Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

324 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Conic Sections
- Conic Section-parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola Assignment for Aieee
- parabola
- 4. Analytic Geometry and Differential and Integral Calculus
- Robot ARM Simulation
- sylE23a-2017
- r07a10299 Engineering Drawing
- NIT Syllabus
- Taller PID Control ADRC
- Introduction to Postgis 1.5.1 3
- 8-Ahmad Ali Khan
- Box2D v2.2.1 User Manual
- Tugas Vektor
- wfwf
- rationalworksheets1-15 1
- psat-nmsqt-practice-test-2-explanations-29-48
- schoolservicecommission_math_1st mocktest_hpg
- img 20151212 0001
- Drawings
- 150156895 Introduction to Finite Element Vibration Analysis PDF

You are on page 1of 12

Introduction

10/8/98

Terms:

Normal Perpendicular to

Cartesian Equations involving x & y E.g. x2 = 4.a.y

Parametric Equations involving x & y but written in term of a third variable

Quadratic Inequalities:

For any curve in the number plane:

If, a.x2 + b.x + c = 0 on the x-axis

If, a.x + b.x + c > 0

2

above the x-axis

If, a.x2 + b.x + c < 0 below the x-axis

Roots = x-intercepts of a graph

2 roots (negative and positive regions) of a parabola = Indefinite Function

1 roots of a parabola = Not Called Anything

No roots of a parabola and:

a > 0 it’s known as a Positive Definite

a < 0 it’s known as a Negative Definite

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 2

The Discriminant:

Under the square root sign of the quadratic formula = discriminant =

Equation: = b2 – 4.a.c

If, = 0 one real root (two equal roots)

If, > 0 two real roots (two unequal roots)

If, = perfect square = rational

If, = not a perfect square = irrational

For, a.x2 + b.x + c > 0

<0 a>0

For, 2

a.x + b.x + c < 0

<0 a<0

General form: x2 ( + )x + . = 0

Proof:

If and are two roots of a quadratic equation then:

(x )(x ) = 0

x2 ( + )x + . = 0 …[1]

b

Equation:

a

Sum of roots

c

Equation: .

a

Product of roots

Proof:

a.x2 + b.x + c = 0

b c

x 2 .x 0 …(2)

a a

Compare (2) to [1]:

x2 ( + )x + . = 0

b c

x 2 .x 0

a a

b c

& .

a a

b

a

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 3

Quadratic Identities:

Equation: a1.x2 + b1.x + c1 = 0 a2.x2 + b2.x + c2 = 0

a1 = a2

b1 = b2

c1 = c2

2

E.g. Solve, x 3

x

A x2 + 2 = 3.x

(x – 2)(x – 1) = 0

x=2 & x=1

A Let, u = 3x

u2 – 4.u + 3 = 0

(u – 3)(u 1) = 0

u=3 & u=1

Sub, u = 3x into u = 3 & u = 1

3x = 3 & 3x = 1

x=1 & x=0

To find the gradient of a tangent use calculus (See: The Tangent & Derivative)

To find the normal use the formula: m1.m2 = 1

E.g. Find the equation of the tangent and normal of y = x2 at (3, 9)

y = x2

dy

2.x

dx

Sub x = 3 into 2.x to find tangent

m1 = 6

Y – y = m1(X – x)

y – 9 = 6(x – 3)

6.x – y – 9 = 0

Finding the Normal

m1.m2 = 1

m2 = 1/6

Y – y = m2(X – x)

y – 9 = 1/6(x – 3)

x + 6.y – 57 = 0

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 4

Parabola as a Locus

19/8/98

The locus of a point that is equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed line is always

a parabola.

Definitions:

x2 = 4.a.y

Tangent

Focus Chord

(0, a)

Focal Length Focal Chord

a

(0, 0) Vertex

a

Directrix y=a

When the Focal Chord is parallel to the Directrix it is called Latus rectum

Concave Up:

The locus of point P(x, y) moving such that it is equidistant from (0, a) and the line

y = a is a parabola

General Form: (x – h)2 = 4.a(y – k)

(h, k) = Vertex

a = Focal length

Proof: A[h, (k + a)]

P(x, y)

Since, PA = PB:

(x – h)2 + [y – (k + a)]2 =

(x – x)2 + [y (k a)]2

2

(x – h) = 4.a.y – 4.a.k

(x – h)2 = 4.a(y – k) B[x, (k a)] y=ka

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 5

The locus of point P(x, y) moving such that it is equidistant from (a, 0) and the line

x = a is a parabola

General Form: (y – k)2 = 4.a(x – h)

Proof:

Since, PA = PB:

[x – (h + a)]2 + (y – k)2 = [x – (h – a)]2 + (y y)2

(y – k)2 = 4.a.x – 4.a.h

(y – k)2 = 4.a(x – h)

x=ha

A[(h + a), k]

Parametric of x2 = 4.a.y: x = 2.a.t & y = a.t2

t = Parametric

Proof:

x = 2.a.t …(1)

y = a.t2 …(2)

Sub (1) into (2):

2

x

y a

2.a

x2 = 4.a.y

x = 3.t + 1 …(1)

y = 2.t – 3 …(2)

Sub (1) into (2)

2 .x 2

y 3

3

2.x – 3.y – 11 = 0

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 6

If P(2.a.p, a.p2) and Q(2.a.q, a.q2) are any Two Points on the Parabola

x2 = 4.a.y Then

p q

Gradient: m PQ

2

Proof:

Using gradient formula:

a. p 2 a.q 2

m PQ

2.a. p 2.a.q

a p q p q

=

2.a p q

pq

m PQ

2

General Form: y ½(p + q)x + a.p.q = 0

Proof:

Using the point, gradient formula:

p q

y a. p 2 a 2.a. p

2

y ½(p + q)x + a.p.q = 0 …[1]

General Form: p.q = 1

Proof:

x2 = 4.a.y has a focus (0, a) & the equation of PQ is y ½(p + q)x + a.p.q = 0 then sub

(0, a) into the equation PQ:

a.p.q = a

p.q = 1

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 7

The Tangent to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y at P(2.a.p, a.p2) has

Equation: y – p.x + a.p2 = 0

Gradient: m=p

Proof:

Differentiate x2 = 4.a.y to find gradient:

dy x

dx 2.a

2.a. p

=

2.a

m=p …[2]

Use the point, gradient formula to find equation:

y – a.p2 = p(x – 2.a.p)

y – p.x + a.p2 = 0 …[3]

The Tangents to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y at the Points P(2.a.p, a.p2) and

Q(2.a.q, a.q2) Intersect at

Point: [a(p + q), a.p.q]

Proof:

Equation of the tangent a P is [3]:

y – p.x + a.p2 = 0 …(1)

Equation of the tangent a Q is the same as [3], but has ‘p’s as ‘q’s:

y – q.x + a.q2 = 0 …(2)

Now, (1) – (2):

p.x + q.x + a.p2 a.q2 = 0 P

(q – p)x + a(p q)(p + q) = 0 Q

x = a(p + q)

Sub x = a(p + q) into (1):

y – p[a(p + q)] + a.p2 = 0 Z

y = a.p.q

Z[a(p + q), apq] …[4]

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 8

The Normal to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y at P(2.a.p, a.p2) has:

Equation: x + p.y = a.p3 + 2.a.p

1

Gradient: m

p

Proof:

Use [2] and the perpendicular line formula:

m1.m = 1

p.m = 1

1

m

p

Use the point, gradient formula to find the equation:

1

y a. p 2 x 2.a. p

p

x + p.y = a.p3 + 2.a.p …[5]

The Normal’s to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y at P(2.a.p, a.p2) and Q(2.a.q, a.q2)

Intersect at

Point: [ a.p.q(p + q), a(p2 + p.q + q2 + 2)]

Proof:

Equation of the tangent a P is [5]:

x + p.y = a.p3 + 2.a.p …(1)

Equation of the tangent a Q is the same as [5], but has ‘p’s as ‘q’s:

x + q.y = a.q3 + 2.a.q …(2) Z

Now (1) – (2): Q

p.y – q.y – 2.a.p + 2.a.q – a.p3 + a.q3 = 0 P

y = a(p2 + p.q + q2 + 2)

Sub y = a(p2 + pq + q2 + 2) into (1):

x + p[a(p2 + p.q + q2 + 2)] = a.p3 + 2.a.p

x = a.p.q(p + q)

Z[ a.p.q(p + q), a(p2 + p.q + q2 + 2)]

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 9

The Equation of the Tangent to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y at P(x1, y1) is

General Form: x.x1 = 2.a(y + y1)

Proof:

Differentiate x2 = 4ay to find gradient:

dy x

dx 2.a

x

m 1 …[6]

2.a

Use the point, gradient formula to find the equation:

x

y y 1 1 x x1

2.a

2.a(y – y1) = x1.x – x12

Since x2 = 4.a.y then, x12 = 4.a.y1:

2.a(y – y1) = x1.x – 4.a.y1

x.x1 = 2.a(y + y1)

The Equation of the Normal at P(x1, y1) on the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y is

2 .a

General Form: y y1 x x 1

x1

Proof:

Use [6] and the perpendicular formula:

m1.m = 1

x1

.m 1

2.a

2.a

m

x1

Use the point, gradient formula to find the equation:

2.a

y y1 x x1

x1

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 10

Drawn From the Point P(x1, y1) to the Parabola x2 = 4.a.y is:

General Form: x.x1 = 2.a(y + y1)

Proof:

The points in parametric form would be X(2.a.p, a.p2) and Y(2.a.q, a.q2); so the

equation of the chord is [1]:

y ½(p + q)x + a.p.q = 0 X

The point were the tangents intersect is [4]: Y

P[a(p + q), a.p.q]

Now comparing the points P[a(p + q), a.p.q] & P(x1, y1):

x1 = a(p + q)

x

pq 1 …(1)

a

y1 = a.p.q …(2)

Now sub (1) & (2) into [1]: P

x1

y ½. .x + y1 = 0

a

x.x1 = 2.a(y + y1)

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 11

The Tangent to a Parabola at a Given Point is Equally Inclined

to the Axis and the Focal Chord Through the Point:

i.e. FPQ = PQF

F P P = Point = (2.a.p, a.p2) Q =

Tangent x-intercept

FQP =

QPF =

Q Z

Proof:

Tangent at P is [3]:

y = p.x a.p2

Let FQP = :

tan (90 ) = p

cot = p

1

tan

p

Also:

a. p 2 a

M FP

2.a . p

p2 1

=

2. p

Using the angle between two lines formula:

p2 1

p

2. p

tan

p2 1

1

2

1

tan

p

tan = tan

FPQ = PQF

GIKPKC7 94107 Parabola I Page 12

Right Angles on the Directrix:

i.e. QZP = 90 & Lies on the Directrix

F = Focal Chord = (0, a)

Q = Tangent = (2.a.q, a.q2)

Q F P P = Tangent = (2.a.p, a.p2)

Directrix: y = a

Proof:

Since PQ is a focal chord, p.q = 1; Tangent at P has gradient m1 = p; Tangent at Q

has gradient m2 = q:

p.q = 1

Use perpendicular general form:

m1.m2 = 1

Tangents are perpendicular

Tangents intersect at [4]:

[a(p + q), a.p.q]

So:

y = a.p.q …(1)

Sub p.q = 1 into (1):

y=a

This is the equation of the directrix

Tangents intersect on the directrix

- Conic SectionsUploaded bycircleteam123
- Conic Section-parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola Assignment for AieeeUploaded byApex Institute
- parabolaUploaded byapi-339611548
- 4. Analytic Geometry and Differential and Integral CalculusUploaded byOnline Educator
- Robot ARM SimulationUploaded byBrijesh Reddy
- sylE23a-2017Uploaded byAnand Gehlot
- r07a10299 Engineering DrawingUploaded byandhracolleges
- NIT SyllabusUploaded byDivya Khan
- Taller PID Control ADRCUploaded byCARLOS EDUARDO HERNANDEZ MEDINA
- Introduction to Postgis 1.5.1 3Uploaded byMathias Eder
- 8-Ahmad Ali KhanUploaded byDeepak Gadkari
- Box2D v2.2.1 User ManualUploaded bycataforex
- Tugas VektorUploaded byRizky Ramadhani
- wfwfUploaded byZiyvo
- rationalworksheets1-15 1Uploaded bytroy
- psat-nmsqt-practice-test-2-explanations-29-48Uploaded byapi-395493982
- schoolservicecommission_math_1st mocktest_hpgUploaded byArindam Bandyopadhyay
- img 20151212 0001Uploaded byapi-300016590
- DrawingsUploaded bydheepak06
- 150156895 Introduction to Finite Element Vibration Analysis PDFUploaded byHonorato Maria B. Ana
- m2 rev5T _Swokowski_Uploaded bySkyezine Via Kit Fox
- L.No.12Uploaded bygogoagone
- PHYSICS DAILY TEST_VECTOR ADDITION__BUKIT SION_GRADE 8.docxUploaded byNurul Khomariah
- 1999EuclidContestUploaded byMohammed Mahmood
- FLOW ChartUploaded byLeo De Waal
- miniteach ipgUploaded byapi-259102152
- SyllabusUploaded byVarshant Dhar
- KROUSTALLIS (Descartes on Passion Reformation)Uploaded byRodrigo Braicovich
- Grand MCQs Guide OnlyMCQsUploaded byAhsan
- Personalities in the Age of Enlightenment and Their BeliefsUploaded byDreyden Halo

- autonomous_lego_climber_project-stingrayUploaded byapi-19505025
- wepUploaded byapi-19505025
- ipv6Uploaded byapi-19505025
- drawing_using_the_scorbot_manipulator_armUploaded byapi-19505025
- insect_inspired_robots-acra06Uploaded byapi-19505025
- sequences_and_seriesUploaded byapi-19505025
- monte_carlo_localisation_for_mobile_robots-shortUploaded byapi-19505025
- monte_carlo_localisation_for_mobile_robotsUploaded byapi-19505025
- localisation_using_active_mirror_vision_system-anu05Uploaded byapi-19505025
- trigonometryUploaded byapi-19505025
- the_tangent_and_the_derivativeUploaded byapi-19505025
- the_real_number_systemUploaded byapi-19505025
- the_binomial_theoremUploaded byapi-19505025
- relations_and_functionsUploaded byapi-19505025
- probabilityUploaded byapi-19505025
- polynomials_iiUploaded byapi-19505025
- polynomials_iUploaded byapi-19505025
- permutations_and_combinationsUploaded byapi-19505025
- matrices-incompleteUploaded byapi-19505025
- intergationUploaded byapi-19505025
- geometryUploaded byapi-19505025
- geometrical_applications_of_differentiationUploaded byapi-19505025
- co-ordinate_geometryUploaded byapi-19505025
- conic_sectionsUploaded byapi-19505025
- complex_numbersUploaded byapi-19505025
- circle_geometryUploaded byapi-19505025
- localisation_using_active_mirror_vision_system-anu05-slidesUploaded byapi-19505025
- airhockey-pergames06Uploaded byapi-19505025
- airhockey-chi06-posterUploaded byapi-19505025

- Gait Synthesis for Quadruped Robot Walking Up and Down SlopeUploaded byMer Fro
- Chladni E.F. (2008). Treatise on Acoustics. the First Comprehensive English Translation of E.F.F. Chladni's Traité d'AcoustiqueUploaded byAlejandro
- Substitution Method Lesson3Uploaded byHLSSummerInstitute
- Lib Rot Ex ToUploaded byCristina Cruz Lozano
- Artigo de Rhea, Criação Do Effect SizeUploaded byLevy
- 1st Long Probset (1)Uploaded byredabu
- Schuster Thesis: Circuit Quantum ElectrodynamicsUploaded byArian Jadbabaie
- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Historical Review of Power System Stability ProblemsUploaded byKakarlamudi Pramod
- QauntitativeUploaded byGhulam Farid
- Pneumatic CylindersUploaded bygokulahb
- Activity PerdevUploaded byGlenda Coracero-Valeroso
- Prediction of Bearing Capacity of Circular Footings on Soft Clay Stabilized With Granular SoilUploaded byEmanuel Roca
- MBA Decision Report-group 1Uploaded byDhrutiMishra
- The Distortionless LineUploaded byMaham Tanveer
- getting a better angleUploaded byapi-257891091
- Chicken Soup for ProcessUploaded bysamvit4u
- Orcina BrochureUploaded byDilip Reddy
- Ch1 2 3 ExercisesUploaded byJermaine La'Nard Hubbard
- MathcountsUploaded bygy_111111
- MATH 3410Uploaded bycasual_mango
- lecture_6_influence_lines.pdfUploaded byAnusha Adavikottu
- Computer-Aided Introduction to Eco No MetricsUploaded bySaul Murillo Calsin
- 323322797-class-12-ip-fileUploaded bysada asd
- chm3410hwk01-soln.249211458Uploaded byJerika Arceo
- EddyPro5 User GuideUploaded byantonio_forgione
- Volumetric behavior of the binary systems benzene–cyclohexane and benzene–2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane at temperatures 293.15–323.15 KUploaded byMario Ricardo Urdaneta Parra
- RPF Written Test Syllabus 2018Uploaded byATUL GOLHAR
- CAPE-OPEN Interfaces in COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4Uploaded bySergey Shkapov
- Models.mbd.Helicopter SwashplateUploaded byShofiuddin
- Linear AlgebraUploaded bygbf2009