GIKPKC7 94107

Co-ordinate Geometry

Page 1

Introduction
4/3/98

Axis:
z-axis y-axis

x-axis

 

Number Plane (x, y) 3D Plane (x, y, z)

Terms:
Co-linear Concurrent Normal Locus Equidistant Points on the same line Points that go through the same point Perpendicular to Set off points Same distance

Every Line has Two Forms:
Gradient Intercept Form
Equation: y = m.x + b m = Gradient (slope) b = y-intercept a.x + b.y + c = 0 Where, a > 0 and a integer (whole number)

General Form
Equation:

For Co-cordinate Geometry Equations For a Graphs See Relations & Functions

Luke Cole

Page 1

GIKPKC7 94107

Co-ordinate Geometry

Page 2

Gradient Slope of a Line:
m2 m1 m1 = ‘+’ slope m2 = ‘–’ slope

Equation:

y 2  y1 x 2  x1 m = Gradient (x1, y1) = 1st point (x2, y2) = 2nd point m

m

Rise Run

Distance Formula:
Equation: d   x 2  x1    y 2  y1  d = Distance (x1, y1) = 1st point (x2, y2) = 2nd point
2 2

Mid-point Formula:
Equation:

 x  x2 y1  y 2  M  1 ,  2 2   M = Mid-point (x1, y1) = 1st point (x2, y2) = 2nd point

Point Gradient Formula:
Equation: Y – y1 = m(X – x1) (x1, y1) = Point m = Gradient

Angle Formed with the x-axis:
 +ve x-axis direction Equation: tan  = m m = Gradient  = Angle

Luke Cole

Page 2

GIKPKC7 94107

Co-ordinate Geometry

Page 3

Two Lines are Parallel when:
Equation: m1 = m2 m1 = 1st gradient m2 = 2nd gradient

Two Lines are Perpendicular when:
  Lines parallel to the x-axis have m = 0 Note: x-axis has y = 0 Lines parallel to the y-axis have m =  Note: y-axis has x = 0 1 m1  Equation: m2 m1 = 1st gradient m2 = 2nd gradient

Equation of a Line from a Point and the Intersection of Two other Lines:
 Two lines will always intersect unless parallel.  Solve Simultaneously Or Equation: (a1.x + b1.y + c1) + k(a2.x + b2.y + c2) = 0 (x, y) = Point a1.x + b1.y + c1 = 1st line a2.x + b2.y + c2 = 2nd line k = Constant

Perpendicular Distance:
Equation: a 2  b2 d = Distance a.x1 + b.y1 + c = Line (x1, y1) = Point d a .x 1  b . y 1  c

Angle between Two Lines:
 Acute angle between two straight lines. m1  m2 tan   Equation: 1  m 1 .m 2  = Angle m1 = 1st gradient m2 = 2nd gradient

Luke Cole

Page 3

GIKPKC7 94107

Co-ordinate Geometry

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To Divide Two Points (One Line) into a Certain Ratio:
  Internally means that the ratio is positive (E.g. m:n). Externally means that the ratio is negitive (E.g. – m:n). m .x 2  n .x 1 m .y2  n.y1 x y Equation: mn mn (x, y) = Point (x1, y1) = 1st point (x2, y2) = 2nd point m:n = Ratio

Luke Cole

Page 4

GIKPKC7 94107

Co-ordinate Geometry

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Graphing Absolute Values
   If unsure draw a table of x & y values. Answer if not a absolute value. Answer. y = x

E.g. (1) A

E.g. (2) A

y = x + 1

1 1

E.g. (3) A

y = x  2

2

2 2

Luke Cole

Page 5

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