Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.

Yazd University

Surface power
(I) the difference in refractive index the radius of curvature of the surface, r.

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

For F curved refracting surfaces, the extent by which the incoming light is deviated d f ti f th t t b hi h th i i li ht i d i t d from its original path is known as the “surface power” (D) and is dependent on:

Spherical single , thin lens lens, thick lens

(II)

Glass Block

n

n'

r F D = n' - n r

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Surface power p
Surface Power, D: D = n’ – n r

Vergence(1)
How do we specify the extent to which the incident/emergent rays converge or diverge?

r must be measured in metres

Rays of Light Diverging from a Point Object

⇒ unit for D is the reciprocal metre , i.e. 1/metres or m-1 The reciprocal metre is better known as the dioptre Higher values for D result from 1- large differences between the refractive indices 2- h h 2 when the value f r i small (i the curvature is steep) l for is ll (i.e. h i )

The arc shown is called a wavefront, & the curvature of the
Rays aimed at the centre of curvature of a spherical refracting surface will pass through undeviated. Why ?

wavefront is called the vergence a efront ergence

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Vergence(2) g ( )
Note: with increased distance from source, wavefront gets less curved (i.e. has less vergence) ( g )

Vergence(3) g ( )

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

⇒ the vergence of the wavefront is determined by: (i) distance from point of interest to source (ii) refractive index of medium in which rays are travelling

Unit for Vergence? so inverse relationship exists
Vergence ∝

V=n/d

Reciprocal metre.... ⇒ Dioptre -ve vergence: ⇒ rays diverging 1 distance-to-source +ve vergence: ⇒ rays converging

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Sample Calculation 1: Light is made to converge by a lens in air to a point that is 75cm from the lens. Find the vergence of the wavefront when the ray leaves the lens, and at 50 and 100 f l th l d t 50cm d 100cm from th lens. the l
Converging 50cm behind lens

Converging 50cm behind lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

+75cm

Diverging 100cm behind lens

(“Image Vergence”)

On leaving the lens: Vergence = 1 = 1 = l’ +0.75
+4D

+1.33D

50cm from lens: Vergence = 1 = 1 = l’ +0.25 0 25
+75cm
Diverging 100cm behind lens

Which is the point of interest?

100cm from lens: Vergence = 1 = 1 = -4D 4D l’ -0.25

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Vergence
1 2

Vergence 1→2
V1 =
d

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

n n ⇒L L V1 n L−d

V2 =
L

8 cm V= 1/(-0.08) = -12.5 m-1

8 cm V=1/(+0.08) = 12.5m-1

V=1/∞ = 0

V1 ) V1 n = ⇒ V2 = V2 = V1 d n n − d ( − d )( ) 1 − V1 ( ) n V1 V1 n n n(

Refraction at spherical interfaces
“Some rules” 1. 1 2. 3. 4. 4 5. 6.

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Refraction by Spherical Surfaces

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

At point P we apply the law of refraction to obtain

Light travels left to right V = origin – measure all distances from here R = positive to the right of V, negative to the left S = positive f real objects (i.e. one t the l ft of V) negative f iti for l bj t (i to th left f V), ti for virtual S’ = positive for real image (to right of V), negative for virtual images Heights – y,y’ – positive up, negative down

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ 2 i i
Using the small angle approximation we obtain

n1θ1 = n2 θ 2
Substituting for the angles θ1 and θ2 we obtain

R-

R+ V

+

n1 (α − ϕ ) = n2 (α ′ − ϕ )
Neglecting the distance QV and writing t iti tangents f th angles gives t for the l i n2 > n1

-

+

_

⎛ h h⎞ ⎛h h ⎞ n1 ⎜ − ⎟ = n2 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ s R⎠ ⎝ s′ R ⎠

Refraction by Spherical Surfaces II

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Rearranging the equation we obtain

Guss s Guss`s Formula and surface power
n1, n γ α γ R n2, n`

n1 n n −n − 2 = 1 2 s s′ R
Using the same sign convention as for mirrors we obtain

n1 n n −n + 2 = 2 1 s s′ R

S,O

S`, I

n n' n'−n + = s s' R
S = positive for real objects (i.e. one to the left of V), negative for virtual

n2 > n1

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Other sign convention
• In some references Gauss` formula is defined as:

Vergence & surface power
n1 n2 − n1 n2 + = o R i
n1 n2

n1 n2 − n1 n2 + = o R i
O= negative for real object R-

O

i

+
R+ Oi+

n1/o = inter vergence (n2-n1)/R = surface power n n2/i = exit vergence Inter vergence+ surface power (optics system power) =exit vergence

_ _

+

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Image Formation—Single Curves Surface n( i) (air)
object
object distance,

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Example
Example: o = 5mm, n2 = 1.5, (n1=1) radius of the lens=1.43mm lens=1 43mm What is exit vergence? What is i?

n n’ (glass)
image

O

i

r
image distance, di t

n1 n 2 − n1 n2 + = o R i

o
n1 n2 n 2 + = o f2 i 1 1 1 + = o f2 i

n1 n2 − n1 n2 + = o R i V + β =V`

Gauss` f G formula l

i
Gauss’s Equation for refraction by a single spherical surface n (n’ - n) o + r = n’ i

1/(5x10 3)+(1.5-1)/(1.43x10 3)=1000/1.5 1/(5 10-3) (1 5 1)/(1 43 10-3) 1000/1 5 V=1000/1.5 i=1.5/V i=10 mm

Gaussian lens equatioin vergence notation ( (n’ - n) ) n n n’ = + o r i

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

FOCAL LENGTH AND LENS CURVATURE R = 4 mm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

V = o OBJECT VERGENCE V V` = i IMAGE VERGENCE
( (n’ - n) ) POWER OF REFRACTING SURFACE β= r n’

n

R = 8 mm

R = 10 mm Longer R ⇒ less curved lens Less lens curvature ⇒ longer focal length

β + V = V`

From Gauss’s Equation to the Vergence Equation 1 + 1 = 1 1 1 = s’ -s 1 1 + 1 =

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Optical system & Vergence

1

-s

s’

f

f

f

s

s’
Inter vergence V Optical p system O β i V V` Exit vergence

P=

1

Lens power

f

1 U= s
Object vergence

V=

1

s’

Image vergence

f, s s’ f s, s in meters

V int er , vergence + β optics, systempower = Vexit , vergence *

P+U=V

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

example
A small object i l ll bj is located 0 1 m i f d 0.1 in front of a convex surface. Ground f f G d with a 0.03 m radius on a block of glass of index 1.66. find the position of image; (a) If the object and glass are in air. (b) If both are immersed in water (n=4/3) Solution S l ti : o i (a) from Gauss`formula, we find that; n1/o+(n2-n1)/R+n2/i n 1.66/i=1.00/-0.1+1.66-1.00/+0.03→ i=+0.138 m (image is real) (b): 1.66/i=4/3/-0.1+(1.66-4/3)/+0.03→i=1.66/-2.444=-0.679 (image is virtual)

Spherical Surface Focusing Example
Example: E l s = 5mm, n2 = 1.5, s' = 10mm ( (n1=1) ) What is the radius of the lens?

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

( n − 1) 1 n2 + = const = 2 s s' R . . . 1 15 2 15 05 + = + = 5 10 10 10 R . . 35 05 = 10 R 35R = 5 . R= 5 = 143mm . 35 .

n n' n'− n + = s s' R
n n` s s,

n1 n2 − n1 n2 + = o R i

More Spherical Surface Focusing Examples
For the same lense, consider s = 6mm. What is s’?

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Interesting Case
Let s from ∞

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

1 n2 (n2 − 1) = constant + = s s′ R
R = 1.43 mm 6 mm 5 mm

as “s” increases “s' “ decreases (and vice versa.) As the point “O” goes to ∞, O' moves in to a certain distance -- called the focal length f': n1

8.18 8 18 mm 10 mm

1 1.5 0.5 + = 6 s′ 1.43 1.5 = 0.35 − 0.1666 = 0.1833 s′ 1.5 = 8.18mm s′ = 0.18333

A

n2

O'

f'

Focal lengths
f f' is the focal length in the glass glass. Now let O' go to ∞:

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

f and f’
What are f and f'? Since s = ∞ f':

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

n1 n2 (n2 − n1 ) + = s s' R

B

n1

n2

n2 ( n2 − n1 ) = f′ R
and since s' = ∞ s f:

f

R

f``

f

• If we had a light source at f' (in the glass,) the lens collimates the
p output A • Similarly for a light source at f in B

n1 ( n2 − n1 ) = f R
so
f' R f = = n2 ( n2 − n1 ) n1

n1

n2

General Case
General case (we do not prove):

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

• If we want to calculate the image of the system, we can l l h i f h
calculate the image of spherical surface one after another.

For any system of lens (no matter how complicated)

n1

ººº
f System f lenses S t of l Sometimes

?

n2
f'

f f′ = n1 n2

• The image of first surface is regarded as the object of the second surface and so on. • E Especially, pay attention t th signs of object di t i ll tt ti to the i f bj t distance, image distance and curvature radius of each spherical surface.

n1 n2 (n2 − n1) is written as + = s s′ R 1 n2 1 + = (It is easier to measure f than R and n) s s′ f

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Example :

A glass b ll h a radius of 10 l ball has di f 10cm and d

refractive index of 1.5. Use paraxial rays formula to calculate the image of an object that is 40cm from the ball ball.

n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = u1 v1 r v1 = 60cm

1 1.5 1.5 − 1 + = 40 v1 10

n2 (glass) n1 (air)
O

n1 (air)
p1 p2 I2

·
u1

I1

This is the first step. I1 is the virtual image for the first lens and it is regarded as the object of the second spherical surface. So for the second surface, we have:

20cm

v2 v1

u2

n1 = 1.5, n2 = 1, u2 = −(v1 − 20) = −40cm, r = −10cm

Solution: for the first surface, we know

n1 = 1, n2 = 1.5, u1 = 40cm, r = 10cm,

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Substituting the b S b tit ti th above d t t th paraxial data to the i l ray formula, we have:

Thin lenses
• A lens is a simple coaxial system and it is an optical system including two refracting surfaces. • If th thi k the thickness of a l f lens is much smaller than curvature i h ll th t radius, the object and image distances, the thickness of the lens can be negligible in comparison with them. Such a lens is called thin lens. • Lens can converge and diverge light light.
D<<r, S, S`

n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = u 2 v2 r − 1.5 1 1 − 1.5 + = 40 v2 − 10

v2 = 11.4cm
D

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Thin lens:
Thickness small in comparison to distances of optical properties ( di of curvature, f ti l ti (radius f t focal length, image and object distances)

Some special rays for converging and diverging lenses

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

(1). Light rays parallel to the axis of a converging lens are
refracted through the focal point on the opposite side of the lens.

r
focal point
First and second focal point of a l f lens. Planes through the focal points of a lens are called focal planes.

T

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

( ) (2).

(3)

Light rays parallel to the axis of a diverging lens are refracted so that their backward continuations pass through the focal point on the same side of the lens.

Definition of converging and diverging lenses

A lens is converging if the glass is thinner around the circumference than at the center and diverging if the situation is reversed.

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

(4). (4) Graphical method
A light ray through the center of a thin lens continues un-deviated and un-displaced. A light ray parallel to the axis passes through the second focal point of a converging lens

The lens equation
According to the g formula of single spherical surface, we p , can use it one by one and finally calculate y the lens equation.
n0

n

n0

v u v1

F

Real image Virtual image

u1 = u, v1 = -u2, v2 = v,

n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = u v r

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

For the first surface, n1= n0, n2 = n

The abo e two equations can be added above t o eq ations together, then we have

n0 n n − n0 + = u v1 r1
For the second surface, n1= n, n2 = n0

1 1 n − n0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ + = u v n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎠ ⎝
If lens is in the air, n0 = 1,

n0 n n − n0 + = u v1 r1 n −n n n − + 0 = 0 v1 v r2

n n0 n0 − n + = v1 v r2

⎛1 1⎞ 1 1 + = (n − 1)⎜ − ⎟ ⎜r r u v ⎝ 1 2⎠

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

first focal distance for thin lens

⎡ n − n0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎤ 1 1 n − n0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ ⇒ f1 = ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ + = f1 ∞ n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎟ n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎟⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣
second focal distance for thin lens:

−1

Therefore we have f1 = f2 . we can s ppose e ha e e suppose that they are all equal to f and for air medium, we have

⎡ 1 1 n−n0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎜ − ⎟ ⇒ f2 = ⎢n−n0 ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟⎥ + = ∞ f2 n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎠ n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

−1

⎛1 1⎞ 1 n − n0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − = = (n − 1)⎜ − ⎜r r f n0 ⎜ r1 r2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 1 2⎠
Finally we obtain the lens equation equation,

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

example
• b) solving using Vergence:
V2 = V1 d 1 − V1 ( ) n

P1=1/+0.2 =+5,

P2= -16,

P3=+10

V2 = 5/[1-(5)(0.06)]=7.1429 m-1
On leaving lens 2 V`= V+P =(+7.1429)+(-16)=-8.8571 Translation from lens 2 to 3: V`=(-8.8571)/{1-(-8.8571)(0.06)= -5.7836m-1 On leaving lens 3 ; V``=(-5.7836)+(+10)= +4.2164

The inverse of that is image distance I3=1/+4.2164 =23.72 cm

7.3.3 Systems of two lenses

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Many optical instruments include combinations of two or M ti l i t t i l d bi ti ft more lenses. In systems of multiple lenses, the image formed by one lens becomes the object for the next lens (see the following figure).

f1

However, However same as before sometimes the second lens is placed before, between the first lens and the image. The original image pp , y y disappears, and the second lens may or may not form a new image, but the image that the first lens would have formed still serves as the object for the second lens. Because the first image i not actually formed but still functions as the object i is i i for the second lens, we call it a virtual object. The object distance u of a virtual object is negative negative.

u1

v1

u2

f2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

The case of two connected thin lenses: For the first lens u1 = u lens, 1 1 1 + = u v1 f1 For the second lens, lens u2 = -v1, v2 = v,

Suppose that the focal distance for the group of thin lenses is f, we have

1 1 1 = + f f1 f 2
v u1= u v1= -u2

1 1 1 + = v1 v f 2

1 1 1 1 + = + u v f1 f 2

For the more lens systems, we could use s e od one one o solve e . this method o e by o e to so ve them. Written as dioptric strength,

D = D1 + D2 + L

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Example 7.3: A converging lens of focal length 12 cm is placed 52 cm from another converging lens of focal length 8 cm. Calculate the image position of an object that is 16 cm in front of the first lens.

f1=12cm

52cm

f2=8cm 8c

air ·

air
16cm

air · ·

u1

v1 u2
v2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Solution: Sol tion: the image formed b the first lens by can be obtained by the given data and the thin length equation. Substituting the first j object distance of 16 cm and the focal distance of first lens into thin lens equation, we have

As the distance between the two lenses is 52 bet een t o cm, the object distance for the second lens is 52 – 48 = 4 cm. Using the focal distance for , g the second lens of 8 cm, the final image can be obtained as

1 1 1 + = u1 v1 f1
1 1 1 + = ⇒ v1 = 48cm 16 v1 12

1 1 1 1 1 1 + = ⇒ + = ⇒ v2 = −8cm u 2 v2 f 2 4 v2 8
The image is virtual.

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Magnification*
object

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Magnification
• Transverse Magnification • Axial Magnifiacation • Angular Magnification
X s do s’ di f f immage

1. Any ray that comes in parallel on one side proceeds toward a particular point, point called the focus (on the other side of the lens at a distance f from lens, the lens). 2. Any ray that arrives at the lens from the focus on one side comes out y y parallel to the axis and the other side.

Magnification cont’d
A y C B F D E X f s (d0 ) f s'(di ) x' G I

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Magnification cont’d
From equation 1 1,

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

y/ f = y x y/ x / = y f

y y' H

From equation 2,

Triangles ABC and EDB are similar, so:

y y = f x
Triangles DFG and IHG are also similar, so:

/

Or,

y/ x / f = = = M , the magnification. y f x

Consider triangle ADC and HDI, which are also similar:

y/ y = x/ f

y y/ = do di

, or

y / di = =M . y do

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Vergence & Magnification

Axial (longitudinal) Magnification
∆o ∆i

γ h γ` ` =γ h` o o h i =γ′ i i γ = o γ′ γ n2 i n2 n o V = ⇒ 1 = =M ′ n1 o n1 γ n2 i V ′ h′ M = h n1 h γ = n 2 h ′γ ′Smith − Helmholtz , Re lationship

h

o1 o2 i2

i1

oi oi f = 11 = 2 2 o1 − i1 o2 − i2 o1i1 (o 2 − i2 ) = o2 i2 (o1 − i1 ) i2 − i1 ii = 12 o2 − o1 o1o2 i2 − i1 ∆i = = M α = M t1 M t 2 = M t o2 − o1 ∆o

Magnification and Angular Spread (Angular Magnification University
αo αi

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd

)

Magnification and Angular Spread cont’d
So,

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

h

⎛ tan ⎝

αo ⎞

⎛ h⎞ =⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ do ⎠

⎛ tan ⎝

αi ⎞

⎛ h⎞ =⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ di ⎠

Therefore,
X d0 f f di X'

Consider an optical source with an angular optical output spread of p g p p p

αo

. What is the resulting angular spread

αi

h α tan ⎛ o ⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎠ do ⎛ h ⎞ ⎛ di ⎞ di = h = ⎜ ⎟⎝ ⎠ = ⎛ αi ⎞ do ⎝ do ⎠ h tan ⎝ 2 ⎠ di

= M.

after it is focused by the lens? Recall that:

For small θ, (i.e. < 20 degrees or < 0.35 radians) tan θ = θ so:

M=

α0 ( if the angles are small ) αi

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Coupling

Magnification and Angular Spread cont’d

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Common P bl C Problem: the emission angles f h i i l from a l laser di d ( LED) can diode (or be 40 to 60 degrees. The acceptance angle for a fiber can be 10 to 30 degrees. The solution is to use a lens to increase the coupling efficiency.
Laser α Lens β

Fiber

• •

Coupling Laser & Fiber

Example 2-4: 2 4: Suppose a source radiates with a 40 degree full cone angle,and it has the dimensions 20 µm x 20 µm (must be an LED). Design a lens system to decrease the beam spread to 10 degrees Also degrees. determine the image size.

Solution:

Lens System Example Problem

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Lens Systems

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

α 40 tan ⎛ ⎞ tan ⎛ o ⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0.3639 =M= = = 4.16 ⎛ αi ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ 0 08748 0.08748 tan tan ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
αo
2 20 = 4 Note: M ≈ α = i 5 2

Starting from: ( Multiply both sides by d0 ) 1 1 1 d d d 1 do + = ⇒ o + o = o ⇒1+ = do d i f do di f M f
So if M = 4.16, then:
d0 di f

1+

d 1 = o = 1.24 4.16 4 16 f

This means that the image size is 83.2 µm 20x4.16 83.2 20x4 16=83 2

d0=1.24f

Lens Systems cont’d
do = 1.24 f = 12.4cm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Systems Lens cont’d
do = 1 24 1.24mm,di = 5 16 d 5.16mm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

If the lens has a focal length of 10 cm, then:

Note: We could have chosen f = 1 mm, then our

And since

di = M ⇒ di = 4.16do ⇒ di = 51.6 cm d0
20µm x 20µm 10 deg 80µm x 80µm

This l ti is Thi solution i reasonable if we are coupling t a bl li to large diameter fiber,i.e. a fiber diameter of greater than 80 µm µm. However, However single mode fibers have core diameters on the order of only 4 to 12 µm. Fortunately, laser p , y µ diodes have small apertures, i.e. only 1 to 2 µm in height and 2 to 5 µm in width.

Laser

40 deg

Fiber

f d
0

f d
i

for Ray Rules Tracing
Four Rules for Ray Tracing: F R l f R T i

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Ray Tracing Rules Illustration

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

1. Rays travelling through the center of the lens are
undeviated,(using th thi l d i t d ( i the thin lens approximation, parallel i ti ll l surfaces). 2. Incident rays travelling parallel to the lens axis pass through the focal point after emerging from the lens.
f f

4

3. An incident ray travelling parallel to a central ray intersects that ray in the focal plane after transmission through the lens lens. 4. An incident ray passing through the focal point travels parallel to the lens axis after it emerges from the lens.

3 1 Figure 2-10: The numbers refer to the rules.

2

Magnification vs. do/f

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Other Possibilities:
Case 1:

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

1 1 1 1 1 1 , and ⇒ + = From our basic equations: + / = do di f s s f

do =∞ f

1 d d 1+ = o ⇒ = o −1 M f M f 1
5

• The object is at infinity • Only the parallel rays make it to the lens (this is why the sun's rays focus to a point) point).

Therefore, M = d f o

1 −1

4

f

and the text considers values of
M3
2

1<
Fig. Fig 2-18
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

do <2 f

1

d0

f

Other Possibilities cont’d
Case 2:

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

2<

do <∞ f
1 1 = 3 −1 2

Example: d0/f=3 M = /f=3,

The image is real, inverted, reduced (demagnified), and located between f and 2f.
A B' P P P'

Other Possibilities cont’d do =2 Case 3 C 3: f 1 1 M= = =1 2−1 1

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

The image is real, inverted, the same size as the object, and is located at 2f on the other side of the lens.
A B'

2f
Object

f
A'

P

2f
B

f'

B

f

f
A'

2f

P'

Image

Figure 2-11: The image formed by a converging lens of an object that is located at a finite distance beyond 2f'. .

Figure 2-12: The image formed by a converging lens is real, inverted, and the same size as the actual object it lf d th i th t l bj t itself.

Other Possibilities cont’d
Case 4: 1 <

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Other Possibilities cont’d
Case 5:

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

do ≤2 f
1 1 = =2 1.5 − 1 0.5

do =1 f M= 1 1 = =∞ 1 −1 0

Example: d0/f /f=1.5, M =

The image is real, inverted, enlarged (magnified), and located beyond 2f on the opposite side of the lens.
B' A

No image is formed.

A P P'

P

2 f'
B

f'

f

2f
A'

P'

f'
B

f

2f

Figure 2-13: No image is formed when the object is located at the principle focus.

Other Possibilities cont’d
Case 6 0 ≤ C 6:

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Magnification

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

do <1 f
1 1 2 = = −2 0.5 − 1 −0.5
5 4 3 2 Magnificat tion 1 0 -1 -2 2 Magnification as a function of do/f

Example: d0/f=0 5 M = /f=0.5,

The image is virtual, enlarged, and located on the same side of the lens as the object!
A'

A

f'
B

f

-3 -4 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 do/f 7 8 9 10

B' The image formed of an object less than a focal length from the lens.

Using a GRIN to collimate light
Lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Other Types of Lenses - Cylindrical lens
Focal Line

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Fig. 2-11
Lens Axis

(a)

Fiber
f

Rod Lens (b) Fiber

Focusing, collimation only in the vertical l i th ti l direction

• 1D version of the spherical lens Fig. 2-12
f

GRIN rod lenses can also be used to collimate light from al laser diode. di d

Cylindrical lens
Point Source Side View

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Cly. lens

Source

Planar Source Emitting Apertures
emittting aperature θ //

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

laser
f Point Source Top View

Side View θ⊥
Planar Source Emitting Aperature A t
Top View

θ

Semiconductor lasers (and some LEDs) have asymmetric ray divergences (or beam spread) because the emitting aperture is asymmetric.

The Graded Index Rod Lens (GRIN)
r r a
2a n
2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

r n2 z n(r)

Ray paths inside a GRIN Rod

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

n

0 1

2a

Fig. 5-4 g

Figure 5-5 Ray paths along a GRIN fiber.
P (c)

GRIN rod. (c) A typical ray path.
Fig. 5-6

GRIN cont’d
P/4

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Using a GRIN to collimate light
Lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

P/4 (b)

(a)

(a)

Fiber

Rod Lens

Graded Index Rod. ( ) quarter-pitch lens collimates light emerging from (a) A q p g g g a point. (b) A quarter-pitch lens focuses a collimated light beam.

(b)

Fiber

GRIN rod lenses can also be used to collimate light from al laser diode. di d

The Numerical Aperture

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

The Numerical Aperture
β θ n1 α o p t ic a l s y s t e m

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Numerical Aperture (NA or N A ) N.A.) Originally defined for microscope objectives.

NA = n sinθ

Where θ is the angle of the outermost ray that enters (and is useful to) the system. Consider an "optical receiver system" consisting of a optical system lens and a photodetector:

Determining the Numerical Aperture
(a) f
d θ d/ 2 (b ) f θ

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

(c) β

Determining the Numerical Aperture d 1 tanθ = = = 0.05 2 f 20

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Photo Detector

θ = tan (0.05) = 0.04995rad NA = n1 sin(θ ) = 1sin(2.862º ) ( ( NA = 0.04993
θ β

1 −1

(2.862º)

For this system the maximum angle θ is given by system, ⎛ d⎞ ⎝ ⎠ d tan(θ ) = 2 = f 2f
Example: this receiver system has a focal length of 10cm and the p photodetector has a diameter of 1cm. Find NA.

Fib e r

α

NA ≡ n1 sinθ NA = sinθ , n=1

Acceptance Angle
0 .6

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Thick lens*
*Thick l *Thi k lenses contain two systems of coaxial i f i l spherical surfaces. *Thickness of the thick lenses cannot be negligible while the thickness of thin lenses can be ignored. *such a system can be solved by spherical surface, but b t it contain a l t of t i i l details especially for t i lot f trivial d t il i ll f coaxial optical system of more spherical surfaces.

Nu m e r ica l Ap e r t u r e

0 .5

0 .4

0 .3

0 .2

0 .1

Sin g le M o d e Fib e r
0 10 20 30

0 .0

Acc e p t a n c e An gl e

Figure 2-23: Numerical aperture and g p acceptance angle. NA = sin θ

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Thick Lenses and Cardinal Points
Aims & Objectives -learn about concept of refraction at front and back surfaces of a l b t t f f ti tf t db k f f thick lens -introduce the step-along and step-back equations - learn how to determine image location with a thick lens -discover the properties of principal planes -find the cardinal points of a thick lens
Thin Lenses: D = D1+D2

Thick Lenses and Cardinal Points
Image size is determined by: g y

shape thickness refractive index Thick Lenses versus Thin Lenses?
(shape & refractive index)

Thick Lenses: DE = D1 + D2 - (t/ng)D1D2 (shape, thickness & refractive index)

Thick Lens Terminology
D1 n1 F n 1 ' or n g or n 2 A1 A2 D2 n 2'

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University D1 n1 F n 1 ' or n g or n 2 A1 A2 D2 n 2' F'

D1 and D2 are the first (front) and second (back) surface powers

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

F'

D1 =

′ n1 − n1 r1

D2 =
t

′ n2 − n2 r2

A1 and A2 are the front and back vertices.
t

Distance from A1 to A2 is the axial thickness of the lens.

D1 and D2 are the first (front) and second (back) surface powers

D1 =

′ n1 − n1 r1

D2 =

′ n2 − n2 r2

j g The line joining the centre of curvatures of the first and second surfaces (C1 and C2) is called the principal axis, or optical axis.

f and f’ are the first and second focal points for the lens as a whole. f whole

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

For Ray 1: the two
Ray 1 H H' F P P' F'

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Ray 1

H

H'

Ray 2 G G'

refractions, refractions which take place at the front and back surfaces, surfaces are equivalent to one refraction at H’

F

P

P'

F'

For Ray 2: the two refractions, which take place at the front and
back surfaces, are equivalent to one refraction at G
Ray 2 G G'
x A1 P

O
P'

A2 y

Rays directed towards P leave R di t d t d l the lens unchanged in direction as though they had come from P P’

Back Vertex Focal Length: (fv’)

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

H'

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Distance from back vertex of the lens to the second focal point of the lens
H'

F

P'

A2

F'

F

P'

A2

F'

fv '

Back Vertex Power:
fv ' e' fE ' e e' = fv ' - f E ' ' f ' f '

′ Dv =

1 f v′

e' fE '

“the vergence of the light leaving the back vertex when rays parallel to the principal axis are incident on the front surface surface”

′ Dv =

D1 + D2 − (t ng )D1 D2 1 − (t ng )D1

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Front Vertex Focal Length: (fv)

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Attention: In ‘Ophthalmic Lenses and Dispensing’ you will derive another (equivalent) expression for back vertex power:

Distance from front vertex of the lens to the first focal point of the lens

′ Dv =

[

D1 + D2 1 − (t ng )D1

]

F

A1

P

fv e fE

G

e = f v - fE

Front Vertex Power:
F A1 P

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

DE is the equivalent power

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dv = −

1 fv

i.e. the power of the thin lens which could be used to replace the thick lens hi k l (( ) DE = D1 + D2 - ((t/ng)D1D2)

fv e fE

G

⇒ Dv =
e = fv - fE

DE 1 − (t ng )D2

(front vertex power)

“ the vergence of the incident wavefront at the front vertex of the lens with the special condition that the emergent vergence is parallel parallel” 1 D1 + D2 − (t ng )D1 D2 Dv = − = fv 1 − (t ng )D2

′ Dv =

DE 1 − (t ng )D1

(back vertex power)

DE =

1 1 =− f v′ fv

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Draw in fE, fE’ fv and fv’ fE’: “ second equivalent focal length” fE: “ first equivalent focal length length”
Note: N t (1) where the first and last refractive indices are the same, the values for fE and fE’ are equal in size but opposite in sign. (2) Th equivalent power The i l t DE is the power of the thin lens that could be used to replace the thick lens.
Ray 1 H H'

Image Position with a Thick Lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Note: l2 = l1’ - t

L1

B1
F

A2 B1 '

fv

P

P'

f ‘v

F'

Ray 2

l1

fE

G

G'

f ’E
t

l1'

Image Position with a Thick Lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Note: l2 = l1’ - t
B1

L1

L1'

L2 A2

L2' B2 '

Refraction at 1st surface: L1’ = L1+ D1 Object distance is l1
B1 ' or B2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

L1

L1'

L2 L ' 2 A2 B2 ' B1 ' or B2

l1 l2 '
t

Image distance l1‘
l2 l1'

B1

l1 l2 '
t

l2 l1'

L1

L1'

L2 A2

L2' B2 '

B1

Refraction at 1st surface: L1’ = L1+ D1 Object distance is l1
B1 ' or B2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University L1 L1' L2 A2 L2' B2 '

B1

Refraction at 1st surface: L1’ = L1+ D1 Object distance is l1
B1 ' or B2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

l1 l2 '
t

Image distance l1‘
l2 l1'

l1 l2 '
t

Image distance l1‘
l2 l1'

Refraction at 2nd surface: L2’ = L2+ D2 Object distance is l2 Image distance is l2’

Refraction at 2nd surface: L2’ = L2+ D2 Object distance is l2 Image distance is l2’

since l2 = l1’ – t

L2 =

n2 =

l2

n2 (l1’ - t)

L1

L1'

L2 A2

L2' B2 '

B1

Refraction at 1st surface: L1’ = L1+ D1 Object distance is l1
B1 ' or B2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University L1 L1' L2 A2 L2' B2 ' B1 ' or B2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

note: n2 = n1’ = ng

B1

l1 l2 '
t

Image distance l1‘
l2 l1'

l1 l2 '
t

Refraction at 2nd surface: L2’ = L2+ D2 Object distance is l2 Image distance is l2’

l2 l1'

(divide above and below line by n2) L2 = n2 (l1’ - t) = 1 = 1 l1’ - t l1’ - t n2 n2 n1’ ng

since l2 = l1’ – t

L2 =

n2 =

l2
(divide above and below line by n2)

n2 (l1’ - t)

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University L1 L1' L2 A2 L2' B2 ' B1 ' or B2

note: n2 = n1’ = ng

B1

L′ L2 = ⋅ 1 l1′ t L1′ − ′ n1 ng 1

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

l1 l2 '
t

L2 =

L1′ 1 − (t ng )L1′

l2 l1'

This is the step along equation

(divide above and below line by n2) L2 = n2 (l1’ - t) = 1 = 1 l1’ - t l1’ - t n2 n2 n1’ ng

The step back equation:

L1′ =

(Multiply t (M lti l top & bottom by L1’) b tt b

L2 1 + (t ng )L2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Usage of vergence
• D t Determining the P iti of th C di l i i th Position f the Cardinal Points (Thick lens): • f `E • fE • fV • f `V • P P • P`

Thick lens: a numerical calculation
Determining the Position of the Cardinal Points
1) Calculate the surface powers

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

2) Find the position of the second focal point (F’) and the back vertex focal length, fv’ 3) Find the position of the first focal point (F) and the front vertex focal g , length, fv 4)Calculate the equivalent power DE and first and second equivalent focal lengths fE and fE’ 5) Find the position of the first principal point (P) and second principal point (P’)

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

D1 n 1=1 F A1 F n 1=1 A1

D2

n 2' = 1.33 F' r2 = -12cm

A2

r1 = +8cm

r1 = +8cm

t= 3.046cm

t= 3.046cm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

n 1' or n g or n2 = 1.523

n1' or n g or n2 = 1.523

DF1 1

D F2 2

D1 n 1=1 F A1

D2

n1=1 1

n2' = 1 33 1.33 F'

n 2' = 1.33 F' r2 = -12cm

F

A1

A2

A2

r1 = +8cm

r2 = -12cm

1) Calculate the surface powers
t= 3.046cm t/ng = 3.046/1.523cm =0.02m

r1 = +8cm

D1

= n1’ - n1 = 1.523 - 1 r1 +0.08 +0 08 = +6.5375D

t= 3.046cm t/ng = 3.046/1.523cm =0.02m

D2= n2’ - n2 = 1.33 - 1.523 r2 -0.12 0 12 = +1.6083D

Dr.G.Mirjalili 2) Find the position of the second focal point (F’) andPhysics Dept.Yazd the University back vertex focal length, fv’

For the first surface:
L1’ = L1 +D1 L1 = 0 D1= +6.5375D L1’ = 0 +6.5375 = +6.5375D Now we need to use the step along equation
F H'

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

To find the second focal point we need the light incident upon the lens to be parallel, i.e. L1 = 0 and l2’ = fv’
L2 L1`
H'

P'

A2

F'

L1

L2`

fv ' e' fE '

F

P'

A2

F'

t/ng = 0 03046/1 523 = 0 02 0.03046/1.523 0.02 L2 = L1’ = 1 - (t/ng)L1’ +6.5375 6.5375 1- ((0.02) . 6.5375)

fv ' e'' fE ' e' = fv ' - f E '

L2 = +7.5209D

For the second surface:
L2’ = L2 +D2 L2 = +7.5209D D2= +1.6083D

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd 3) Find the position of the first focal point (F) and the front University vertex focal length, fv

⇒ L2’ = +9.1292D
L2’ = n2’/l2’ n2’ = 1.33 so L2’ = +9.1292D

To find the first focal point the light which emerges from the lens must be parallel, i.e. L2’ = 0 and thus l1 = fv

l2’ = n2’/ L2’
F A1 P

Thus l2’ = +0.14569m But B t l2’ = fv’ when the light incident on the first surface is parallel h th li ht i id t th fi t f i ll l (i.e. L1 = 0) Thus fv’= +0.14569m
fv e fE e = fv - fE G

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

For the second surface:
L2’ = L2 +D2 ⇒ L2 = L2’ - D2 L2’ = 0 D2= +1.6083D ⇒ L2 = 0 - 1.6083 = -1.6083D
F A1 P

For the first surface:
L1’ = L1 +D1 ⇒ L1 = L1’ - D1
F A1 P

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

fv e fE

G

L1‘ = -1.6618D D1= +6.5375D ⇒ L1 = -1.6618 - 6 5375 1 6618 6.5375 = -8.1993D
e = fv - fE

fv e fE

G

e = fv - fE

Now we need to use the step back equation L1’= L2 = 1 +(t/ng)L2 L1‘ = -1.6618D 1 6618D - 1.6083 1+ ((0.02). -1.6083) ((0 02) 1 6083)

L1 = n1/l1 n1 = 1.0

so

l1 = n1/ L1

L1 = -8.1993D ⇒ l1 = -0.12196m

But B t l1 = fv when the light emerges from the lens parallel h th li ht f th l ll l (i.e. L2’ = 0) Thus fv= -0.12196m

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

4)Calculate the equivalent power FE and the first and second equivalent focal lengths fE and fE’ i l f ll h d
DE = D1 + D2 - (t/ng)D1D2 ( ) In our example: D1 = +6.5375D

In our example: D1 = +6.5375D D2 = +1.6083D

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

P = β1+β2-β1β2(d/ ) β β (d/n)

t = 0.03046m (t always +ve) ng = 1.523 Inputting values into equation DE = D1 + D2 - (t/ g)D1D2 (t/n

t/ ng = 0.02

D2 = +1.6083D ng = 1.523 t/ ng = 0.02

t = 0.03046m (t always +ve) ve) Inputting values into equation DE = D1 + D2 - (t/ng)D1D2 gives DE= +7.9355D +7 9355D

gives DE= +7.9355D DE = n2’/fE’ and DE = -n1/fE

fE’ = n2’/ DE and fE = -n1/ DE

so the second equivalent focal length (fE’) fE’ = 1.33/+7.9355= 0.16760m = fE’ and the first equivalent focal length (fE) fE = -1/+7.9355= -0.12602m = fE 1/+7.9355 0.12602m

5) Find the position of the first principal point Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd (P) and the University second principal point (P’)
position of the second principal point is given by: e’ = fv’ - fE’

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

thus e = -2.191cm e’ 2.191cm The -ve value indicates that the second principal point is located p p p 2.191cm to the left of the back vertex.

using

e’ = fv’ - fE’
fE’ = +16.760cm

To determine the position of the fist principal point we can use:

e = fv - fE
fv = -12.196cm 12 196cm thus e =+0 406cm +0.406cm fE = -12.602cm 12 602cm

fv’ = +14.569cm thus e’ = -2.191cm

The -ve value indicates that the second principal point is located 2.191cm to the left of the back vertex.

The +ve value indicates that the first principal point is located p p p 0.406cm to the right of the front vertex

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Principal planes for thick lens
EquiEqui-convex or equi-concave and moderately thick equiH H’ HH ’

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Ray 1

H
fv e

H'
e’ f ‘v

F

P

P'

F'

Ray 2
fE

G

G'

f ’E

PlanoPlano-convex or plano-concave lens with R2 = ∞ planoR2 H H’ H H’

Principal planes for thick lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

For meniscus lenses, the principal planes move outside the lens th l R2 = 3R1 (H’ reaches the first surface)
H H’ H H’ H H’ H H’

Comparison between Thin lens and Thick lens

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

• The significance (meaning) of p principal p p plane 1 & 2

The significance of principal plane 1

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

The significance of principal plane 2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Usage of vergence
• D t Determining the P iti of th C di l i i th Position f the Cardinal Points (Thin lens): • f `E • fE • fV • f `V • P P • P`

Thin Lens Systems & Cardinal Points
Aims & Objectives
-learn about the concept of equivalent power - learn how to determine image location with a thin lens system - discover the properties of principal planes of thin lens systems -find the cardinal points of a thin lens system

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Cardinal planes of simple systems 1. Thin lens
D = D1 + D2 = n −1 1− n + r1 r2
H, H’

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Cardinal Points of a Thin Lens System

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

•Two or more thin lenses form a “thin lens system”

D1 =

n −1 r1

D2 =

1− n r2

The •The principles & equations which described the thick lens also describe thin lens systems •The equation for the equivalent power of a thin lens pair is: DE = D1 + D2 – t D1 D2 D1 and D2 are the powers of the thin lenses and t is the distance between them; d must be measured in metres.

⎡1 1 ⎤ = (n − 1)⎢ − ⎥ ⎣ r1 r2 ⎦ 1 = f

Lens maker s equation maker’s is obeyed.
Principal planes, nodal planes, coincide at center

•The positions of the principal points are found in the same way as Th iti f th i i l i t f d i th for the thick lens, i.e. by using the vertex powers to locate the focal points: Front F t vertex t Back B k vertex t

power:
Dv = DE 1- t D2

power:
Dv ’ = DE 1- t D1

Sample Calculation: A lens system consists of a +5D lens and a +2D lens separated by 8cm. Find the equivalent focal length and the positions of the principal points. An object 3cm tall is situated 50cm in front of the points first lens. What will be the position and size of the image produced by the combination? y Equivalent power: Given:
D1 = +5D 5D D2 = +2D 2D t = +0.08m 0.08m (always +ve) ve) DE = D1 + D2 – t D1 D2

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

first equivalent focal length (fE):
fE = -1/DE ⇒ fE = -1/+6.2 = -0.1613m 1/D 1/+6 2 0 1613

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

In the case of thin lens systems A1 and A2 represent the locations of the first and second thin lenses

Front vertex power of combination:
Dv = DE = 1- t D2 +6.2 1 - (0.8. 2)

⇒ DE

= +5 +2 - (0.08 . 5 . 2) ( )

= +6.2D
fv
⇒ fv

= +7.3810D (front vertex focal length) = -1/ Dv
= -1/+7.3810 = -0.1355m

Second equivalent focal length (fE’):
fE’ = 1/DE ⇒ fE’ = 1/+6.2 = +0.1613m

Back vertex power of combination:
Dv ’ = DE = +6.2 +6 2 1- t D1 1 - (0.08 . 5) = +10.3333D fv’ (back vertex focal length) = 1/ Dv’

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Location of second principal point (A2P’):
e’ = fv’-fE’= +0.0968m - (+0.1613m)

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

( ) = -6.45cm (i.e. to the left of the second thin lens)

What will be the position and size of the image produced by the combination? Given:
D1 = +5D D2 = +2D h1 = 0 03 0.03m t = +0.08m

⇒ fv’ = 1/+10.3333 = +0.0968m

Location of first principal point (A1P): i f fi i i i )
e = fv - fE= -0.1355m - ( 0 1613m) 0 1355m (-0.1613m) = +2.58cm (i.e. to the right of the first thin lens)

l1 = -0.50m 0 50 l1 = -0.50m, thus L1 = -2D 0 50m 2D
L1’ = L1 + D1 ⇒

L1’ = -2 + 5 = +3D 2

What will be the position and size of the imageDr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd produced by the University combination? Given:
D1 = +5D 5D D2 = +2D 2D h1 = 0.03m t = +0.08m 0.08m

L2’ = L2 + D2

⇒ L2’ = +3.9474 + 2 = +5.9474D University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd

l2’ = 1/L2’ ⇒ l2’ = 1/+5.9474 l2’ = +0.1681m = +16.81cm (+ve:to the right of the second lens) Magnification:
h2 ‘ = h1 . L1 L1’ . L2 L2’

l1 = -0.50m l1 = -0.50m, thus L1 = -2D
L1’ = L1 + F1 ⇒

L1’ = -2 + 5 = +3D L2 = L1’ 1-d 1 d L1’ h2 ‘

(Step-along equation):

= 0.03 . -2 . +3 = -0.013274 = -1.3274cm

+3.9474 +5.9474 +5 9474

L2

=

+3 = +3 9474D +3.9474D 1-(0.08 . 3)

(-ve sign means image is inverted)

A compound lens p
Two thin lens in contact

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

DE = D1 + D2

Lens system : compound lens formed by two thin lenses
Lens 1: f1 = -30 cm Lens 2: f2 = 20 cm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

t = 10 cm

Two thi l T thin lens separated by t db a distance t

D1=1/f1 = -3 33D 1/ 3.33D DE = D1 + D2 – t D1D2 D2=1/f2 = +5.0D DE = D1 + D2 – t D1D2 = 1.67 +1.67 = 3 33D 3.33D Therefore fE’ = 1/DE = 30 cm fE = -1/DE = -30cm A1 A
Dv =

t
A2

DE 3.33 = = 6.66 D 1 − tD2 1 − 0.5 1 = −15 cm (Front focal length) Dv

fv = − ′ Dv =

DE 3.33 = = 2.5 D 1 − tD1 1 + 0.333

f v′ = +40 cm (Back focal length) For A1 P : e = f v − f E = −15 cm + 30 cm = + 15 cm 1 ′ For A 2 P2 : e = f v′ − f E = 40 cm - 30 cm = +10 cm

Lens system: numberical anaylsis
fE = 30 cm
15 cm

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

More on Diopters
Location of I L ti f Image

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

To locate an image, we need to track a minimum of two rays coming from the same point. It will be convenient to take one ray i) along the optic axis for mirrors and ii) going through the center of the lens.

F

A1 A2
f.f.l. = 15 cm

P2 P1
10 cm

F’

t

fE’ = 30 cm
b.f.l. b f l = 40 cm The two angles are the same Use i l U simple geometry to show that θi +θ0 = constant

The two lenses can be considered as combined to form a single thick lens whose principal points and focal length are calculated. It, in turn, is combined with the third lens, and so on with each successive element. The Th same procedures can be extended to systems with 3 4 5 …. or more l d b t d dt t ith 3, 4, 5, lenses.

The sum θi+θo is a constant. What does this constant represent? Geometrically, we interpret it as double the angle made by the dashed radius line. Optically, it is a measure of the strength of the mirror, i.e., how strongly the mirror focuses light, and so we call it the focal angle, θf, θi+θo = θf

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

Dr.G.Mirjalili Physics Dept.Yazd University

θ ϕ θc

1

v

u c = 2f

1 = t θi ≈ θi tan v 1 = tan θ 0 ≈ θ 0 u 1 1 = tan θ c ≈ θ c = 2θ f = c 2f 1 1 1 θi + θ0 = θ f ⇒ + = v u f

ϕ + θ i = 900................................(1)

[ϕ + θ ] + θ c = 90 .......................(2) [ϕ + 2θ ] + θ 0 = 900.....................(3)
0

(1)and (2) ⇒ θ i = θ + θ c ..............(4) (2)and (3) ⇒ θ 0 = −θ + θ c ...........(5) (4) + (5) ⇒ θ i + θ 0 = 2θ c = θ f = constant

Example: A searchlight Suppose we need to create a parallel beam of light, as in a searchlight. Where should we place the lightbulb? A parallel beam has zero angle between its rays, so θi = 0. To place the lightbulb correctly, however, however we need to know a distance not an angle: the distance u between the bulb and the distance, mirror. Since 1/v = θi = 0, it implies θ0=θf, i.e. u = f. The bulb has to be placed at a distance from the mirror equal to its focal point. Example: Diopters An equation like v =1/θi really doesn’t make sense in terms of units. Angles are unitless, since radians aren’t really units, so the right-hand side is unitless. We can’t have a left-hand side with units of distance if the right-hand side of the same equation is unitless. In real life optometrists right hand unitless life, define the thing θi=1/v as the “dioptric strength” of a lens or mirror, and measure it in units of inverse meters (m –1), also known as diopters (1 D = 1 m –1).

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