# GIKPKC7 94107 Circle Geometry Page 1

**Parts of the Circle
**

4/5/98

Terms:

Semi-Circle Half a circle

Concentric Circles that have the same centre

Tangent Touches the circumference at one point

Concyclic Points that set on the circumference

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Tangent Minor Segment

Centre

Sector Arc

Major Segment

Radius

Diameter

GIKPKC7 94107 Circle Geometry Page 2

Properties

4/5/98

A perpendicular line drawn to a chord from the centre of a circle

bisects the chord, and the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes

through the centre. AD = DB

(OD bisects AB)

Proof:

ZADO = ZBDO = 90° (Given)

OA = OB (Equal radii)

OD is common

AOAD ÷ AOBD (RHS)

AD = BD (Corresponding sides in congruent A’s)

So, OD bisects AB

The line from the centre of a circle to the midpoint of a chord

meets the chord at right angles.

(OD ± AB)

Proof:

ZADO = ZBDO = 90° (Given)

OA = OB (Equal radii)

OD is common

AOAD ÷ AOBD (RHS)

AD = BD (Corresponding sides in congruent A’s)

So, OD bisects AB

Equal chords of a circle are the same distance from the centre and

subtend equal angles at the centre.

ZAOB = ZCOD EO = FO

(Chords equal when equidistant from the centre)

Proof:

Let, CD = AB

ZOEB = ZOFD = 90° (Given)

OB = OD (Equal radii)

AB = CD (Given)

BE = ½.AB (OE bisects AB)

DF = ½.CD (OF bisects CD)

BE = DF

AOEB ÷ AOFD (RHS)

OE = OF (Corresponding sides in congruent A’s)

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GIKPKC7 94107 Circle Geometry Page 3

The angle subtended by an arc (or chord) at the centre of a circle

is double the angle subtended by the arc (or chord) at the

circumference. ZBOC = 2 × ZBAC

(Z at centre is twice the Z at the circumference)

Proof:

Join AO and produce to D

Let, ZBAO = x and ZCAO = y

ZBAC = x + y

OA = OB (Equal radii)

ZOBA = x (Base Z’s of isosceles A)

= ZBAO

OA = OC

ZOCA = y (Base Z’s of isosceles A)

= ZCAO

ZBOD = x + x (External Z of AOBA)

= 2.x

ZCOD = y + y (External Z of AOBA)

= 2.y

ZBOC = ZBOD + ZCOD

= 2.x + 2.y

= 2(x + y)

= 2.ZBAC

Angles subtended at the circumference by the same or equal arcs

(or chords) are equal. ZABD = ZACD

(Z in the same segment)

Proof:

Join A and D to centre O

ZAOD = 2.ZABD (Z at centre is twice the Z at the

Z.AOD = 2.ZACD circumference)

ZABD = ZACD

Any angle (to the circumference of a circle) in a semi-circle is a

right angle. ACB = 90°

(Z at centre is twice the Z at the circumference)

Proof:

ZAOB = 180° (Straight Z )

ZAOB = 2.ZACB (Z at centre is twice the Z at the

circumference)

ZACB = 90°

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GIKPKC7 94107 Circle Geometry Page 4

Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary.

ZABC + ZADC = 180°

ZBAD + ZDCB = 180°

(Cyclic opposite Z’s)

Proof:

Join B and D to O (centre)

Obtuse ZDOB = 2.ZBAD (Z at centre is twice the Z at the

Reflex ZDOB = 2.ZBCD circumference)

ZDOB + ZDOB = 360° (Z of revolution)

2.ZBAD + 2.ZBCD = 360°

ZBAD + ZBCD = 180°

Similarly, it can be proven that Z CBA + Z CDA = 180° by

joining A and C to O (Centre).

An angle formed by a tangent to a circle with a chord drawn to

he point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate segment.

(Corresponding opposite Z’s)

Proof:

Draw in diameter CF and join EF

Let, ZECB = x

ZFCB = 90° (Tangent ± radius)

ZFCE = 90° ÷ x

ZFEC = 90° (Z in semicircle)

ZEFC = 180° ÷ (90° + 90° – x) (Z sum of A)

= x

ZEFC = ZEDC (Z’s in same segment)

ZEDC = ZECB

From any external point B, two equal tangents may be

drawn to a circle. The line joining this point to the

centre is an axis of symmetry. AC = BC OC is an

axis of symmetry.

(Corresponding sides in congruent A’s)

Proof:

Join OB

ZOAB = ZOCB = 90° (Tangent ± radius)

OB is common

OA = OC (Equal radii)

AOAB ÷ AOCB (RHS)

AB = CB (Corresponding sides in

congruent A’s)

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GIKPKC7 94107 Circle Geometry Page 5

The size of the angle between a tangent and the radius drawn to

the point of contact is 90°.

(Tangent ± radius)

The products of intercepts of intersecting chords are equal. (AE

and EB are the intercepts of the chord AB, CE and ED are

intercepts of the chord CD). lengths AE times EB = length CE

times ED

(Product of intercepts)

Proof:

ZAED = ZCEB (Vertically opposite Z’s)

ZDAE = ZECB (Z’s in same segment)

ZADE = ZEBC (Similarly)

AOEB |¦ AOFD

EB

DE

EC

AE

=

AE × EB = DE × EC

The square of the length of a tangent is equal to the

product of the intercepts of a secant drawn from an

external point (when a chord extends beyond a circle it

is called a secant). (The secant’s intercepts here are SQ

and QR)

(PQ)

2

= SQ × QR

(Product of intercepts)

Proof:

ZQPR = ZPSR (Z’s in alternate

segments)

ZPQR is common

APQR |¦ ASPQ

PQ

QR

SP

PR

QS

PQ

= =

PQ

QR

QS

PQ

=

(PQ)

2

= QR × QS

Luke Cole Page 5