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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 5

Approximation Methods

Integration is the process of calculation the area of a region under a curve.

An approximate area under the curve is found by finding the area of trapeziums.

b

ba

Equation: f x dx y 0 y n 2 y 1 y 2 ... y n 1

a 2.n

n = Number of subintervals (or n + 1 function values)

f(x)

y0 yn

a b

Simpson’s Rule:

An approximate area under the curve is found by finding the area under parabolic

arcs.

b

ba

Equation: f x dx y 0 y n 4 y 1 y 3 ... 2 y 2 y 4 ...

a 3.n

n = Number of subintervals (or n + 1 function values)

f(x)

y0 yn

a b

GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 2

Accurate Integration

Indefinite Integrals:

The integral of an equation in the form a.x + b is found by

a .x b n dx a .x b C

n 1

Equation:

an 1

C = Constant

Definite integrals:

y = a.x + b

c d

d

a .d b n 1 a .c b n 1

Equation:

c

a .x b

a n 1

a n 1

Even Functions:

A function is Even if: f( x) = f(x)

a

Equation:

a

f x dx 0

Odd Functions:

A function is Odd if: f( x) = f(x)

a a

Equation:

a

f x dx 2

0

f x dx

GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 3

Areas Enclosed by the x-axis:

a b

y = f(x)

b

Equation: A

f x dx

a

b

Equation: A

a

f y dy

a

x = f(y)

GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 4

Found by rotating as area under a curve about the x-axis

a

y = f(x) b

b

Equation: V

a

y 2 dx

Found by rotating as area under a curve about the y-axis

a

y = f(x)

b

b

Equation: V

a

x 2 dy

f y

b b

f x g x dx g y 2 dx

2

Equation: A V

a a

g(x) = 2nd Curve

GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 5

Integration By Substition

Used for hard integration

4

E.g. (1) 3.x 2 x3 1 dx using the substitution u = x3 1

du

A First, 3.x 2

dx

du = 3.x2.dx …(1)

Sub (1) into equation

5

4 u5 x3 1

u .du C C

5 5

2

E.g. (2) x 1 x using the substitution u = 1+ x2

0

du

A First, 2.x Note:

dx

When, x = 1, u = 2

1

du x.dx …(1) And, x = 0, u = 1

2

Sub (1) into equation

2 2

1 2.u 3 2

1 12 2 2 2

u

2 1 2 3 1 3

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