GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 1

Introduction
11/4/98
Terms:
Interval Line
Parallel (¦¦) Equidistant from each other
Triangle (A) A supplementary three sided figure
Quadrilateral Four sided figure, whose sum of the interior angles is 360°
Bisects Equal either side of the bisected figure
Median Middle
Altitude Horizontal
Hypotenuse The side opposite to the right angle (longest side) in a right-angled
triangle
Congruent (÷) Two figures that have the same shape and size
Similar (|¦) Two figures of the same shape but different size
Complementary Their sum is 90°
Supplementary Their sum is 180°
RTP Respects to proof
Notation:
- One letter (E.g. B) is a point
- Two letters (E.g. BA or AB) is a line or interval
- Parallel lines are written (E.g. AB¦¦CD)
- Angles are written (E.g. Z BAC, BAC or BAC)
- A triangle is written (E.g. AABC)
- A quadrilateral is called (E.g. ABCD).
Types of Angles:
- Acute angle 0° < x° < 90°
- Right angle 90°
- Obtuse angle 90° < x° < 180°
- Straight angle 180°
- Reflex angle 180° < x° < 360°
- Revolution 360°
- Vertically opposite angles are equal
- Exterior angle of a triangle is the sum of the two opposite interior angles
Luke Cole Page 1
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 2
Types of Triangles:
- Scalene triangle No equal sides
- Right-angled triangle Contains a right angle and hypotenuse
- Isosceles triangle Two equal sides & two equal opposite angles
- Equilateral triangle Three equal sides
- Acute-angled triangle All the angles are acute
- Obtuse-angled triangle Contains one obtuse angle
When a Transversal Line Cuts Through Two Parallel Lines:


Alternate Angles
- Alternate angles form a Z shape
- Alternate angles are equal
Corresponding Angles
- Corresponding angles form an F shape
- Corresponding angles are equal
Co-interior Angles
- Co-interior angles form a C shape
- The sum of the co-interior angles is 180°
Luke Cole Page 2
Transversal
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 3
Congruent Triangles:

Tests
- SSS: All three pairs of corresponding Sides are equal.
- SAS: Two pairs of corresponding Sides and their included Angles are equal.
- AAS: Two pairs of Angles and one pair of corresponding Sides are equal.
- RHS: Both have a Right angle, their Hypotenuses are equal and one other pair
of corresponding Sides are equal.
Similar Triangles:


Tests
- All three pairs of corresponding angles are equal.
- All three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion (in the same ratio).
- Two pairs of side are in proportion and their included angles are equal.
Ratio of Intercepts:
- When two or more transversals cut a series of parallel lines, the ratios of their
intercepts are equal.



AB:BC = DE:EF
EF
DE
BC
AB
=
Luke Cole Page 3
A X
C B Z Y
Here, AABC ÷ AXYZ
A
X
C B Z Y
Here, AABC ''' AXYZ

A D
B E
C F
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 4
Polygons:
- A polygon is a plane figure with straight sides.
- A regular polygon has all sides and all interior angles equal.
Equation: S = (2.n – 4) × 90°
S = Sum of the interior angles
n = number of sides
- The sum of the exterior angles of any polygon is 360°.
Pythagoras’ Theorem:
- Only right-angled triangles.
Equation: c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
c = Hypotenuse
a = 1
st
side
b = 2
nd
side
Proof:
Let, AD = x
DB = y
x + y = c
AADC |¦ AABC (AAA)
AC
AD
AB
AC
=
b
x
c
b
=
b
2
= c.x
ABDC |¦ AABC (AAA)
AB
BC
BC
DB
=
a
2
= c.y
a
2
+ b
2
= c.y + c.x
= c(y + x)
= c(c)
a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
Luke Cole Page 4
Exterior
Interior
A
c
b D
C a B
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 5
Types of Quadrilaterals
11/4/98
Parallelogram:
- A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel
Properties
- Opposite sides are equal
- Opposite angles are equal
- Diagonals bisect each other
- Each diagonal bisects the parallelogram into two congruent triangles
Tests
- Both pairs of opposite sides are equal
- Both pairs of opposite angles are equal
- One pair of sides is both equal and parallel
- The diagonals bisect each other
Rectangle:
- A rectangle is a parallelogram with one angle a right angle
Properties
- The same as for a parallelogram
- Diagonals are equal
Test
- Diagonals are equal
Luke Cole Page 5
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 6
Rhombus:
- A rhombus is a parallelogram with a pair of adjacent sides equal
Properties
- The same as for a parallelogram
- Diagonals bisect at right angles
- Diagonal bisect the angles of the rhombus
Tests
- All sides are equal
- Diagonals bisect each other at right angles
Square:
- A square is a rectangle with a pair of adjacent sides equal
Properties
- The same as for a rectangle
- Diagonals are perpendicular
- Diagonals make angles of 45° with the sides
Trapezium:
- A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of sides parallel
Kite:
- A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent side’s equal
Luke Cole Page 6
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 7
Areas
13/4/98
Rectangle:
Equation: A = l.b
Square:
Equation: A = x
2
Triangle:

Equation: A = ½.b.h
Parallelogram:

Equation: A = b.h
Rhombus:
Equation: A = ½.x.y
Luke Cole Page 7
l
b
x
h
b
h
b
x y
GIKPKC7 94107 Geometry I Page 8
Trapezium:
Equation: A = ½.h(a + b)
Circle:

Equation: A = t.r
2
Luke Cole Page 8
a
h
b
r

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