International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
153

Voltage Sag Mitigation in the Distributed Generation System
with STATCOM
Sumeet Trivedi
1
, D. Chattopadhyay
2

1
M.E.Student, Power System Engg., S.S.C.E.T., Bhilai, C.G., India
2
Sr.Asso.Professor, E.E.E. Deptt., S.S.C.E.T., Bhilai, C.G., India
Abstract— This paper investigates the effect of Static
Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) on the voltage sag in
a distributed generation system. For this purpose, the DG
system of an integrated steel plant, which is connected to 132
KV grid, is taken under study. The entire system is modelled
with STATCOM based Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
PWM technique. The voltage sag improvement of the DG
system is compared with and without STATCOM. Power
System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients
including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) is used to carry out
simulation of the system under study and detailed results are
shown to access the performance of STATCOM based Voltage
Source Converter.
Keywords— Distributed Generation, Voltage Sag,
STATCOM, PSCAD, PWM
I. INTRODUCTION
A Voltage Sag as defined by IEEE Standard 1159-1995,
IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric
Power Quality, is a decrease in RMS voltage at the power
frequency for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1 minute,
reported as the remaining voltage. The measurement of a
Voltage Sag is stated as a percentage of the nominal
voltage, it is a measurement of the remaining voltage and is
stated as a sag TO a percentage value. Thus a Voltage Sag
to 60% is equivalent to 60% of nominal voltage, or 288
Volts for a nominal 480 Volt system. Voltage sags can
occur on Utility systems both at distribution voltages and
transmission voltages. Voltage sags which occur at higher
voltages will normally spread through a utility system and
will be transmitted to lower voltage systems via
transformers. Voltage sags can be created within an
industrial complex without any influence from the Utility
system. These sags are typically caused by starting large
motors or by electrical faults inside the facility.


Fig.1 A balanced three phase voltage sag
Traditional methods of Voltage Control include
Transformer Tap Changers both mechanical and SCR
switched units [4], Servo-Variac technology and Ferro-
Resonant Transformers (constant voltage transformers) . In
some cases and for some applications these traditional
technologies may still be applicable and work well but in
many cases they were designed to correct problems other
than voltage sags. Industrial UPS units are widely used to
protect electronic process control equipment and to allow
for an orderly shutdown of the process but it is rarely
economic to install large UPS systems with their attendant
large battery banks for high power electrical equipment
such as high horsepower drives, extruders etc. Different
power electronics solutions are used for improving the
performance of the power system by mitigating the voltage
sag [7]. Mitigation devices are installed at the system-load
interface for power quality enhancement and prevent the
voltage dip [5],[8],[9].








International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
154

At present, a wide range of very flexible controllers,
which capitalize on newly available power electronics
components, are emerging for custom power applications.
Among these, the static compensator (STATCOM) and the
dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), both of them based on the
VSC principle, are the controllers which have received the
most attention. The DVR is a dynamic solution for
protection of critical loads from voltage sags / swells [6].
The DVR restores constant load voltage and voltage wave
form by injecting an appropriate voltage. Modern industrial
processes are based on a large amount of electronic devices
such as programmable logic controllers and adjustable
speed drives. Unfortunately, electronic devices are
sensitive to disturbances, and thus, industrial loads become
less tolerant to power quality problems such as voltage
sags, voltage swells, and harmonics. The dynamic voltage
restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective
solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage
sags and swells [10].
A Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a
static synchronous generator operated as a shunt connected
static var compensator whose capacitive or inductive output
current can be controlled in- dependent of the AC system
voltage. A STATCOM is a controlled reactive-power
source. It provides voltage support by generating or
absorbing reactive power at the point of common coupling
without the need of large external reactors or capacitor
banks. Voltage fluctuations caused by rapid industrial load
changes have been a major concern for both power
companies and customers in the area of power quality [1].
The fast response of the static compensator (STATCOM)
makes it an efficient solution for improving power quality
in distribution systems. The STATCOM have a function of
compensating reactive power, absorbing the harmonic and
compensating the voltage dip [2].
II. STATCOM
The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a
VSC that is shunt connected to the distribution system by
means of a tie reactance. In general, a coupling transformer
is installed between the distribution system and the
STATCOM for isolating the low voltage (STATCOM)
from the high voltage (distribution system), as shown in
Fig. The STATCOM can be seen as a current source since
it is connected in shunt with the distribution system and the
load.



By controlling the magnitude and the phase angle of the
output voltage of the VSC, both active and reactive power
can be exchanged between the distribution system and the
STATCOM. Being a shunt connected device, the
STATCOM mainly injects reactive power to the system.

Fig.2 STATCOM connected to a power system
The contribution of the STATCOM to the load bus
voltage equals the injected current times the impedance
seen from the device, which is the source impedance in
parallel with the load impedance. The ability of the
STATCOM to compensate the voltage dip is limited by this
available parallel impedance. In addition, the device should
be installed as close to the sensitive load as possible to
maximize the compensating capability. The STATCOM
also can be used in the function: power factor correction,
mitigation of load fluctuation (including voltage flicker) [3]
and active filtering.
A STATCOM functions as a shunt-connected
synchronous voltage source which accounts for its superior
functional characteristics, better performance, and greater
application flexibility. Concerning the non-linear operating
range, the STATCOM is able to control its output current
over the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range
independently of AC system voltage. Thus, the STATCOM
is more effective in providing voltage support under large
system disturbances during which the voltage excursions
would be well outside of the linear operating range of the
compensator.


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
155

The ability of the STATCOM to maintain full capacitive
output current at low system voltage also makes it more
effective in improving the transient stability.

Fig.3 STATCOM V-I characteristics
The attainable response time and the bandwidth of the
closed voltage regulation loop of the STATCOM are
significantly better. In situations where it is necessary to
provide active power compensation the STATCOM is able
to interface a suitable energy storage (large capacitor,
battery, ...) from where it can draw active power at its DC
terminal and deliver it as AC power to the system.
III. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEM OF NECO STEEL
PLANT
Distributed generation (or DG) generally refers to small-
scale (typically 1 kW – 50 MW) electric power generators
that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that
are tied to an electric distribution system. There are many
reasons a customer may choose to install a distributed
generator. DG can be used to generate a customer’s entire
electricity supply; for peak shaving (generating a portion of
a customer’s electricity onsite to reduce the amount of
electricity purchased during peak price periods); for
standby or emergency generation (as a backup to Wires
Owner's power supply); as a green power source (using
renewable technology); or for increased reliability. In some
remote locations, DG can be less costly as it eliminates the
need for expensive construction of distribution and/or
transmission lines.
Distributed Generation has a lower capital cost because
of the small size of the DG (although the investment cost
per kVA of a DG can be much higher than that of a large
power plant).
It may reduce the need for large infrastructure
construction or upgrades because the DG can be
constructed at the load location. If the DG provides power
for local use, it may reduce pressure on distribution and
transmission lines [11]. With some technologies, DG
produces zero or near-zero pollutant emissions over its
useful life (not taking into consideration pollutant
emissions over the entire product lifecycle i.e. pollution
produced during the manufacturing, or after
decommissioning of the DG system). With some
technologies such as solar or wind, it is a form of
renewable energy. It can increase power reliability as back-
up or stand-by power to customers and offers customers a
choice in meeting their energy needs [12].
In this paper, we have taken under study, the distributed
power system of NECO steel plant situated at Raipur. This
system consists of six turbo generators of small size which
generate electricity utilizing the heat of waste blast furnace
gas and coke oven gas in the boilers & produce steam to
run the turbines. Out of these, TG1 to TG5 generates power
at 6.6 kV whereas TG6 generates at 11 kV. As it is clear in
the single line diagram that all the generators are ultimately
connected to 132 kV CSEB grid, so the flow of power is
possible in both the directions, as per condition.

Fig.4 Single Line Diagram of power system of NECO steel plant
connected to 132 kV grid
IV. SIMULATION IN PSCAD AND DESCRIPTION
PSCAD/EMTDC is an industry standard simulation tool
for studying the transient behaviour of electrical networks.



International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
156

Its graphical user interface enables all aspects of the
simulation to be conducted within a single integrated
environment including circuit assembly, run-time control,
analysis of results, and reporting [15]. PSCAD/EMTDC
use in determining the exact switching times that allows the
simulation to run at high speed and does not introduce
inaccurate results. Another valuable feature of
PSCAD/EMTDC is the accurate model provided for the
wind turbine rotors, transformers, underground cables and
other electrical and electronic devices. At present a wide
range of very flexible controllers, which capitalize on
newly available power electronics components, are
emerging for custom power applications. Among these, the
static compensator (STATCOM) and the dynamic voltage
restorer (DVR), both of them based on the VSC principle
and the SSTS are the controllers which have received the
most attention. PSCAD/EMTDC will be used to perform
the modelling and analysis of such controllers for a wide
range of operating conditions [16]. PSCAD/EMTDC’s
highly developed graphical interface has proved
instrumental in implementing the graphics-based PWM
control the STATCOM [13],[14]. The single line diagram
shown above is modelled in PSCAD.

Fig.5 Three Phase Fault block and STATCOM connected to 132 kV
bus of the network
Now we connect a Three Phase Fault block in the
diagram in the 132 kV bus of the network with additional
resistance and inductance. This will create the effect of a
voltage sag instead of the fault, whose duration will be
determined by the Timed Fault Logic. To mitigate this
voltage sag, STATCOM is connected to the same bus via. a
filter, an HV breaker and a 2-wdg. transformer.



This breaker is initially in closed condition. A portion of
the network is shown below with 132 kV bus and
STATCOM & Fault block connected to it.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. During Normal Condition
1) When the grid connected DG system is working under
the normal conditions and the simulation is run for no fault
(or voltage sag) introduced in the system, then the three
phase grid voltage is obtained as shown below:
RE: Graphs
Time S
0.500 0.520 0.540 0.560 0.580 0.600 0.620 0.640
...
...
...
-100
-75
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
V132

Fig.6 Three phase voltage during normal condition
2) The per unit voltage is also constant at 1.1 pu during the
whole simulation time which is in the voltage stable zone:
Voltage in pu
Time S
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

p
u
Vpu

Fig.7 Per unit voltage during normal condition
3) In this condition, the fault current is zero for all the three
phases:

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
157

Fault Current
Time S
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
F
a
u
l
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
K
A
)
Fault Current If a Fault Current If b Fault Current If c

Fig.8 Fault current in three phases during normal condition
B. During Voltage Sag Condition
1) By using the Three Phase Fault block, a voltage sag is
introduced in the 132 kV bus voltage from 1.0 sec. to 1.75
sec.
RE: Graphs
Time S
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
V132

Fig.9 Three phase voltage during voltage sag condition
2) The dip in the per unit voltage is also obtained as it
dropped from 1.1 pu to 0.85 pu for 0.75 sec.
Voltage in pu
Time S
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

p
u
Vpu

Fig.10 Per unit voltage during voltage sag condition


3) During the same interval, a fault current is flowing in all
the three phases i.e. Ifa, Ifb, Ifc is not zero for 0.75 sec.
Fault Current
Time S
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
F
a
u
l
t

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
K
A
)
Fault Current If a Fault Current If b Fault Current If c

Fig.11 Fault current in three phases during voltage sag condition
C. Effect of STATCOM on Voltage Sag
1) Now we connect a STATCOM in the 132 kV bus whose
breaker is in initially closed position, and run the
simulation with the voltage sag created for 0.75 sec., we
observe that as soon as voltage sag is produced at 1.0 sec, it
is mitigated by the effect of STATCOM as it injects the
voltage during the whole voltage dip of 0.75 sec.
RE: Graphs
Time S
0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00
...
...
...
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
k
V
)
V132

Fig.12 Voltage mitigation during fault by STATCOM
2) Also the per unit voltage of the bus is also maintained at
1.0 pu throughout the simulation run because STATCOM
is connected to the bus from the starting of the run.


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
158

Voltage in pu
Time S
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-3.0
-2.0
-1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

p
u
Vpu

Fig.13 Per unit voltage mitigation during fault by STATCOM
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, the effect of voltage sag on the distributed
power system of an steel plant has been studied and the role
of STATCOM on the mitigation of the voltage dip have
been found out. The simulations are carried out in PSCAD
and its results are analysed with & without STATCOM
connected in the 132 kV bus. It is clear that the presence of
STATCOM in the network helps in mitigating the voltage
sag and the bus voltage remains in the stable region.
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 2013)
159

AUTHOR’S PROFIE
Sumeet Trivedi is pursuing his M.E. in
Power Systems Engg. from S.S.C.E.T.,
Bhilai.

























D. Chattopadhyay is currently working as Sr. Asso.
Professor in S.S.C.E.T., Bhilai. She has done her M.E. in
Power Systems.





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