ pν = g μν p 2 / d ;
Trγ 5 = 0; Tr1 = 4; / / = 4a ⋅ b;
Trab
α β γ δ
Trγ 5 ab
/ / = 0; Trγ 5 abcd
/ / / / = 4iε αβγδ a b c d ;
γ μ a/ γ μ = −2a/ ; γ μ ab μ
/ / γ = 4a ⋅ b; γ μ abc
μ
/ / / γ = −2cba
/ / /;
Tr[γ μ γ ν γ λ γ δ ] = 4( g μν g λδ − g μλ gνδ + g μδ gνλ );
Tr[a/ 1a/ 2 a/ 3a/ 4 ] = 4[a1 ⋅ a2 a3 ⋅ a4 − a1 ⋅ a3a2 ⋅ a4 + a1 ⋅ a4 a2 ⋅ a3 ]
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!
所有者:闻水国

you do, you will!


take it, easyly!