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Introduction

11/4/98

Terms:

Interval Line

Parallel () Equidistant from each other

Triangle () A supplementary three sided figure

Quadrilateral Four sided figure, whose sum of the interior angles is 360

Bisects Equal either side of the bisected figure

Median Middle

Altitude Horizontal

Hypotenuse The side opposite to the right angle (longest side) in a right-angled

triangle

Congruent () Two figures that have the same shape and size

Similar () Two figures of the same shape but different size

Complementary Their sum is 90

Supplementary Their sum is 180

RTP Respects to proof

Notation:

One letter (E.g. B) is a point

Two letters (E.g. BA or AB) is a line or interval

Parallel lines are written (E.g. ABCD)

Angles are written (E.g. BAC, BAC or BAC)

A triangle is written (E.g. ABC)

A quadrilateral is called (E.g. ABCD).

Types of Angles:

Acute angle 0 < x < 90

Right angle 90

Obtuse angle 90 < x < 180

Straight angle 180

Reflex angle 180 < x < 360

Revolution 360

Vertically opposite angles are equal

Exterior angle of a triangle is the sum of the two opposite interior angles

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 2

Types of Triangles:

Scalene triangle No equal sides

Right-angled triangle Contains a right angle and hypotenuse

Isosceles triangle Two equal sides & two equal opposite angles

Equilateral triangle Three equal sides

Acute-angled triangle All the angles are acute

Obtuse-angled triangle Contains one obtuse angle

Transversal

Alternate Angles

Alternate angles form a Z shape

Alternate angles are equal

Corresponding Angles

Corresponding angles form an F shape

Corresponding angles are equal

Co-interior Angles

Co-interior angles form a C shape

The sum of the co-interior angles is 180

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 3

Congruent Triangles:

A X

C B Z Y

Here, ABC XYZ

Tests

SSS: All three pairs of corresponding Sides are equal.

SAS: Two pairs of corresponding Sides and their included Angles are equal.

AAS: Two pairs of Angles and one pair of corresponding Sides are equal.

RHS: Both have a Right angle, their Hypotenuses are equal and one other pair

of corresponding Sides are equal.

Similar Triangles:

A

X

C B Z Y

Tests

All three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.

All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).

Two pairs of side are in proportion and their included angles are equal.

Ratio of Intercepts:

When two or more transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the ratios of their

intercepts are equal.

A D

B E

C F

AB:BC = DE:EF

AB DE

BC EF

Luke Cole Page 3

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 4

Polygons:

A polygon is a plane figure with straight sides.

A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal.

Equation: S = (2.n – 4) 90

S = Sum of the interior angles

n = number of sides

The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360.

Exterior

Interior

Pythagoras’ Theorem:

Only right-angled triangles.

Equation: c2 = a2 + b2

c = Hypotenuse

a = 1st side

b = 2nd side

Proof:

Let, AD = x

DB = y

x+y=c

ADC ABC (AAA)

AC AD

A

AB AC

b x

c

c b b D

b2 = c.x

BDC ABC (AAA)

DB BC C a B

BC AB

a2 = c.y

a2 + b2 = c.y + c.x

= c(y + x)

= c(c)

a + b = c2

2 2

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 5

Types of Quadrilaterals

11/4/98

Parallelogram:

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel

Properties

Opposite sides are equal

Opposite angles are equal

Diagonals bisect each other

Each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles

Tests

Both pairs of opposite sides are equal

Both pairs of opposite angles are equal

One pair of sides is both equal and parallel

The diagonals bisect each other

Rectangle:

A rectangle is a parallelogram with one angle a right angle

Properties

The same as for a parallelogram

Diagonals are equal

Test

Diagonals are equal

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 6

Rhombus:

A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties

The same as for a parallelogram

Diagonals bisect at right angles

Diagonal bisect the angles of the rhombus

Tests

All sides are equal

Diagonals bisect each other at right angles

Square:

A square is a rectangle with a pair of adjacent sides equal

Properties

The same as for a rectangle

Diagonals are perpendicular

Diagonals make angles of 45 with the sides

Trapezium:

A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of sides parallel

Kite:

A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent side’s equal

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 7

Areas

13/4/98

Rectangle:

Equation: A = l.b

l

b

Square:

Equation: A = x2

x

Triangle:

Equation: A = ½.b.h

h

b

Parallelogram:

Equation: A = b.h

h

b

Rhombus:

Equation: A = ½.x.y

x y

GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 8

Trapezium:

Equation: A = ½.h(a + b)

a

h

b

Circle:

Equation: A = .r2

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