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Introduction

22/01/99

For An Introduction of Polynomials See 3 unit Polynomials

Multiple Roots:

Consider the polynomial P(x) = (x b)r.Q(x) where Q(b) 0; so, x = b is a root of

multiplicity ‘r’ of the equation P(x) = 0

E.g. From the polynomial P(x) = (x 2)2(x2 + 5.x + 6), x= 2 is called a double

root of the equation P(x) = 0.

(x a)r 1 is a factor of P’(x) = 0 [root of multiplicity (r 1)], and

(x a)r 2 is a factor of P’’(x) = 0 [root of multiplicity (r 2)], etc

Proof:

Let, P(x) = (x b)r.Q(x) Where, Q(b) 0

P’(x) = (x b) .Q’(x) + Q(x).r(x b)r 1

r

= (x b)r 1.S(x) Where, S(x) = (x b)Q’(x) + Q(x).r

x = b is a root of multiplicity (r 1) of the derived equation P’(x) = 0

GITIMH3 94107 Polynomials Page 2

From 3 Unit Polynomials we know that a polynomial of degree ‘n’ has ‘n’ distinct

zeros.

E.g. (1) The polynomial P(x) = (x 2)3(x 3)(x + 1) has a degree 5, so there must

be 5 zeros. Zeros are: 2, 2, 2, 3, 1; here 2 is a zero of multiplicity 3

1 3 .i

there must be 3 zeros. Zeros are: 1,

2

Observe that the complex zeros of the polynomial in e.g (2) are a conjugate pair.

Theorem: (a + i.b) & (a i.b) are zeros of P(x) = 0, having real coefficients

Proof:

Let, Z = a + i.b be a complex zero of the polynomial P(x) with real coefficients

We use:

Z a i .b …(1)

2 2 …(2)

Z Z a b

2 2 …(3)

Z .Z a b

To form the product:

x Z x Z x 2 Z Z x Z .Z …(4)

Sub (2) and (3) into (4):

x 2 Z Z x Z .Z x 2 2.a.x a 2 b 2

If P(x) is divided by x2 2.a.x + a2 + b2, the remainder must be of degree < 2.

Hence,P(x) = (x2 2.a.x + a2 + b2)Q(x) + m.x + n

= [x (a + i.b)][x (a i.b)]Q(x) + m.x + n

Since, a + i.b is a zero of P(x), P(a + i.b) = 0. Substituting x = a + i.b, gives:

0 = 0 + m(a + i.b) + n

0 = (a.m + n) + i.b.m

= 0 + 0.i

Comparing the real and imaginary parts separately, a.m + n = 0 and b.m = 0 and

hence m = and n = 0. (b 0)

Thus, P(x) = [x (a + i.b)][x (a i.b)]Q(x)

Hence,P(a i.b) = 0 i.e. a i.b is also a zero of P(x)

(a + i.b) & (a i.b) are zeros of P(x) = 0, having real coefficients

GITIMH3 94107 Polynomials Page 3

22/01/99

This is discussed on page 5 of 3 Unit Polynomials, however in general:

a n1

Equation: x1 + x2 + … + xn =

an

a n 2

Equation: x1.x2 + x1.x3 + … =

an

…and so on

a0

x1.x2. … .xn = 1

n

Equation:

an

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