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Introduction

11/4/98

Terms:

Interval Line

Parallel (¦¦) Equidistant from each other

Triangle (A) A supplementary three sided figure

Quadrilateral Four sided figure, whose sum of the interior angles is 360°

Bisects Equal either side of the bisected figure

Median Middle

Altitude Horizontal

Hypotenuse The side opposite to the right angle (longest side) in a right-angled

triangle

Congruent (÷) Two figures that have the same shape and size

Similar (|¦) Two figures of the same shape but different size

Complementary Their sum is 90°

Supplementary Their sum is 180°

RTP Respects to proof

Notation:

- One letter (E.g. B) is a point

- Two letters (E.g. BA or AB) is a line or interval

- Parallel lines are written (E.g. AB¦¦CD)

- Angles are written (E.g. Z BAC, BAC or BAC)

- A triangle is written (E.g. AABC)

- A quadrilateral is called (E.g. ABCD).

Types of Angles:

- Acute angle 0° < x° < 90°

- Right angle 90°

- Obtuse angle 90° < x° < 180°

- Straight angle 180°

- Reflex angle 180° < x° < 360°

- Revolution 360°

- Vertically opposite angles are equal

- Exterior angle of a triangle is the sum of the two opposite interior angles

Luke Cole Page 1

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 2

Types of Triangles:

- Scalene triangle No equal sides

- Right-angled triangle Contains a right angle and hypotenuse

- Isosceles triangle Two equal sides & two equal opposite angles

- Equilateral triangle Three equal sides

- Acute-angled triangle All the angles are acute

- Obtuse-angled triangle Contains one obtuse angle

When a Transversal Line Cuts Through Two Parallel Lines:

Alternate Angles

- Alternate angles form a Z shape

- Alternate angles are equal

Corresponding Angles

- Corresponding angles form an F shape

- Corresponding angles are equal

Co-interior Angles

- Co-interior angles form a C shape

- The sum of the co-interior angles is 180°

Luke Cole Page 2

Transversal

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 3

Congruent Triangles:

Tests

- SSS: All three pairs of corresponding Sides are equal.

- SAS: Two pairs of corresponding Sides and their included Angles are equal.

- AAS: Two pairs of Angles and one pair of corresponding Sides are equal.

- RHS: Both have a Right angle, their Hypotenuses are equal and one other pair

of corresponding Sides are equal.

Similar Triangles:

Tests

- All three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.

- All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).

- Two pairs of side are in proportion and their included angles are equal.

Ratio of Intercepts:

- When two or more transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the ratios of their

intercepts are equal.

AB:BC = DE:EF

EF

DE

BC

AB

=

Luke Cole Page 3

A X

C B Z Y

Here, AABC ÷ AXYZ

A

X

C B Z Y

Here, AABC ''' AXYZ

A D

B E

C F

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 4

Polygons:

- A polygon is a plane figure with straight sides.

- A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal.

Equation: S = (2.n – 4) × 90°

S = Sum of the interior angles

n = number of sides

- The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360°.

Pythagoras’ Theorem:

- Only right-angled triangles.

Equation: c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

c = Hypotenuse

a = 1

st

side

b = 2

nd

side

Proof:

Let, AD = x

DB = y

x + y = c

AADC |¦ AABC (AAA)

AC

AD

AB

AC

=

b

x

c

b

=

b

2

= c.x

ABDC |¦ AABC (AAA)

AB

BC

BC

DB

=

a

2

= c.y

a

2

+ b

2

= c.y + c.x

= c(y + x)

= c(c)

a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

Luke Cole Page 4

Exterior

Interior

A

c

b D

C a B

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 5

Types of Quadrilaterals

11/4/98

Parallelogram:

- A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel

Properties

- Opposite sides are equal

- Opposite angles are equal

- Diagonals bisect each other

- Each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles

Tests

- Both pairs of opposite sides are equal

- Both pairs of opposite angles are equal

- One pair of sides is both equal and parallel

- The diagonals bisect each other

Rectangle:

- A rectangle is a parallelogram with one angle a right angle

Properties

- The same as for a parallelogram

- Diagonals are equal

Test

- Diagonals are equal

Luke Cole Page 5

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 6

Rhombus:

- A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties

- The same as for a parallelogram

- Diagonals bisect at right angles

- Diagonal bisect the angles of the rhombus

Tests

- All sides are equal

- Diagonals bisect each other at right angles

Square:

- A square is a rectangle with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties

- The same as for a rectangle

- Diagonals are perpendicular

- Diagonals make angles of 45° with the sides

Trapezium:

- A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of sides parallel

Kite:

- A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent side’s equal

Luke Cole Page 6

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 7

Areas

13/4/98

Rectangle:

Equation: A = l.b

Square:

Equation: A = x

2

Triangle:

Equation: A = ½.b.h

Parallelogram:

Equation: A = b.h

Rhombus:

Equation: A = ½.x.y

Luke Cole Page 7

l

b

x

h

b

h

b

x y

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 8

Trapezium:

Equation: A = ½.h(a + b)

Circle:

Equation: A = t.r

2

Luke Cole Page 8

a

h

b

r

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