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MATH1131/41 Algebra Test 2 past paper solutions

c UNSW MATHSOC 2012.


V2.0
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Version History
1.0: Original Version
2.0: Major Corrections in 2008 V8a and 2009 V3a, reduced verbosity of answers (VN)
1
2008 V8a
1. A(2,-3,1) B(8,9,-5) in R
i.

AB =

8
9
5

2
3
1

6
12
6

ii.

OD =

OA +
2
3

AB
d

2
3
1

+
2
3

6
12
6

6
5
3

2. Point (0, 1, 2) lies on plane if we have a solution to,


x

5
1
3

4
1
1

3
2
3

0
1
2

, R
On rearranging we have,

4
1
1

3
2
3

5
0
1

Equating components,
4 + 3 =5 (1)
2 =0 (2)
+ 3 =1 (3)
From (2) and (3),
= 2, = 1
2
Test in 1,
LHS = 4 + 3 = 4 2 + 3 (1) = 5 = RHS
Hence point lies on the plane
Alternatively, the augmented matrix is,

4 3 5
1 2 0
1 3 1

R
1
=R
3

1 3 1
1 2 0
4 3 5

R
1
=R
3

R
3
=R
3
4R
1

1 3 1
0 1 1
0 9 9

R
3
=R
3
+9R
2

1 3 1
0 1 1
0 0 0

Hence REF =

1 3 1
0 1 1
0 0 0

Hence every column is leading and there is a unique solution ie. point(0,1,2) does
lie on the plane.
3. The intersection occurs for values , , , for which

1
1
1

1
3
5

1
3
4

1
4
6

1
1
1

The augmented matrix is

1 1 1 1 1
1 3 3 4 1
1 5 4 6 1

R
2
=R
2
R
1

R
3
=R
3
+R
1

1 1 1 1 1
0 2 2 3 0
0 6 5 5 2

R
3
=R
3
3R
2

1 1 1 1 1
0 2 2 3 0
0 0 1 14 2

This system has innitely many solutions - it has a non-leading column. Set = .
By back substitution from row 3,
+ 14 = 2 = 2 14
Hence the planes intersect on the line,
3
x

0
1
0

2 14

1
3
4

1
4
6

0
1
0

2 14
6 42
8 56

1
4
6

2
5
8

13
38
62

for R
4
2009 V3b
1. Same as Q1 2008 V5b
2. Point (3, 0, 1) lies on the plane if there is a solution to

3
0
1

5
0
1

1
3
2

3
2
4

1
3
2

3
2
4

2
0
2

1 3 2
3 2 0
2 4 2

R
2
+3R
1

R
3
+2R
1

1 3 2
0 11 6
0 2 6

R
3

2
11
R
2

1 3 2
0 11 6
0 0
54
11

Hence the system of equations has no solutions and the point does not lie on the
plane.
3. The augmented matrix is

1 3 2 4 2
2 4 5 9 0
1 1 4 6 6

R
2
+2R
1

R
3
+R
1

1 3 2 4 2
0 2 1 1 4
0 4 2 2 8

R
3
2R
2

1 3 2 4 2
0 2 1 1 4
0 0 0 0 0

Set x
3
=
1
and x
4
=
2
. Then
2x
2
+
1

2
= 4 = x
2
=
1
2
(4
1
+
2
) = 2
1
2

1
+
1
2

2
= x
1
+ 3x
2
2
1
+ 4
2
= 2
= x
1
= 2 3x
2
+ 2
1
+ 4
1
4
2
= 2
3
2
(4
1
+
2
) + 2
1
4
2
= 4 +
7
2

11
2

2
Hence

x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4

4 +
7
2

11
2

2
2
1
2

1
+
1
2

4
2
0
0

+
1

7
2

1
2
1
0

+
2

11
2
1
2
0
1

5
for
1
,
2
R. That is,
x
1
= 4 +
7
2

11
2

2
x
2
= 2
1
2

1
+
1
2

2
x
3
=
1
x
4
=
2
.
(NB. can also transform REF in reduced REF.)
To reduce likelihood of a transcription error, it might be easier to choose x
3
= 2
1
and x
4
= 2
2
. This has the advantage of avoiding any fractions in the question.

6
2009 V6b
1. We have x
1
2x
2
+7x
3
= 2. Set x
2
=
1
and x
3
=
2
. Hence x
1
= 2 +2
1
7
2
.
We have
x =

x
1
x
2
x
3

2 + 2
1
7
2

2
0
0

+
1

2
1
0

+
2

7
0
1

for
1
,
2
R. Hence

2
1
0

and

7
0
1

are two non-zero vectors to the plane.

2. We have

3
2
3
4

1
2
1
3

0
3
2
1

1
2
2
0

1 0 1 3
2 3 2 2
1 2 2 3
3 1 0 4

R
2
2R
1

R
3
R
1
,R
4
3R
1

1 0 1 3
0 3 0 4
0 2 3 0
0 1 3 5

R
4
R
2

1 0 1 3
0 1 3 5
0 2 3 0
0 3 0 4

R
3
+2R
2

R
4
3R
2

1 0 1 3
0 1 3 5
0 0 9 10
0 0 9 19

R
4
+R
3

1 0 1 3
0 1 3 5
0 0 9 10
0 0 0 9

Hence the system of equations do not have a solution and

3
2
3
4

is not a linear
combination of the three vectors.
7
3. We want r(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c such that r(1) = 6, r(3) = 10, r(2) = 15. Now
r(1) = 6 = a + b + c = 6
r(3) = 10 = 9a + 3b + c = 10
r(2) = 15 = 4a 2b + c = 15
Hence

1 1 1 6
9 3 1 10
4 2 1 15

R
2
9R
1

R
3
4R
1

1 1 1 6
0 6 8 44
0 6 3 9

R
3
R
2

1 1 1 6
0 6 8 44
0 0 5 35

R
3
=R
3

1
5

1 1 1 6
0 6 8 44
0 0 1 7

R
1
R
3

R
2
+8R
3

1 1 0 1
0 6 0 12
0 0 1 7

R
2
=R
2

1
6

1 1 0 1
0 1 0 2
0 0 1 7

R
1
R
2

1 0 0 1
0 1 0 2
0 0 1 7

Back substitutions give solutions a = 1, b = 2, c = 7. Hence r(x) = x


2
2x + 7.

8
2009 V3a
1. A =

1 1
3 0

, B =

2 1
1 0
1 1

, C =

2 1
0 1

.
CB is not dened since no. of columns of C = no. of rows of B.
A
2
=

1 1
3 0

1 1
3 0

2 1
3 3

C
T
3A =

2 0
1 1

1 1
3 0

2 0
1 1

3 3
9 0

1 3
10 1

2. The vector is parallel to the plane if

4
1
8

2
3
1

3
4
2

Hence the augmented matrix is

2 3 4
3 4 1
1 2 8

R
1
R
3

1 2 8
3 4 1
2 3 4

R
2
+3R
1

R
3
2R
1

1 2 8
0 2 23
0 1 12

R
3
+R
2

1
2

1 2 8
0 2 23
0 0 0.5

.
Hence the system of equations has no solution and the vector

4
1
8

is not
parallel to the plane.
3. The plane and line intersect if
9

2
9
6

1
2
1

2
5
4

6
2
2

1
5
6

1
2
1

2
5
4

1
5
6

4
7
8

The augmented matrix is

1 2 1 4
2 5 5 7
1 4 6 8

R
2
+2R
1

R
3
+R
1

1 2 1 4
0 1 3 1
0 2 3 4

R
3
2R
2

1 2 1 4
0 1 3 1
0 0 1 6

Hence = 6. Substituting into the parametric equation of the line, we obtain


their intersection point, which is

12
28
38

.
10
2010 V3b
1.
A
2
(B
1
CA)
1
B
1
C
T
= A
2
A
1
C
1
(B
1
)
1
B
1
C
T
= A
2
A
1
C
1
BB
1
C
T
= AC
1
IC
T
= AC
1
C
T
.
2. AB =

2 3 5
6 7 2

5 2
3 1
1 2

14 3
11 9

.
3. Same as Q2 2008 V1b.
4. Same as Q3 2009 V6b.
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