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Sequences

15/10/98

A sequence is a set of numbers, which forms a mathematical pattern.

It is denoted by ‘Tn’, where ‘n’ is a positive integer.

(a) Find the first 3 terms

(b) Find the value of ‘n’ for the first negative term in the sequence

T2 = 103 – 3 2 = 97

T3 = 103 – 3 3 = 94

(b) Tn < 0

103 – 3n < 0

n > 34 1/3

n > 35

5

E.g. (1) 3.n

n 1

5

3.n = (3 1) + (3 2) + (3 3) + (3 4) + (3 5)

n 1

= 45

7

E.g. (2) n 5

n 4

7

n 5 = (4 – 5) + (5 – 5) + (6 – 5) + (7 – 5)

n 4

=2

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 2

(AP)

20/10/98

A sequence in which each term after the first is formed by adding a constant

number, this constant number is referred to as the common difference ‘d’.

E.g. 8, 10, 12, 14,… Common difference d = 2 Since, (10 – 8) = (12 – 10)

15, 12, 9, 6,… Common difference d = – 3 Since, (12 – 15) = (9 – 12)

Equation: Tn = a + (n – 1)d

Tn = nth term

a = First term

n = Number of terms

d = Common difference

Proof:

So, T1 = a

T2 = a + d

T3 = a + 2d

Tn = a + (n – 1)d

A a=5&d=3

T20 = 5 + (20 – 1)3 = 62

Sum of an AP:

n

Equation: Sn a l

2

Sn = Sum of ‘n’ terms

n = Number of terms

a = First term

l = Last term

Proof:

Sn = a + (a + d) + (a + 2.d) + (a + 3.d) + … + l …(1)

Sn = l + (l – d) + (l – 2.d) + (l – 3.d) + … + a …(2)

(1) + (2):

2.Sn = n(a + l)

n

S n a l

2

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 3

n

Equation: Sn 2.a n 1d

2

Sn = Sum of ‘n’ terms

n = Number of terms

a = First term

d = Common difference

Proof:

From Tn = a + (n – 1)d, Tn = l:

l = a + (n – 1)d …(1)

n

S n a l …(2)

2

Sub (1) into (2):

n

S n 2.a n 1d

2

E.g. Find the sum of all the positive integers less then 100 which are not divisible by 6

Sl = Sum of positive integer < 100 which are divisible by 6

ST = S99 – Sl = Sum of positive integers < 100 which are not divisible by 6

99

So, S 99 1 99

2

S99 = 4950

And, l = 96

n of positive integer < 100 which are divisible by 6 = 96/6 = 16

16

Then, S l S16 6 96

2

S16 = 816

ST = S99 – S16

ST = 4134

Arithmetic Mean:

ac

Equation: x

2

x = Mean

a = First term

c = Last term

Proof:

If a, x & c are an AP then: ac

x–a=c–x x

2

2.x = a + c

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 4

(GP)

21/98/98

A sequence in which each term after the first is formed by multiplying a constant

number, this constant number is referred to as the common ratio ‘r’.

6 18 54

E.g. 2, 6, 18, 54,… Common ratio r = 3 Since, = =

2 6 18

16 8 4

32, 16, 8, 4,… Common ratio r = ½ Since, = =

32 16 8

Equation: Tn = a.rn – 1

Tn = nth term

a = First term

r = Common ratio

n = Number of terms

Proof:

So, T1 = a

T2 = a.r

T3 = a.r2

Tn = a.rn – 1

A T3 = 8 = a.r2 …(1)

T6 = – 1 = a.r5 …(2)

8

(1) a 2 …(3)

r

Sub (3) into (2)

8.r 5

1 2

r

r=–½

Sub r = – ½ into (1)

a = 32

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 5

Sum of an GP:

Equation: Sn

a 1rn

r1

Sn = Sum of ‘n’ terms

n = Number of terms

a = First term

r = Common ratio

Proof:

Sn = a + a.r1 + a.r2 + a.r3 + … + a.rn – 1 …(1)

r.Sn = a.r + a.r2 + a.r3 + a.r4 + … + a.rn …(2)

Now (1) – (2):

Sn – r.Sn = a – a.rn

Sn

a 1 rn …[1]

r 1

Geometric Mean:

Equation: x a .c

x = Mean

a = First term

c = Last term

Proof:

If a, x, & c are an GP then:

x c

a x

x2 = a.c

x a .c

a

Equation: S

1 r

S = Limited sum to infinity

a = First term

r = Common ratio (– 1 < r < 1)

Proof:

From [1] and for r < 1 & rn 0

a 1 0

S

r 1

S = a/(1 – r)

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 6

Consumer Arithmetic

28/10/98

Compound Interest:

Equation: A = P(1 + r)n & I=A–P

A = Amount after ‘n’ time periods

I = Interest

P = Principal

r = Interest rate for ‘n’ time period (%)

n = Number of time periods

E.g. Find the amount that will be in the an after 6 years if $2000 is invested at

12% p.a. with interest paid.

(a) Yearly

(b) ¼ Yearly

(c) Monthly

A (a) r = 12 & n = 6

A = P(1 + r)n

AYearly = 2000(1 + 0.12)6

AYearly = $3947.65

(b) r = 3 & n = 24

A = P(1 + r)n

A¼ Yearly = 2000(1 + 0.03)24

A¼ Yearly = $4065.59

(c) r = 1 & n = 72

A = P(1 + r)n

AMonthly = 2000(1 + 0.01)72

AMonthly = $4094.20

Superannuation:

E.g. A sum of $1500 is invested at the beginning of each year in a super fund. At the

end of 25 years, how much money will be available if the interest rate is 11% p.a.

and it is compounded yearly?

Year 2: A = 1500(1 + 0.11)24

Year 25: A = 1500(1 + 0.11)1

Total = Year 1 + Year 2 + …+ Year 25

= 1500(1.111 + 1.112 + …+ 1.1125)

= 1500 GP

= $190 486.16

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 7

Time Payments:

When burrowing money from the bank you owe the bank interest on the balance.

E.g. A sum of $20 000 is borrowed at 12% p.a. interest. If the money is paid back at

regular monthly installments over 4 years, find the amount of each installment?

2nd Month Amount = (Amount 1) – Installment

4th Year = 12 4 = 48th Month Amount

2nd Month: A2 = [20000(1.01) – M](1.01) – M

3rd Month: A3 = 20000(1.01)2 – M(1 + 1.01)

4th Year: A48 = 20000(1.01)48 – M(1 + 1.01 + … + 1.0147)

0 = 20000(1.01)48 – M(1 + 1.01 + … + 1.0147)

200001.01

48

M

GP

M = $526.68

GITIMH3 94107 Sequences & Series Page 8

Induction

3/11/98

Steps when Proving:

Step 1: Show that the formula is true for the smallest value of ‘n’ (Usually n = 1)

Step 2: Assume that the formula is true for same integer say n = k

Step 3: Prove that the formula is true for n = k + 1

Step 4: State that it is true for n 1 i.e. General Statement

A Prove for n = 1

2(1) – 1 = 12

1=1

Assume true for n = k

1 + 3 + 5 + … + (2.k – 1) = k2

Prove true for ‘n’ = k + 1

1 + 3 + 5 + … + (2.k – 1) + [2(k + 1) – 1] = (k + 1)2

LHS = k2 + [2(k + 1) – 1)

= (k + 1)2

= RHS

If the formula is true for n = k and proven to be true for n = k + 1,

i.e. n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 and so on.

It is true for any positive integer n 1

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