You are on page 1of 29

Arthit Project GENERAL SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0

Page 2 of 29

Revision Description Date

0 Issue For Approval July’ 03


Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 3 of 29

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Page

1. Scope 4

2. Codes and Standards. 4

3. Definitions 5

4. General 8

5. Types of Equipment 9

6. Auxiliary Equipment 10

7. Acceptance Testing 11

8. Induced Piping Vibrations 12

9. Procedures Requirements and Instructions 13

10. Conversion Information 14

11. Appendix. A Tables 17

12. Appendix. B Nomograph Comments 25

13. Appendix. C Guidelines 29


Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 4 of 29

1. SCOPE

1.1 This specification states, the acceptable levels of vibration for


rotating and reciprocating equipment, including a section limiting
mechanically induced vibrations in piping connected thereto.

This document may be attached to and made a part of individual


specifications and drawings or used in conjunction with other equipment
standards provided they do not detract from the basic intent contained
herein.

The responsibility for proper interpretation of this standard shall rest


upon appointed representatives of the vendor, fabricator or contractor,
hereafter called the Supplier, and the Issuer. It will be the Supplier’s
responsibility to obtain clarification or initiate a discussion of exceptions
to this standard with the Issuer or his representative. In all cases,
agreements reached jointly shall be final and binding.

2. CODES AND STANDARDS

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

All Codes and Standards referenced in this specification shall be the


latest edition and shall supercede any editions dated earlier.

As used in this specification, the following definitions shall apply:

Issuer PTT Exploration and Production Public Company


Limited

Job Specification Equipment Specification with applicable General


Specifications and; referenced Industry Codes or
Standards

2.1 All equipment fabricated, tested, and installed under this standard
shall also conform as a minimum to the latest edition of the National
and international Codes and Standards specifically stated herein as
applicable. No omission from this document shall relieve the Supplier of
his aforementioned responsibility.

The following codes and standards, if required, supplement this


document.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 5 of 29

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CODES AND STANDARDS:

150-2372-1974 Mechanical Vibration of Machines (10-200


Rev/set)

180-2373-1974 Mechanical Vibration of Certain Rotating


Electrical Machinery

NEMA-MGI-20-1976 Motor and Generator Balance Tolerances

I EC-222 Methods of Specifying Auxiliary Equipment for


Vibration Measurements

API-RP541-1972 Recommended Practice for Form-Wound


Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors. 200 HP and
Larger

API-610 Centrifugal Pumps

API-611 General Purpose Steam Turbines

API-613 High Speed, Special Purpose Gear Units

API-616 Combustion Gas Turbines

API-617 Centrifugal Compressors

API-618 Reciprocating Compressors

API-670-1976 Non contacting Vibration and Axial Position


Monitoring Systems

3. DEFINITIONS

3.1 For the purposes of this standard the following shall apply:

a) Parameters of amplitude measurement. For conversion information


see section 10.3
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 6 of 29

b) Vibration: an oscillating or alternating motion of a mass caused by a


force applied at regular or irregular intervals and measured by an
amplitude a frequency and a phase angle.

c) Amplitude: the magnitude of the oscillating vibratory motion


measured either as the displacement, velocity or acceleration of the
mass.

d) Displacement: the actual movement of a mass from a rest position


usually expressed in mils (0.001 inches) or microns (0.001 mm), peak
to peak.

e) Velocity: the rate of change of displacement with respect to time, the


maximum speed of a point or position on a vibrating mass, rotor,
element or unit that is normally expressed as peak in/s or mm/s.

f) Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity with respect to time


usually stated as peak G’s (gravity units). 366 in/s2 or 9600 mm/s2 are
gravitational constants used in converting peak acceleration (in/s2.)
values to gravity units. From a practical standpoint acceleration is the
maximum rate of increase or decrease of the speed of a vibrating mass
considering its structure and/or moving components.

g) Frequency: the number of cycles of the vibrating mass per unit of


time, stated in cycles per minute(c/mm) or cycles per second (c/s). By
international agreement Hertz (Hz) is the unit of frequency and
equivalent to cycles per second.

h) Phase: The position of the vibrating object (such as a rotor. shaft,


sheave, gear, etc.) at any given instant with respect to a reference at
some fixed point (bearing housing, case, cover, guard, etc.) normally
displayed by an oscilloscope, stroboscopic light or a remote phase
meter (electromagnetic pickup or photocell).
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 7 of 29

i) Critical Speed: the frequency or speed of a rotating mass (pump


impellers, couplings, pinion gears, compressors rotors, etc.) that
corresponds to a resonant frequency of the system:

j) Resonance: marked increase in vibration amplitude that occurs when


the frequency of an exciting or forcing oscillation (such as an
unbalanced rotor) corresponds to the natural frequency of the unit or
system.

k) Simple Harmonic Motion: a vibratory movement that is repetitious


with respect to time, i.e., normally considered not containing complex
signals and usually described as pure sinusoidal.

I) RMS Level: a root mean square measure of vibration amplitude that


lakes the lime history into account and gives a value that is directly
related lo the energy content of the signal, (an indication of possible
destructive capabilities).

m) Unfiltered (Filter Out): oscillating disturbances or waves in the form


of electrical signals received by a device such as a vibration analyzer
that allows all energy levels to pass without distinguishing as to their
frequency, i.e., the maximum vibration felt at any given pickup location
before analysis.

n) Filtered (Filter In): oscillating disturbances that have been separated


on the basis of their frequencies with a vibration analyzer. Readings
taken with the filter in are used for entering tables found in Appendix. A

o) Seismic Pickup: a transducer or sensing device consisting of a


moving coil in a permanent magnetic field whose voltage output is
directly proportional to the pickup case velocity. This system simulates
a fixed point in space (for reference) to determine equipment vibration
amplitudes.

p) Non Contact Pickup: also called a proximity probe 8 device that is


capable of measuring distance or a change thereof between any
electrical conductive surface and the small coil In the tip of an eddy
current probe-part of an electronic measuring system. Used with
monitors or readout devices to provide an equipment protective system
with continuous surveillance of machinery condition.

q) Signature Analysis: the trace of a filtered vibration signal on an


amplitude versus frequency plot where spectrum densities can be
analyzed, usually in displacement or velocity modes (see example in
Appendix. C)
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 8 of 29

4. GENERAL

4.1It shall be the Supplier’s responsibility to bring promptly to Issuer’s


attention any error or discrepancies which are found to exist in this
standard, attached specifications and/or drawings.

4.2 Requests for substitutions and/or exceptions to this standard shall


be submitted in writing, complete with all pertinent engineering
information required for the Issuer’s evaluation. When time does not
permit compliance with this section, workable agreements may be
reached orally. Documentation of any such verbal agreements shall be
made including the names of personnel involved, their titles and
affiliation.

4.3 The Issuer’s duly authorized agents and/or representatives shall be


provided with the following privileges:

a) Free access to those portions of the Supplier’s facilities utilized in any


manner for the construction, fabrication or assembly of the equipment to
be tested or inspected under this standard.

b) When required, the right to review any data which may be related to
one or all of the following: material selection, fabrication, assembly,
balancing or testing of the manufactured equipment. If a unit is found
unacceptable and remedial work is required information related to
machining tolerances and balancing certification limits utilized, or
techniques applied may be requested for an on the spot review.

c) The right to inspect: test, and/or witness any activities in conjunction


with this standard and to reject any work. Material or procedure deemed
sub-standard.

4.4 The Supplier shall have the right to request reasonable


compensation for Issuer requested inspection(s), testing and/or
witnessing of equipment in order to verily compliance with this standard.

4.5 The Supplier shall be responsible for and assure the Issuer that
vibration levels do not exceed the limits established by this standard as
listed in Appendix .A under the appropriate tables.

4.6 The Supplier shall assume the responsibility for, and the obtaining
of, any and all performance warranties on equipment provided to meet
this standard.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 9 of 29

5. TYPES OF EQUIPMENT

5.1 See appropriate tables in Appendix. A for acceptable levels of


vibration on specific types of equipment is listed below:

TABLE PAGE
a) Drivers

Electric Motors...........................................……………..1 17

Gas Turbines
Aircraft Derivative.....................................………3 19
Industrial.............................................…………..4 20

Reciprocating Engines....................................…………5 21
Steam Turbines...........................................……………6 22
Others...................................................………………...6 22

b) Pumps

Centrifugal...............................................………………2 18
Rotary....................................................……………… 6 22

c) Compressors

Centrifugal...............................................……………….6 22
Reciprocating.............................................……………..5 21
Rotary...................................................…………………6 22

d) Interdrives

High Speed..............................................……………….6 22
Low Speed..............................................………………..7 23
Bevel Gears..............................................………………7 23
Planetary, Epicyclic.......................................…………...6 22

e) Generators

A. C. or D. C..............................................……………..6 22

f) Axial Flow Fans, Blowers

High Speed...............................................……………...6 22
Low Speed...............................................………………8 24
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 10 of 29

6. AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

6.1 All other mechanical equipment not specifically covered in Section


5.1 including such items as skids, vessels, coolers, condensers,
refrigeration units and the like shall be designed, fabricated and
installed with supports hangers. Pulsation dampeners, etc. as required
to prevent excessive vibration to the total system or to individual pieces
of equipment.

6.2 Vibration limits are specified elsewhere (see Section 8.1) for piping
and/or valve installations that are wholly contained on or within the
physical confines of the skid or base mounted unit(s).

6.3 The vibration levels of auxiliary equipment, in no instance shall


exceed the following:

AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Frequency Displacement Velocity


(c/min) (mils, pk-pk) (in./sec, pk)

600 and below 10.0 0.30


601 - 1200 5.5 0.33
1201 - 2000 3.5 0.33
2001 - 4000 2.5 0.35
4001 - 7000 1.5 0.35
7001 - 12000 1.0 0.35
12001 - 16000 0.5 0.33
16001 - 24000 0.35 0.33
24001- 30000 0.25 0.30
30000 and above 0.20 0.27

Peak velocity readings are preferred for analysis. All data gathered shall
be recorded in both the unfiltered and filtered state. Only filtered
readings are to be used in entering the table above for acceptance
testing.

6.4 Procedures in Section 9.0 and Guidelines from Appendix. C will be


helpful in data acquisition for equipment analysis.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 11 of 29

7. ACCEPTANCE TESTING

7.1 The Supplier shall grant the Issuer or his representative permission
to enter his facility during final acceptance testing, i.e. performance,
mechanical or no load testing for the purpose of vibration analysis on
any equipment being purchased. The Issuer retains the option to supply
their own portable instruments and personnel lo analyze the equipment
being tested.

7.2 A vibration analysis shall be made on all rotating or reciprocating


equipment and any related piping. This analysis may be a requirement
within the scope of the mechanical acceptance test if mutually agreed
upon by the Supplier and the Issuer. The analysis shall be performed
on the equipment simulating field operating conditions whenever
possible. In any event, the data gathered shall be made available to the
Supplier and/or the Issuer (depending on who made the analysis or
operated the instruments) and attached to the test records.

7.3 Basic Requirements for Acceptance Testing:

a) The Supplier shall notify the Issuer at least five (5) days prior to a
scheduled test unless a different lime frame is mutually agreed upon
between the Supplier and the Issuer.

b) The duration of all tests shall be in accordance with the applicable


API code for that specific type of equipment. If no code applies and the
Issuer’s job specifications do not call out testing details, the units to be
tested shall be operated at rated speed until bearing temperatures and
operating conditions are stable. At this time, the vibration analysis shall
begin. In no instance shall the minimum time period be less than one
half hour for any acceptance test.

Note: A thermally stable condition shall be considered achieved when


the equipment bearing temperatures show that no change has occurred
which is greater than 2.5% of the previous high reading noted or
recorded during any five minute interval.

c) The Supplier shall state the critical or resonant speeds, all input and
output shaft speeds including those for any intermediate shafts in gear
trains, the number of teeth on meshing gears in an inter drive system
and any other similar information necessary to identify frequencies
during the vibration analysis. This data shall be given to the Issuer or
his representative prior lo the acceptance test and made a part of the
test report.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 12 of 29

d) The Issuer shall have the right to make on-the-spot interpretations


and/or decisions to assure satisfactory equipment performance as well
as the validity of the test. The test report shall include all raw data and
any interpretations or recommendations that were made by either the
Supplier or Issuer personnel. Both parties shall sign the test reports for
their respective equipment files.

7.4 Additional requirements:

a) The Supplier shall utilize the Issuer’s monitors. non-contact probes


and/or seismic pickups wherever possible if such instrumentation is
being supplied with the equipment under test.

b) Final or trim balancing of any rotor, gear shaft or other element


requiring a two plane correction shall be governed as follows: Plane A
shall be within ten percent of Plane B’s residual unbalance and vice
versa. At no time shall the Supplier’s standard limits for balancing be
exceeded by applying this requirement. The intent is to provide for a
more uniformity balanced rotating element thus minimizing the couple
within the unit.

7.5 This vibration standard does not in any way, manner, or form,
supplant other routine pre or post inspections such as hydrostatic,
welding, fabrication, disassembly after testing, painting, packaging, etc.

8. INDUCED PIPING VIBRATIONS

8.1 Piping vibrations caused mainly by internal flows (pulsations) are


not included in the scope of this standard. However, mechanically
induced piping vibrations caused by plant equipment such as those
types outlined in Section 5.0 are limited as follows:

a) All piping attached to or made a part of the equipment package shall


not exceed the amplitude allowed for the unit to which it is connected.

b) Piping external to the equipment base or skid mounting shall be


governed by the vibration limits imposed on the unit to which it is
connected for a distance of ten (10) feet or to the first anchored pipe
support.

c) General piping beyond the first pipe support shall not exceed twice
the Maximum Allowable Amplitude (velocity or displacement amplitudes
given in Appendix. A tables) for that particular type of equipment to
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 13 of 29
which it is connected over the frequency range of 60 to 6000 c/min (1
Hz to 100 Hz). Additional supports may be required to dampen the
piping excitation if the limits above are exceeded.

d) Allowable Piping Vibration above 6001 c/min shall be determined for


displacement readings by the sum of the Maximum Allowable Amplitude
and the square root of 12000 divided by the equipment operating speed
in revolutions per minute (rev/min).

APV = MAA + 12000 mils


rev/min

e) Allowable Piping Vibration above 6001 c/min shall be determined for


velocity readings by the sum of the Maximum Allowable Amplitude and
the square root of 12000 divided by the equipment operating speed in
revolutions per minute (r/min).

APV = MAA + 12000 in/s


rev/min

Example: from Appendix A Table 3 for Aircraft Derivative Gas Turbines


at 8000 rev/min using velocity readings.

APV = 0.52 + 12000 in/s


8000

9. PROCEDURES, REQUIREMENTS AND INSTRUCTION

9.1 The vibration levels shall be recorded from the horizontal, vertical
and axial planes for all accessible bearing locations on the equipment
and at other positions designated in the specific vibration tables. Do not
record data from locations on thin walled casings, covers, housings or
similar enclosures. Flange or structurally rigid locations are acceptable
for data points.

In general, vibration readings are to be taken on bearing housings, gas


turbine case flanges or as close to the horizontal and vertical planes of
bearings as possible unless staled otherwise in the specific equipment
tables.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 14 of 29
9.2 During the analysis, particular attention shall be given to the
vibration levels and frequencies at:

a) Equipment’s operating range or design speed (S)

b) Twice the above speed (2S)

c) One-half the operating speed (0.5S)

d) Ten percent above design speed or overspeed (1.1S)

9.3 Standard forms used when recording vibration levels, frequencies


and operating conditions shall also require a sketch locating the planes
of and for the data acquisition. A typical form, Guideline No. 1, can be
found in Appendix. C When signature analysis or X-Y plots are utilized,
an equipment sketch on the hard copy is required to locate the planes
of data acquisition. These copies shall be made a part of the test
records. A typical form for this method is found in Appendix. C as
Guideline No. 2.

9.4 During the vibration data acquisition, operational information must


be recorded just prior to the start of an analysis. When applicable, such
items as temperatures, pressures, flow rates, loads, intermediate shaft
speeds, type of couplings, etc. are required for each unit analyzed.

9.5 A representative curve can be obtained, eliminating the step


function format when using displacement values (mils) for entering the
vibration acceptance level table by plotting all of the velocity values
(in/s) at their respective maximum frequency range points on a
reproduction of the nomograph in Appendix. B

10. CONVERSION INFORMATION

10.1 ISO, British and other European standards have chosen “vibration
severity” to classify acceptable or permissive levels of rotating
machinery vibration. The parameter chosen to characterize “vibration
severity” is the RMS value of velocity in the frequency range from 600
to 6000 c/min (10 to 100 Hz). All references in this standard are to peak
velocity only. To convert to RMS (the value representative of the energy
content of the signal received) simply multiply the peak velocity reading
by 0.707.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 15 of 29

10.2 Other conversion factors for simple harmonic motion that may be
required occasionally are given in the following chart:

MULTIPLY NUMERICAL BY TO OBTAIN


VALUE OF

Average 1.111 RMS

Average 1.571 Peak

Average 3.142 Peak-Peak

RMS 0.900 Average

RMS 1.141 Peak

RMS 2.828 Peak-Peak

Peak 0.636 Average

Peak 0.707 RMS

Peak 2.000 Peak-Peak

Peak-Peak 0.318 Average

Peak-Peak 0.354 RMS

Peak-Peak 0.500 Peak

Acceleration and velocity used in the vibration nomograph (Appendix.


B) or throughout this standard are peak values. Displacement values
are always considered peak to peak. For conversion to other formats
use the table above. Note that these conversions are for sinusoidal
wave forms: however, good approximations can be obtained for a
representative overview of more complex vibration signals.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 16 of 29

10.3 Conversions Between the English and Metric Systems:

MULTIPLY NUMERICAL BY TO OBTAIN


VALUE OF
mils 25.4 microns
in/s 25.4 mm/s
2
in/s 25.4 mm/s2
mm 1000 microns
microns 0.03937 mils
mm/s 0.03937 in/s
mm/s2 0.03937 in/s2

Note: DO NOT USE decimal equivalents for mil values in the above
table such as 0.010, 0.0176 or 0.025 inches. Use whole numbers 10,
17.6 and 25 when converting to or from either system.
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 17 of 29
APPENDIX. A TABLES

TABLE 1

ELECTRICAL MOTORS
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

NEMA Frame NEMA Approx: HP Speed, rev/min or Displacement Velocity


Series Frame Size Frequency, c/min
Range (mils, pk-pk) (in/s)
180, 200 143T to 184T 0.5-2.0 3600 and below 0.75 0.15
210, 220

250,280 213R to 286T 2.0-30 3600 and below 1.0 0.2


320

360, 400 324T to 445T 40-350 3600 and below 1.0 0.2
440,550

Large 350-Up 3600 and below 1.0 0.2


Motors

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and filtered state. Only
the filtered readings are used in entering the table above for acceptance
levels.

On small motors with anti-friction or sleeve type bearings, vibration


readings are to be taken on the bearing housing as close to the center
line as possible.

On large motors with sleeve type bearings, vibration readings are to be


taken on the shaft if possible

TABLE 2
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 18 of 29

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Speed Range, rev/min or Displacement Velocity


Frequency, c/min (mils, pk-pk) (in/s)
Bearing Type Bearing Type
1 2
A.F. Sleeve A.F.1 Sleeve2
1800 or below 3.0 ---- 0.27 ----
1801 – 4500 2.0 2.0 0.3 0.3
4501 – 6000 ---- 1.5 ----- 0.33
6001 and above ---- 1.0 ----- 0.35

API-610. Design-Section 2, 10a-f

1. Anti-friction (A.F.) bearing vibration readings are to be taken on the


bearing housing as close to the center line as possible.

2. Sleeve bearing vibration readings are to be taken on the shaft if


possible.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are lo be used in entering the table above for
acceptance levels.

TABLE 3
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 19 of 29

AIRCRAFT DERIVATIVE GAS TURBINES


ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min
1000 and below 8.0 0.45
1001-4000 4.0 0.5
4001-6000 2.0 0.52
6001 - 8000 1.5 0.52
8001- 12000 1.0 0.50
12001 - 18000 0.75 0.45
18001 – 25000 0.50 0.40
25000 and above 0.30 0.35

Peak velocity readings are preferred for acceptance testing.


Displacement values are selected near the mid-frequency range.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are to be used in entering the table above for
acceptance levels.

TABLE 4
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 20 of 29
INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min

1000 and below 5.0 0.27


1001 - 4000 2.5 0.32
4001 - 6000 1.5 0.33
6001 - 8000 1.0 0.34
8001 - 12000 0.7 0.33
12001 - 18000 0.6 0.32
18001 - 25000 0.35 0.30
25000 and above 0.25 0.27

Peak velocity readings are preferred for acceptance testing.


Displacement values are selected near the mid-frequency range.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are lo be used in entering the table above for
acceptance levels.

TABLE 5
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 21 of 29
RECIPROCATING ENGINES AND COMPRESSORS
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min

50 - 500 10.0 0.30


501 - 1000 7.0 0.32
1001 – 1500 5.0 0.33
1501 - 2000 4.0 0.35
2001 and above 3.0 0.35

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are to be used in entering the table above for
acceptable levels.

TABLE 6
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 22 of 29
STEAM TURBINES, CENTRIFUGAL AND ROTARY COMPRESSORS, GENERATORS, HIGH
SPEED AND EPICYCLIC GEARS, ROTARY PUMPS, HIGH SPEED FANS AND BLOWERS
ACCEPTABLE VIBRATION AMPLITUDES

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min

500 and below 7.0 0.25


501 - 1000 5.0 0.27
1001 - 3000 3.0 0.30
3001 - 4500 2.0 0.31
4501 - 6000 1.5 0.32
6001 - 8000 1.0 0.33
8001 - 12000 0.6 0.33
12001 - 18000 0.4 0.32
18001 - 25000 0.3 0.31
25001 and above 0.25 0.30

Peak velocity readings are preferred for acceptance testing.


Displacement values are selected near the mid-frequency range.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are to be used in entering the table above for
acceptance levels.

TABLE 7
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 23 of 29
LOW SPEED INTERDRIVES, BEVEL GEARS

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min

100 and below 14.0 0.25


101 - 200 12.0 0.26
201 - 300 10.0 0.27
301 - 400 8.0 0.28
401 - 500 7.0 0.29
501 - 600 6.0 0.3
601 - 700 5.0 0.3

Peak velocity readings are preferred for acceptance testing.


Displacement values are selected near the mid-frequency range.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are to be used in entering the table above for
acceptable levels.

TABLE 8
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 24 of 29
AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS AND COOLING TOWER FANS
(Low Speed)

Speed Range, rev/min Displacement Velocity


or (mils, pk-pk) (in/s, pk)
Frequency, c/min

120 and below 16.0 0.24


121 - 180 14.0 0.25
181 - 240 12.0 0.26
241 - 300 11.0 0.26
301 - 360 10.0 0.27
361 - 420 9.0 0.27

421 - 480 8.0 0.28

481 – 540 7.0 0.29

541 - 600 6.0 0.3

Peak velocity readings are preferred for acceptance testing.


Displacement values are selected near the mid-frequency range.

All data shall be recorded in both the unfiltered and the filtered state.
Only the filtered readings are to be used in entering the table for
acceptable levels.

APPENDIX. B
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 25 of 29
MONO GRAPH COMMENTS

The nomograph was developed for vibration consisting of simple


harmonic motion or that of a pure sinusoidal waveform exhibiting four
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 26 of 29
quantities that make up the respective axes, namely: frequency,
displacement, velocity and acceleration.

Complex equipment or multiple body trains may produce vibration


signals that deviate from the basic sinusoidal wave form. This must be
considered when using the nomograph.

When the nomograph is used as a guide to determine whether a


machine is operating satisfactorily or approaching a necessary
overhaul, the velocity mode should be chosen, Peak velocity has been
stressed during the development of the nomograph for ease in
converting to approximate values of displacement or acceleration.
Conversion to RMS values can be made by simply multiplying peak
velocity by 0.707.

In general, velocity should be used for most acceptance testing or basic


trouble-shooting jobs. Displacement is recommended for non-contact
proximity type equipment protective systems and any necessary
analyses for determining machine conditions. (from nomograph) in mils
or microns. Acceleration is considered best for frequencies higher than
60,000 c/min or for in-depth analysis work.

These three modes are represented on the nomograph with velocity on


the horizontal, displacement on the lines sloping upward from left to
right and acceleration on the lines sloping down from left to right. Most
line values are found on their outer edges or near the perimeter:

Frequency logarithmic graduations are 60 up to 600, 600 up to 6,000,


6,000 up to 60,000, etc.

Note: Exact values from the nomograph are not required nor is it
necessary to have more significant numbers than the graph format
utilizes.

Using the Nomograph

Example - Problem: Determine the machinery condition of a gas turbine


driven generator that has just alarmed at 6 g’s. Unit is operating at
17000 r/min. For practice, find the equivalent readings in displacement
and velocity modes.

Solution: Follow the 6 g acceleration line to a point slightly to the left of


the 18000 c/min intersecting frequency line (vertical line to right of
12000 c/min). Machinery condition is very rough. After finding the
approximate intersection or location follow an imaginary parallel line to
the lower left hand edge for a displacement value- read approximately
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 27 of 29
1.3 mils. Next, to find an equivalent velocity value- follow the horizontal
lines to the right or left (from the original intersection point) and read 1.2
in/s.

Note that all scales are logarithmic but approximations can be readily
made such as: 1/3 of the distance between adjacent graduations is 0.2,
½ the distance is about 0.3 and 2/3 of the distance between lines is
approximately 0.5. Use these values for easier nomograph data
manipulation.

VIBRATION DATA
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 28 of 29

APPENDIX. C GUIDELINES
Arthit Project SPECIFICATION AGS-22

EQUIPMENT VIBRATION Rev.0


Page 29 of 29
REFERENCE GUIDELINE# 2