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GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 1

Introduction
11/4/98
Terms:
Interval Line
Parallel () Equidistant from each other
Triangle () A supplementary three sided figure
Quadrilateral Four sided figure, whose sum of the interior angles is 360
Bisects Equal either side of the bisected figure
Median Middle
Altitude Horizontal
Hypotenuse The side opposite to the right angle (longest side) in a right-angled
triangle
Congruent () Two figures that have the same shape and size
Similar () Two figures of the same shape but different size
Complementary Their sum is 90
Supplementary Their sum is 180
RTP Respects to proof

Notation:
 One letter (E.g. B) is a point
 Two letters (E.g. BA or AB) is a line or interval
 Parallel lines are written (E.g. ABCD)
 Angles are written (E.g.  BAC, BAC or BAC)
 A triangle is written (E.g. ABC)
 A quadrilateral is called (E.g. ABCD).

Types of Angles:
 Acute angle 0 < x < 90
 Right angle 90
 Obtuse angle 90 < x < 180
 Straight angle 180
 Reflex angle 180 < x < 360
 Revolution 360
 Vertically opposite angles are equal
 Exterior angle of a triangle is the sum of the two opposite interior angles

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Types of Triangles:
 Scalene triangle No equal sides
 Right-angled triangle Contains a right angle and hypotenuse
 Isosceles triangle Two equal sides & two equal opposite angles
 Equilateral triangle Three equal sides
 Acute-angled triangle All the angles are acute
 Obtuse-angled triangle Contains one obtuse angle

When a Transversal Line Cuts Through Two Parallel Lines:

Transversal

Alternate Angles
 Alternate angles form a Z shape
 Alternate angles are equal

Corresponding Angles
 Corresponding angles form an F shape
 Corresponding angles are equal

Co-interior Angles
 Co-interior angles form a C shape
 The sum of the co-interior angles is 180

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Congruent Triangles:
A X

C B Z Y
Here, ABC  XYZ

Tests
 SSS: All three pairs of corresponding Sides are equal.
 SAS: Two pairs of corresponding Sides and their included Angles are equal.
 AAS: Two pairs of Angles and one pair of corresponding Sides are equal.
 RHS: Both have a Right angle, their Hypotenuses are equal and one other pair
of corresponding Sides are equal.

Similar Triangles:
A
X

C B Z Y

Here, ABC  XYZ


Tests
 All three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
 All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).
 Two pairs of side are in proportion and their included angles are equal.

Ratio of Intercepts:
 When two or more transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the ratios of their
intercepts are equal.
A D

B E

C F

AB:BC = DE:EF
AB DE

BC EF
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Polygons:
 A polygon is a plane figure with straight sides.
 A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal.
Equation: S = (2.n – 4)  90
S = Sum of the interior angles
n = number of sides
 The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360.
Exterior

Interior

Pythagoras’ Theorem:
 Only right-angled triangles.
Equation: c2 = a2 + b2
c = Hypotenuse
a = 1st side
b = 2nd side
Proof:
Let, AD = x
DB = y
 x+y=c
ADC  ABC (AAA)
AC AD
 A
AB AC
b x
 c
c b b D
 b2 = c.x
BDC  ABC (AAA)
DB BC C a B

BC AB
 a2 = c.y
 a2 + b2 = c.y + c.x
= c(y + x)
= c(c)
 a + b = c2
2 2

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Types of Quadrilaterals
11/4/98
Parallelogram:
 A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel

Properties
 Opposite sides are equal
 Opposite angles are equal
 Diagonals bisect each other
 Each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles

Tests
 Both pairs of opposite sides are equal
 Both pairs of opposite angles are equal
 One pair of sides is both equal and parallel
 The diagonals bisect each other

Rectangle:
 A rectangle is a parallelogram with one angle a right angle

Properties
 The same as for a parallelogram
 Diagonals are equal

Test
 Diagonals are equal

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Rhombus:
 A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties
 The same as for a parallelogram
 Diagonals bisect at right angles
 Diagonal bisect the angles of the rhombus

Tests
 All sides are equal
 Diagonals bisect each other at right angles

Square:
 A square is a rectangle with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties
 The same as for a rectangle
 Diagonals are perpendicular
 Diagonals make angles of 45 with the sides

Trapezium:
 A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of sides parallel

Kite:
 A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent side’s equal

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Areas
13/4/98
Rectangle:
Equation: A = l.b
l
b

Square:
Equation: A = x2
x

Triangle:
Equation: A = ½.b.h

h
b

Parallelogram:
Equation: A = b.h

h
b

Rhombus:
Equation: A = ½.x.y
x y

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Trapezium:
Equation: A = ½.h(a + b)
a

h
b

Circle:
Equation: A = .r2

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