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Vibration lecture

Vibration lecture

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Vibration of Two-DOF Systems

1. Equations of Motion

Consider a two-DOF model as shown in Fig. 1. The free-body diagrams for masses

M1 and m 2 are also shown in Fig. 1. Note that the inertia forces for both masses

are associated with minus sign, for the inertia forces can be considered as resisting

forces (cf., f ma = 0). Summing the forces acting on each mass, the equations

of motion for the coupled two-mass-spring-damper system can be written as

For M1 :

For m 2 :

m 2 x2 = k2 (x2 x1 ) c2 (x2 x1 )

(1)

M

K1 x 1

M

c2 (x2

x1 )

x1 )

1

x

k2 (x2

f1(J )

(-M

c2 (x2

k2 (x2

x1 )

x1 )

m

K

x

(- m

2

x

As the preceding equation involves two displacements, x1 and x2 , its general solution

involves complex matrix differential algebra. For design considerations, however,

important insight can be gained by considering the special case of forcing function

given by

f 1 (t) = F1 e j t , f 2 (t) = F2 e j t

(2)

so that the solution assumes the form of

x1 (t) = X 1 e j t

x2 (t) = X 2 e

j t

(3)

2 M1 X 1 = F1 K 1 X 1 + k2 (X 2 X 1 ) + jc2 (X 2 X 1 )

m 2 X 2 = F2 k2 (X 2 X 1 ) jc2 (X 2 X 1 )

2

(4)

In order to solve for X 1 and X 2 , lets rearrange the preceding equation to read

(2 M1 + jc2 + K 1 + k2 ) X 1 = F1 + (k2 + jc2 ) X 2

( m 2 + jc2 + k2 ) X 2 = F2 + (k2 + jc2 )X 1

2

(5)

H2 ()F1 + H12 ()F2

X1 =

2

H1 () H2 () H12

()

X2 =

2

H1 ()H2 () H12

()

(6)

H1 () = (2 M1 + jc2 + K 1 + k2 )

H2 () = (2 m 2 + jc2 + k2 )

H12 () = (k2 + jc2 )

Although (6) appears to be very complex, several simplifications are possible to aid

vibration designers. This is studied below.

It turns out that the motions of X 1 and X 2 given by (6) are not randomly independent

as the solution may suggest. They are interlinked by the property called mode shapes.

Understanding the physical properties of mode shapes is important if one is tasked to

design structures subject to vibrations.

As a motivation, let us consider the following special 2-DOF case:

m 1 = m 2 = 1,

k1 = k2 = 2.618 2 , c2 = 0, f 1 (t) = 0

(7)

f 2 (t) =

sin (0.98 2.618t)

(8)

Figure 2 illustrates the two responses subject to the two excitations specified in (8).

Observe that, for the case of f 2 (t) = 0.2 sin (0.98 t), both mass m 1 and mass m 2

are moving in phase, that is, they move in the same direction in time. However, when

the system is subjected to f 2 (t) = sin (0.98 2.618t), mass m 1 and mass m 2 are

moving out phase, that is, they move in the opposite directions in time. In other words,

depending on the excitation frequency, the motions of the two masses are drastically

different. To understand this strange phenomena, one has to understand the roles of

modes and mode shapes. To this end, let us recast (1) in a matrix form with c = 0:

m1

0

0

m2

x1

x2

k1 + k2

k2

k2

k2

x1

x2

f 1 (t)

f 2 (t)

(9)

The characteristic equation of the above coupled 2-dof differential equation(9) can be

obtained as follows. First, we assume the solution of their homogeneous equations in

the form

x1

x2

x1

x2

e jt

(10)

at mass 2 with omega= 0.98*omega 1

at mass 2 with omega= 0.98*omega2

2.5

2.5

m2

m2

Position of

Position of

Mass Positions for Mode 2

Mass 2

1.5

m1

Mass 2

1.5

k2

m1

Position of

Mass 1

Position of

Mass 1

0.5

0.5

k1

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Time

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

Time

1.6

1.8

[2

m1

0

0

k + k2

+ 1

m2

k2

k2

x

] 1

k2

x2

=0

(11)

Hence, the characteristic equation is obtained by requiring that the above equation has

a nontrivial solution:

k1 + k2 k2 2 k1 k2

+ ) +

=0

m1

m2

m1m2

(12)

Note that, with m 1 = m 2 = 1, k1 = k2 = 2.618 2 , the two roots of the above

characteristic equation are given by

det

k1 + k2 2 m 1

k2

k2

k2 2 m 2

=0

n1 = ,

4 (

n2 = 2.618

(13)

These two values are called characteristic values whose square roots are called the

natural frequencies or vibration modes of the system.

The corresponding eigenvectors can be computed from the second row of (11):

x2 k2 x1 + k2 x2 = 0

2

x1

k2 2

2

=

=1

x2

k2

k2

(14)

Note that for the two modes computed in (13), we have two different expressions:

x1

2

For = ,

=1

= 0.618

x2

2.618 2

x1

2.6182 2

For = 2.618,

=1

= 1.618

2

x2

2.618

The ratios of these eigenvector sets are plotted in Figure 3.

Mode Shape for Mode 1

2

Mass Point

Mass Point

Fixed

Fixed

end

end

0.0

0.6

1.0

-1.6

1.0

(15)

Observe from Figure 3 that for the case of the first mode when mass 1 moves in the

same direction with its amplitude of 0.616 while mass 2 moves a unit amplitude. In

other words, the two masses move in phase as illustrated in Figure 2. As for the second

mode, mass 1 moves in the opposite direction by -1.618 while mass 2 moves a unit

amplitude, which is also illustraed in Figure 2. From these observations we conclude

that mode shapes indicate how the system will deform when subjected to a harmonic

excitation whose frequency is close to one of the natural frequencies (or vibration

modes) of the system. Thus, mode-shape information is useful in designing structures

subjected to harmonic excitations. Examples of such systems include propellered

airplanes, ships, motor vehicles, and many other machinery equipment.

In Matlab we invoke the following routine:

[X, D] = eig(K, M);

where X is the eigenvector, D is the eigenvalues.

For example, the eigenproblem of the 2-DOF system studied in the preceding sections

can now be analyzed by MATLAB with

2 2.618 2

K=

2.618 2

2.618 2

,

2.618 2

M=

1

0

0

1

Upon using the following MATLAB code, we find the following results:

%

% 2 dof eigenvalue analysis

%

%stiffness matrix

K = [

2*2.618*pi^2

-2.618*pi^2;

-2.618*pi^2

2.618*pi^2];

(16)

% mass matrix

M = [

1

0;

0

1];

% call eigenvalue routine

[X, D] =

eig(K, M);

lambda = diag(D);

disp([Eigenvalues of 2-dof system

num2str(lambda) ]);

disp( );

disp([Eigenvectors of 2-dof system

disp([

num2str(X(1,:)) ] );

num2str(X(2,:)) ] );

% compute

the frequencies

freq = diag(D);

disp( );

freq = sqrt(freq);

disp([Frequencies of 2-dof system

num2str(freq)]);

Eigenvalues of 2-dof system

67.6464

9.86948

0.85065

-0.52573

0.52573

0.85065

8.2247

3.1416

Note that MATLAB prints out the highest mode first. Hence, the mode shapes are

given by

For the second mode with 2 = 2.618 = 8.2247 : X2 =

x21

x22

0.85065

0.5257

0.525731

0.850650

(17)

The mode shapes computed by MATLAB is normalized so that their vectorial length

is unity. If the modal amplitude at mass 2, x22 , for the second mode shape is scaled

to be unity from MATLAB computed value x22 = 0.52573, then we would have

For the first mode with 1 = = 3.14157 : X1 =

x11

x12

x21 = 1.618 as given by (15). The same is true for the modal amplitude for mode 1

at mass 1 and mass 2 points. Finally, one may express X2 as

For the second mode with 2 = 2.618 = 8.22474 : X2 =

x21

x22

0.85065

0.52573

(18)

An important application of the two-dof vibration model is to study shock isolation

design of a suspension system as shown Figure 1. If Figure 1 is rearranged as shown

in Figure 4, the same model can be used as a resonator model whose generic characteristics can be used for the design of accelerometers and more recently as filters of

microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In either case, the governing equation (1)

is applicable.

Let us parameetrize the model as

1 =

K 1 /M1 , 2 =

k2 /m 2 , c = 2 m 2 2 , = m 2 /M1

(19)

and normalize the frequence response X 1 () given in (6) by its static displacement

with F2 = 0:

B

M

x1

k /2

2

2

K1 /2

xst (1) = F1 /K 2

(20)

H1 =

X 1 ()

K 1 H22 ()

=

2

xst (1)

H11 () H22 () H12

()

(21)

Dividing both the nominator and the denominator by M1 m 2 and utilizing the parameters introduced in (20), the frequency response function H1 () at mass 1 can be

expressed as

H1 =

H 22 ()

2

()

H 11 () H 22 () H 12

H 11 () = 2 + j2 2 + 12 + 22

H 22 () = 2 + j2 2 + 22

H 12 () = ( j2 2 + 22 )

(22)

of a 2-DOF Suspension Model

101

Amplitude

Invariant points

100

-1

10

101

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 5 illustrates the frequency response function (FRF) for different damping ratios

with

1 = 2 = 10 H z, = 0.1

(23)

Note that there are two points that all FRF curves pass through two invariant points.

It is these invariant points that were first discovered by den Hartog and Ormondroyd

in 1928 who subsequently utilized their properties for improved design of mechanical

shock attenuation.

In their design study by using Figure 1, den Hartog and Ormondroyd observed that

if the magnitudes of the two invariant points are made to be the same by varying the

mass ratio and the damping ratio, a near optimum design goal can be achieved.

For the design of accelerometers using Figure 4, the objective is to maximize the

amplitude of the frequency response of mass 2 in order to decrease the signal to noise

ratio while realizing a flat plateau of frequency interval of interest.

For the design of resonators using Figure 4, in addition to maximizing the amplitude

of FRF at mass 2, the gap between the two invariant points should be minimized.

MATLAB code that produced Figure 5 islisted below.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% hartog_oscillator.m

% by k c park 15 january 2002

clear

% Define some useful numbers:

dtr=pi/180;

Hz2rps=2*pi; rps2Hz=1/2/pi; % Conversions to/from Hz and rad/s

% Natural frequencies of individual masses: 10Hz

w1=10*Hz2rps;

w2=w1;

mu = 0.1;

for zeta =0:0.05:0.8

a0=1; a1 =2*zeta*w2; a2 = w2^2;

b0=1;

b1 =2*zeta*(1+mu)*w2;

b2 = w1^2+w2^2 + mu*(1+4*zeta^2)*w2^2 - 4*mu*zeta^2*w2^2;

b4 = w2^2*(w1^2+mu*w2^2)- mu*w2^4;

sys = tf ( [a0 a1 a2], [b0 b1

b2

b3 b4]);

wf= logspace(0.5,1.5,400)*Hz2rps;

% Find the frequency response

H=freqresp(sys,wf); % This ends up being a 3 dimensional array!

H=reshape(H,size(wf)); % this makes it the same size as wf

% Plot the amplitude as a function of frequency in Hz

loglog(wf*rps2Hz,w1^2*abs(H)), grid

xlabel(Frequency (Hz))

ylabel(Amplitude)

hold on;

end

axis([5 30 0.1 30]);

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

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