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**The First Derivative
**

11/11/98

To See How To Differentiate See Differentiation

- The point on the curve is increasing when f’(x) > 0

- The point on the curve is decreasing when f’(x) < 0

- The point on the curve is stationary when f’(x) = 0

Types of Stationary Points:

Local Minimum Point

Local Maximum Point

Point of Horizontal Inflection

(1) (2)

Luke Cole Page 1

x LHS MIN RH

S

f’(x) < 0 0 > 0

x LHS MA

X

RHS

f’(x) > 0 0 < 0

x LHS PT RHS

1 f’(x) < 0 0 < 0

2 f’(x) > 0 0 > 0

f’(x) < 0 f’(x) > 0

f’(x) = 0

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 2

E.g. (1) Find all ‘x’ values for which the curve f(x) = x

2

– 4.x + 1 is decreasing

A f(x) = x

2

– 4.x + 1

f’(x) = 2.x – 4

So, 2.x – 4 < 0 for a decreasing point

x < 2

E.g. (2) Find the stationary points of y = x

3

– 48.x – 7

A 48 x . 3

dx

dy

2

÷ =

So, 3.x

2

– 48 = 0 for stationary points

x = ± 4

Subbing x = ± 4 into equation

(4, ÷ 135) & (÷ 4, 121)

E.g. (3) Determine the types of stationary points for y = x

3

A 0 x . 3

dx

dy

2

= = for stationary points

x = 0

So,

The Type of stationary point is: Horizontal point of infection

Luke Cole Page 2

x

0

÷

0 0

+

dx

dy + 0 +

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 3

The Second Derivative

12/11/98

- The curve is concave up when f’’(x) > 0

- The curve is concave down when f’’(x) < 0

- There is a point of inflection when f’’(x) = 0 and concavity changes

Types of Stationary Points:

Local Minimum Point

Maximum Stationary Point

Point of Inflection

(1) (2)

Luke Cole Page 3

x LHS MA

X

RHS

f’(x) > 0 0 < 0

or

f’’(x) < 0

x LHS PT RH

S

1 f’’(x) < 0 0 > 0

2 f’’(x) > 0 0 < 0

x LHS MIN RH

S

f’(x) < 0 0 > 0

or

f’’(x) > 0

f’’(x) < 0 f’’(x) = 0

f’’(x) > 0

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 4

E.g. (1) If f(x) = 2.x

3

÷ 7.x

2

÷ 5.x + 4, find where f(x) is concave down

A f’(x) = 6x

2

– 14x – 5

f’’(x) = 12.x – 14

So, 12.x – 4 < 0 for concave down curves

x <

7

/6

E.g. (2) Find the point of inflection of y = x

3

– 6.x

2

+ 5.x + 9

A 5 x . 12 x . 3

dx

dy

2

+ ÷ =

0 x . 12 x . 6

dx

y d

2

2

2

= ÷ = for points of inflection

So, x = 2 & y = 3

And,

Concavity Changes

(2, 3) is a point of inflection

E.g. (3) Graph y = x

4

Luke Cole Page 4

x 2

÷

2 2

+

2

2

dx

y d

÷

0 +

7

/

6

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 5

A 0 x . 4

dx

dy

3

= = for stationary points

So, x = 0

2

2

2

x . 12

dx

y d

=

At, x = 0 0

dx

y d

2

2

=

And,

Concavity doesn’t change

Since f’(x) = 0 & f’’(x) = 0 but doesn’t change concavity, no point of

inflection so:

From,

3

x . 4

dx

dy

=

**Luke Cole Page 5
**

x 0

÷

0 0

+

2

2

dx

y d

+ 0 +

x 0

÷

0 0

+

dy

dx

÷

0 +

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 6

Curve Sketching

16/11/98

Sketching Curves Involves:

- Stationary points

- Points of inflection

- ‘x’ and ‘y’ intercepts

- Domain and Range

- Asymptotes and limits

- Establish if odd or even

- If needed draw a table of values

E.g. Sketch the curve, y = 2.x

3

+ 3.x

2

÷ 12.x ÷ 13

A Finding Stationary Points

0 12 x . 6 x . 6

dx

dy

2

= ÷ + = for stationary points

x = ÷ 2 & x = 1

y = 7 y = ÷ 20

(÷ 2, 7) maximum & (1, ÷ 20) minimum

Finding Points of Inflection

0 6 x . 12

dx

y d

2

2

= + = for points of inflection

x = ÷ ½

y = ÷ 6½

(÷ ½, ÷ 6½) is a point of inflection

Luke Cole Page 6

x

÷ 2

÷

÷

2

÷ 2

+

dx

dy + 0

÷

x

1

÷

1 1

+

dx

dy ÷

0 +

x

÷ 6½

÷

÷

6½

÷ 6½

+

dx

dy ÷

0 +

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 7

Finding ‘x’ & ‘y’ Intercepts

Let, x = 0 for y-intercepts:

y = ÷ 13

Let, y = 0 for x-intercepts:

0 = 2.x

3

+ 3.x

2

÷ 12.x ÷ 13

Since, 2x

2

+ x ÷ 13 is divisible by x + 1:

i.e. (x+ 1)(2.x

2

+ x ÷ 13) = 0

x = ÷ 1 & x ~ 2.3, ÷ 2.8

Finding Domain and Range

So, 2.x

3

+ 3.x

2

÷ 12.x ÷ 13 ¬ All Real:

Domain = All Real

Since, y = 2.x

3

+ 3.x

2

÷ 12.x ÷ 13:

Range = All Real

Since domain and range are all real there is on limits or asymptotes

Sketch

Luke Cole Page 7

(÷ 2, 7) y

x

(1, ÷ 20)

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 8

Maximum and Minimum

- When asked to find the maximum (not local max) it’s the greatest value for ‘y’

- When asked to find the minimum (not local min) it’s the smallest value for ‘y’

E.g. Find the max and min values for the function y = x

4

÷ 2.x

2

+ 1 for ÷ 2 s x s 3

A …

…

Sketch in the domain ÷ 2 s x s 3

So, MAX ¬ y = 64

MIN ¬ y = 0

Luke Cole Page 8

MAX

MIN

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 9

Maxima and Minima Problems

E.g. The council wishes to make a rectangular swimming area at the beach using a

straight cliff on one side and a length of 300m of shark pool netting for the other

3 sides what are the dimensions of the rectangle that encloses the greatest area?

A Perimeter

P = 2.x + y = 300 …(1)

Area

A = x.y …(2)

(1) ¬ y = 300 ÷ 2.x …(3)

Now sub (2) into (3)

A = x(300 ÷ 2.x)

= 300.x ÷ 2.x

2

Max area

0 x . 4 300

dx

dA

= ÷ = for stationary points

x = 75

Dimensions are x = 75 & y = 150

Luke Cole Page 9

x

y

x

75

÷

75 75

+

dx

dA + 0

÷

GITIMH3 94107 Geometrical Applications of Differentiation Page 10

Primitive Functions

- Primitive functions is finding f(x) knowing f’(x)

If, f’(x) = x

n

When, ( ) C

1 n

x

x f

1 n

+

+

=

+

C = Constant

E.g. (1) Find f(x) from f’(x) = x

5

÷ 4.x

3

So, ( ) C

4

x . 4

6

x

x f

4 6

+ ÷ =

= C x x .

4 6

6

1

+ ÷

E.g. (2) If f’’(x) = 6.x + 2 and f’(1) = 0 and f(÷ 2) = 0 find f(3)

A Here, f’(x) = 3.x

2

+ 2.x + C

Since, f’(1) = 0 = 3(1)

2

+ 2(1) + C

C = ÷ 5

So, f’(x) = 3.x

2

+ 2.x ÷ 5

Now, f(x) = x

3

+ x

2

÷ 5.x + C

Since, f(÷ 2) = 0 = (÷ 2)

3

+ (÷ 2)

2

÷ 5(÷ 2) + C

C = ÷ 6

f(x) = x

3

+ x

2

÷ 5.x ÷ 6

f(3) = 15

Luke Cole Page 10

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