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# GIKPKC7 94107 Relations and Functions Page 1

Definition
19/3/98
 A Relation is a set of ordered pairs
E.g. (1, 4)(1, 6)( 2,  3)( 1, 5)
x y

2 3
1 4
0 5
1 6

##  A function is a special relation where no x value is assigned to more than one y

value
E.g. (1, 2)(2, 4)( 1, 1)( 2, 4)
x y

2 1
1 2
0 3
1 4
2 5

## Independent / Dependant Variables:

 When a x value is assigned to a y value, the x value usually places through an
equation
Here:
 The x value is independent valuables
 The y value depends on the x value for its outcome  y value is a dependants
valuables

## Vertical Line Test:

 Vertical line only cuts the graph once
E.g. (1) Function E.g. (2) Non-Function

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Function Notation
19/3/98
 If y is a function of x then we write y = f(x)

## E.g. (1) f(x) = x2 – 2 E.g. (2) f(x) = 3.x + 4,when x  2

f(1) = 12 – 2 =  2.x, when x < 2
=1 f(x)
f( 1) =  12 –2
=1
x

##  Let x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

 Let y = 0 to find the x-intercept.
 Roots or zeros are the x-intercept.
 Domain is the x values for which a function is defined.
 Range is the y values for which a function is defined.
 All real numbers = IR
E.g. (1) y = x2
Domain Range
f(x) f(x)

y0
x x

 2  x2

Range
2y2

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Parabola
23/3/98
2
General Form: y = a.x + b.x + c
a.x2 = Parabola
c = y-intercept
If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

## When Graphing Show:

 Minimum = a > 0 & Maximum = a < 0
 Finding the axis of symmetry
b
Equation: x
2.a
 y-intercept So, let x = 0
 x-intercept So, let y = 0 (finds roots or zeros)

E.g. Graphing y =  x2 + x + 2
So, a < 0  Concave down
b
Vertex: x
2.a

 1 
2 1
x=½
y =  (½)2 + (½) + 2
y = 2¼
 V(½, 2¼) (½, 2¼)
y-intercept: Let, x = 0
y =  (0)2 + (0) + 2 2
 y=2
x-intercept: let y = 0 1 2
(0) =  x2 + x + 2
0 = ( x – 1)(x – 2)
 Roots =  1, 2

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Cubic Curve
24/3/98
General Form: y = a.x3 + b.x2 + c.x + d
a.x3 = Cubic
d = y-intercept
If a > 0 then If a < 0 then

##  Two roots mean that the x-axis is tangent to the graph

E.g. y = (x – 2)(x + 3) 2
Roots = 2,  3,  3

##  Three roots mean a normal cubic curve is formed

E.g. y = (x – 1)3
Roots = 1, 1, 1

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Exponential Curve
25/3/98
 Always cuts the y-axis at 1
 Never touches the x-axis
General Form: y = ax
So, If x   , then y  0
If x  , then y  

y =  ax y = a x y =  ax y =  a x

1 1

1 1

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The Circle
26/3/98
General Form: (x  h) + (y – k) = r
2 2 2

(h, k) = Centre
E.g.

(h, k)
r

 A semi circle is formed when the equation of a circle is rearranged with ‘y’ as the
subject and only the positive or negative of the square root is looked at
E.g. x2 + y 2 = 9
(0, 0) = Centre
r=3
 y2 = 9  x2
y   9  x2
y   9  x2 or y   9  x2

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The Hyperbola
27/3/98
k
General Form: y or x.y = k
x
Here, x  0 & y0
So, If x   , then y  0
If x  , then y  0
If x  0 from R, then y  
If x  0 from L, then y   
x.y = k x.y =  k

2
E.g. y  1
x3

A
1

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27/3/98
Even Functions:

## Equation: f( x) = f(x)

Odd Functions:
 A point symmetry (180º rotation).

## E.g. (1) Show that f(x) = x3 – x is an odd function.

A f( x) = ( x)3  ( x)
=  (x3  x)
=  f(x)

## E.g. (2) Show that f(x) = x2 + 3 is an even function.

A f( x) = ( x)2 + 3
=  (x2  3)
= f(x)

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Locus
30/3/98
 Locus is a set of points, which follow a particular path according to a set of rules.
 In this topic, we generally find the equation of the locus.

E.g. (1) What is the equation of the locus P(x, y) which is always 3 units away
from the origin.

d  x  0  2   y  0 2
 P(x, y)
3  x2  y2
 x2 + y2 = 9

 P(x, y)

E.g. (2) Find the length of the tangent from A(3,  2) to the circle x2 + y2 = 4.

## PA2 = AO2 + PO2

O AO2 = [(3 – 0)2 + ( 2 – 0)2]2  (2)2
P =9+4–4
2
AO = 9 Since  3 can’t be a distance
A(3,  2)  AO = 3

E.g. (3) Find the equation of the locus of point P(x, y) that moves so the distance
PA to PB is the ratio 2:1 where A(– 3, 1) and B(2, – 2).
(1) PA:PB = 2:1
 A( 3, 1) PA 2

 P(x, y) PB 1
PA = 2.PB
(2) PA2 = (x + 3)2 + (y – 1)2
PB2 = (x – 2)2 + (y + 2)2
 B(2, 2) So, PA = 2.PB
PA2 = 4.PB2
(x + 3)2 + (y – 1)2 = 4[(x – 2)2 + (y + 2)2]
 3.x2 + 3.y2 – 22.x + 18.y + 22 = 0

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E.g. (4) Find the locus which is equidistant from the point P(x, y) to the point
A(1, 1) and the line y = x + 4.
d1 = d2
y x4
d1 
2
 (1, 1) d2   x  12   y  12
y  x4
  x  12   y  1 2
2
 y  x  4 2 = x2 – 2.x + 1 + y2 – 2.y + 1
2
y2 + x2 – 2.x.y – 8.y + 8.x + 16 = 2.x2 + 2.y2 – 4.x – 4.y + 4
 y2 + x2 + 2.x.y + 12.y – 8.x – 12 = 0

E.g. (5) Find the locus of two points 8 units apart and the sum of the distances
between the points A(5, 0) and P(x, y), plus B(5½, 0) and P(x, y) equal 11
units. What is the final shape?
AP + BP = 11
d AP   x  5 2  y 2
(5, 0) (5½, 0) d BP   x  5 1 2 2  y 2
  x  5 2  y 2   x  5 1 2 2  y 2  11
 Shape = Ellipse

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## Regions in the Plane

4/3/98
E.g. (1) Shade the region where y  2.x – 3

## E.g. (2) Shade the region y <  2

E.g. (3) Shade the region where y < 2.x + 2 and y >  3.x hold simultaneously

E.g. (4) Shade the region where x  4, y >  2 and y  x2 hold simultaneously