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IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting

Toronto, July 13 Toronto, July 13- -17, 2003 17, 2003

Panel Session Panel Session

Practical Aspects of Practical Aspects of

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance

by by

IEEE T&D General Systems Subcommittee IEEE T&D General Systems Subcommittee

Practical Aspects of Practical Aspects of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance WG WG

Chairman: Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University Chairman: Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University

http://www. http://www.ee ee. .mtu mtu. .edu edu/faculty/ /faculty/bamork bamork/FR_WG/ /FR_WG/

Working Group Objectives Working Group Objectives

Comprehensive Literature Survey of FR issues. Comprehensive Literature Survey of FR issues.

Accessible explanation of FR for practicing Accessible explanation of FR for practicing

engineers. Help understand and deal with FR. engineers. Help understand and deal with FR.

Document scenarios under which FR can occur, Document scenarios under which FR can occur,

providing practical insights and mitigation measures. providing practical insights and mitigation measures.

Document scenarios that are often confused with FR Document scenarios that are often confused with FR

but are but are NOT NOT FR. Identify misinformation and correct. FR. Identify misinformation and correct.

IEEE Special Publication, panel, tutorial, papers, etc. IEEE Special Publication, panel, tutorial, papers, etc.

Page 2

Working Group Activities Working Group Activities

Meet 1 Meet 1- -2 times/ year, first met at SM 2001. 2 times/ year, first met at SM 2001.

34 total members, 11 active contributors 34 total members, 11 active contributors

Information being gathered, literature search, Information being gathered, literature search,

compiling scenarios leading to FR, compiling scenarios leading to FR,

Deliverables: Deliverables:

Panel Session Panel Session - - July 2003 GM, Toronto July 2003 GM, Toronto

Panel Session Panel Session - - June 2004 GM, Denver June 2004 GM, Denver

Special publication complete in Q3/Q4 2004. Special publication complete in Q3/Q4 2004.

Summary papers submitted during 2004/2005. Summary papers submitted during 2004/2005.

Tutorial Tutorial - - 2005 GM. 2005 GM.

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements

T&D General Subsystems Committee: T&D General Subsystems Committee:

This work grew out of TF on Slow Transients, This work grew out of TF on Slow Transients,

IEEE Special Publication TP IEEE Special Publication TP- -133 133- -0 0, Chapter 5. , Chapter 5.

Albert Keri Albert Keri came up with idea for this WG. came up with idea for this WG.

Nucleus of Key Contributors to kick things off: Nucleus of Key Contributors to kick things off:

David Jacobson, David Jacobson, Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro

Atef Morched Atef Morched, , Labelec Labelec

Bruce Mork Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University , Michigan Tech University

Reigh Reigh Walling Walling, General Electric , General Electric

The 30 others who are contributing, reviewing, The 30 others who are contributing, reviewing,

sharing insights, otherwise participating. sharing insights, otherwise participating.

Page 3

Todays Panelists Todays Panelists

Bruce Mork Bruce Mork, Panel Chair, Michigan Technological , Panel Chair, Michigan Technological

University University - - Intro/Overview of Intro/Overview of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance

David Jacobson David Jacobson, Manitoba Hydro, Canada , Manitoba Hydro, Canada - - Useful Useful

References & Examples of References & Examples of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in a High in a High- -

Voltage Power System Voltage Power System

Roger Roger Dugan Dugan, , Electrotek Electrotek Concepts Concepts - - Examples of Examples of

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in Distribution Systems in Distribution Systems

B. B. Tanggawelu Tanggawelu, TNB Research, Malaysia , TNB Research, Malaysia - -

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance Studies in Malaysian Utility's Studies in Malaysian Utility's

Distribution Network Distribution Network (could not attend) (could not attend)

Reigh Reigh Walling/ Walling/Goran Drobnjak, General Electric , General Electric - -

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in Low in Low- -Loss Distribution Loss Distribution

Transformers Transformers

Juan Martinez Juan Martinez, , Universitat Politecnica Universitat Politecnica de Barcelona de Barcelona - -

Transformer Modeling for Simulation of Low Transformer Modeling for Simulation of Low- -

Frequency Transients Frequency Transients ( (coauthored coauthored with Bruce Mork) with Bruce Mork)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

TO

TO

FERRORESONANCE

FERRORESONANCE

Page 4

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance Basics Basics

A Resonance involving a capacitance in series with a A Resonance involving a capacitance in series with a

saturable inductance L saturable inductance L

M M

. Maximum frequency: 2 . Maximum frequency: 2- -3kHz. 3kHz.

Unpredictable due to nonlinearities. Lots of harmonics. Unpredictable due to nonlinearities. Lots of harmonics.

More likely when little load or damping, and for More likely when little load or damping, and for

unbalanced 3 unbalanced 3- -phase excitation with coupling between phase excitation with coupling between

phases, or between circuits of double phases, or between circuits of double- -circuit lines. circuit lines.

Examples of capacitances: Examples of capacitances:

Series Compensated Lines. Series Compensated Lines.

Shunt Capacitor Banks. Shunt Capacitor Banks.

Underground Cable. Underground Cable.

Systems grounded only via stray (zero Systems grounded only via stray (zero seq seq) capacitance. ) capacitance.

Grading capacitors on Circuit Breakers. Grading capacitors on Circuit Breakers.

Generator Surge Capacitors. Generator Surge Capacitors.

Some Available Literature: Some Available Literature:

Be careful! Some (much?) misinformation exists. Be careful! Some (much?) misinformation exists.

Identified and named in 1907. Identified and named in 1907.

Series Distribution Capacitors Series Distribution Capacitors - - 1930s. 1930s.

Rudenberg: Analytical Work in 1940s. Rudenberg: Analytical Work in 1940s.

Hopkinson, Smith: 3 Hopkinson, Smith: 3- -phase systems, 1960 phase systems, 1960- -70s. 70s.

Jiles, Frame, Swift: Core Jiles, Frame, Swift: Core Inductances Inductances, 70s , 70s- -80s 80s

Smith, Stuehm, Mork: Transformer Models. Smith, Stuehm, Mork: Transformer Models.

Mork, Walling: System Models, 1987 Mork, Walling: System Models, 1987- -90s. 90s.

Mork, Kieny: Nonlinear Dynamics, 1989 Mork, Kieny: Nonlinear Dynamics, 1989- -90s. 90s.

Jacobson, others: continuing work, late 90s onward. Jacobson, others: continuing work, late 90s onward.

Page 5

Single Phase Single Phase

Transformer: Transformer:

Normal Normal

Excitation Excitation

120 Volts RMS is 120 Volts RMS is

applied (1.0 applied (1.0 pu pu) )

Peak exciting Peak exciting

current is less current is less

than one amp. than one amp.

Exciting current Exciting current

distorted due to distorted due to

eddy currents and eddy currents and

hysteresis hysteresis. .

Single Phase Single Phase

Transformer: Transformer:

Ferro Ferro- -

resonance resonance

Series Capacitance Series Capacitance

120 Volts RMS is 120 Volts RMS is

applied (1.0 applied (1.0 pu pu) )

Peak exciting Peak exciting

current is about 34 current is about 34

amps (1.94 amps (1.94 pu pu). ).

Terminal voltage of Terminal voltage of

transformer is 240 transformer is 240

volts peak (1.44 volts peak (1.44 pu pu). ).

Page 6

Subtransmission Subtransmission

Capacitor Banks: Capacitor Banks:

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance

Two Phases of Source Two Phases of Source

are Open are Open

Single Single- -Phase Phase XFMRs XFMRs

Series L Series L- -C resonance C resonance

Nonlinear Inductance Nonlinear Inductance

Zero Sequence Path Zero Sequence Path

Subtransmission Subtransmission

Capacitor Banks: Capacitor Banks:

Ferroresonance Ferroresonance

One Phase of Source One Phase of Source

is Open is Open

Series L Series L- -C resonance C resonance

Nonlinear Inductance Nonlinear Inductance

Zero Sequence Path Zero Sequence Path

Page 7

Important System Components Important System Components

Steady Steady- -State Thevenin Equivalent State Thevenin Equivalent

RLC Coupled RLC Coupled- -Pi for Lines/Cables. (Cascaded Pi for Lines/Cables. (Cascaded

for long lines). for long lines).

Shunt and Series Capacitances. Shunt and Series Capacitances.

Stray Capacitances: Interwinding and Stray Capacitances: Interwinding and

Winding Winding- -Ground. Ground.

Transformer: Transformer: Model must be of correct Model must be of correct

topology, and include core saturation & topology, and include core saturation &

losses. losses.

EXAMPLE CASES

EXAMPLE CASES

Page 8

Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN

Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded

50 50- -kV System kV System

System System

Grounding was lost Grounding was lost

for 3 minutes. for 3 minutes.

72 72 VTs VTs of same of same

Mfr Mfr were destroyed. were destroyed.

Zero Sequence Zero Sequence

Load Provided Load Provided

some damping, but some damping, but

not enough. not enough.

Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN

Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded

50 50- -kV System kV System

Simplified system Simplified system

model is sufficient. model is sufficient.

Zero sequence Zero sequence

capacitance capacitance

Line impedance Line impedance

and source and source

impedance were impedance were

much less than VT much less than VT

core inductance. core inductance.

Page 9

Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN

Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded

50 50- -kV System kV System

What made one What made one

MFRs MFRs VTs VTs different different

than the others? than the others?

Same Steady State Same Steady State

Performance... Performance...

Much different Much different

saturation saturation

characteristics ! characteristics !

VT #1 Failed. VT #1 Failed.

All 72 of them! All 72 of them!

Case 2: Case 2: FERRORESONANCE IN FERRORESONANCE IN

WYE WYE- -CONNECTED SYSTEMS CONNECTED SYSTEMS

A A

B B

C C

H1 H1

H2 H2

H3 H3

V V

A A

V V

C C

V V

B B

X1 X1

X2 X2

X3 X3

X0 X0

Page 10

Details of Case #2 Details of Case #2

FULL SCALE LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS. FULL SCALE LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS.

5 5- -LEG WOUND CORE, RATED 75 LEG WOUND CORE, RATED 75- -kVA kVA, ,

WINDINGS: 12,470GY/7200 WINDINGS: 12,470GY/7200 - - 480GY/277 (TYPICAL 480GY/277 (TYPICAL

IN 80% OF U.S. SYSTEMS). IN 80% OF U.S. SYSTEMS).

RATED VOLTAGE APPLIED. RATED VOLTAGE APPLIED.

ONE OR TWO PHASES OPEN ONE OR TWO PHASES OPEN- -CIRCUITED. CIRCUITED.

BACKFEED VOLTAGE IN UNENERGIZED PHASES BACKFEED VOLTAGE IN UNENERGIZED PHASES

CAPACITANCE(S) CONNECTED TO OPEN CAPACITANCE(S) CONNECTED TO OPEN

PHASE(S) TO SIMULATE CABLE. PHASE(S) TO SIMULATE CABLE.

VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS ON OPEN PHASE(S) VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS ON OPEN PHASE(S)

RECORDED AS CAPACITANCE IS VARIED. RECORDED AS CAPACITANCE IS VARIED.

BACKFED VOLTAGE DEPENDS ON BACKFED VOLTAGE DEPENDS ON

CORE CONFIGURATION CORE CONFIGURATION

3 3- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE TRIPLEX WOUND OR STACKED TRIPLEX WOUND OR STACKED

SHELL FORM SHELL FORM 5 5- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE

5 5- -LEG WOUND CORE LEG WOUND CORE 4 4- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE

Page 11

Dont Dont Do This! Do This!

Basic Delta Basic Delta- -Wye Wye

Transformer Model Transformer Model

as Presented in as Presented in

EMTP Rule Book. EMTP Rule Book.

Composed of three Composed of three

single single- -phase phase

transformers transformers

Phase Phase- -to to- -phase phase

coupling is coupling is not not

included included

5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer

Cross Section with Flux Paths/Tubes Cross Section with Flux Paths/Tubes

Page 12

5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer

Lumped Magnetic Circuit Lumped Magnetic Circuit

5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer

Electrical Dual Equivalent Circuit Electrical Dual Equivalent Circuit

Page 13

5 5- -LEGGED LEGGED

WOUND WOUND- -CORE CORE

MODEL MODEL

Winding Winding

Resistances Resistances

added added

Current Sources Current Sources

are replaced by are replaced by

ideal coupling ideal coupling

transformers transformers

EMTP Model, EMTP Model,

5 5- -Legged Legged

Wound Wound- -Core Core

RC Integrators RC Integrators

Core Losses Core Losses

Coupling Coupling

Capacitors Capacitors

Winding Winding

Resistance Resistance

Ideal Coupling Ideal Coupling

Isolates Core Isolates Core

From Winding From Winding

Connections Connections

Page 14

Case 2: Case 2: FERRORESONANCE IN FERRORESONANCE IN

WYE WYE- -CONNECTED SYSTEMS CONNECTED SYSTEMS

A A

B B

C C

H1 H1

H2 H2

H3 H3

V V

A A

V V

C C

V V

B B

X1 X1

X2 X2

X3 X3

X0 X0

NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS:

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE POSSIBLE MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE POSSIBLE

FOR IDENTICAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS. FOR IDENTICAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS.

STEADY STATE RESPONSES MAY BE OF STEADY STATE RESPONSES MAY BE OF

DIFFERENT PERIOD THAN FORCING DIFFERENT PERIOD THAN FORCING

FUNCTION, OR NONPERIODIC ( FUNCTION, OR NONPERIODIC (CHAOTIC CHAOTIC). ).

STEADY STATE RESPONSE MAY BE STEADY STATE RESPONSE MAY BE

EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SENSITIVE TO INITIAL SENSITIVE TO INITIAL

CONDITIONS CONDITIONS OR PERTURBATIONS . OR PERTURBATIONS .

BEHAVIORS CANNOT PROPERLY BE BEHAVIORS CANNOT PROPERLY BE

PREDICTED BY LINEARIZED OR REDUCED PREDICTED BY LINEARIZED OR REDUCED

ORDER MODELS. ORDER MODELS.

THEORY MATURED IN LATE 70s, EARLY 80s. THEORY MATURED IN LATE 70s, EARLY 80s.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FROM LATE 80s. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FROM LATE 80s.

Page 15

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 9 C = 9 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD ONE PERIOD ONE

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 9 C = 9 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD ONE PERIOD ONE

ONLY ODD ONLY ODD

HARMONICS HARMONICS

Page 16

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 10 C = 10 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD TWO PERIOD TWO

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 10 C = 10 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD TWO PERIOD TWO

HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT

MULTIPLES OF MULTIPLES OF

30 Hz. 30 Hz.

Page 17

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 15 C = 15 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

CHAOS CHAOS

TRAJECTORY TRAJECTORY

DOES NOT DOES NOT

REPEAT. REPEAT.

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 15 C = 15 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

CHAOS CHAOS

NOTE: NOTE:

DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED

SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.

Page 18

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 17 C = 17 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD FIVE PERIOD FIVE

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 17 C = 17 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD FIVE PERIOD FIVE

HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT

ODD ONE ODD ONE- -FIFTH FIFTH

SPACINGS. SPACINGS.

i.e. 12, 36, 60, 84... i.e. 12, 36, 60, 84...

Page 19

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 18 C = 18 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

CHAOS CHAOS

NOTE: NOTE:

TRAJECTORY TRAJECTORY

DOES NOT DOES NOT

REPEAT. REPEAT.

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 18 C = 18 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

CHAOS CHAOS

NOTE: NOTE:

DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED

SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.

Page 20

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE

DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V

X1 X1

C = 25 C = 25 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD THREE PERIOD THREE

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 25 C = 25 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

PERIOD THREE PERIOD THREE

HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT

ODD ONE ODD ONE- -THIRD THIRD

SPACINGS. SPACINGS.

i.e. 20, 60, 100... i.e. 20, 60, 100...

Page 21

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

POINCAR POINCAR SECTION SECTION

FOR V FOR V

X1 X1

C = 40 C = 40 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

CHAOS CHAOS

ONE POINT PER ONE POINT PER

CYCLE SAMPLED CYCLE SAMPLED

FROM PHASE FROM PHASE

PLANE PLANE

TRAJECTORY. TRAJECTORY.

VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0

DFT FOR V DFT FOR V

X1 X1

C = 40 C = 40 F F

X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED

X1 OPEN X1 OPEN

CHAOS CHAOS

NOTE: NOTE:

DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED

FREQUENCY FREQUENCY

SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.

Page 22

GLOBAL PREDICTION OF GLOBAL PREDICTION OF

FERRORESONANCE FERRORESONANCE

PREDICTION APPEARS DIFFICULT DUE TO PREDICTION APPEARS DIFFICULT DUE TO

WIDE RANGE OF POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS. WIDE RANGE OF POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS.

A TYPE OF A TYPE OF BIFURCATION DIAGRAM BIFURCATION DIAGRAM, AS , AS

USED TO STUDY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, IS USED TO STUDY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, IS

INTRODUCED FOR THIS PURPOSE. INTRODUCED FOR THIS PURPOSE.

MAGNITUDES OF VOLTAGES FROM MAGNITUDES OF VOLTAGES FROM

SIMULATED POINCAR SECTIONS ARE SIMULATED POINCAR SECTIONS ARE

PLOTTED AS THE CAPACITANCE IS PLOTTED AS THE CAPACITANCE IS

SLOWLY VARIED (BOTH UP AND DOWN). SLOWLY VARIED (BOTH UP AND DOWN).

POINTS ARE SAMPLED ONCE EACH 60 POINTS ARE SAMPLED ONCE EACH 60- -Hz Hz

CYCLE. CYCLE.

AN ADEQUATE MODEL IS REQUIRED. AN ADEQUATE MODEL IS REQUIRED.

BIFURCATION BIFURCATION

DIAGRAMS: DIAGRAMS:

ENERGIZE X2, X3. ENERGIZE X2, X3.

X1 LEFT OPEN. X1 LEFT OPEN.

CAPACITANCE CAPACITANCE

VARIED 0 VARIED 0 - - 30 30 F F

CAPACITANCE CAPACITANCE

VARIED 30 VARIED 30 - - 0 0 F F

MODES: MODES:

1 1- -2 2- -C C- -5 5- -C C- -3 3- -C C

Page 23

Bifurcation Bifurcation

Diagrams Diagrams

Must Ramp Must Ramp

Capacitance Capacitance

both Up and both Up and

Down ! Down !

Hysteresis Hysteresis in in

the control of the control of

a nonlinear a nonlinear

system. system.

Roadmap of Roadmap of

System System

Behaviors Behaviors

CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS

FERRORESONANT BEHAVIOR IS TYPICAL FERRORESONANT BEHAVIOR IS TYPICAL

OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS. OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.

RESPONSES MAY BE PERIODIC OR RESPONSES MAY BE PERIODIC OR

CHAOTIC. CHAOTIC.

MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE ARE MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE ARE

POSSIBLE FOR THE SAME PARAMETERS. POSSIBLE FOR THE SAME PARAMETERS.

STEADY STATE RESPONSES CAN BE STEADY STATE RESPONSES CAN BE

SENSITIVE TO INITIAL CONDITIONS OR SENSITIVE TO INITIAL CONDITIONS OR

PERTURBATIONS. PERTURBATIONS.

SPONTANEOUS TRANSITIONS FROM ONE SPONTANEOUS TRANSITIONS FROM ONE

MODE TO ANOTHER ARE POSSIBLE. MODE TO ANOTHER ARE POSSIBLE.

WHEN SIMULATING, THERE MAY NOT BE WHEN SIMULATING, THERE MAY NOT BE

ONE CORRECT RESPONSE. ONE CORRECT RESPONSE.

Page 24

CONCLUSIONS (CONTD) CONCLUSIONS (CONTD)

BIFURCATIONS OCCUR AS CAPACITANCE IS BIFURCATIONS OCCUR AS CAPACITANCE IS

VARIED UPWARD OR DOWNWARD. VARIED UPWARD OR DOWNWARD.

PLOTTING PLOTTING Vpeak vs Vpeak vs. CAPACITANCE OR . CAPACITANCE OR

OTHER VARIABLES GIVES DISCONTINUOUS OTHER VARIABLES GIVES DISCONTINUOUS

OR MULTI OR MULTI- -VALUED FUNCTIONS. VALUED FUNCTIONS.

THEREFORE, SUPPOSITION OF TRENDS THEREFORE, SUPPOSITION OF TRENDS

BASED ON LINEARIZING A LIMITED SET OF BASED ON LINEARIZING A LIMITED SET OF

DATA IS PARTICULARLY PRONE TO ERROR. DATA IS PARTICULARLY PRONE TO ERROR.

BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS PROVIDE A ROAD BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS PROVIDE A ROAD

MAP, AVOIDING NEED TO DO SEPARATE MAP, AVOIDING NEED TO DO SEPARATE

SIMULATIONS AT DISCRETE VALUES OF SIMULATIONS AT DISCRETE VALUES OF

CAPACITANCE AND INITIAL CONDITIONS. CAPACITANCE AND INITIAL CONDITIONS.

Recommendations Recommendations

Beware of lightly Beware of lightly- -loaded transformers loaded transformers

operating in the presence of capacitance. operating in the presence of capacitance.

Topologically correct transformer models are Topologically correct transformer models are

the key to simulation of ferroresonance. the key to simulation of ferroresonance.

Core saturation/loss representations are still Core saturation/loss representations are still

weak point of transformer models. weak point of transformer models.

Nonlinearities make ferroresonance hard to Nonlinearities make ferroresonance hard to

predict or confirm. predict or confirm.

Monitor current literature for new Monitor current literature for new

developments in modeling and simulation developments in modeling and simulation

techniques. techniques.

Page 25

COMMENTS?

COMMENTS?

QUESTIONS?

QUESTIONS?

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