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You are on page 1of 11

Introduction

The circle, hyperbola, ellipse and parabola are Conic Sections, they are called this

because they come from the cross-sections and a cone as shown below.

A conic is the locus of a point ‘P’ which moves in a plane so that its distance from a

given point, ‘S’ (focus), and its distance from a fixed line, ‘Z’ (directrix), always are in

the same ratio, that is S

Z M

PS

Equation: e

PM

PS = Distance from point ‘P’ to focus ‘S’

PM = Distance from point ‘P’ to a point ‘M’ on the directrix ‘Z’

e = Eccentricity, the ratio

When,

e=1 i.e. PS = PM, the conic is a Parabola

e < 1 (e 0) i.e. PS < PM, the conic is a Ellipse

e>1 i.e. PS > PM, the conic is a Hyperbola

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 2

Ellipse (e < 1)

x2 y2

General Form: 1 Where, a>b

a2 b2

y

b2 a 2 1 e2

Centre (0, 0)

P M Major axis = 2.a

Minor axis = 2.b

A S’ S A x

Focus (a.e, 0)

a

Directrix x

Z’ Z e

Proof:

Finding Focus: Finding Directrix:

Here, AA’ = 2.a Now, OZ = OA + AZ

SA = e.AM ...(1) Since, AS = e.AZ

SA’ = e.A’M ...(2) AS

OZ a

(2) (1): e

SA’ SA = e(A’M AM) a a.e

SA’ SA = 2.a.e ...(3) OZ a

e

(2) + (1):

a

SA’ + SA = 2.a ...(4) OZ

(4) (3): e

2.SA = 2.a 2.a.e a

Directrix x

SA = a a.e e

Since, OS = OA SA

OS = a.e

S(a.e, 0)

Finding Equation:

So, PS2 = e2.PM2

2

x a .e y e a x

2 2 2

e

x 2.a.e.x a .e y a 2 2.a .e.x e 2 .x 2

2 2 2 2

x 2 1 e 2 y 2 a2 1 e2

x2 y 2

1 Where,

b2 a2 1 e2

a2 b2

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 3

x2 y2

General Form: 1 Where, b>a

a2 b2

M y Z

B

a 2 b2 1 e2

S Centre (0, 0)

Major axis = 2.b

Minor axis = 2.a

Focus (0, b.e)

b

x Directrix y

e

S’

Z’ B

Parametric Equation:

Equation: x = a.cos y = b.sin

Proof:

Using parametric equations of the circles:

x = a.cos

y = b.sin

a

b

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 4

Geometric Properties:

Sum of Focal Lengths are Equal to a Constant

Equation: S’P + SP = 2.a

Proof:

a

Since, PM’ + PM = 2. …(1)

e

SP = e.AM …(2)

SP’ = e.A’M …(3)

(2) + (3):

S’P + SP = e(PM + PM’) …(4)

Sub (1) into (4):

a

S’P + SP e 2.

e

S’P + SP = 2.a

Chord of Contact PQ

x .x0 y.y0

Equation: 1

a2 b2

T(x0, y0) is the point of intersection of the tangent P & Q

Proof:

Let, P coordinate be (x1, y1)

Let, Q coordinate by (x2, y2)

x .x1 y . y1

Since, T lies on the tangent 2 2 1

a b

x .x0 y .y 0

P lies on the line the 2 2 1

a b

x .x2 y. y 2

Since, T lies on the tangent 2 2 1

a b

x .x0 y .y 0

Q lies on the line the 2 2 1

a b

So, chord of contact, PQ, has equation:

x .x0 y .y 0

2 1

a2 b

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 5

Equation: S’PG = SPG

M

P

S’ G S N

Proof:

Normal to ellipse: Note:

a 2 .x b 2 .y

a 2 .e 2 E

x1 y1

a

So, set y = 0 for the coordinate of G:

B

x = x1.e2

x y

PS' e.PM '

Now, b

PS e.PM

a A D C

x

= e e.x1 a AB AD

a a e.x1 If, , then x = y

x1 BC DC

e

GS x1 e 2 a.e e .x1 a Proof:

And,

GS' a.e x1 .e 2 a e.x1 Extend AB to E, so that BE = BC:

PS' GS' AB AD

PS GS BE DC

S’PG = SPG BCEC

x=a

y=b

But, a = b (issosles )

So, x=y

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 6

x2 y2

General Form: 1

a2 b2

b2 a2 e2 1

b M Transverse axis 2.a

Conjugate axis 2.b

S’ a S Focus (a.e, 0)

a

Directrix x

Z’ Z e

b

Asymptotes y x

a

y

Proof: M

Finding Focus: Finding Directrix:

Here, AA’ = 2.a Now, OZ = OA + AZ

SA = e.AMS’ ...(1) S x Since, AS = e.AZ

SA’ = e.A’M ...(2) AS

OZ a

(2) (1): e

Z’ Z

SA’ SA = e(A’M AM) a a.e a

SA’ SA = 2.a.e ...(3) OZ a

e e

(2) + (1): a

SA’ + SA = 2.a ...(4) Directrix x

(4) (3): e

2.SA = 2.a 2.a.e Finding Asymptotes:

SA = a a.e y2 x2

Since, OS = OA SA So, 1

OS = a.e b2 a 2

S(a.e, 0) b.x a2

Hence, y 1 2

a x

a2

And, As x , 0

Finding Equation: x2

So, PS2 = e2.PM2 b

2 y x

a a

x a .e 2 y 2

e2 x

e

x 2.a.e.x a .e y e 2 .a 2 2.a .e .x a 2

2 2 2 2

x 2 e 2 1 y 2 a2 e2 1

x2 y 2

a2 b2

1 Where,

b2 a 2 e2 1

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 7

y2 x2

General Form: 2

2

1

a b

y

b2 a2 e2 1

P Transverse axis 2.a

S Conjugate axis 2.b

Focus (0, a.e)

Z a

Directrix y

M x e

a

Z’ Asymptotes y x

b

S’

Parametric Equation:

Equation: x = a.sec y = b.tan

Proof:

Using parametric equations of the circles:

x = a.sec

y = b.tan

a

P

b

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 8

Sum of Focal Lengths are Equal to a Constant

Equation: S' P SP 2.a

Chord of Contact PQ

x .x0 y . y 0

Equation: 2 1

a2 b

T(x0, y0) is the point of intersection of the tangent P & Q

Equation: S’PG = SPG

S’ G S

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 9

Rectangular Hyperbola:

From the general form of a hyperbola:

b=a (i.e. asymptotes are perpendicular to each other)

e 2

[since b 2 a 2 e 2 1 ]

General Form: x2 y2 a2

y b=a

M Transverse axis 2.a

Conjugate axis 2.a

S’ S x Focus S ( a 2 ,0 )

a

Directrix x

2

Z’ Z Asymptotes y x

y

Proof: M

Finding Focus: Finding Directrix:

Since, S(a.e, 0) a

S’ S x Since, Directrix x

S ( a 2 ,0 ) e

a

Directrix x

Finding Equation:

Z’ Z 2

x2 y 2 Finding Asymtotes:

Since, 1

a2 b2 b

Since, y x

And, b=a a

x2 y2 a2 And, b=a

y x

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 10

Equation: x.y = c2

y a

c

Z 2

S

Transverse axis 2.a

Conjugate axis 2.a

Z’

Focus S ( c 2 ,c 2 )

Directrix x y c 2

S’ Asymptotes y = 0 & x = 0

Proof:

Finding Relationship Between a & c:

Comparing x 2 y 2 a 2 and the same locus rotated anticlockwise through 45

a2 c2 c2

a

c

2

Let, S have coordinates (t, t) Let, M have coordinates (t, t)

So, t 2 t 2 2 a 2 Where, a c 2 a2

So, t2 t2 Where, a c 2

2.t 2 4.c 2 2

t c 2 2.t 2 c 2

c

S ( c 2 , c 2 ) t

2

c c

M ,

2 c

And, gradient of directrix is “m = 1”

c c

So, y 1 x

2 2

x y c 2

Finding Equation:

So, PS2 = e2.PM2

2

c

2

x c 2 y c 2

2 2

2 x

c

y

2 2

x 2 2 2 .c .x 2.c 2 y 2 2 2 .c .y 2.c 2 2.x 2 2 2 .c .x c 2 2. y 2 2 2 .c .y c 2

x.y = c2

GITIMH3 94107 Conic Sections Page 11

Parametric Equations:

c

Equation: x = c.t y

t

Geometric Properties:

Chord of Contact PQ

Equation: x . y 0 y .x 0 2.c 2

T(x0, y0) is the point of intersection of the tangents at P & Q

Equation: x p .q . y c p q

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