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IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting
Toronto, July 13 Toronto, July 13- -17, 2003 17, 2003
Panel Session Panel Session
Practical Aspects of Practical Aspects of
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance
by by
IEEE T&D General Systems Subcommittee IEEE T&D General Systems Subcommittee
Practical Aspects of Practical Aspects of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance WG WG
Chairman: Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University Chairman: Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University
http://www. http://www.ee ee. .mtu mtu. .edu edu/faculty/ /faculty/bamork bamork/FR_WG/ /FR_WG/
Working Group Objectives Working Group Objectives
Comprehensive Literature Survey of FR issues. Comprehensive Literature Survey of FR issues.
Accessible explanation of FR for practicing Accessible explanation of FR for practicing
engineers. Help understand and deal with FR. engineers. Help understand and deal with FR.
Document scenarios under which FR can occur, Document scenarios under which FR can occur,
providing practical insights and mitigation measures. providing practical insights and mitigation measures.
Document scenarios that are often confused with FR Document scenarios that are often confused with FR
but are but are NOT NOT FR. Identify misinformation and correct. FR. Identify misinformation and correct.
IEEE Special Publication, panel, tutorial, papers, etc. IEEE Special Publication, panel, tutorial, papers, etc.
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Working Group Activities Working Group Activities
Meet 1 Meet 1- -2 times/ year, first met at SM 2001. 2 times/ year, first met at SM 2001.
34 total members, 11 active contributors 34 total members, 11 active contributors
Information being gathered, literature search, Information being gathered, literature search,
compiling scenarios leading to FR, compiling scenarios leading to FR,
Deliverables: Deliverables:
Panel Session Panel Session - - July 2003 GM, Toronto July 2003 GM, Toronto
Panel Session Panel Session - - June 2004 GM, Denver June 2004 GM, Denver
Special publication complete in Q3/Q4 2004. Special publication complete in Q3/Q4 2004.
Summary papers submitted during 2004/2005. Summary papers submitted during 2004/2005.
Tutorial Tutorial - - 2005 GM. 2005 GM.
Acknowledgements Acknowledgements
T&D General Subsystems Committee: T&D General Subsystems Committee:
This work grew out of TF on Slow Transients, This work grew out of TF on Slow Transients,
IEEE Special Publication TP IEEE Special Publication TP- -133 133- -0 0, Chapter 5. , Chapter 5.
Albert Keri Albert Keri came up with idea for this WG. came up with idea for this WG.
Nucleus of Key Contributors to kick things off: Nucleus of Key Contributors to kick things off:
David Jacobson, David Jacobson, Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro
Atef Morched Atef Morched, , Labelec Labelec
Bruce Mork Bruce Mork, Michigan Tech University , Michigan Tech University
Reigh Reigh Walling Walling, General Electric , General Electric
The 30 others who are contributing, reviewing, The 30 others who are contributing, reviewing,
sharing insights, otherwise participating. sharing insights, otherwise participating.
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Todays Panelists Todays Panelists
Bruce Mork Bruce Mork, Panel Chair, Michigan Technological , Panel Chair, Michigan Technological
University University - - Intro/Overview of Intro/Overview of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance
David Jacobson David Jacobson, Manitoba Hydro, Canada , Manitoba Hydro, Canada - - Useful Useful
References & Examples of References & Examples of Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in a High in a High- -
Voltage Power System Voltage Power System
Roger Roger Dugan Dugan, , Electrotek Electrotek Concepts Concepts - - Examples of Examples of
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in Distribution Systems in Distribution Systems
B. B. Tanggawelu Tanggawelu, TNB Research, Malaysia , TNB Research, Malaysia - -
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance Studies in Malaysian Utility's Studies in Malaysian Utility's
Distribution Network Distribution Network (could not attend) (could not attend)
Reigh Reigh Walling/ Walling/Goran Drobnjak, General Electric , General Electric - -
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in Low in Low- -Loss Distribution Loss Distribution
Transformers Transformers
Juan Martinez Juan Martinez, , Universitat Politecnica Universitat Politecnica de Barcelona de Barcelona - -
Transformer Modeling for Simulation of Low Transformer Modeling for Simulation of Low- -
Frequency Transients Frequency Transients ( (coauthored coauthored with Bruce Mork) with Bruce Mork)
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
TO
TO
FERRORESONANCE
FERRORESONANCE
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Ferroresonance Ferroresonance Basics Basics
A Resonance involving a capacitance in series with a A Resonance involving a capacitance in series with a
saturable inductance L saturable inductance L
M M
. Maximum frequency: 2 . Maximum frequency: 2- -3kHz. 3kHz.
Unpredictable due to nonlinearities. Lots of harmonics. Unpredictable due to nonlinearities. Lots of harmonics.
More likely when little load or damping, and for More likely when little load or damping, and for
unbalanced 3 unbalanced 3- -phase excitation with coupling between phase excitation with coupling between
phases, or between circuits of double phases, or between circuits of double- -circuit lines. circuit lines.
Examples of capacitances: Examples of capacitances:
Series Compensated Lines. Series Compensated Lines.
Shunt Capacitor Banks. Shunt Capacitor Banks.
Underground Cable. Underground Cable.
Systems grounded only via stray (zero Systems grounded only via stray (zero seq seq) capacitance. ) capacitance.
Grading capacitors on Circuit Breakers. Grading capacitors on Circuit Breakers.
Generator Surge Capacitors. Generator Surge Capacitors.
Some Available Literature: Some Available Literature:
Be careful! Some (much?) misinformation exists. Be careful! Some (much?) misinformation exists.
Identified and named in 1907. Identified and named in 1907.
Series Distribution Capacitors Series Distribution Capacitors - - 1930s. 1930s.
Rudenberg: Analytical Work in 1940s. Rudenberg: Analytical Work in 1940s.
Hopkinson, Smith: 3 Hopkinson, Smith: 3- -phase systems, 1960 phase systems, 1960- -70s. 70s.
Jiles, Frame, Swift: Core Jiles, Frame, Swift: Core Inductances Inductances, 70s , 70s- -80s 80s
Smith, Stuehm, Mork: Transformer Models. Smith, Stuehm, Mork: Transformer Models.
Mork, Walling: System Models, 1987 Mork, Walling: System Models, 1987- -90s. 90s.
Mork, Kieny: Nonlinear Dynamics, 1989 Mork, Kieny: Nonlinear Dynamics, 1989- -90s. 90s.
Jacobson, others: continuing work, late 90s onward. Jacobson, others: continuing work, late 90s onward.
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Single Phase Single Phase
Transformer: Transformer:
Normal Normal
Excitation Excitation
120 Volts RMS is 120 Volts RMS is
applied (1.0 applied (1.0 pu pu) )
Peak exciting Peak exciting
current is less current is less
than one amp. than one amp.
Exciting current Exciting current
distorted due to distorted due to
eddy currents and eddy currents and
hysteresis hysteresis. .
Single Phase Single Phase
Transformer: Transformer:
Ferro Ferro- -
resonance resonance
Series Capacitance Series Capacitance
120 Volts RMS is 120 Volts RMS is
applied (1.0 applied (1.0 pu pu) )
Peak exciting Peak exciting
current is about 34 current is about 34
amps (1.94 amps (1.94 pu pu). ).
Terminal voltage of Terminal voltage of
transformer is 240 transformer is 240
volts peak (1.44 volts peak (1.44 pu pu). ).
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Subtransmission Subtransmission
Capacitor Banks: Capacitor Banks:
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance
Two Phases of Source Two Phases of Source
are Open are Open
Single Single- -Phase Phase XFMRs XFMRs
Series L Series L- -C resonance C resonance
Nonlinear Inductance Nonlinear Inductance
Zero Sequence Path Zero Sequence Path
Subtransmission Subtransmission
Capacitor Banks: Capacitor Banks:
Ferroresonance Ferroresonance
One Phase of Source One Phase of Source
is Open is Open
Series L Series L- -C resonance C resonance
Nonlinear Inductance Nonlinear Inductance
Zero Sequence Path Zero Sequence Path
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Important System Components Important System Components
Steady Steady- -State Thevenin Equivalent State Thevenin Equivalent
RLC Coupled RLC Coupled- -Pi for Lines/Cables. (Cascaded Pi for Lines/Cables. (Cascaded
for long lines). for long lines).
Shunt and Series Capacitances. Shunt and Series Capacitances.
Stray Capacitances: Interwinding and Stray Capacitances: Interwinding and
Winding Winding- -Ground. Ground.
Transformer: Transformer: Model must be of correct Model must be of correct
topology, and include core saturation & topology, and include core saturation &
losses. losses.
EXAMPLE CASES
EXAMPLE CASES
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Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN
Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded
50 50- -kV System kV System
System System
Grounding was lost Grounding was lost
for 3 minutes. for 3 minutes.
72 72 VTs VTs of same of same
Mfr Mfr were destroyed. were destroyed.
Zero Sequence Zero Sequence
Load Provided Load Provided
some damping, but some damping, but
not enough. not enough.
Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN
Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded
50 50- -kV System kV System
Simplified system Simplified system
model is sufficient. model is sufficient.
Zero sequence Zero sequence
capacitance capacitance
Line impedance Line impedance
and source and source
impedance were impedance were
much less than VT much less than VT
core inductance. core inductance.
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Case 1: Case 1: VT FERRORESONANCE IN VT FERRORESONANCE IN
Temporarily Ungrounded Temporarily Ungrounded
50 50- -kV System kV System
What made one What made one
MFRs MFRs VTs VTs different different
than the others? than the others?
Same Steady State Same Steady State
Performance... Performance...
Much different Much different
saturation saturation
characteristics ! characteristics !
VT #1 Failed. VT #1 Failed.
All 72 of them! All 72 of them!
Case 2: Case 2: FERRORESONANCE IN FERRORESONANCE IN
WYE WYE- -CONNECTED SYSTEMS CONNECTED SYSTEMS
A A
B B
C C
H1 H1
H2 H2
H3 H3
V V
A A
V V
C C
V V
B B
X1 X1
X2 X2
X3 X3
X0 X0
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Details of Case #2 Details of Case #2
FULL SCALE LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS. FULL SCALE LABORATORY & FIELD TESTS.
5 5- -LEG WOUND CORE, RATED 75 LEG WOUND CORE, RATED 75- -kVA kVA, ,
WINDINGS: 12,470GY/7200 WINDINGS: 12,470GY/7200 - - 480GY/277 (TYPICAL 480GY/277 (TYPICAL
IN 80% OF U.S. SYSTEMS). IN 80% OF U.S. SYSTEMS).
RATED VOLTAGE APPLIED. RATED VOLTAGE APPLIED.
ONE OR TWO PHASES OPEN ONE OR TWO PHASES OPEN- -CIRCUITED. CIRCUITED.
BACKFEED VOLTAGE IN UNENERGIZED PHASES BACKFEED VOLTAGE IN UNENERGIZED PHASES
CAPACITANCE(S) CONNECTED TO OPEN CAPACITANCE(S) CONNECTED TO OPEN
PHASE(S) TO SIMULATE CABLE. PHASE(S) TO SIMULATE CABLE.
VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS ON OPEN PHASE(S) VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS ON OPEN PHASE(S)
RECORDED AS CAPACITANCE IS VARIED. RECORDED AS CAPACITANCE IS VARIED.
BACKFED VOLTAGE DEPENDS ON BACKFED VOLTAGE DEPENDS ON
CORE CONFIGURATION CORE CONFIGURATION
3 3- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE TRIPLEX WOUND OR STACKED TRIPLEX WOUND OR STACKED
SHELL FORM SHELL FORM 5 5- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE
5 5- -LEG WOUND CORE LEG WOUND CORE 4 4- -LEG STACKED CORE LEG STACKED CORE
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Dont Dont Do This! Do This!
Basic Delta Basic Delta- -Wye Wye
Transformer Model Transformer Model
as Presented in as Presented in
EMTP Rule Book. EMTP Rule Book.
Composed of three Composed of three
single single- -phase phase
transformers transformers
Phase Phase- -to to- -phase phase
coupling is coupling is not not
included included
5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer
Cross Section with Flux Paths/Tubes Cross Section with Flux Paths/Tubes
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5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer
Lumped Magnetic Circuit Lumped Magnetic Circuit
5 5- -Legged Wound Legged Wound- -Core Transformer Core Transformer
Electrical Dual Equivalent Circuit Electrical Dual Equivalent Circuit
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5 5- -LEGGED LEGGED
WOUND WOUND- -CORE CORE
MODEL MODEL
Winding Winding
Resistances Resistances
added added
Current Sources Current Sources
are replaced by are replaced by
ideal coupling ideal coupling
transformers transformers
EMTP Model, EMTP Model,
5 5- -Legged Legged
Wound Wound- -Core Core
RC Integrators RC Integrators
Core Losses Core Losses
Coupling Coupling
Capacitors Capacitors
Winding Winding
Resistance Resistance
Ideal Coupling Ideal Coupling
Isolates Core Isolates Core
From Winding From Winding
Connections Connections
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Case 2: Case 2: FERRORESONANCE IN FERRORESONANCE IN
WYE WYE- -CONNECTED SYSTEMS CONNECTED SYSTEMS
A A
B B
C C
H1 H1
H2 H2
H3 H3
V V
A A
V V
C C
V V
B B
X1 X1
X2 X2
X3 X3
X0 X0
NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS:
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE POSSIBLE MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE POSSIBLE
FOR IDENTICAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS. FOR IDENTICAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS.
STEADY STATE RESPONSES MAY BE OF STEADY STATE RESPONSES MAY BE OF
DIFFERENT PERIOD THAN FORCING DIFFERENT PERIOD THAN FORCING
FUNCTION, OR NONPERIODIC ( FUNCTION, OR NONPERIODIC (CHAOTIC CHAOTIC). ).
STEADY STATE RESPONSE MAY BE STEADY STATE RESPONSE MAY BE
EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SENSITIVE TO INITIAL SENSITIVE TO INITIAL
CONDITIONS CONDITIONS OR PERTURBATIONS . OR PERTURBATIONS .
BEHAVIORS CANNOT PROPERLY BE BEHAVIORS CANNOT PROPERLY BE
PREDICTED BY LINEARIZED OR REDUCED PREDICTED BY LINEARIZED OR REDUCED
ORDER MODELS. ORDER MODELS.
THEORY MATURED IN LATE 70s, EARLY 80s. THEORY MATURED IN LATE 70s, EARLY 80s.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FROM LATE 80s. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS FROM LATE 80s.
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 9 C = 9 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD ONE PERIOD ONE
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 9 C = 9 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD ONE PERIOD ONE
ONLY ODD ONLY ODD
HARMONICS HARMONICS
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 10 C = 10 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD TWO PERIOD TWO
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 10 C = 10 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD TWO PERIOD TWO
HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT
MULTIPLES OF MULTIPLES OF
30 Hz. 30 Hz.
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 15 C = 15 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL
CHAOS CHAOS
TRAJECTORY TRAJECTORY
DOES NOT DOES NOT
REPEAT. REPEAT.
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 15 C = 15 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL
CHAOS CHAOS
NOTE: NOTE:
DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED
SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 17 C = 17 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD FIVE PERIOD FIVE
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 17 C = 17 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD FIVE PERIOD FIVE
HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT
ODD ONE ODD ONE- -FIFTH FIFTH
SPACINGS. SPACINGS.
i.e. 12, 36, 60, 84... i.e. 12, 36, 60, 84...
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 18 C = 18 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL
CHAOS CHAOS
NOTE: NOTE:
TRAJECTORY TRAJECTORY
DOES NOT DOES NOT
REPEAT. REPEAT.
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 18 C = 18 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL
CHAOS CHAOS
NOTE: NOTE:
DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED
SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
PHASE PLANE PHASE PLANE
DIAGRAM FOR V DIAGRAM FOR V
X1 X1
C = 25 C = 25 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD THREE PERIOD THREE
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 25 C = 25 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
PERIOD THREE PERIOD THREE
HARMONICS AT HARMONICS AT
ODD ONE ODD ONE- -THIRD THIRD
SPACINGS. SPACINGS.
i.e. 20, 60, 100... i.e. 20, 60, 100...
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VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
POINCAR POINCAR SECTION SECTION
FOR V FOR V
X1 X1
C = 40 C = 40 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
CHAOS CHAOS
ONE POINT PER ONE POINT PER
CYCLE SAMPLED CYCLE SAMPLED
FROM PHASE FROM PHASE
PLANE PLANE
TRAJECTORY. TRAJECTORY.
VOLTAGE X1 VOLTAGE X1- -X0 X0
DFT FOR V DFT FOR V
X1 X1
C = 40 C = 40 F F
X2, X3 ENERGIZED X2, X3 ENERGIZED
X1 OPEN X1 OPEN
CHAOS CHAOS
NOTE: NOTE:
DISTRIBUTED DISTRIBUTED
FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
SPECTRUM. SPECTRUM.
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GLOBAL PREDICTION OF GLOBAL PREDICTION OF
FERRORESONANCE FERRORESONANCE
PREDICTION APPEARS DIFFICULT DUE TO PREDICTION APPEARS DIFFICULT DUE TO
WIDE RANGE OF POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS. WIDE RANGE OF POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS.
A TYPE OF A TYPE OF BIFURCATION DIAGRAM BIFURCATION DIAGRAM, AS , AS
USED TO STUDY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, IS USED TO STUDY NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, IS
INTRODUCED FOR THIS PURPOSE. INTRODUCED FOR THIS PURPOSE.
MAGNITUDES OF VOLTAGES FROM MAGNITUDES OF VOLTAGES FROM
SIMULATED POINCAR SECTIONS ARE SIMULATED POINCAR SECTIONS ARE
PLOTTED AS THE CAPACITANCE IS PLOTTED AS THE CAPACITANCE IS
SLOWLY VARIED (BOTH UP AND DOWN). SLOWLY VARIED (BOTH UP AND DOWN).
POINTS ARE SAMPLED ONCE EACH 60 POINTS ARE SAMPLED ONCE EACH 60- -Hz Hz
CYCLE. CYCLE.
AN ADEQUATE MODEL IS REQUIRED. AN ADEQUATE MODEL IS REQUIRED.
BIFURCATION BIFURCATION
DIAGRAMS: DIAGRAMS:
ENERGIZE X2, X3. ENERGIZE X2, X3.
X1 LEFT OPEN. X1 LEFT OPEN.
CAPACITANCE CAPACITANCE
VARIED 0 VARIED 0 - - 30 30 F F
CAPACITANCE CAPACITANCE
VARIED 30 VARIED 30 - - 0 0 F F
MODES: MODES:
1 1- -2 2- -C C- -5 5- -C C- -3 3- -C C
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Bifurcation Bifurcation
Diagrams Diagrams
Must Ramp Must Ramp
Capacitance Capacitance
both Up and both Up and
Down ! Down !
Hysteresis Hysteresis in in
the control of the control of
a nonlinear a nonlinear
system. system.
Roadmap of Roadmap of
System System
Behaviors Behaviors
CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS
FERRORESONANT BEHAVIOR IS TYPICAL FERRORESONANT BEHAVIOR IS TYPICAL
OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS. OF NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.
RESPONSES MAY BE PERIODIC OR RESPONSES MAY BE PERIODIC OR
CHAOTIC. CHAOTIC.
MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE ARE MULTIPLE MODES OF RESPONSE ARE
POSSIBLE FOR THE SAME PARAMETERS. POSSIBLE FOR THE SAME PARAMETERS.
STEADY STATE RESPONSES CAN BE STEADY STATE RESPONSES CAN BE
SENSITIVE TO INITIAL CONDITIONS OR SENSITIVE TO INITIAL CONDITIONS OR
PERTURBATIONS. PERTURBATIONS.
SPONTANEOUS TRANSITIONS FROM ONE SPONTANEOUS TRANSITIONS FROM ONE
MODE TO ANOTHER ARE POSSIBLE. MODE TO ANOTHER ARE POSSIBLE.
WHEN SIMULATING, THERE MAY NOT BE WHEN SIMULATING, THERE MAY NOT BE
ONE CORRECT RESPONSE. ONE CORRECT RESPONSE.
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CONCLUSIONS (CONTD) CONCLUSIONS (CONTD)
BIFURCATIONS OCCUR AS CAPACITANCE IS BIFURCATIONS OCCUR AS CAPACITANCE IS
VARIED UPWARD OR DOWNWARD. VARIED UPWARD OR DOWNWARD.
PLOTTING PLOTTING Vpeak vs Vpeak vs. CAPACITANCE OR . CAPACITANCE OR
OTHER VARIABLES GIVES DISCONTINUOUS OTHER VARIABLES GIVES DISCONTINUOUS
OR MULTI OR MULTI- -VALUED FUNCTIONS. VALUED FUNCTIONS.
THEREFORE, SUPPOSITION OF TRENDS THEREFORE, SUPPOSITION OF TRENDS
BASED ON LINEARIZING A LIMITED SET OF BASED ON LINEARIZING A LIMITED SET OF
DATA IS PARTICULARLY PRONE TO ERROR. DATA IS PARTICULARLY PRONE TO ERROR.
BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS PROVIDE A ROAD BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS PROVIDE A ROAD
MAP, AVOIDING NEED TO DO SEPARATE MAP, AVOIDING NEED TO DO SEPARATE
SIMULATIONS AT DISCRETE VALUES OF SIMULATIONS AT DISCRETE VALUES OF
CAPACITANCE AND INITIAL CONDITIONS. CAPACITANCE AND INITIAL CONDITIONS.
Recommendations Recommendations
Beware of lightly Beware of lightly- -loaded transformers loaded transformers
operating in the presence of capacitance. operating in the presence of capacitance.
Topologically correct transformer models are Topologically correct transformer models are
the key to simulation of ferroresonance. the key to simulation of ferroresonance.
Core saturation/loss representations are still Core saturation/loss representations are still
weak point of transformer models. weak point of transformer models.
Nonlinearities make ferroresonance hard to Nonlinearities make ferroresonance hard to
predict or confirm. predict or confirm.
Monitor current literature for new Monitor current literature for new
developments in modeling and simulation developments in modeling and simulation
techniques. techniques.
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COMMENTS?
COMMENTS?
QUESTIONS?
QUESTIONS?