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Definition

19/3/98

- A Relation is a set of ordered pairs

E.g. (1, 4)(1, 6)(÷ 2, ÷ 3)(÷ 1, 5)

- A function is a special relation where no x value is assigned to more than one y

value

E.g. (1, 2)(2, 4)(÷ 1, 1)(÷ 2, 4)

Independent / Dependant Variables:

- When a x value is assigned to a y value, the x value usually places through an

equation

Here:

- The x value is independent valuables

- The y value depends on the x value for its outcome y value is a dependants

valuables

Vertical Line Test:

- Vertical line only cuts the graph once

E.g. (1) Function E.g. (2) Non-Function

Luke Cole Page 1

x y

÷ 3

4

5

6

÷ 2

÷ 1

0

1

x y

÷ 2

÷ 1

0

1

2

1

2

3

4

5

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 2

Function Notation

19/3/98

- If y is a function of x then we write y = f(x)

E.g. (1) f(x) = x

2

– 2 E.g. (2) f(x) = 3.x + 4,when x > 2

f(1) = 1

2

– 2 = ÷ 2.x, when x < 2

= ÷ 1

f(÷ 1) = ÷ 1

2

–2

= ÷ 1

- Let x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

- Let y = 0 to find the x-intercept.

- Roots or zeros are the x-intercept.

- Domain is the x values for which a function is defined.

- Range is the y values for which a function is defined.

- All real numbers = IR

E.g. (1) y = x

2

Domain = all reals Range = y > 0

E.g. (2) x

2

+ y

2

= 4

Luke Cole Page 2

f(x)

x

Domain

f(x)

x

All real numbers

Range

f(x)

y > 0

x

Domain

÷ 2 s x s 2

Range

÷ 2 s y s 2

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 3

Parabola

23/3/98

General Form: y = a.x

2

+ b.x + c

a.x

2

= Parabola

c = y-intercept

When Graphing Show:

- Minimum = a > 0 & Maximum = a < 0

- Finding the axis of symmetry

Equation:

a . 2

b

x

÷

=

- y-intercept So, let x = 0

- x-intercept So, let y = 0 (finds roots or zeros)

E.g. Graphing y = ÷ x

2

+ x + 2

So, a < 0 Concave down

Vertex:

a . 2

b

x

÷

=

( )

( ) 1 2

1

÷

÷

=

x = ½

y = ÷ (½)

2

+ (½) + 2

y = 2¼

V(½, 2¼)

y-intercept: Let, x = 0

y = ÷ (0)

2

+ (0) + 2

y = 2

x-intercept: let y = 0

(0) = ÷ x

2

+ x + 2

0 = (÷ x – 1)(x – 2)

Roots = ÷ 1, 2

Luke Cole Page 3

If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

(½, 2¼)

2

÷ 1 2

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 4

Cubic Curve

24/3/98

General Form: y = a.x

3

+ b.x

2

+ c.x + d

a.x

3

= Cubic

d = y-intercept

- Two roots mean that the x-axis is tangent to the graph

E.g. y = (x – 2)(x + 3)

2

Roots = 2, ÷ 3, ÷ 3

- Three roots mean a normal cubic curve is formed

E.g. y = (x – 1)

3

Roots = 1, 1, 1

Luke Cole Page 4

If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

1

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 5

Exponential Curve

25/3/98

- Always cuts the y-axis at 1

- Never touches the x-axis

General Form: y = a

x

So, If x ÷ ÷ ·, then y ÷ 0

If x ÷ ·, then y ÷ ·

Luke Cole Page 5

y = ÷ a

x

1

y = a

÷ x

1

y = ÷ a

x

÷ 1

y = ÷ a

÷ x

÷ 1

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 6

The Circle

26/3/98

General Form: (x ÷ h)

2

+ (y – k)

2

= r

2

(h, k) = Centre

r = Radius

E.g.

- A semi circle is formed when the equation of a circle is rearranged with ‘y’ as the

subject and only the positive or negative of the square root is looked at

E.g. x

2

+ y

2

= 9

(0, 0) = Centre

r = 3

y

2

= 9 ÷ x

2

2

x 9 y ÷ ± =

2

x 9 y ÷ + =

or

2

x 9 y ÷ ÷ =

Luke Cole Page 6

(h, k)

r

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 7

The Hyperbola

27/3/98

General Form:

x

k

y = or x.y = k

Here, x = 0 & y = 0

So, If x ÷ ÷ ·, then y ÷ 0

If x ÷ ·, then y ÷ 0

If x ÷ 0 from R, then y ÷ ·

If x ÷ 0 from L, then y ÷ ÷ ·

E.g.

3 x

2

1 y

÷

+ =

A

Luke Cole Page 7

x.y = k

x.y = ÷ k

1

3

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 8

Odd and Even Functions

27/3/98

Even Functions:

- Symmetry about the y-axis.

Equation: f(÷ x) = f(x)

Odd Functions:

- A point symmetry (180

º

rotation).

Equation: f(÷ x) = ÷ f(x)

E.g. (1) Show that f(x) = x

3

– x is an odd function.

A f(÷ x) = (÷ x)

3

÷ (÷ x)

= ÷ (x

3

÷ x)

= ÷ f(x)

E.g. (2) Show that f(x) = x

2

+ 3 is an even function.

A f(÷ x) = (÷ x)

2

+ 3

= ÷ (x

2

÷ 3)

= f(x)

Luke Cole Page 8

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 9

Locus

30/3/98

- Locus is a set of points, which follow a particular path according to a set of rules.

- In this topic, we generally find the equation of the locus.

E.g. (1) What is the equation of the locus P(x, y) which is always 3 units away

from the origin.

E.g. (2) Find the length of the tangent from A(3, ÷ 2) to the circle x

2

+ y

2

= 4.

E.g. (3) Find the equation of the locus of point P(x, y) that moves so the distance

PA to PB is the ratio 2:1 where A(– 3, 1) and B(2, – 2).

Luke Cole Page 9

- P(x, y)

- P(x, y)

( ) ( )

2 2

0 y 0 x d ÷ + ÷ =

2 2

y x 3 + =

x

2

+ y

2

= 9

O

P

A(3, ÷ 2)

PA

2

= AO

2

+ PO

2

AO

2

= [(3 – 0)

2

+ (÷ 2 – 0)

2

]

2

÷ (2)

2

= 9 + 4 – 4

AO

2

= 9 Since ÷ 3 can’t be a distance

AO = 3

- A(÷ 3, 1)

- P(x, y)

- B(2,÷ 2)

(1) PA:PB = 2:1

1

2

PB

PA

=

PA = 2.PB

(2) PA

2

= (x + 3)

2

+ (y – 1)

2

PB

2

= (x – 2)

2

+ (y + 2)

2

So, PA = 2.PB

PA

2

= 4.PB

2

(x + 3)

2

+ (y – 1)

2

= 4[(x – 2)

2

+ (y + 2)

2

]

3.x

2

+ 3.y

2

– 22.x + 18.y + 22 = 0

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 10

E.g. (4) Find the locus which is equidistant from the point P(x, y) to the point

A(1, 1) and the line y = x + 4.

E.g. (5) Find the locus of two points 8 units apart and the sum of the distances

between the points A(5, 0) and P(x, y), plus B(5½, 0) and P(x, y) equal 11

units. What is the final shape?

Luke Cole Page 10

d1 = d2

2

4 x y

d

1

÷ ÷

=

( ) ( )

2 2

2

1 y 1 x d ÷ + ÷ =

( ) ( )

2 2

1 y 1 x

2

4 x y

÷ + ÷ =

÷ ÷

( )

2

4 x y

2

÷ ÷

= x

2

– 2.x + 1 + y

2

– 2.y + 1

y

2

+ x

2

– 2.x.y – 8.y + 8.x + 16 = 2.x

2

+ 2.y

2

– 4.x – 4.y + 4

y

2

+ x

2

+ 2.x.y + 12.y – 8.x – 12 = 0

- (1, 1)

(5, 0) (5½, 0)

AP + BP = 11

( )

2 2

AP

y 5 x d + ÷ =

( )

2 2

2

1

BP

y 5 x d + ÷ =

( ) ( ) 11 y 5 x y 5 x

2 2

2

1

2 2

= + ÷ + + ÷

Shape = Ellipse

GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 11

Regions in the Plane

4/3/98

E.g. (1) Shade the region where y > 2.x – 3

A

E.g. (2) Shade the region y < ÷ 2

A

E.g. (3) Shade the region where y < 2.x + 2 and y > ÷ 3.x hold simultaneously

A

E.g. (4) Shade the region where x s 4, y > ÷ 2 and y s x

2

hold simultaneously

A

Luke Cole Page 11

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