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Peter Mitrano

US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

Governmental reforms-during this time the government started playing a larger role in
protecting its citizens through things such as the meat inspection act. Also during this time the
government began to develop a new foreign policy. It created an Empire and financed several
foreign revolutions, which is a practice we still employ today. Also the definition of the
presidency changed. Mostly due to Roosevelt, who took a more active role in the government
than previous presidents did.
What role did workers have during this time period-During the progressive rear, a lot of progress
was made at the expense of the working class. Working conditions in the early 1900s were
deplorable, and they did not make that much money Eventually they would start to organize into
Unions and wages and benefits would improve, but still most of the progress was built on the
back of the working class.
What was a goal of the Progressive reform movements- some of the people were trying to ban
alcohol, women tried to get equal wages, and activists worked towards a more transparent and
less corrupt government. The main goal was to make a more equal, safe, and more productive
1. Protect social welfare
2. Promote moral improvement
3. Create economic growth
4. Foster efficiency
What were some problems of urbanization and some solutions to improve city life-The man
problems were disease, food poisoning, fire, and crime. The buildings had no fire safety at all,
and a lot of the building would get robbed by people who were desperately poor. Also food was
poisonous and spoiled. At the time disease was rampant because most people had zero access to
health care or hospitals.
Peter Mitrano
US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

Turn-of-the-20th century technological advancements-The Progressive Era saw inventions, such
as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought
people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for
granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and
the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were
introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative,
referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it
developed a scientific foundation.
Unit 8: The United States & the World
MAINE Causes of WWI:
Militarism-The large powers of Europe (Germany, Austria Hungary, Great Britain,
Russia, Italy, and France) were in an arms race. The countries were competing with each
other to build up their military weapons. All Great Powers, except Britain, had standing
armies by 1914.

Alliances-The countries of Europe developed alliances or partnerships with other
countries they were friendly with in order to protect themselves.
Triple Alliance: Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
Otto Von Bismarck unified Germany
1879: Germany aligned itself Austria Hungary, and later Italy, to oppose France.
1881: Germany signed a treaty with Russia
1890: Kaiser Wilhelm (Ger.) allows treaty to expire with Russia
Triple Entente: Allies (Russia, France, Great Britain)
1892: Russia forms alliance with France
1907: Great Britain forms alliance with France and Russia

Imperialism-European countries were competing for colonies (Africa, Asia) to bring a
country wealth and power. This put countries on the brink of War in far off places and at

Nationalism-A nation is a group of people that have common language, culture, and other
characteristics, not necessarily a country. People had a surge of nationalism/patriotism
throughout the world. Some desired to form their own or new country.
Peter Mitrano
US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

Human Error-To complicate matters, leaders of Germany (Kaiser Wilhelm II), Russia (Czar
Nicholas II) and England (King George V) were all related and struggled to make suitable
decisions as Europe spiraled toward was.

Ethnocentrism-ethnocentrism is a belief that your culture is superior to someone elses, and it
was a major player in WWI because nationalism was so high. The two go hand-in-hand and both
provide an atmosphere of hostility towards others that can lead to war.
Hegemony-this is a negative term to describe a country that overextends its paternalistic hand in
places it is not wanted. The British Empire was very hegemonic, and the imperialistic movement
of the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s was to some people hegemonic. Most
consider it Paternalistic since we were mostly freeing the countries from Spain even if we did
sort of take them over for a little while.
U.S.S. Maine-This was a ship that was rumored to have been blown up by a Spanish Ship when
the US was looking for an excuse to invade Cuba. When it was hit US pounced and we began
attacking Spanish rule in Cuba, and protecting American property there.
De Lome letter-as Americans were crying for US to intervene in Cuba, a letter was sent to
McKinley from Cuban Prime Minister that called him weak and a bidder for the admiration of
the crowd. This made Americans angry and fueled anger towards Spain.
Roosevelt Corollary- This was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine the demanded that the rest of
the world stay away from claiming land in Latin American and the Pacific.
Panama Canal-This was a very important milestone in the Presidency of Roosevelt. It made a ton
of money because ships had to pay to go through. We attained the land for it by helping aid the
Panamanians in a revolution against Columbia. We bought the rest of the land previously bought
from France for $40 million. The US pays rent to Panama.
Open Door Policy-this was a policy started after US became powerful in the pacific by
conquering the Philippines. We sent an ambassador and letters to other imperial powers like
Great Britain and asked them to keep China open to trade with the US (sharing please!)
Peter Mitrano
US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

Spanish-American War-This was a war between USA and Spain over colonies in the Caribbean
and Pacific. US won all these territories eventually and became a big imperial power because of
Rough Riders-Rough Riders were the group of Cavalry that Roosevelt commanded in the battle
of San Juan Hill in Cuba.
Boxer Rebellion-A Chinese rebellion led by the boxers who killed hundreds of missionaries.
Imperial powers with control in China responded by killing thousands of Chinese people.
Yellow Journalism-this is exaggerated journalism and it became popular around this time. It
made reading newspapers more interesting and popular but is dishonest.
Jose Marti-He was an anti-American Cuban who lived in America and was a lawyer. When US
intervened in Cuba he took up the fight against the US.
Alfred Mahan- Mahan was a naval commander and military strategist. Under Grover Cleveland,
he outlined a 4 step plan to increase US power.
1. Increase the size of and modernize the Navy
2. Build the Panama Canal
3. Conquer Pacific Islands
Central Powers-These were Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary
Allied Powers-These were Great Britain, Russia, and France
Kaiser Wilhelm-leader of Germany
Czar Nicholas II-leader of Russia
David Lloyd George-leader of England
Georges Clemenceau-Leader of France.
Peter Mitrano
US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

Woodrow Wilson-Leader of US. Presented 14 points to help stop future war and end WWI
Gen John J. Pershing-A US General sent to capture the evil dictator Villa of Mexico
Military weapons-new machine guns could fire 600 rounds per minute
Trench warfare-you know what it is. Black N Yellow Black N Yellow. Oh, and this shit sucked
The Treaty of Versailles-The treaty that ended WWI. Germany was not invited to help negotiate,
and neither was Russia, which meant that they were not treated fairly at all.
Wilsons 14 Points
1. No secret treaties
2. Freedom of the seas
3. Tariffs should be lowered
4. Arms should be reduced a lot
5. Be nicer to colonies
6. -13 boundary changes
14. Make the League of Nations
The League of Nations-This sucked, and didnt last. It was replaced by the UN. IT had no
military force and didnt help keep Europe in peace at all.
Why would the U.S. seek an imperialist policy at the turn of the century-It wanted to keep up and
become more powerful because thats what countries do, and that was the best way to do it.
Why does the U.S. create the Panama Canal- we create this for Military Strategy and so the
Trade is faster and cheaper.
Peter Mitrano
US History I
Mr. Siris
Finals Exam Study Guide

What came out of expansion- We got a lot of fighting in colonies, lost a ton of money in wars,
but we gained a few states, made an awesome trade route, and liberated a few little islands from
Japan-made peace between them and Russia
Alaska, we own that.
Hawaii, we annexed that.
Panama, we build that (canal).
Philippines-we freed that.
Cuba-we hate that.
Is the focus on Guns or Butter-during the expansion and WWI era we focused on Guns and
Reasons for US Entry to WWI-We were threatened by the Zimmerman Note, and our trade was
being blocked. Also on the ship _________ many innocent American travelers were killed when
a German U Boat torpedoed it.
US Impact on WWI-we essentially turned the tide of the war for the Allied powers by providing
troops, guns, and moral.
Western Front of the WWI-the western front was the border of France and Germany and was
where all US troops were stationed during WWI. We helped repel Germany out of France, and
eventually forced surrender.