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Introduction

4/9/98

Definitions:

General Form: P(x) = Pn.xn + Pn 1.xn 1 + …+ P2.x2 + P1.x1 + P0.x0

Pn…P0 = Coefficients

Pn.xn = Leading term

P0.x0 = P0 = Constant

n = Degree

Degree = 1 = Linear

Degree = 2 = Quadratic

Pn = 1 = Monic

Coefficients = 0 = Zero Polynomial

P(x) = 0 Real numbers which satisfy this are known as zeros

Equation = 0 Real numbers which satisfy this are known as roots

Division:

A polynomial P(x) can be written

General Form: P(x) = A(x).Q(x) + R(x)

P(x) = Polynomial

A(x) = Divisor

Q(x) = Quotient

R(x) = Remainder

A

x 2 3.x 4 x 3 7.x 2 2.x 3

3.x 4 6.x 3

5.x 3 7.x 2

5.x 3 10.x 2

17.x 2 2.x

17.x 2 34.x

32.x 3

32.x 64

67

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 2

Remainder Theorem:

Theorem: If P(x) is divided by (x – a) then P(a) is the remainder

So, R(x) = 67

Check, P(x) = 3(2)4 – (2)3 + 7(2)2 – 2(2) + 3

= 67

Factor Theorem:

Theorem: If P(a) = 0 then (x – a) is a factor with no remainder

Note: The remainder must be a factor of the constant

A P(1) = 1 + 1 – 10 + 8 = 0

(x – 1) is a factor

P(2) = 0

(x – 2) is a factor

P( 4) = 0

(x + 4) is a factor

P(x) = (x – 1)(x – 2)(x + 4)

If ‘n’ is Even:

When, Pn > 0

Then, Starts in 2nd quadrant; Ends in 1st quadrant

i.e. x2

x4

Then, Starts in 3rd quadrant; Ends in 4th quadrant not touch the x-axis

i.e.

x2

x4

If ‘n’ is Odd:

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 3

When, Pn > 0

Then, Starts in 3rd quadrant; Ends in 1st quadrant

i.e.

x3

When, Pn < 0 touch the x-axis at least

Then, Starts in 2nd quadrant; Ends in 4th quadrant once

i.e.

x3

General Results:

Theorem: The graphs of polynomials are continuous every where.

any two distinct real intercepts.

Theorem: If the P(x) = Pn.xn + …+ P0.x0 has ‘k’ distinct zeros, a1, a2,… ak

(where k < n) then (x a1), (x a2),… (x ak) are factors of P(x)

Theorem: If P(x) has degree ‘n’ and ‘n’ distinct zeros, a1, a2,… an then

P(x) = Pn(x a1), (x a2),… (x an)

Proof:

Since a1, a2… an are zeros of P(x):

Then, P(x) = Pn(x a1)(x a2)… (x an)Q(x)

Now, (x a1)(x a2)… (x an) must have degree ‘n’

Q(x) must be a constant

P(x) = Pn(x a1), (x a2)… (x an)

Theorem: A polynomial that has more then ‘n’ distinct zeros is the zero

polynomial

i.e. P(x) = 0 (P1 = …= Pn = 0)

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 4

Theorem: If A(x), B(x) are polynomials of degree ‘n’ and equal, then the

coefficient of like powers are equal.

i.e. a0 = b0, a1 = b1,…, an = bn

Proof:

Let, P(x) = (x – a)n.Q(x)

P(a) = (a – a)n.Q(a)

P(a) = 0

P’(x) = (x – a)n.Q’(x) + Q(x).(x – a)n 1

P’(a) = (a – a)n.Q’(a) + Q(a).(a – a)n 1

P’(a) = 0

15/8/98

Quadratic Equations:

Luke Cole Page 4

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 5

Sum of Roots

b

One at a time: +=

a

Product of Roots

c

General Form: . =

a

Cubic Equations:

General Form: a.x3 + b.x2 + c.x + d = 0

Sum of Roots

b

One at a time: ++=

a

c

Two at a time: . + . + . =

a

Product of Roots

d

General Form: .. =

a

Quartrc Equations:

General Form: a.x4 + b.x3 + c.x2 + d.x + e = 0

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 6

Sum of Roots

b

One at a time: +++=

a

c

Two at a time: . + . + . + . + . + . =

a

d

Three at a time: .. + .. + .. + .. =

a

Product of Roots

e

General Form: ... =

a

14/10/98

Estimation is the closest one can get

Always check answer

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 7

If f(x) is continuous for a x b and f(a) and f(b) have opposite signs then there is at

least one root f(x) = 0 in the that interval.

If one halves the interval several times, the approximation to the root will usually

become more accurate

E.g. (a) Show that a root x3 – 3.x2 – 9.x + 1 = 0 lies between x = 4 and x = 5

= – 19

fi5) = (5)3 – 3(5)2 – 9(5) + 1

=6

(b) By halving the interval, show that that the root lies between 4.75 & 4.875

45

A Halve the interval = = 4.5

2

f(4.5) = (4.5)3 – 3(4.5)2 – 9(4.5) + 1

= – 9.125

<0

Root lies between 4.5 & 5

4 12 5

Halve the interval = = 4.875

2

f(4.875) = (4.875)3 – 3(4.875)2 – 9(4.875) + 1

= 1.6

>0

Root lies between 4.75 & 4.875

Newton Method:

More accurate

If x = a is close to the root of the equation f(x) = 0, then the x-intercept (a1) of the

tangent at ‘a’ is closer to the root.

GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 8

f a

Equation: a1 a

f ' a

a = Close to root

a1 = Closer to root

starting with an approximation of x = 0.5

f(0.5) = – 0.375

Finding f(a)

f’(x) = 3x2 + 1

f’(0.5) = 1.75

f a

So, a1 a

f ' a

= 0.714

Check if a1 = 0.714 is closer to the root

f(0.714) = 0.079 Good Approximation

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