GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 1

Introduction
4/9/98
Definitions:
General Form: P(x) = P
n
.x
n
+ P
n ÷ 1
.x
n ÷ 1
+ …+ P
2
.x
2
+ P
1
.x
1
+ P
0
.x
0
Pn…P0 = Coefficients
Pn.x
n
= Leading term
P0.x
0
= P0 = Constant
n = Degree
- Degree = 1 = Linear
- Degree = 2 = Quadratic
- Pn = 1 = Monic
- Coefficients = 0 = Zero Polynomial
- P(x) = 0 Real numbers which satisfy this are known as zeros
- Equation = 0 Real numbers which satisfy this are known as roots
Division:
- A polynomial P(x) can be written
General Form: P(x) = A(x).Q(x) + R(x)
P(x) = Polynomial
A(x) = Divisor
Q(x) = Quotient
R(x) = Remainder
E.g. Divide P(x) = 3.x
4
– x
3
+ 7.x
2
– 2.x + 3 by x – 2
A
67 r 32 x . 17 x . 5 x . 3
3 x . 2 x . 7 x x . 3 2 x
2 3
2 3 4
+ + +
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷

3 4
x . 6 x . 3 ÷

2 3
2 3
x . 10 x . 5
x . 7 x . 5
÷
+

x . 34 x . 17
x . 2 x . 17
2
2
÷
÷

64 x . 32
3 x . 32
÷
+
67
3.x
4
– x
3
+ 7.x
2
– 2.x + 3 = (x – 2)(3.x
3
+ 5.x
2
+ 17.x + 32) + 67
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GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 2
Remainder Theorem:
Theorem: If P(x) is divided by (x – a) then P(a) is the remainder
E.g. 3 x . 2 x . 7 x x . 3 2 x
2 3 4
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
So, R(x) = 67
Check, P(x) = 3(2)
4
– (2)
3
+ 7(2)
2
– 2(2) + 3
= 67
Factor Theorem:
Theorem: If P(a) = 0 then (x – a) is a factor with no remainder
Note: The remainder must be a factor of the constant
E.g. Factorise fully P(x) = x
3
+ x
2
– 10.x + 8
A P(1) = 1 + 1 – 10 + 8 = 0
(x – 1) is a factor
P(2) = 0
(x – 2) is a factor
P(÷ 4) = 0
(x + 4) is a factor
P(x) = (x – 1)(x – 2)(x + 4)
If ‘n’ is Even:
When, P
n
> 0
Then, Starts in 2
nd
quadrant; Ends in 1
st
quadrant
i.e.
When, P
n
< 0
Then, Starts in 3
rd
quadrant; Ends in 4
th
quadrant
i.e.
If ‘n’ is Odd:
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x
2
x
4
÷ x
2
÷ x
4
Note: The graph need
not touch the x-axis
GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 3
When, P
n
> 0
Then, Starts in 3
rd
quadrant; Ends in 1
st
quadrant
i.e.
When, P
n
< 0
Then, Starts in 2
nd
quadrant; Ends in 4
th
quadrant
i.e.
General Results:
Theorem: The graphs of polynomials are continuous every where.
Theorem: A least one maximum or minimum turning point occurs between
any two distinct real intercepts.
Theorem: For very large ¦x¦, P(x) ¬ P
n
.x
n
Theorem: If the P(x) = P
n
.x
n
+ …+ P
0
.x
0
has ‘k’ distinct zeros, a
1
, a
2
,… a
k
(where k < n) then (x ÷ a
1
), (x ÷ a
2
),… (x ÷ a
k
) are factors of P(x)
Theorem: If P(x) has degree ‘n’ and ‘n’ distinct zeros, a
1
, a
2
,… a
n
then
P(x) = P
n
(x ÷ a
1
), (x ÷ a
2
),… (x ÷ a
n
)
Proof:
Since a
1
, a
2
… a
n
are zeros of P(x):
Then, P(x) = Pn(x ÷ a1)(x ÷ a2)… (x ÷ an)Q(x)
Now, (x ÷ a1)(x ÷ a2)… (x ÷ an) must have degree ‘n’
Q(x) must be a constant
P(x) = Pn(x ÷ a1), (x ÷ a2)… (x ÷ an)
Theorem: A polynomial of degree ‘n’ cannot have more then n zeros
Theorem: A polynomial that has more then ‘n’ distinct zeros is the zero
polynomial
i.e. P(x) = 0 (P1 = …= Pn = 0)
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x
3

÷ x
3
Note: The graph must
touch the x-axis at least
once
GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 4
Theorem: If A(x), B(x) are polynomials of degree ‘n’ and equal, then the
coefficient of like powers are equal.
i.e. a0 = b0, a1 = b1,…, an = bn
Theorem: If P(x) has, a multiple root at x = a then P(a) = P’(a) = 0
Proof:
Let, P(x) = (x – a)
n
.Q(x)
P(a) = (a – a)
n
.Q(a)
P(a) = 0
P’(x) = (x – a)
n
.Q’(x) + Q(x).(x – a)
n ÷ 1
P’(a) = (a – a)
n
.Q’(a) + Q(a).(a – a)
n ÷ 1
P’(a) = 0
Roots & Coefficients of Polynomials Equations
15/8/98
Quadratic Equations:
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General Form: a.x
2
+ b.x + c = 0
Sum of Roots
One at a time: o + | =
a
b ÷
Product of Roots
General Form: o.| =
a
c
Cubic Equations:
General Form: a.x
3
+ b.x
2
+ c.x + d = 0
Sum of Roots
One at a time: o + | + ¸ =
a
b ÷
Two at a time: o.| + o.¸ + |.¸ =
a
c
Product of Roots
General Form: o.|.¸ =
a
d ÷
Quartrc Equations:
General Form: a.x
4
+ b.x
3
+ c.x
2
+ d.x + e = 0
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Sum of Roots
One at a time: o + | + ¸ + o =
a
b ÷
Two at a time: o.| + o.¸ + o.o + |.¸ + |.o + ¸.o =
a
c
Three at a time: o.|.¸ + o.|.o + o.¸.o + |.¸.o =
a
d ÷
Product of Roots
General Form: o.|.¸.o =
a
e
Roots for Equations That Can Not be Factorised
14/10/98
- Estimation is the closest one can get
- Always check answer
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- Newton’s method doesn’t always work
Halving the Interval:
- If f(x) is continuous for a s x s b and f(a) and f(b) have opposite signs then there is at
least one root f(x) = 0 in the that interval.
- If one halves the interval several times, the approximation to the root will usually
become more accurate
E.g. (a) Show that a root x
3
– 3.x
2
– 9.x + 1 = 0 lies between x = 4 and x = 5
A f(4) = (4)
3
– 3(4)
2
– 9(4) + 1
= – 19
fi5) = (5)
3
– 3(5)
2
– 9(5) + 1
= 6
(b) By halving the interval, show that that the root lies between 4.75 & 4.875
A Halve the interval =
2
5 4 +
= 4.5
f(4.5) = (4.5)
3
– 3(4.5)
2
– 9(4.5) + 1
= – 9.125
< 0
Root lies between 4.5 & 5
Halve the interval =
2
5 4
2
1
+
= 4.875
f(4.875) = (4.875)
3
– 3(4.875)
2
– 9(4.875) + 1
= 1.6
> 0
Root lies between 4.75 & 4.875
Newton Method:
- More accurate
- If x = a is close to the root of the equation f(x) = 0, then the x-intercept (a1) of the
tangent at ‘a’ is closer to the root.
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GIKPKC7 94107 Polynomials Page 8
Equation:
( )
( ) a ' f
a f
a a
1
÷ =
a = Close to root
a1 = Closer to root
E.g. Find an approximation to the root of x
3
+ x – 1 = 0 by using N. Method one and
starting with an approximation of x = 0.5
A Check if x = 0.5 is close to root
f(0.5) = – 0.375
Finding f(a)
f’(x) = 3x
2
+ 1
f’(0.5) = 1.75
So,
( )
( ) a ' f
a f
a a
1
÷ =
= 0.714
Check if a
1
= 0.714 is closer to the root
f(0.714) = 0.079 Good Approximation
Luke Cole Page 8

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