GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 1

Approximation Methods
- Integration is the process of calculation the area of a region under a curve.
The Trapezoidal Rule:
- An approximate area under the curve is found by finding the area of trapeziums.
Equation: ( ) ( ) | |
1 n 2 1 n 0
b
a
y ... y y 2 y y
n . 2
a b
dx x f
÷
+ + + + +
÷
~
í
n = Number of subintervals (or n + 1 function values)
Simpson’s Rule:
- An approximate area under the curve is found by finding the area under parabolic
arcs.
Equation: ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ... y y 2 ... y y 4 y y
n . 3
a b
dx x f
4 2 3 1 n 0
b
a
+ + + + + + +
÷
~
í
n = Number of subintervals (or n + 1 function values)
Luke Cole Page 1

f(x)
y
0
y
n
a b

f(x)
y
0
y
n
a b
GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 2
Accurate Integration
Indefinite Integrals:
- The integral of an equation in the form a.x + b is found by
Equation: ( )
( )
( )
C
1 n a
b x . a
dx b x . a
1 n
n
+
+
+
= +
+
í
C = Constant
Definite integrals:
Equation: ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1 n a
b c . a
1 n a
b d . a
b x . a
1 n 1 n
d
c
+
+
÷
+
+
= +
+ +
í
Even Functions:
- A function is Even if: f(÷ x) = f(x)
Equation: ( ) 0 dx x f
a
a
=
í
÷
Odd Functions:
- A function is Odd if: f(÷ x) = ÷ f(x)
Equation: ( ) ( )
í í
=
÷
a
0
a
a
dx x f 2 dx x f
Luke Cole Page 2

y = a.x + b


c d
GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 3
Areas and Volumes
Areas Enclosed by the x-axis:
Equation:
( )
í
=
b
a
dx x f A
Areas Enclosed by the y-axis:
Equation:
( )
í
=
b
a
dy y f A

a
x = f(y)
b
Luke Cole Page 3

a b

y = f(x)
GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 4
Volumes about the x-axis:
- Found by rotating as area under a curve about the x-axis

b


a
y = f(x)

b
Equation:
í
t =
b
a
2
dx y V
Volumes about the y-axis:
- Found by rotating as area under a curve about the y-axis



a
y = f(x)
b
Equation:
í
t =
b
a
2
dy x V
Area and Volumes between Curves:
Equation:
( ) ( ) | |
í
÷ =
b
a
dx x g x f A ( ) ( ) | |
í
÷ t =
b
a
2 2
dx y g y f V
f(x) = 1
st
Curve
g(x) = 2
nd
Curve
Luke Cole Page 4
GITIMH3 94107 Integration Page 5
Integration By Substition
- Used for hard integration
E.g. (1)
( )
í
÷ dx 1 x x . 3
4
3 2
using the substitution u = x
3
÷ 1
A First,
2
x . 3
dx
du
=
du = 3.x
2
.dx …(1)
Sub (1) into equation
( )
C
5
1 x
C
5
u
du . u
5
3 5
4
+
÷
= + =
í
E.g. (2)
í
+
1
0
2
x 1 x using the substitution u = 1+ x
2

A First, x . 2
dx
du
=
dx . x du
2
1
= …(1)
Sub (1) into equation
3
2 2 2
3
u . 2
2
1
u
2
1
2
1
2 3
2
1
2 1
÷
=

=
í
Luke Cole Page 5
Note:
When, x = 1, u = 2
And, x = 0, u = 1

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