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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 1

The First Derivative

11/11/98
To See How To Differentiate See Differentiation

 The point on the curve is increasing when f’(x) > 0

 The point on the curve is decreasing when f’(x) < 0
 The point on the curve is stationary when f’(x) = 0

f’(x) = 0

Types of Stationary Points:

Local Minimum Point

x LHS MIN RH
S
f’(x) <0 0 >0

x LHS MA RHS
X
f’(x) >0 0 <0

(1) (2)
x LHS PT RHS
1 f’(x) <0 0 <0
2 f’(x) >0 0 >0

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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 2

E.g. (1) Find all ‘x’ values for which the curve f(x) = x2 – 4.x + 1 is decreasing

A f(x) = x2 – 4.x + 1
f’(x) = 2.x – 4
So, 2.x – 4 < 0 for a decreasing point
 x<2

E.g. (2) Find the stationary points of y = x3 – 48.x – 7

dy
A  3.x 2  48
dx
So, 3.x2 – 48 = 0 for stationary points
x=4
Subbing x =  4 into equation
 (4,  135) & ( 4, 121)

E.g. (3) Determine the types of stationary points for y = x3

dy
A  3.x 2  0 for stationary points
dx
x=0
So, x 0 0 0+
dy + 0 +
dx

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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 3

12/11/98

 The curve is concave up when f’’(x) > 0

 The curve is concave down when f’’(x) < 0
 There is a point of inflection when f’’(x) = 0 and concavity changes

f’’(x) > 0

Types of Stationary Points:

Local Minimum Point
x LHS MIN RH
S
f’(x) <0 0 >0
or
f’’(x) > 0

Maximum Stationary Point

x LHS MA RHS
X
f’(x) >0 0 <0
or
f’’(x) < 0

Point of Inflection
(1) x LHS PT RH (2)
S
1 f’’(x) <0 0 >0
2 f’’(x) >0 0 <0

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E.g. (1) If f(x) = 2.x3  7.x2  5.x + 4, find where f(x) is concave down

A f’(x) = 6x2 – 14x – 5

f’’(x) = 12.x – 14
So, 12.x – 4 < 0 for concave down curves
 x < 7/6

7
/6

E.g. (2) Find the point of inflection of y = x3 – 6.x2 + 5.x + 9

dy
A  3.x 2  12.x  5
dx
d2y
2
 6.x  12.x 2  0 for points of inflection
dx
So, x=2&y=3
And, x 2 2 2+

d2y  0 +
 Concavity Changes
dx 2
 (2, 3) is a point of inflection

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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 5

dy
A  4.x 3  0 for stationary points
dx
So, x=0
d2y
2
 12.x 2
dx
d2y
At, x=0 0
dx 2
And, x 0 0 0+

d2y + 0 +
 Concavity doesn’t change
dx 2
Since f’(x) = 0 & f’’(x) = 0 but doesn’t change concavity, no point of
inflection so:
dy
From,  4.x 3
dx
x 0 0 0+

dy  0 +
dx

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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 6

Curve Sketching
16/11/98
Sketching Curves Involves:
 Stationary points
 Points of inflection
 ‘x’ and ‘y’ intercepts
 Domain and Range
 Asymptotes and limits
 Establish if odd or even
 If needed draw a table of values

A Finding Stationary Points

dy
 6.x 2  6.x  12  0 for stationary points
dx
 x=2 & x=1
y=7 y =  20
x  2   2+ x 1 1 1+
2 dy  0 +
dy + 0  dx
dx
 ( 2, 7) maximum & (1,  20) minimum

Finding Points of Inflection

d2y
 12.x  6  0 for points of inflection
dx 2
 x=½
y =  6½
x  6½   6½+

dy  0 +
dx
 ( ½,  6½) is a point of inflection

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Finding ‘x’ & ‘y’ Intercepts

Let, x = 0 for y-intercepts:
 y =  13
Let, y = 0 for x-intercepts:
 0 = 2.x3 + 3.x2  12.x  13
Since, 2x2 + x  13 is divisible by x + 1:
i.e. (x+ 1)(2.x2 + x  13) = 0
 x=1 & x  2.3,  2.8

Finding Domain and Range

So, 2.x3 + 3.x2  12.x  13  All Real:
 Domain = All Real
Since, y = 2.x3 + 3.x2  12.x  13:
 Range = All Real

Since domain and range are all real there is on limits or asymptotes

Sketch

( 2, 7) y

(1,  20)

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Maximum and Minimum

 When asked to find the maximum (not local max) it’s the greatest value for ‘y’
 When asked to find the minimum (not local min) it’s the smallest value for ‘y’

E.g. Find the max and min values for the function y = x4  2.x2 + 1 for  2  x  3

A …

Sketch in the domain  2  x  3

MAX
So, MAX  y = 64
MIN  y = 0

MIN

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Maxima and Minima Problems

E.g. The council wishes to make a rectangular swimming area at the beach using a
straight cliff on one side and a length of 300m of shark pool netting for the other
3 sides what are the dimensions of the rectangle that encloses the greatest area?

A Perimeter
P = 2.x + y = 300 …(1)
Area
A = x.y …(2)
(1)  y = 300  2.x …(3)
Now sub (2) into (3) x
A = x(300  2.x)
= 300.x  2.x2
Max area y
dA
 300  4.x  0 for stationary points
dx
x = 75
x 75 75 75+
dA + 0 
dx

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GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 10

Primitive Functions
 Primitive functions is finding f(x) knowing f’(x)

x n 1
If, f’(x) = xn When, f  x   C
n1
C = Constant

E.g. (1) Find f(x) from f’(x) = x5  4.x3

x 6 4.x 4
So, f x    C
6 4
= 1 6 .x 6  x 4  C

E.g. (2) If f’’(x) = 6.x + 2 and f’(1) = 0 and f( 2) = 0 find f(3)

A Here, f’(x) = 3.x2 + 2.x + C

Since, f’(1) = 0 = 3(1)2 + 2(1) + C
C=5
So, f’(x) = 3.x2 + 2.x  5
Now, f(x) = x3 + x2  5.x + C
Since, f( 2) = 0 = ( 2)3 + ( 2)2  5( 2) + C
C=6
 f(x) = x3 + x2  5.x  6
 f(3) = 15