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You are on page 1of 11

Definition

19/3/98

A Relation is a set of ordered pairs

E.g. (1, 4)(1, 6)( 2, 3)( 1, 5)

x y

2 3

1 4

0 5

1 6

value

E.g. (1, 2)(2, 4)( 1, 1)( 2, 4)

x y

2 1

1 2

0 3

1 4

2 5

When a x value is assigned to a y value, the x value usually places through an

equation

Here:

The x value is independent valuables

The y value depends on the x value for its outcome y value is a dependants

valuables

Vertical line only cuts the graph once

E.g. (1) Function E.g. (2) Non-Function

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 2

Function Notation

19/3/98

If y is a function of x then we write y = f(x)

f(1) = 12 – 2 = 2.x, when x < 2

=1 f(x)

f( 1) = 12 –2

=1

x

Let y = 0 to find the x-intercept.

Roots or zeros are the x-intercept.

Domain is the x values for which a function is defined.

Range is the y values for which a function is defined.

All real numbers = IR

E.g. (1) y = x2

Domain Range

f(x) f(x)

y0

x x

2 x2

Range

2y2

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 3

Parabola

23/3/98

2

General Form: y = a.x + b.x + c

a.x2 = Parabola

c = y-intercept

If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

Minimum = a > 0 & Maximum = a < 0

Finding the axis of symmetry

b

Equation: x

2.a

y-intercept So, let x = 0

x-intercept So, let y = 0 (finds roots or zeros)

E.g. Graphing y = x2 + x + 2

So, a < 0 Concave down

b

Vertex: x

2.a

1

2 1

x=½

y = (½)2 + (½) + 2

y = 2¼

V(½, 2¼) (½, 2¼)

y-intercept: Let, x = 0

y = (0)2 + (0) + 2 2

y=2

x-intercept: let y = 0 1 2

(0) = x2 + x + 2

0 = ( x – 1)(x – 2)

Roots = 1, 2

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 4

Cubic Curve

24/3/98

General Form: y = a.x3 + b.x2 + c.x + d

a.x3 = Cubic

d = y-intercept

If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

E.g. y = (x – 2)(x + 3) 2

Roots = 2, 3, 3

E.g. y = (x – 1)3

Roots = 1, 1, 1

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 5

Exponential Curve

25/3/98

Always cuts the y-axis at 1

Never touches the x-axis

General Form: y = ax

So, If x , then y 0

If x , then y

y = ax y = a x y = ax y = a x

1 1

1 1

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 6

The Circle

26/3/98

General Form: (x h) + (y – k) = r

2 2 2

(h, k) = Centre

r = Radius

E.g.

(h, k)

r

A semi circle is formed when the equation of a circle is rearranged with ‘y’ as the

subject and only the positive or negative of the square root is looked at

E.g. x2 + y 2 = 9

(0, 0) = Centre

r=3

y2 = 9 x2

y 9 x2

y 9 x2 or y 9 x2

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 7

The Hyperbola

27/3/98

k

General Form: y or x.y = k

x

Here, x 0 & y0

So, If x , then y 0

If x , then y 0

If x 0 from R, then y

If x 0 from L, then y

x.y = k x.y = k

2

E.g. y 1

x3

A

1

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 8

27/3/98

Even Functions:

Symmetry about the y-axis.

Odd Functions:

A point symmetry (180º rotation).

A f( x) = ( x)3 ( x)

= (x3 x)

= f(x)

A f( x) = ( x)2 + 3

= (x2 3)

= f(x)

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 9

Locus

30/3/98

Locus is a set of points, which follow a particular path according to a set of rules.

In this topic, we generally find the equation of the locus.

E.g. (1) What is the equation of the locus P(x, y) which is always 3 units away

from the origin.

d x 0 2 y 0 2

P(x, y)

3 x2 y2

x2 + y2 = 9

P(x, y)

E.g. (2) Find the length of the tangent from A(3, 2) to the circle x2 + y2 = 4.

O AO2 = [(3 – 0)2 + ( 2 – 0)2]2 (2)2

P =9+4–4

2

AO = 9 Since 3 can’t be a distance

A(3, 2) AO = 3

E.g. (3) Find the equation of the locus of point P(x, y) that moves so the distance

PA to PB is the ratio 2:1 where A(– 3, 1) and B(2, – 2).

(1) PA:PB = 2:1

A( 3, 1) PA 2

P(x, y) PB 1

PA = 2.PB

(2) PA2 = (x + 3)2 + (y – 1)2

PB2 = (x – 2)2 + (y + 2)2

B(2, 2) So, PA = 2.PB

PA2 = 4.PB2

(x + 3)2 + (y – 1)2 = 4[(x – 2)2 + (y + 2)2]

3.x2 + 3.y2 – 22.x + 18.y + 22 = 0

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 10

E.g. (4) Find the locus which is equidistant from the point P(x, y) to the point

A(1, 1) and the line y = x + 4.

d1 = d2

y x4

d1

2

(1, 1) d2 x 12 y 12

y x4

x 12 y 1 2

2

y x 4 2 = x2 – 2.x + 1 + y2 – 2.y + 1

2

y2 + x2 – 2.x.y – 8.y + 8.x + 16 = 2.x2 + 2.y2 – 4.x – 4.y + 4

y2 + x2 + 2.x.y + 12.y – 8.x – 12 = 0

E.g. (5) Find the locus of two points 8 units apart and the sum of the distances

between the points A(5, 0) and P(x, y), plus B(5½, 0) and P(x, y) equal 11

units. What is the final shape?

AP + BP = 11

d AP x 5 2 y 2

(5, 0) (5½, 0) d BP x 5 1 2 2 y 2

x 5 2 y 2 x 5 1 2 2 y 2 11

Shape = Ellipse

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 11

4/3/98

E.g. (1) Shade the region where y 2.x – 3

E.g. (3) Shade the region where y < 2.x + 2 and y > 3.x hold simultaneously

E.g. (4) Shade the region where x 4, y > 2 and y x2 hold simultaneously

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