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In describing the propagation of light as a wave we need to g understand: wavefronts: a surface passing through points of a wave that th h i t f th t have the same phase and p amplitude. rays: a ray describes the direction of wave propagation. A ray i a vector perpendicular is t di l to the wavefront.

Applied optics

Wave fronts

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Wavefronts W f t

• We can chose to associate the wavefronts with the instantaneous surfaces where the wave is at its maximum. • Wavefronts travel outward from the source at the speed of light: c c. • Wavefronts propagate perpendicular to the local wavefront surface.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Light Rays

• The propagation of the wavefronts can be described by light rays rays. • In free space, the light rays travel in straight lines lines, perpendicular to the wavefronts.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**The ray approximation in geometric optics
**

• Geometric optics: The study of the p p g propagation of light. g • Ray approximation: In the ray approximation, we assume that a wave moving through a medium travels in a straight line in the direction of its rays rays.

Huygens’ principle

Huygens’ principle

Every point of a wave front may be considered the source of secondary wavelets that spread out in all directions with a speed equal to the speed of propagation of the wave. Plane waves Pl

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Huygens’ principle (cont’d)
**

Huygens’ principle for plane wave

• • • At t = 0 th wave f t is 0, the front i indicated by the plane AA’ The points are representative sources f the wavelets for th l t After the wavelets have moved a distance s∆t, a new plane BB’ can be drawn tangent to the wavefronts • •

**Huygens’ principle (cont’d)
**

Huygens’ principle for spherical wave (cont’d)

The i Th inner arc represents part of the spherical wave The points are representative p p points where wavelets are propagated The new wavefront is tangent at each point to the wavelet

•

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Huygens’ principle (cont’d)
**

Huygens’ principle for law of reflection

• • • The l Th law of reflection can be f fl ti b derived from Huygen’s Principle AA’ i a wave f t of incident is front f i id t light The reflected wave front is CD • •

**Huygens’ principle (cont’d)
**

Huygens’ principle for law of refraction

In ti I time ∆t ray 1 moves f ∆t, from A to B and ray 2 moves from A’ to C From triangles AA’C and ACB F ti l d ACB, all the ratios in the law of refraction can be found: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2

l = AC

• • •

**Triangle ADC is congruent to triangle AA’C AA C Angles θ1 = θ1’ This is the law of reflection
**

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**l sin θ1 = v1∆t; l sin θ 2 = v2 ∆t → v1∆t v ∆t c c = 2 , v1 = , v2 = sin θ1 sin θ 2 n1 n2
**

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Reflection

• Reflection: When a light ray traveling in one medium encounters a boundary with another medium, part of the incident light is reflected.

– Specular reflection: Reflection of light from a smooth surface, where the reflected rays are all parallel to each other. – Diffuse reflection: Reflection from any rough surface, where the reflected rays travel in random directions. – we use the term reflection to mean specular reflection.

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Reflection and refraction
**

Reflection (cont’d)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**The Law of reflection
**

• Law of reflection: The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence: θ1’ = θ1. • Some definitions: – Normal: The normal is a line drawn perpendicular to the surface at the point where the incident ray strikes strikes. – Angle of reflection and incidence: Measured from the normal to the reflected and incident rays rays, respectively.

**Example : The double-reflected light ray
**

• Two mirrors make an angle of 120° with each other A ray is incident on mirror M1 other. at an angle of 65° to the normal. Find the direction of the ray after it is reflected from mirror M2.

α=2β α β

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Practical applications of reflection
**

• Retroreflection: If the angle between the two mirrors is 90°, the reflected beam will return to the source parallel to its original path. path •

Refraction

Refraction: When a ray of light traveling through a transparent medium encounters a boundary g p , part leading into another transparent medium, p of the ray enters the second medium. The part that enters the second medium is bent at the boundary and is said to be refracted. y sinθ2 / sinθ1 = v2 / v1 – θ1 and θ2 are the angle of incidence and angle of refraction, respectively refraction respectively. – v1 and v2 are the speed of the light in the first and second medium, respectively. The path of a light ray through a refracting ra thro gh surface is reversible.

•

**• All rays and the normal lie in the same plane.
**

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Reflection by plane surfaces
**

y

r1 = (x,y,z) ( y ) z

r2= (-x,y,z) r1 = (x,y,z)

**Refraction by plane interface & Total internal reflection
**

n2

θ2

x

r3=(-x,-y,z)

θ2

y

r4=(-x-y,-z)

x

r2 = (x,-y,z) Law of Reflection r1 = (x,y,z) → r2 = (x,-y,z) Reflecting through (x z) plane (x,z)

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

n1 > n2

θ1

P

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

θ1 θ C

θ1

θ1

n1

Snell’s law n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2

**Examples of prisms and total internal reflection
**

45o

**Total internal reflection
**

Total internal reflection

45o

45o

**Totally reflecting prism
**

45o

n2 sin θ 2 , sin θ 2 = 1 when n2 / n1 > 1 & n2 = n1 sin θ1. n1 When this happens, θ 2 is 90o and θ1 is called critical angle. Furthermore when θ1 > θ crit , all the light is reflected (total internal reflection) reflection).

Since sin θ1 =

Porro Prism

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Total internal reflection
**

Optical fibers

**Index of Refraction and Snell’s Law of Snell s Refraction
**

• Index of refraction n of a medium: n ≡ c/v – c = 3 x 108 m/s: speed of light in vacuum vacuum. – v: speed of light in the medium; v < c. – n > 1 for any medium and n = 1 for vacuum (or approximately in air) air). Snell’s law of refraction: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2 As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency does not change but its wavelength does. – λ1n1 = λ2n2, or λ1/λ2 = v1/v2.

Light l Li ht slows on entering a medium – H t i di Huygens Also, if n → ∞ ν = 0 i.e. light stops in its track !!!!!

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

• •

• • •

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Reflections, R f ti offset R fl ti Refractive ff t
**

• • Let’s L ’ consider a thick piece of glass (n = 1 5) and the li h paths id hi k i f l 1.5), d h light h associated with it – reflection fraction = [(n1 – n2)/(n1 + n2)]2 [( )( – using n1 = 1.5, n2 = 1.0 (air), R = (0.5/2.5)2 = 0.04 = 4% n1 = 1.5 n2 = 1.0 incoming ray (100%) 96% 8% reflected in two reflections (front & back) 4% 92% transmitted t itt d

Dr. University 4% G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd0.16%

**Atmospheric Refraction and Sunsets
**

Light rays from the sun are bent as they pass i b h into the h atmosphere It is a gradual bend because g the light passes through layers of the atmosphere – Each layer has a slightly different index of refraction The Sun is seen to be above the horizon even after it has fallen below it

•

image looks displaced g p due to jog

•

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Mirages g

Example: depth of a swimming pool

Pool depth s = 2m person looks straight down. θ2 the depth is judged by the apparent size of some object of length j g L at the bottom of the pool (tiles etc.) s`is reduced distance

•

• •

A mirage can be observed when the air above the ground is warmer than the air at higher elevations The rays in path B are directed toward the ground and then bent by refraction The b Th observer sees both an b th upright and an inverted image

θ1

L

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**na sin θ1 = sin θ 2 L tan θ1 = s tan θ 2 = L L = s − ∆s s '
**

•

**Example: Flat refracting surface
**

The image formed by a flat refracting surface is on the same side of the surface as the object – The image is virtual – Th image f The i forms between b t the object and the surface – The rays bend away from the normal since n1 > n2

θ2

→ s tan θ1 = ( s − ∆s ) tan θ 2

for f small angles: t ->sin ll l tan > i

θ1

L s’ ’ s

s sin θ1 = ( s − ∆s ) sin θ 2 s sin θ1 = ( s − ∆s ) na sin θ1 ∆s = s na − 1 1 = ( 2 m ) = 50 cm. na 4

n1 n n = − 2 ⇒ s' = − 2 s s s' n1

| s ' | tan θ1 = L, | s | tan θ 2 = L → s ' tan θ1 = s tan θ 2 tan θ ≈ sin θ ≈ θ for θ << 1 ⇒ s ' sin θ1 = s sin θ 2 ⇒ n1 s ' = n2 s (Q n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ 2 )

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

L

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Prism example

• Light is refracted twice – once entering and once leaving. • Since n decreases for increasing λ, a spectrum emerges...

Prisms

Applications of prism

sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2

Analysis: (60° glass prism in air) l

n1 = 1

**n2 sin θ3 = sin θ4
**

60° Example: θ1 = 30°

• A prism and the total reflection can alter the direction of travel of a light beam beam. “Diversion, Deviation”

θ1

α

θ2

β

θ3

θ 2 = sin −1 ⎜

θ4

⎛ sin(30) ⎞ o ⎟ = 19.5 ⎝ 1.5 ⎠

θ 3 = (60 o − θ 2 ) = 40.5o θ 4 = sin −1 (1.5 sin θ 3 ) = 76.9 o

n2 = 1 5 1.5

θ3 = 90° - β 90

α = 90° - θ2 90

α+β+60o = 180o

→

θ3 = 60° - θ2 60

• All hot low-pressure gases emit their own characteristic spectra. A prism spectrometer is used to identify gases. “Dispersion”

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dispersion &Deviation

n1<n2

Angular Dispersion

A hollow 600 prism is filled with carbon disulfide, whose index of refraction for blue is 1 652 for red 1.652, light is 1.618 what is angular 1 dispersion sin (σ + δ )

n prism n0 = 2 1 sin α 2

δ n1 Little dispersion High deviation n2

n1=1.652

High dispersion Low deviation

n2=1.618 δ2=48.00

δ1=51.380

δ1-δ2 =3.380 angular dispersion δ 3 38 a gu a d spe s o

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Deviation & wavenumber in prism
**

• Deviation angle & λ

b c B b+nt1+d=c+nt2+e b+(n+ ∆n)t +d+a ∆D=c+ (n+ ∆n)t +e b+( + ∆ )t1+d+ ∆D + ( + ∆ )t2+ ∆nt1+a ∆D=∆n t2 ∆D/ ∆=(t2-t1)/a t t1 t2 d a e a∆D A` A``

Deviation angle & λ

n = A+B/λ2 dn/dλ = -2B/λ3 dD/dλ = t/a dn/dλ dD/dλ = t/a(-2B/λ3)

A

dD/dn = (t2-t1)/a dD/dn =t/a dD/dλ=(dD/dn)(dn/dλ)=(t/a) (dn/dλ) (dn/dλ) ? (dn/dλ)=?

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dispersive power & Abbe`s nunber Abbe s

**Refractive indices of Crown and flint glasses
**

Fraunhofer line

n f − nc nD − 1

Dispersive power

color l

Blue Yellow Red

λ(nm) λ( )

486.1 486 1 589.3 656.3 656 3

**n crown n fli t flint
**

1.5293 1 5293 1.5230 1.55204 1 55204 1.7378 1 7378 1.7200 1.7130 1 7130

nD − 1 = Abbe`s − number = ν n f − nC

Low dispersion, dispersion low refractive index

F D C

ν

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

ν Crown =59 ν flint=29

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dispersing prisms

• Achromatic prism: • Deviates light but gives no dispersion

Dispersing prisms

• Direct-vision prism

λ1 λ λ2

λ1 λ2

Direct vision for wavelength λ g

**Dispersion for λ1 and λ2 is zero
**

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

example

• Assume that 140 is the apex angle of a crown glass prism. Wh t should b th apex angle of a fli t prism: i What h ld be the l f flint i (a)-if the combination of both is to be achromatic for blue and red? (b)-if the prism is to have no deviation for yellow? Solution (a) δ F = σ1(nf - 1) ( ) → δ f - δc = σ1 (nf - nc) mean dispersion ( p δ C = σ1(nc- 1) of prism For the combination to be achromatic, (σ1)(n1f - n1c) + (σ2)(n2f - n2c)=0 (14)(1.5293-1.5204)+ (σ2)(1.7378-1.7130)=0 σ2= -50 5

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Example (cont ) (cont.)
**

• (b) for the direct-vision prism

δ1=σ1(n1D-1) σ( )

δ2=σ2(n2D-1) σ1(n1D-1)= σ2(n2D-1) 14(1.5230 1) 14(1 5230-1)= σ2(1 7200-1) (1.7200 1) 0 σ2=10.2

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Image manipulation by reflection prisms
**

Right angle prism

**Image manipulation by reflection prisms
**

Dove prism

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dispersion

Dispersion

• The index of refraction of a material depends on wavelength as shown on the right This is called dispersion right. dispersion. • It is also true that, although the speed of light i vacuum d f li ht in does not d t depends d on wavelength, in a material, wave speed depends on wavelength.

Diversion & dispersion

Examples

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

**Resolving power of a prism
**

•

F d n b FT+TW=nb FT+ Tw - ∆s= (n- ∆n) b ∆s=b ∆n ∆s=b (dn/dλ) ∆λ ∆α=∆s/d=(b/d)(dn/dλ)∆λ ∆α = λ/d T d

**Resolving power of a prism (example)
**

A prism made f i d from fli glass with a b flint l i h base of 5 cm. fi d the resolving f find h l i power of the prism at λ=550 nm. solution

∆s W ∆α ∆α ∆ λ+∆λ λ

•

**∆n/∆λ=(nf-nD)/(λf-λD)= (1.7328-1.7205)/(486-587)=-1.9x10 -4 nm -1
**

1 R = b(dn/dλ) = (0.05x10 9nm)( 1 9x10 -4 nm -1) = 5971 (0 05x10 nm)(-1.9x10 4

λ/d = (b/d)(dn/dλ)∆λ (∆λ)min= λ/b(dn/dλ) R=λ/(∆λ)min= b(dn/dλ)

( ) (∆λ)min=λ/R =5500A0/5971 ≈ 1 A0

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Example

Exercises

•Exercises

The prism shown in the figure has a refractive index of 1.66, and the angles A are 25.00 . Two light rays m and n are p g y parallel as they enter y m the prism. What is the angle between them they emerge? n Solution

A A

1.66 sin 25.0° na sin θ a ) = sin −1 ( ) = 44.6°. 1.00 nb Therefore the angle belo the hori on is θb − 25.0° = 44.6° − 25.0° = 19.6°, below horizon and thus the angle between the two emerging beams is 39.2°. na sin θ a = nb sin θ b → θ b = sin −1 (

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

Example

Exercises

n n’ n

θb P θ a' θa θb'

Problem Solution

Exercises

n t n’

θa θb'

Light is incident in air at an angle on the upper surface of a transparent plate, plate the surfaces of the plate being plane and parallel to each other. (a) t Prove that θ a = θ a' . (b) Show that this is true f any number of different parallel i t for b f diff t ll l plates. (c) Prove that the lateral displacement D of the emergent beam is given by the sin(θ a − θ b' ) relation: d =t ,

cos θ b'

Q

**(a) For light in air incident on a parallel-faced parallel faced plate, Snell’s law yields:
**

n sin θ a = n' sin θ b' = n' sin θ b = n sin θ a' → sin θ a = sin θ a' → θ a = θ a' .

Q

d

where t is the thickness of the plate. ( ) A ray of light is incident at an angle p (d) y g g of 66.00 on one surface of a glass plate 2.40 cm thick with an index of refraction 1.80. The medium on either side of the plate is air. Find the lateral Displacement between the incident and emergent rays rays.

(b) Adding more plates just adds extra steps in the middle of the above equation that P n θb always cancel out. The requirement of L d θ a' parallel faces ensures that th angle θn = θ n' ll l f th t the l and the chain of equations can continue. (c) The lateral displacement of the beam can be calculated using geometry:

d = L sin(θ a − θ b' ), L = t t sin(θ a − θ b' ) . →d = cos θ b' cos θ b'

(d)

θ b' = sin −1 (

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

sin 66.0° n sin θ a ) = sin −1 ( ) = 30.5° 1.80 n' ( 2.40cm ) sin(66.0° − 30.5°) →d = = 1.62 cm. cos 30.5°

Dr. G. Mirjalili, physics Dept. Yazd University

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